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  • 1.
    Ackeby, Susanne
    et al.
    STRI AB.
    Tjäder, Jonas
    Bastholm, Caroline
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Energiteknik.
    The role and interaction of microgrids and centralized grids in developing modern power systems2017Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    An extension of microgrids is now underway, primarily to allow increased electrification in growing economies but also to meet the need to reduce global CO2 emissions and to provide ancillary services to centralized grids. Energy access constitutes one of the fundamental building blocks for economic growth as well as social equity in the modern world. Access to sustainable energy is needed to achieve sustainable development. A microgrid should not be seen as a competitor to the centralized grid but as a complement.Through examination of several implemented cases from different parts of the world the following topics are considered: Analysis of the interaction between centralized grids and microgrids Analysis of stakeholder decision parameters for electrification Analysis of design differences and requirements for microgrids, depending on the intended purpose and the need of the end customer.It is determined that good planning, suitable requirements and clear regulations for microgrids (in relation to centralized grids) limits the risk of stranded assets and enables better business cases for the involved stakeholders.The paper is based on the discussion paper The role and interaction of microgrids and centralized grids in developing modern power systems – A case review publiced by ISGAN (International Smart Grid Action Network) Annex 6: Power T&D Systems.The discussion paper and further information about ISGAN is available at http://www.iea-isgan.org/.

  • 2.
    Bastholm, Caroline
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Energiteknik. IEA Photovoltaic Power Systems Programme.
    A user guide to simple monitoring and sustainable operation of PV-diesel hybrid systems: Handbook for system users and operators2015Rapport (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    This report contains a suggestion for a simple monitoring and evaluation guideline for PV-diesel hybrid systems. It offers system users a way to better understand if their system is operated in a way that will make it last for a long time. It also gives suggestions on how to act if there are signs of unfavourable use or failure. The application of the guide requires little technical equipment, but daily manual measurements. For the most part, it can be managed by pen and paper, by people with no earlier experience of power systems.The guide is structured and expressed in a way that targets PV-diesel hybrid system users with no, or limited, earlier experience of power engineering. It is less detailed in terms of motivations for certain choices and limitations, but rich in details concerning calculations, evaluation procedures and maintenance routines. A more scientific description of the guide can be found in a related journal article.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 3.
    Bastholm, Caroline
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Energiteknik. Uppsala universitet, Fasta tillståndets fysik.
    Micro-grids supplied by renewable energy: Improving technical and social feasibility2019Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Universal access to electricity stands high on the global agenda and is regarded as essential for positive development in sectors such as health care, education, poverty reduction, food production and climate change. Decentralized, off-grid electrification is deemed an important complement to centralized grid extension. By utilizing a renewable energy source, solar technology for the generation of electricity, photovoltaics (PV) is being considered as a way forward to minimize the environmental problems related to energy use.

    This thesis aims to contribute to improving the technical and social feasibility of PV and PV-diesel hybrid micro-grids for the purpose of providing access to electricity to people in rural areas of countries with low level access to electricity. In line with these general aims, the focus has been to address three questions related to challenges in three phases of rural electrification. The work has a multi-disciplinary approach, addressing mainly technical and social aspects of long-term sustainability of micro-grids, in a local context, and the changes these are intended to generate. One specific micro-grid in Tanzania has been used as a major case study.

