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  • 1.
    Aida Niendorf, Mariya
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Språk och medier, Japanska.
    Inose, Hiroko
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Språk och medier, Japanska.
    Investigating the use of the verbs ”naru” in Japanese and ”bli” in Swedish through translation2013Ingår i: Nordic Association of Japanese and Korean Studies (NAJAKS): Abstracts for 2013, 2013Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates how use of the Swedish verb “bli” corresponds to the Japanese verb “naru” using translated materials as a corpus.  

     

    Japanese is said to be a situation-oriented language, while English is person-oriented.

              e.g., Mariko wa kekkon surukotoni NARImashita.

                       (It became so that Mariko will be married.)

                       ‘Mariko will get married’ in English.

     

    The Swedish verb ”bli” usually means ’to become’ or ’to be (as an auxiliary verb),’ yet is used more widely than these English meanings.

              e.g., Det blir 100 kronor, tack.

                       (100 kr ni NARI-masu.)

                       ’It makes/will be 100kr.’

     

    Examples like this lead to the observation that ”bli” is used in a context more similar to the Japanese verb ”naru.” than English verb “become.” Comparison of some translated materials also shows that “bli” is often translated into Japanese as “naru” while it is more likely to be replaced by a transitive or intransitive verb in English.

     

    However, erros such as

               *okoru ni NARU (verb ‘to be upset’+naru)

                  [okoru: a verb]

               *annshin ni NARU (noun ‘feeling at ease’ +naru)   

                  [annshin suru: a verb derived from a noun]

    which are made by Swedish learners of Japanese indicate that the translation of “bli” into Japanese is not so straight forward.

     

    In this study, we examined the following questions:

    1. How is ”bli” translated into Japanese/English?
    2. If ”bli” is translated into ”naru” in Japanese, in what grammatical context(s) does it occur?
    3. How are these variations related to the errors students make in translating ”bli” into  Japanese?

     

    In order to examine the above research questions, we conducted two separate studies:

     

    Study I: Examining how Swedish bli is translated into Japanese in literature translation

     

    Using children´s novels “Sommerboken” by Tove Jansson and “Pippi Långstrump” by Astrid Lindgren as the data source, all the sentences that contain bli were extracted along with their translations into English and Japanese. The extracted sentences were, then, categorized according to the various types of usage of the verb bli, and the translation into Japanese for each of those categories was analyzed.

     

    Study II: The translation of various uses of bli into Japanese by Swedish students

     

    Study I above showed usages of the verb bli in various context. In Study II, we tried to see if some of these usages cause more problems than the others for the Swedish students. The students in the Japanese-English translation course at Högskolan Dalarna (Sweden) were given 7 Swedish sentences containing various usages of bli, and were asked to translate them into Japanese. Then the accuracy of the translation and the translation techniques used were analyzed.

     

    The results from Study I showed that there were numerous usages of the verb bli, such as describing conditions, describing the changes of conditions, indicating certain emotional status, and so on, which naturally led to the variety in Japanese translation. Furthermore,  apart from the most literal translation, which is to use the verb naru, various types of compound verbs (main verb – help verb combinations) were used in order to express different nuances.

     

    In some of the usages identified above, translation shifts were obligatory when translated into Japanese; i.e. the literal translation was impossible, and the translator has to make minor changes from the ST (source text) to the TT (target text), such as changes of grammatical categories or of voice (e.g. passive to active).

     

    The results from the Study II show that the sentences which require more complicated translation shifts tend to cause more errors when students translate them into Japanese.

     

    Clarifying how the use of “bli” correlates with the use of “naru” will not only help Swedish students understand the use of the somewhat difficult concept of “naru,” but also help translators deal with this issue. Finding a more systematic way to translate “bli” into Japanese using more tokens from various genres would be necessary in order to achieve this.

     

  • 2.
    Aronsson, Mattias
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Humaniora och medier, Franska.
    Fjordevik, Anneli
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Humaniora och medier, Tyska.
    Inose, Hiroko
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Humaniora och medier, Japanska.
    Fan Activities in Online University Education2018Ingår i: Fandom as Classroom Practice: A Teaching Guide / [ed] Katherine Anderson Howell, Iowa City: University of Iowa Press , 2018, 1, s. 70-82Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 3.
    Edfeldt, Chatarina
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Humaniora och medier, Portugisiska.
    Fjordevik, Anneli
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Humaniora och medier, Tyska.
    Inose, Hiroko
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Humaniora och medier, Japanska.
    Fan Culture: The Use of Informal Learning Environments by Dalarna University Language Students2014Ingår i: NGL 2014: Next Generation Learning Conference: Conference Summary / [ed] Erik Brunnert Walfridsson,, Falun: Högskolan Dalarna , 2014, s. 17-17Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Learning outside the academic institution, or affinity-based informal learning, has been studied by various scholars (e.g., Paul Gee and Henry Jenkins). One place where this type of learning can occur is in online participatory fan culture activities, where fans create, for example, works of literature, films, and translations, as well as comment on one another’s work and teach one another.

