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  • 1.
    Boluk, Karla
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    A comparison and contrast of the montage of motives among social and lifestyle entrepreneurs2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Boluk, Karla
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    An investigation of the associated benefits from prioritizing the people through the Fair Hotels Scheme in Ireland2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Boluk, Karla
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Fair trade tourism case studies2012In: The Ethics of Tourism: Critical and Applied Perspectives / [ed] Lovelock, Brent; Lovelock, Kirsten, London: Routledge , 2012Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Boluk, Karla
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Fair trade tourism South Africa: a pragmatic poverty reduction mechanism2011In: Tourism Planning and Development, ISSN 2156-8324, Vol. 8, no 3, p. 237-251Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The fundamental premise of social entrepreneurship is to use business knowledge to solve critical economic, social and environmental dilemmas facing a society. Social entrepreneurship is an emerging theme of inquiry in contemporary business, entrepreneurship, marketing and ethics literature. In effect, social entrepreneurs are concerned with making a “mission-related impact” which becomes their central concern. To date, there has been little attention given to the notion of social entrepreneurship in the discipline of tourism. Despite the lack of attention in tourism research there have been a number of significant social entrepreneurial contributions made to various communities in South Africa. Such contributions demonstrate the significance of change makers in the context of rural South Africa signifying progress in the country's new democracy. This paper is a consequence of two phases of field work in South Africa over a 10- month period. The paper discusses the motivational behaviour of six Fair Trade Tourism South Africa (FTTSA) entrepreneurs who have developed businesses with the intention of giving back to their South African communities. However, the study employed critical discourse analysis and in so doing it recognizes some of the inherent contradictions in informants' discourses based on their white privilege experienced during apartheid. Two aims focused on this exploration: 1) to seek information regarding entrepreneurial stimuli for involvement in social action, through FTTSA membership, and 2) to investigate FTTSA members' micro and macro discourses that inform their actions and behaviours.

  • 5.
    Boluk, Karla
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Fair trade tourism South Africa: consumer virtue or moral selving2011In: Journal of Ecotourism, ISSN 1472-4049, E-ISSN 1747-7638, Vol. 10, no 3, p. 235-249Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The academic focus on tourism impacts has raised questions regarding stakeholder responsibility. From a consumption perspective, many ethical consumers, by enacting their political and moral concerns through their consumer choice demonstrate their virtuous qualities and at the same time construct themselves as ethical. Ethical consumption and the consumption of Fairtrade, Fair Trade Tourism and Fair Trade Tourism South Africa (FTTSA) – which derived from Pro-Poor Tourism and ecotourism principles –, are embedded into a cultural context of global consumer capitalism. This macro discourse informs the way people think about the extent of their responsibility, what constitutes a fair exchange, and how they construct themselves as ethical consumers. Ethical consumption, although virtuous can then be described as a form of conspicuous consumption because consumption in its self is a hedonistic act especially when one uses ethical consumption as a mechanism to demonstrate one's ‘ethical self’. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with eleven FTTSA travellers in December–February of 2009 at two FTTSA businesses. The paper employed Critical Discourse Analysis to explore some of the tensions between consumer virtue and the hedonistic behaviours of the informants. The aim of this paper is to investigate the notion of moral selving in the context of ethical travel and in particular FTTSA. Results revealed that motivations for participation in ethical consumption and travel are varied and sometimes influenced by the appeal of moral selving.

  • 6.
    Boluk, Karla
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    In consideration of a new approach to tourism: a critical review of fair trade tourism2011In: Journal of Tourism and Peace Research, ISSN 1878-7754, Vol. 1, no 2, p. 27-37Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tourism research has highlighted the negative consequences brought on by tourism development. As a way to address such impacts a proliferation of alternative approaches have emerged in the discourse projecting alternative ways to conduct and participate in tourism which provide greater benefits. A by-product of ecotourism and the Pro-Poor Tourism approach has applied fair trade principles to tourism. The aim of this paper is to explore the development and application of fair trade principles to the tourism industry by reviewing secondary data. The key research questions that this paper addresses are: What has been the impetus to identify and apply fair trade principles in the context of the tourism industry? What countries have gotten involved in Fair Trade Tourism? What are some of the implications, issues and concerns regarding the implementation of Fair Trade Tourism? The critical review of the Fair Trade Tourism concept identifies that tourism practitioners, academics and tourists must pause to reflect on this approach as a way to strive for better treatment of people and a way to eradicate poverty. As such, the author raises a number of key concerns regarding the rhetoric of fair trade and its various meanings, the implementation of fair trade as a poverty eradication mechanism, its context and effect.