    The thesis is developed through three papers, all presenting methodologies or aspects for investigation in rural electrification projects and studies in general, and for PV-diesel hybrid micro-grids in particular. Paper I puts forward a methodology to facilitate non-social scientific researchers to take social aspects increasingly into consideration. Paper II is a guideline to support system users to increasingly apply an evaluation based system operation. Paper III specifically highlights the importance to consider blackouts when investigating how an existing off-grid PV-diesel hybrid system shall be utilized when a national grid becomes available.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
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  • 4.
    Bastholm, Caroline
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Energi och miljöteknik.
    Using locally available components and local knowledge to build sustainable stand-alone power systems2013Inngår i: Symposium Small PV-Applications : rural electrification and commercial use ; Ulm, Germany, June 17th/18th, 2013, Regensburg: Ostbayerisches Technologie-Transfer-Institut eV (OTTI) , 2013Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to point out benefits as well as disadvantages associated with the use of locally available, not necessarily standardized, components in stand-alone electrical power systems at rural locations. Advantages and challenges arising when the direct involvement in design, construction and maintenance of the power system is reserved to people based in the area of implementation are discussed. The presented research is centered around one particular PV-diesel hybrid system in Tanzania; a case study in which technical and social aspects related to the particular power system are studied.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 5.
    Bastholm, Caroline
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Energiteknik.
    Fiedler, Frank
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Energiteknik.
    Techno-economic study of the impact of blackouts on the viability of connecting an off-grid PV-diesel hybrid system in Tanzania to the national power grid2018Inngår i: Energy Conversion and Management, ISSN 0196-8904, E-ISSN 1879-2227, Vol. 171, nr 1, s. 647-658Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    National electrification plans for many countries with a low level of electrification promote the implementation of centralized and decentralized electrification in parallel. This paper explores different ways of utilizing an established off-grid PV-diesel hybrid system when the national grid becomes available. This is a rather unique starting point within the otherwise well-explored area of rural electrification. With particular focus on the impact of blackouts in the national grid, we evaluate the economic viability of some alternatives: to continue to use the off-grid micro-grid, to connect the existing micro-grid with or without battery backup to the national grid, or to use the national grid only. Our simulation results in HOMER demonstrate that with a grid without blackouts, there are few benefits to maintain the existing system. Low grid-connection fees, low tariffs and low revenues from selling excess electricity to the grid contribute to this result despite the fact that the system does not carry any investment costs. With a grid with blackouts, it is beneficial to maintain the system. The extent of blackouts and the load on the system determine which system configuration is most feasible. The results make clear the importance of taking blackouts in the national grid into consideration when possible system configurations are being evaluated. This is rarely quantified in studies comparing different electrification alternatives, but deserves more attention.

  • 6.
    Bastholm, Caroline
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Energi och miljöteknik.
    Henning, Annette
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Energi och miljöteknik.
    The use of three perspectives to make energy implementation studies more culturally informed2014Inngår i: Energy, Sustainability and Society, ISSN 2192-0567, Vol. 4, nr 3Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In our research on the social and technical feasibility of a small-scale electrical power system in Tanzania, we have perceived a need for an alternative framework or method for social scientific studies of limited scope. The approach we suggest is also a response to the growing criticism of cultural ignorance with which many energy implementation projects are handled. Theories from Social Anthropology and Sociology form the core of the approach we present. In addition, concepts from Science and Technology studies are used, as well as lessons learned from History of Technology. We suggest that particular attention should be paid to three aspects: identification of social actors, perceptions of change, and long-term feasibility and sustainability. The approach has been developed and concretised through application in our research. To elucidate our suggested approach, we use examples and results from our ongoing research project, in which the 'Three-perspectives-approach' is currently applied. We have combined theories, approaches and knowledge from different disciplines in order to formulate a framework for studies of social aspects of energy projects that is structured, concise and comparable. The approach is developed to target multi-disciplinary researchers with limited training in social scientific research. It may also be used by project implementers, or as a way for social scientists to present their findings in a way that facilitates for non-social scientists to integrate them into practice. We suggest that the Three-perspectives-approach may be applied independently, os as a complement to other tools.  

  • 7.
    Fiedler, Frank
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Energi och miljöteknik.
    Nielsen, Caroline
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Energi och miljöteknik.
    Design Study of a PV-Diesel Hybrid System for a Micro-Grid in Tanzania2012Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2008 a micro PV-Diesel Hybrid system has been installed at the Ihushi Development Center (IDC) near Mwanza in Tanzania. In April 2011 a monitoring system was installed at IDC to study the system performance and the usage of the system. Measured data from April to July 2011 have been used to model the system with the simulation software HOMER. One question was if HOMER allows accurate modelling and simulations of the actual system. In addition, it has been studied if the current system can be optimized and what system design solutions are most promising when the system need to be redesigned for a higher load.