    In Sweden, very little research on fan culture as a place for collaborative learning has been conducted and existing research has mainly focused on high-school students (Olin-Scheller); therefore, our examination of fan culture activities and learning processes among university students will serve as in important contribution. The general purpose of our project is to find out more about informal learning activities that exist among our own students so that we can then apply that knowledge to our teaching and pedagogical methods as university teachers. We are interested to see how the practitioners themselves experience informal learning activities and how they benefit from these.

    As such, a two-step project was designed: first, a questionnaire was distributed to all students of ten language departments at Dalarna University (2432 students). The questionnaire contained questions about the level of awareness of online fan activities and the degree of student participation in these activities. The second part of the project comprised qualitative interviews (in the autumn of 2013) of some of the students who responded to the survey. Here, we examine the kind of fan culture activities that they are consuming and the reasons for their participation. As well, we examine whether they think they have developed any language, cultural, or other skills and knowledge through the communities. In our paper we present the results of this study.

  • 4.
    Fjordevik, Anneli
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Humaniora och medier, Tyska.
    Inose, Hiroko
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Humaniora och medier, Japanska.
    Edfeldt, Chatarina
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Humaniora och medier, Portugisiska.
    What do they learn, why do they learn? A study on university students' participation in fan activities2015Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    At the Dalarna University (Sweden), which is specialized in online education, there has been a three-year research project called “Informal Learning Environment”, which explored the educational aspects of fan activities and possible ways to apply them in foreign language and literature courses. One part of the project was a study, conducted in two stages. First, an online questionnaire survey on the language student’s awareness about online fan activities, as well as their participation in those, was carried out. In the second stage, seven students that were actively participating in various fan activities were interviewed. The interviews examined the qualitative aspects of the participants’ involvement in fan communities with four different question areas: In what kind of fan activities do they participate?; Why do they participate, and what makes participation attractive to them?; What kind of knowledge and skills (such as language or cultural or other skills) do they think they have developed through participation?; and do they think it is possible to apply this mechanism of informal learning to the university courses? We also asked whether they see any connection between informal learning in the fan communities and their learning at university / college.During the project (which includes the actual application of some fan activities to the courses), various educational elements of fan activities have become clear. In this proposed paper we do the final analysis of the aforementioned study with a focus on the curiosity and playfulness that we could see in this informal learning. Based on the interviews, we will analyze the motivation / mechanism for the intensive learning processes that seem to take place outside the classroom.

  • 5.
    Inose, Hiroko
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Språk och medier, Japanska.
    Atsuko Suga: Vivir en el viaje entre dos mundos2011Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [es]

    Atsuko Suga –Vivir entre dos culturas y dos idiomas

    Atsuko Suga (1929-1998) es la autora/traductora japonesa, que merece el título de un viajero entre Europa y Japón más que nadie  en el tiempo moderno. Su primer viaje a Europa fue en 1953 para estudiar en Francia. La época era después de la Segunda Guerra Mundial, y ella era de la primera generación de las mujeres japonesas que estudiaba en Europa.

    Sin embargo, su conexión más fuerte con Europa era con Italia. Después de haber vuelto a Japón en el año 1955, se trasladó a Roma, primero para estudiar Sociología pero después cambiando el campo de estudio a literatura. Sin embargo Suga no era una estudiante extranjera cualquiera, como su interés estaba en uno de los movimientos sociales en Italia en esta época, Liberalismo Católico. Siendo católica ella misma, su interés yacía en la búsqueda del punto donde la religión podía fundirse con el activismo social. Se acercó a David. M. Turoldo (1916-1992) que representaba el círculo de la Librería Corsia dei Servi, que fue muy activo en el movimiento.

    Su matrimonio con uno de los líderes del círculo, Giuseppe Ricca, en el año 1961 parecía ser un movimiento que concretara su vínculo con Europa. Sin embargo, la muerte trágica de Giuseppe después de solo X años de matrimonio dejó Atsuko otra vez en la posición entre Europa y Japón.

    No solo en su vida privada, sino en su vida profesional también, Suga se puso entre dos culturas y dos idiomas, empezando a traducir una serie de las obras de la literatura moderna japonesa al italiano, incluso los autores más famosos como Yasunari Kawabata y Shozo Unno. Algunas obras fueron traducidas por la primera vez en Europa. Después de la muerte de su marido, ella seguía con las traducciones, hasta que decidiera a volver a Japón en el año 1971.

    Una vez traslada a Japón, empezó a traducir numerosas novelas y poesía italiana al japonés, presentándolas a la audiencia japonesa por la primera vez. Sus traducciones incluye las obras de Italo Calvino y Antonio Tabucchi entre otras. Suga empezó a escribir sus propias obras que son entre la novela y el ensayo sobre su vida en ambas culturas, cuando tenía ya más de 60 años.

    En la ponencia, se presentará las obras y la vida de esta figura más especial que vivía entre Europa y Japón.