  • 7.
    Boluk, Karla
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Revealing the discourses: white entrepreneurial motivation in black South Africa2011In: Tourism Planning and Development, ISSN 2156-8324, Vol. 8, no 2, p. 199-213Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The fundamental premise of social entrepreneurship is to use business knowledge to solve critical economic, social and environmental dilemmas facing a society. Social entrepreneurship is an emerging theme of inquiry in contemporary business, entrepreneurship, marketing and ethics literature. In effect, social entrepreneurs are concerned with making a “mission-related impact” which becomes their central concern. To date, there has been little attention given to the notion of social entrepreneurship in the discipline of tourism. Despite the lack of attention in tourism research there have been a number of significant social entrepreneurial contributions made to various communities in South Africa. Such contributions demonstrate the significance of change makers in the context of rural South Africa signifying progress in the country's new democracy. This paper is a consequence of two phases of field work in South Africa over a 10- month period. The paper discusses the motivational behaviour of six Fair Trade Tourism South Africa (FTTSA) entrepreneurs who have developed businesses with the intention of giving back to their South African communities. However, the study employed critical discourse analysis and in so doing it recognizes some of the inherent contradictions in informants' discourses based on their white privilege experienced during apartheid. Two aims focused on this exploration: 1) to seek information regarding entrepreneurial stimuli for involvement in social action, through FTTSA membership, and 2) to investigate FTTSA members' micro and macro discourses that inform their actions and behaviours.

  • 8.
    Boluk, Karla
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Tourism: Fair Trade in Tourism2013In: Tourism / [ed] P.Robinson, M.Lueck, S.Smith, Wallingford: CABI , 2013, 1Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Boluk, Karla
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Using CSR as a tool for development: an investigation of the Fair Hotels Scheme in Ireland2013In: Journal of Quality Assurance in Hospitality & Tourism, ISSN 1528-008X, E-ISSN 1528-0098, Vol. 14, no 1, p. 49-65Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article explores an opportunity for the accommodation sector in Ireland to engage in Corporate Social Responsibility. The aim of this article is to investigate the Fair Hotels Ireland scheme and explore its potential to create social cohesion which may then influence the economic and social progress in both theory and praxis. The research question that supports the aim of this study is: has the Fair Hotels Ireland scheme created value and influenced consumer purchasing? To respond to this research question ten interviews were carried out with Fair Hotel managers in Ireland. A content analysis was used to examine the data. The results indicated that hotel managers noticed an increase in business as a consequence of their CSR and becoming a Fair Hotel; and the scheme was described as creating value for their hotel and staff. However, the managers had not noticed a significant difference in the level of employee satisfaction. © 2013 Copyright Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

  • 10.
    Boluk, Karla
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Pashkevich, Albina
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography. Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Exploring the discourses used to sell heritage in Sweden2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Heritage tourism is a form of niche tourism which has emerged as an alternative to mass tourism. However the discourses used to market some heritage products generally appeal to an elite group in society who are demanding. Thus heritage tourism is marketed and packaged in a way to appeal to an exclusive group who are interested in tailor-made products that provide some entertainment value. The aim of this paper is to investigate the marketing strategies and goals for tourism development, from the perspective of two World Heritage Sites (WHS) in Sweden including the Great Copper Mountain in Falun and the Old Church Town in Luleå. Accordingly, the discourses used to sell heritage in the context of Sweden are discussed. A mixed-methods approach was used by the authors to carry out this investigation. The results of the analysis revealed that the heritage presented in the two cases are marketed as exclusive and as such, preclude the participation of some individuals. Furthermore, it was established that enhanced communication between WHS products and Sweden and other tourism products would improve visitation.

  • 11.
    Engström, Christina
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Boluk, Karla
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    The battlefield of the mountain: exploring the conflict of tourism development on the Three Peaks in Idre, Sweden2012In: Tourism planning & development, ISSN 2156-8316, Vol. 9, no 4, p. 411-427Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the conflict between a Swedish Sami community and a local tourism company eager to exploit traditional Sami land. The aim of the paper is to illustrate the Sami approach and how they negotiated during a conflict concerning the planning process of a large scale tourism development. Three research questions frame the study. How did the stakeholders involved in the conflict communicate and mediate? How were the various objectives prioritized? What is the major contribution this conflict can offer future conflicts? Published text was analysed as a way to map out the conflict and demonstrate how such conflicts are currently managed. Specifically, newspaper articles, letters to editors and authoritative documents were reviewed. A text analysis was employed to scrutinize the published text. Furthermore, the researchers carried out a critical discourse analysis for the purpose of analysing the published and empirical data. Key findings of this study indicate that there is a strong hierarchal order among the different interests of land use. Furthermore, traditional claims to the land are not always considered as superior to economically driven plans. Instead, objectives consolidated by the state government are an important factor in such types of conflicts.

  • 12. Young-Thelin, Lorna
    et al.
    Boluk, Karla
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    A case study of human resource practices in small hotels in Sweden2012In: Journal of Human Resources in Hospitality & Tourism, ISSN 1533-2845, E-ISSN 1533-2853, Vol. 11, no 4, p. 327-353Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The competitive advantage of organizations in the hotel industry is their human resources. The aim of the authors in this article is to investigate the human resources practices in small hotels in Sweden. They examine the practices of hotels in three main areas of human resource management, namely: hiring, training and performance evaluation. Although the hotels find their human resources important there has been a lack of attention devoted to the development of human resources systems and processes. Accordinly, the implementation and development of human resources systems and procedures depends on the background of the hotel manager or operator and available financial resources. 

1 - 12 of 12
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