  • 8.
    Henning, Annette
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Energi och miljöteknik.
    Nielsen, Caroline
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Energi och miljöteknik.
    A 'three-step-approach' to energy implementation: Examples from a PV hybrid grid in Tanzania2013Inngår i: Micro Perspectives for Decentralized Energy Supply: Proceedings for 2nd International Conference, Feb. 27 - Mar. 1, 2013 in Berlin / [ed] Martina Schäfer, Noara Kebir, Daniel Philipp, 2013, s. 60-63Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In an ongoing research project, a 'three-step-approach' is used to study rural electrification and the use of a small PV-diesel grid at a community centre in Ihushi, Tanzania. The paper gives some preliminary results from the current research. It also describes the three steps of investigation by which social actors are identified, cultural change studied, and long-term feasibility evaluated. As an answer to the critique of the 'drivers-and-barriers' concepts, we suggest this model as a way of capturing the dynamic and long-term aspects of implementation processes and of adding a more culturally informed stance to actor oriented research.

  • 9.
    Nielsen, Caroline
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Energi och miljöteknik.
    Travel Report from the first field trip within the SIDA supported project "Mini-grids supplied by renewable energy - improving technical and social feasibility: Including visits to Ihushi Development Center, Tweyambe Secondary School and Mavuno Project in Tanzania. Conducted in April 20112011Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This report describes the outcome of the first visit to Tanzania, within the project "Mini-grids supplied by renewable energy - improving technical and social feasibility". The trip included visits to three different organizations; Ihushi Development Center (IDC) near Mwanza, TIDESO near Bukoba, and Mavuno Project in Karagwe. At IDC, a brief evaluation of the current power system was done and measuring equipment for long term measurements were installed. At all three locations investigations regarding the current and future electricity demand were conducted and connections to people relevant to the study were established. The report is including as well some technical specifications as some observations regarding organization and management of the technical systems. The trip was including only short visits and therefore only brief introductions to the different organizations, based on observations done by the author. The report is hence describing the author’s understanding of the technical system and social structures after only short visits to each of the organizations, and may differ from observations done at another point in time, over a different time period, or by some other person.This report describes the outcome of the first visit to Tanzania, within the project "Mini-grids supplied by renewable energy - improving technical and social feasibility". The trip included visits to three different organizations; Ihushi Development Center (IDC) near Mwanza, TIDESO near Bukoba, and Mavuno Project in Karagwe. At IDC, a brief evaluation of the current power system was done and measuring equipment for long term measurements were installed. At all three locations investigations regarding the current and future electricity demand were conducted and connections to people relevant to the study were established. The report is including as well some technical specifications as some observations regarding organization and management of the technical systems. The trip was including only short visits and therefore only brief introductions to the different organizations, based on observations done by the author. The report is hence describing the author’s understanding of the technical system and social structures after only short visits to each of the organizations, and may differ from observations done at another point in time, over a different time period, or by some other person.

  • 10.
    Nielsen, Caroline
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Energi och miljöteknik.
    Fiedler, Frank
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Energi och miljöteknik.
    Evaluation of a Micro PV-Diesel Hybrid System in Tanzania2012Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In April 2011 a monitoring system was installed to enable studies of the performance and the usage of a micro PV-Diesel Hybrid system at the Ihushi Development Center (IDC) near Mwanza in Tanzania. Estimations of the load have been obtained by a survey of installed appliances and interviews with users of installed equipment. The load profile obtained by measurements has been analyzed and compared to estimations of the energy use. Further, the system size and performance were studied.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 11.
    Tjäder, Jonas
    et al.
    STRI.
    Ackeby, Susanne
    STRI.
    Bastholm, Caroline
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Energiteknik.
    The role and interaction of microgrids and centralized grids in developing modern power systems2016Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
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