  • 6.
    Inose, Hiroko
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Humaniora och medier, Japanska.
    Butsuriteki na kyori wo koete - online kouryuukai no igi (Surpassing the Physical Distance - The Purpose of Japanese Online Conversation Project)2016Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [ja]

    物理的な距離を越えて-オンライン交流会の意義

    ダーラナ大学(スウェーデン) 猪瀬博子

     

    発表要旨

    ダーラナ大学(スウェーデン)では、2015年3月よりグラナダ大学(スペイン)と共同で、オンラインで互いの大学の初級日本語学習者の交流会を行っている。二週間に一度の二時間程度のセッションのために、学習者は予め決められたテーマ(①自己紹介、②私の家族、③クリスマスまたはイースター、④日本に行ってしてみたいこと)についての発表をそれぞれ準備し、オンライン上の小グループで各々発表を行い、ディスカッションを行う。

    本発表では、クラスでは文法習得で精いっぱいになりがちな初級日本語学習者が、オンライン上のディスカッショングループで互いに「つながりたい、つながりやすい」環境を作り出すことで、どのように「コミュニケーションのための日本語」を体感し、これを学ぶことができるかを、参加学生による振り返り、および交流会後のアンケートにより分析していく。

  • 7.
    Inose, Hiroko
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Språk och medier, Japanska.
    La traducción de las onomatopeyas y mímesis japonesas2009Ingår i: SENDEBAR, ISSN 1130-5509, E-ISSN 2340-2415, nr 20, s. 31-48Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [un]

    The present study identifi es the methods used in translating onomatopoeic and mimetic words in Japanese literature into Spanish and English, specifically from the novel Sputnik no koibito by Haruki Murakami. Nearly 300 cases are extracted and nine translation methods – using adverbs, adjectives, verbs, nouns, idioms, onomatopoeia in the target language, explicative paraphrase, combinations of words and omission – are identified. Examples are given of each method analysed, and its effectiveness in transmitting the meaning of the original expressions is considered.

  • 8.
    Inose, Hiroko
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Humaniora och medier, Japanska.
    Language Spoken by Murakami’s Female Personages and Japanese Pseudo-Translation Style2018Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Language Spoken by Murakami’s Female Personages and Japanese Pseudo-Translation Style

    Hiroko Inose (Dalarna University, Sweden)

    Murakami’s original Japanese text is often described as if it was “translated” from English. The reason for this can vary, and some mention his use of metaphors imported from English, while others suggest that his sentence structure is close to that of English language. The present study suggests yet another element which might be contributing to such claim – the Japanese female language spoken by Murakami’s female personages.

    Japanese female speech patterns (onna-kotoba) can be found most frequently in texts translated into Japanese from other languages, where it appears much more often than in actual language spoken by today’s Japanese women. This includes not only fictions, but also translation of interviews or film/TV subtitles and dubbings. It is very possible that this excessive use of now classical female language in translated texts has contributed to the creation of a prototypical image of “translated Japanese” style.

    The present study analyses several female personages in Murakami’s works from different periods (e.g. Sputunik Sweetheart, Tsukuru Tazaki and His Years of Pilgrimage among others) to compare their articulation style to the female speech patterns frequently found in translated Japanese texts.  It also considers in the Murakami’s original Japanese text, what nuance this female speech pattern is adding to the female personages– in other words, what has to be inevitably lost or changed in translation into other languages which do not differentiate male/female/neutral speech patterns as markedly as in Japanese.     

  • 9.
    Inose, Hiroko
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Humaniora och medier, Japanska.
    Literature Translation as Re-importation: When the Text Travels Twice Between Cultures2017Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Literature Translation as Re-importation: When the Text Travels Twice Between Cultures

    Name: Hiroko Inose

    Contact address: hin@du.se

    Affiliation: Dalarna University (Sweden)

    In the field of literature translation, the treatment of cultural references becomes one of the major issues. In order to transfer the source culture (i.e. the culture of the source text, ST) into the target culture (i.e. the culture of the target text, TT), there are numbers of translation strategies. However, the problem becomes even more complicated if the text has to travel not only once, but twice between the source and target cultures.

    This can happen in various ways, but one case is when a ST, written about the target culture, is translated into the target language (TL), to be read by the readers of the target culture.  For example, translating a novel on Japanese traditional culture published in U.S. and written in English into Japanese language would give a series of special translation problems that would not occur when the same novel is translated into any other language. This is not only because of the distance between English and Japanese languages and differences in their structures, but because of the significant difference of cultural knowledge between ST (in this case, English original version) and TT (in this case Japanese translation) readers – unlike in the usual case of translation, the TT readers are expected to have much more knowledge than ST readers about the cultural themes treated in the novel. This may be called re-importation of culture. The target culture is first imported into the ST for the ST readers, and then re-imported into the TT through translation.

    The present study will focus on language combinations English/Japanese and French/Japanese, and study novels written on traditional or current Japanese culture and society that have been translated into Japanese.  Original and translation of novels such as Memoir of a Geisha (Arthur Golden,1999), An Artist of the Floating World (Kazuo Ishiguro, 1986) or Stupeur et Tremblements (Amélie Nothomb,1999) will be analysed to see the translation problems encountered, as well as translation strategies used to solve them.

  • 10.
    Inose, Hiroko
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Humaniora och medier, Japanska.
    Not crossing the boundary: the untranslatable in Japanese-English bilingual literature2016Ingår i: Transcultural Identity Constructions in a Changing World / [ed] Irene Gibson Nordin, Chatarina Edfeldt, Lung-Lung Hu, Herbert Jonsson and André Leblanc, Peter Lang Publishing Group, 2016, 1, s. 219-234Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    The act of choosing the language(s) in which one expresses oneself, or the decision to cross  boundaries between  languages, is closely related to  one’s identity. If this is considered in the context of Japanese literature, Japanese authors like Kyoko Mori and Yoko Tawada started writing in other languages in the 1990s. Around the same time, non-Japanese writers, such as Levy Hideo and Arthur Binard, started publishing works written in Japanese. While this crossing of the Japanese language boundary in both directions has been taking place, one could also find some authors who chose not to use one language, but decided to mix several. This is called bilingual literature, where the authors use more than one language within the same text, often without translation, such as in the case of Shishosetsu from left to right by Minae Mizumura (1995) or Chorus of Mushrooms (1994) by Hiromi Goto. Both these writers mix English and Japanese languages in the text, the former novel having been published in Japan and the latter in Canada.  This type of work is unique, since what is transmitted, which could be considered a gap between two languages or cultures, or the disturbing sense of not being able to understand the complete text, prevents translation, at least into the “second” language used in these novels. It might also suggest what these authors consider to be  untranslatable due to either linguistic or cultural distance or both.  In the current study, the language and cultural hybridity of the above-mentioned works of Mizumura and Goto will be analysed partly in relation to the concept of translatability in translation studies.

  • 11.
    Inose, Hiroko
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Humaniora och medier, Japanska.
    Not Crossing the Bounday: What is Untranslatable in Bilingual Literature2014Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The act of choosing the language(s) with which one expresses oneself, or the decision of crossing a boundary of languages, would be deeply related to one's identity. If we see this in the context of literature in Japan, Japanese authors started writing in other languages (e.g. Kyoko Mori, Yoko Tawada) in 1990s. Around the same time, non-Japanese writers such as Levy Hideo and Arthur Binard started publishing works written in Japanese.

    While this "crossing the boundary of Japanese language" to both directions has been taking place, we could also find some authors that chose not to choose one language, but decided to mix several. It is hybrid literature in which the authors use more than one language within the same text, often without translation, such as in cases of Shishosetsu From Left to Right by Minae Mizumura (1995), or Chorus of Mushrooms (1994) by Hiromi Goto. They both mix English and Japanese languages in the texts, though the former was published in Japan, and the latter in Canada.  This type of work is unique since what it is transmitting, which could be a gap between two languages or cultures, or a disturbing sensation of not being able to understand whole of the text, refuses translation, at least into the "second" languages used in these novels. It might also suggest what these authors felt "not translatable" for either linguistic or cultural distance (or both). 

    In the current study, the language and cultural “hybridity” of the above mentioned works of Minamura and Goto will be analysed, partly in relation with the concept of the translatability in translation studies.

  • 12.
    Inose, Hiroko
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Språk och medier, Japanska.
    Scanlation - What Fan Translators of Manga Learn in the Informal Learning Environment2012Ingår i: The Proceedings Book of ISLC 2012, 2012, s. 73-84Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The present paper discusses two pilot studies carried out to see the possibility of the fan community of manga (Japanese comics), in which fan translators translate the original Japanese manga into English (which is called scanlation), functioning as an informal learning environment for the Japanese language learning and translator training. Two pilot studies consist of a) comparison of the original Japanese version with the scanlation and official translation, and b) comparison of the original Japanese version with two different versions of scanlation to see the translators’ level of Japanese language and the overall translation quality. The results show that in scanlation versions, there were numbers of inaccuracies which would prevent them to be treated as professional translation. Some of these errors are clearly caused by insufficient understanding of Japanese language by the translator. However, the pilot studies also suggested some interesting features of fan translation, such as the treatment of cultural references. The two pilot studies indicate that it is desirable to conduct further studies with more data, in order to confirm the results of present studies, and to see the possible relationship between the types of trnalsation errors found in scanlation and the particular type of Japanese language (informal, conversational) that could be learned from manga.

  • 13.
    Inose, Hiroko
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Språk och medier, Japanska.
    Scanlation: Foreign Fans of Japanese Subculture Translating Manga2012Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The subculture of manga (Japanese comics) and anime (Japanese animations) has been exported to practically all over the world, including U.S., Europe, Asia and Latin America, creating the fandom that could affect one’s identity on various levels. One example of very direct influence of this subculture could be found in cosplay, where fans dress up as their favourite manga or anime characters, and often participate in a competition.

    On the other level of influence, the crave for “more of” manga/anime work could make the fans adopt the identity as creators, or sometimes translators. There are numerous secondary creations, in the form of amateur novels or manga, creating new episodes, using the existing manga or anime characters. Another way to “have more” is to be able to read/see the newest episode of particular manga or anime work as soon as possible, or to be able to appreciate the works which have not been released outside Japan. In this case, the fans could adopt the role of not the creator but the translator.

    In fact, one can find the newest manga/anime episode within few days or even hours after its release in Japan, translated into other languages and subtitled (in case of anime). These scanlation (in case of manga) and fansub (in case of anime) works are all released on internet for free. In fact, the whole process of scanlating, that is scanning the original material, cleaning the image, translating, and editing – is done for free, normally by teams of fans. The translation into English and Chinese are often done from the original Japanese version, which means fan translators have somehow learned Japanese language.

    The presentation will be on the manga subculture outside Japan, with its special focus on scanlation, an exercise very popular among manga fans in spite of its dubious legal status (in relation to the copyright). Academically this field is not yet studied extensively, and the presentation will introduce the overall structure and situation of this fan translation of manga.

  • 14.
    Inose, Hiroko
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Språk och medier, Japanska.
    Shousetsu oyobi manga ni mirareru nihongo giongo gitaigo no honyaku shuhou no hikaku - eigo oyobi supeingo wo reini (ENG: The comparison of translation techniques of Japanese Onomatopoeias and Mimetic Words - Seeing English and Spanish Languages as Examples)2011Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 15.
    Inose, Hiroko
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Språk och medier, Japanska.
    The functions of Japanese Sound Symbolic Words in Different Types of Texts and Their Translation2013Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Though sound symbolic words (onomatopoeia and mimetic words, or giongo and gitaigo in Japanese) exist in other languages, it would not be so easy to compare them to those in Japanese. This is because unlike in Japanese, in many other languages (here we see English and Spanish) sound symbolic words do not have distinctive forms that separate them immediately from the rest of categories of words. In Japanese, a sound symbolic word has a radical (that is based on the elaborated Japanese sound symbolic system), and often a suffix that shows subtle nuance. Together they give the word a distinctive form that differentiates it from other categories of words, though its grammatical functions could vary, especially in the case of mimetic words (gitaigo). Without such an obvious feature, in other languages, it would not be always easy to separate sound symbolic words from the rest.

    These expressions are extremely common and used in almost all types of text in Japanese, but their elaborated sound symbolic system and possibly their various grammatical functions are making giongo and gitaigo one of the most difficult challenges for the foreign students and translators. Studying the translation of these expressions into other languages might give some indication related to the comparison of Japanese sound symbolic words and those in other languages.

    Though sound symbolic words are present in many types of texts in Japanese, their functions in traditional forms of text (letters only) and manga (Japanese comics)are different and they should be treated separately. For example, in traditional types of text such as novels, the vast majority of the sound symbolic words used are mimetic words (gitaigo) and most of them are used as adverbs, whereas in manga, the majority of the sound symbolic words used (excluding those appear within the speech bubbles) are onomatopoeias (giongo) and often used on their own (i.e. not as a part of a sentence). Naturally, the techniques used to translate these expressions in the above two types of documents differ greatly.

    The presentation will focus on i) grammatical functions of Japanese sound symbolic words in traditional types of texts (novels/poems) and in manga works, and ii) whether their features and functions are maintained (i.e. whether they are translated as sound symbolic words) when translated into other languages (English and Spanish). The latter point should be related to a comparison of sound symbolic words in Japanese and other languages, which will be also discussed.

  • 16.
    Inose, Hiroko
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Språk och medier, Japanska.
    Traducir las onomatopeyas y las mímesis de manga: cómo recrear el simbolismo fonético japonés2012Ingår i: Puertas a la Lectura, ISSN 1575-9997, nr 24, s. 97-109Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The entry of works of manga to foreign countries has been made through the original translation into several languages. If the Spanish language translation at first through the third language (eg English) was quite common. However, market development and the "subculture" of fans demanding as faithful to the original in every way (even the direction of reading and the size of the book), is now more normal conduct the translation of the original, ie the Japanese language. In this article we focus on the translation of the Japanese onomatopoeia and mimesis in the works coming out wide. In the translation of manga, the Japanese onomatopoeia and mimesis written (or almost "drawn") out of the sandwiches can be problems for translators. It is not always easy to find equivalent expressions in other languages, nor is it easy to skip them, because they are written directly into the bullets and sometimes costly or technically difficult to remove. The use of onomatopoeia and mimesis is one of the salient features of the Japanese language and are deeply related to the Japanese phonetic symbolism. In this article, we use these expressions and sleeve very briefly, before examining some translation techniques such expressions. We will also see examples of iberomanga, which is a genre of manga created by the authors speaking.

  • 17.
    Inose, Hiroko
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Språk och medier, Japanska.
    Translating Japanese Onomatopoeia and Mimetic Words2008Ingår i: Translation and Research Project 1 / [ed] Pym, Anthony, Tarragona, Spain: Universitat Rovira i Virgili , 2008, s. 97-116Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study identifies the methods used in translating Japanese onomatopoeic and mimetic words in literature into Spanish and English. From the novel Sputnik no koibito by Haruki Murakami, which was used as the data source, almost 300 cases are extracted and nine methods (using adverbs, adjectives, verbs, nouns, idioms, onomatopoeia in the target language, explicative phrases, combinations of words and omission) are identified. Each method is analyzed with some examples, considering its effectiveness in transmitting the meaning of the original expressions.

  • 18.
    Inose, Hiroko
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Humaniora och medier, Japanska.
    Translating Japanese Onomatopoeia and Mimetic Words in Manga2010Ingår i: Interpreting and Translation Studies: The Journal of the Japan Association for Interpreting and Translation Studies, ISSN 1883-7522, nr 10, s. 161-176Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 19.
    Inose, Hiroko
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Språk och medier, Japanska.
    Translating Japanese Onomatopoeia and Mimetic Words in Manga into Spanish and English2012Ingår i: Translationswissenschaft : Alte und neue Arten der Translation in Theorie und Praxis : Tagungsband der 1. Internationalen Konferenz TRANSLATA "Translationswissenschaft: gestern - heute - morgen", 12.-14. Mai 2011, Innsbruck = Translation studies: old and new types of translation in theory and practice : proceedings of the 1st International Conference TRANSLATA "Translation & interpreting research : yesterday - today - tomorrow", May 12-14, 2011, Innsbruck / [ed] Lew Zybatow; Alena Petrova; Michael Ustaszewski, Wien: Peter Lang Publishing Group, 2012Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 20.
    Inose, Hiroko
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Språk och medier, Japanska.
    Translating Japanese Onomatopoeia and Mimetic Words in Manga into Spanish and English2011Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    TRANSLATING JAPANESE ONOMATOPOEIA AND MIMETIC EXPRESSIONS IN MANGA INTO SPANISH AND ENGLISH

    Dr. HIROKO INOSE (Lecturer, Department of Japanese, Dalarna University, Sweden)

    Onomatopoeic and mimetic expressions are widely used in almost all levels of Japanese language, giving it a richness of the expression. However, due to their elaborated sound symbolic system, those expressions are a challenge for Japanese language students and translators. The present paper focuses on those expressions used in manga, or Japanese comics, and their translation into Spanish and English. Maison Ikkoku, a famous work by Rumiko Takahashi, is used as the main corpus.

    In the first 3 chapters which were used as the corpus, more than 140 cases of using onomatopoeias and mimetic words were found. As for the techniques used to translate them, 9 were identified in both English and Spanish versions, though they do not coincide with each other. The present paper categorizes and analyses those techniques, and discuss their effectiveness.

    The study shows that the use of these expressions in original Japanese manga differs from their use in more traditional style texts, such as Japanese novels. This, by itself, is not surprising since manga has drawings as well as texts to transmit messages. However, the different use of these expressions in this genre seems to have lead to the adoption of different techniques of translation as well. In the translation of manga the translators use a series of more dynamic and original techniques compared to the techniques used to translate these expressions in novels, such as neologism or use of the third language.

  • 21.
    Inose, Hiroko
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Språk och medier, Japanska.
    Translation of "Falling" of Fumiko Hayashi with note of the translator2007Ingår i: Translation, Vol. 2, s. 29-38Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 22.
    Inose, Hiroko
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Humaniora och medier, Japanska.
    「十帖源氏」スペイン語翻訳における文化的レファレンスの取り扱い(The handling of cultural references in translating Genji in Ten Chapters into Spanish)2015Ingår i: Kaigai Heian Bungaku Kenkyu Journal, ISSN 2188-8035, Vol. 3, s. 91-98Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 23.
    Inose, Hiroko
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Humaniora och medier, Japanska.
    文化的レファレンス―マンガを教材とした日本語教育: Cultural Reference: Manga as Japanese Language Teaching Material2013Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [ja]

    文化的レファレンス―マンガを教材とした日本語教育

    今日、外国人学生が大学・高校等で日本語を学ぶ大きなきっかけの一つがマンガやアニメの存在であることはよく知られている。実際、元来サブカルチャーであったこれらのジャンルは日本文化の海外への輸出手段として注目されるようになり、「コンテンツビジネス」として、経済産業省等の政府機関が輸出に力を入れる分野ともなっている。また国際交流基金も、日本語教育におけるこれらのコンテンツの有用性を利用して、マンガ・アニメ形式の教材を開発している。

    本発表では、言語および文化教育におけるマンガの利用法について考察する。発表者はスウェーデンの大学にて日本語中級レベルの学生を対象に、マンガ四冊を十週間で読むReading Mangaというコースを担当しているが、本発表ではこのコースの内容のみに限らず、①自国語に翻訳されたマンガを読むレベル、②日本語オリジナルのマンガを読みはじめるレベル、③自ら日本語のマンガを翻訳してみるレベル、の三つのレベルにおいて、日本語(および日本語からの翻訳)の学生が、何を学べるかを概観する。①の段階では学生は必ずしも日本語を学んでいる必要はないが、マンガの欧米語への翻訳では翻訳者が原作の文化的レファレンスに非常に忠実であるという特徴があるため、翻訳者による注が非常に詳細にわたって示されており、読者は自然と特定の日本語の単語や文化的背景について学ぶ結果となる。②のレベルでは、学生は一年間程度日本語の基本的な文法を学んでいるが、文化的レファレンスのほかに口語、擬音語・擬態語、役割語など言語的にもマンガを原作で読むことで学べる点は多い。③のレベルでは、発表者が大学で担当している日英翻訳のコース(日本語上級者対象)で翻訳文書の一つとしてマンガを扱っており、ここで学生が直面することになる翻訳上の問題を例に挙げる。ジャンルにもよるが、一般的にマンガには文化的レファレンス、およびそのパロディが多用されており、原文の意味を完全に把握するには日本語能力のみだけでなく、文化的知識も必要とされるのである。

    時間的な制限もあり、本発表では上記①②③についての詳細な考察は難しいが、実例を多用することで、マンガが言語教育、文化教育の双方において非常に豊かなリソースであることを検証したい。

    要旨

    日本語学習の大きなきっかけの一つとして、アニメやマンガが注目をあびている。本発表では、①他言語に翻訳されたマンガを読む、②日本語オリジナルのマンガを読み始める、そして③自分で日本語から翻訳する、という三つのレベルで、学習者が日本語と日本文化について何を学べるかを考える。

  • 24.
    Inose, Hiroko
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Humaniora och medier, Japanska.
    Aronsson, Mattias
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Humaniora och medier, Franska.
    Fjordevik, Anneli
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Humaniora och medier, Tyska.
    Fan activities applied to online university education2016Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The presentation discusses a possible way of adapting internet fan activities to the academic level online education. At the Dalarna University (Sweden), which is specialized in online education, there was a three-year project called “Informal Learning Environment”, which explored the educational aspects of fan activities, and the possible ways to apply them in language (French, German, Japanese, Portuguese) and literature courses.

    The educational effects of fan activities are mentioned by various authors (e.g. James Paul Gee), and we focused on two activities, Fan Fiction and Scanlation.

    In the Fan Fiction exercise, the students in French and German Literature had an introduction on Fan Fiction, then were asked to choose one of the literary works studied during the semester, and write a short fictional story based on it. Each student uploaded his/her text to the learning platform and then received peer-feedback from others.

    In the Scanlation exercise, a group work was designed for the Translation course (Japanese-English translation). Students formed groups of threes and fours and each group translated two different chapters from Shisso Nikki, a manga by Hideo Aduma. They had two weeks to work together, and then the translations were uploaded to the learning platform. Each student then gave comment and feedback to the chapters translated by other groups.

    In all courses, students were asked to evaluate the activities afterwards. The evaluation focused on if they enjoyed the activity, what they learned, and what the peer-feedback meant to them. Since we teach only online courses, the web-based interaction becomes very central. This is also the case in fan communities. Therefore, our hypothesis is that connecting fan activities with web-based teaching may be a way to develop and improve the formal academic learning environment.

  • 25.
    Inose, Hiroko
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Humaniora och medier, Japanska.
    Edfeldt, Chatarina
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Humaniora och medier, Portugisiska.
    Fjordevik, Anneli
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Humaniora och medier, Tyska.
    Fan Culture as an Informal Learning Environment: Presentation of a NGL project2012Ingår i: NGL 2012 NEXT GENERATION LEARNING CONFERENCE February 21–23, 2012 Falun, Sweden : CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS, Falun: Högskolan Dalarna , 2012, s. 105-112Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Fan culture is a subculture that has developed explosively on the internet over the last decades. Fans are creating their own films, translations, fiction, fan art, blogs, role play and also various forms that are all based on familiar popular culture creations like TV-series, bestsellers, anime, manga stories and games. In our project, we analyze two of these subculture genres, fan fiction and scanlation.

    Amateurs, and sometimes professional writers, create new stories by adapting and developing existing storylines and characters from the original. In this way, a "network" of texts occurs, and writers step into an intertextual dialogue with established writers such as JK Rowling (Harry Potter) and Stephanie Meyer (Twilight). Literary reception and creation then merge into a rich reciprocal creative activity which includes comments and feedback from the participators in the community.

    The critical attitude of the fans regarding quality and the frustration at waiting for the official translation of manga books led to the development of scanlation, which is an amateur translation of manga distributed on the internet. 

    Today, young internet users get involved in conceptual discussions of intertextuality and narrative structures through fan activity. In the case of scanlation, the scanlators practice the skills and techniques of translating in an informal environment. This phenomenon of participatory culture has been observed by scholars and it is concluded that they contribute to the development of a student’s literacy and foreign language skills. Furthermore, there is no doubt that the fandom related to Japanese cultural products such as manga, anime and videogames is one of the strong motives for foreign students to start learning Japanese.

    This is something to take into pedagogical consideration when we develop web-based courses. Fan fiction and fan culture make it ​​possible to have an intensive transcultural dialogue between participators throughout the world and is of great interest when studying the interaction between formal and informal learning that puts the student in focus

  • 26.
    Lindgren, Charlotte
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Språk och medier, Franska.
    Inose, Hiroko
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Språk och medier, Japanska.
    Translating Japanese Manga into French2012Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The translation of exportation of manga, or Japanese comics, started in the late 1980s, and in Europe, the biggest market is France. In the present paper, we will focus on the techniques used to translate manga into French, identify and analyse them.

  • 27.
    Niendorf, Mariya
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Språk och medier, Japanska.
    Inose, Hiroko
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Språk och medier, Japanska.
    The Suitability of E-learning for Teaching Intermediate/Advanced Level Japanese2012Ingår i: The Suitability of E-learning for Teaching Intermediate/Advanced Level Japanese, 2012Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 28.
    Niendorf, Mariya
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Språk och medier, Japanska.
    Inose, Hiroko
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Språk och medier, Japanska.
    Kumagai, Yoko
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Språk och medier, Japanska.
    Mizufune, Yoko
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Språk och medier, Japanska.
    Implementation, success and challenges of teaching Japanese online2011Ingår i: Japanese language education in Europe, Tallinn, Estonia: Association of Japanese Language Teachers in Europe , 2011, s. 219-220Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 29.
    Saito, Rieko
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Humaniora och medier, Japanska.
    Hayakawa Thor, Masako
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Humaniora och medier, Japanska.
    Inose, Hiroko
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Humaniora och medier, Japanska.
    Developing Intercultural Competence and Language Skills Through International Online Collaborative Learning2017Ingår i: Cases on Audio-Visual Media in Language Education / [ed] Catherine Hua Xiang, IGI Global, 2017, s. 304-327Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 30.
    Saito, Rieko
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Humaniora och medier, Japanska.
    Hayakawa Thor, Masako
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Humaniora och medier, Japanska.
    Mizufune, Yoko
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Humaniora och medier, Japanska.
    Inose, Hiroko
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Humaniora och medier, Japanska.
    López-Cordero, Mario
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Humaniora och medier, Spanska.
    Pruth, Alex
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Humaniora och medier, Portugisiska.
    Pedagogical Methods in Web-Based Language Teaching2014Ingår i: Proceedings of the 22nd International Conference on Computers in Education / [ed] Liu, C.-C., Japan: ICCE 2014 Organizing Committee , 2014, , s. 5s. 768-772Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a research project that is being conducted at Dalarna University in Sweden. The aim is to study the following: 1) The quality of online language education compared with that of campus education, and 2) Advantages and disadvantages of online language education and how the disadvantages might be overcome. The project consists of two parts: pedagogical methods in online language education from the teachers’ point of view and from the students’ point of view. The first part was conducted in 2012 and various characteristics (benefits and difficulties) of online language education were identified. Flexibility and wider opportunities were general benefits, while lack of physical co-presence, difficulty in having lively debates/discussions, and high dropout rates were among the problems. The second part of the project (being conducted in 2014) aims to investigate how students experience online language learning. The goal is to explore alignments and misalignments between teachers’ perspectives and students’ perspectives, and to develop methods to enhance the quality of online education.

  • 31.
    Saito, Rieko
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Humaniora och medier, Japanska.
    Pruth, Alex
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Humaniora och medier, Portugisiska.
    Inose, Hiroko
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Humaniora och medier, Japanska.
    Mizufune, Yoko
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Humaniora och medier, Japanska.
    Hayakawa Thor, Masako
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Humaniora och medier, Japanska.
    Pedagogical methods in web-based language teaching-mapping2012Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this presentation is to introduce the research project progress in “the mapping of pedagogical methods in web-based language teaching" by Högskolan Dalarna (Dalarna University). This project will identify the differences in pedagogical methods that are used for online language classes. The pedagogical method defined in this project is what the teachers do to ensure students attain the learning outcomes, for example, planning, designing courses, leading students, knowing students' abilities, implementing activities, etc. So far the members of this project have analyzed the course plans (in the language department at Dalarna University) and categorized the learning outcomes. A questionnaire was constructed based on the learning outcomes and then either sent out remotely to teachers or completed face to face through interviews. The answers provided to the questionnaires enabled the project to identify many differences in how language teachers interact with their students but also, the way of giving feedback, motivating and helping students, types of class activities and materials used. This presentation introduces the progress of the project and identifies the challenges at the language department at Dalarna University. Finally, the advantages and problems of online language proficiency courses will be discussed and suggestions made for future improvement.

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