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  • 1.
    Frid, Johan
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Gao, Man
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Chinese.
    Lundmark, Malin Svensson
    Lund University.
    Schötz, Susanne
    Lund University.
    Pitch-to-segment Alignment in South Swedish and Mandarin Chinese: A Cross-language Comparison2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Gao, Man
    Dalarna University, School of Languages and Media Studies, Chinese.
    A gestural coordination model of tone, consonant and cowel alignment in Mandarin Chinese2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Gao, Man
    Dalarna University, School of Languages and Media Studies, Chinese.
    Articulatory Phonology (AP) and tonal alignment: further testing of a proposed AP model of tone-to-segment alignment in Mandarin Chinese2010In: Tone and Intonation in Europe (TIE) 4, Stockholm, Sweden, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Gao, Man
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Chinese.
    Digital Technology and Chinese as a Foreign Language: Tools for teachers and learners2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Technology is playing an increasingly important role in language education, and today most teachers of Chinese as a Foreign Language (CFL) probably embrace at least a few digital tools to enhance their work. In this workshop, an overview will first be presented of a range of digital tools currently used in CFL teaching and learning, such as Adobe Connect, Adobe Presenter, online language learning sites and apps on smart phones. The workshop then proceeds to a structured discussion on these tools; common practices, further possibilities, and potential problems will be considered, drawing partly on the participants’ own experiences.

  • 5.
    Gao, Man
    Dalarna University, School of Languages and Media Studies, Chinese.
    Gestural coordination among vowel, consonant and tone gestures in Mandarin Chinese2009In: Chinese Journal of Phonetics, Vol. 2Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Gao, Man
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Chinese.
    Mandarin Chinese Pronunciation by Swedish Learners: Pedagogical Implications2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Gao, Man
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Chinese.
    Mandarin (Chinese) tones: Challenges and prospects for Swedish learners2017In: Understanding English in Use in Language Education and Language Studies / [ed] Maria Luz C. Vilches and Ken Lau, Taiwan: Wenzao Ursuline University of Languages , 2017, p. 75-90Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Gao, Man
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Chinese.
    Perception and Production of Chinese Tones by Swedish Learners: Asymmetric pattern and its implication to teaching Chinese as a foreign language2017Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Gao, Man
    Dalarna University, School of Languages and Media Studies, Chinese.
    Perception and Production of Mandarin Tones by Swedish Students2010In: 16. Tagung zum modernen Chinesischunterricht des Fachverbands Chinesisch e.V. Chinesisch auf dem Weg zur populären, Zurich, Switzerland, 1-3 september, 2010: Abstracts, Zurich, Switzerland, 2010, p. 20-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [un]

    In recent years, there has been a dramatic increase in the number of students enrolled in Chinese language course in Sweden – in high schools as well as universities – due to the increased relevance of China within a Swedish context. As may be expected, one of the major challenges for Swedish students is the tonal system of Mandarin Chinese. Further understanding of the production,perception and acquisition of Chinese tones by Swedes is therefore crucial in order to develop effective teaching methodology and, potentially, optimized learning strategies for speakers of Swedish. The current study investigates the perception and production of Chinese tones by Swedish students. The first goal is to characterize the errors made by Swedish students and assess the levels of difficulty posed by the four lexical tones respectively. The performance of 30 students enrolled in beginning-level Chinese courses at Dalarna University, Sweden, is investigated. Participants completed an identification task and a speaking task at the beginning of the course and after one month of study. The results are reported and analyzed on the basis of accuracy percentages,confusion matrices and error patterns. The second goal is to explore the role and potential of Swedish tone-accents for the teaching of Mandarin tones. Swedish is characterized as having pitch accents – a significantly more marginal tonal phenomenon than lexical tones but nevertheless involving pitch contrasts (Bruce, 1977; Thorén, 1997). Previous studies have shown that learners whose L1 (native language) is a tone language (e.g. Thai, Cantonese) may benefit from their L1 in identifying and producing Mandarin tones, compared with learners whose L1 is non-tonal (e.g. English) (Gandour and Harshman, 1978; Gandour, 1983; Lee et al., 1996; etc). It is conceivable that the pitch-accent background of Swedish students may be an advantage in the acquisition of Mandarin tones, which could potentially be utilized in future teaching strategies. The present study contains a preliminary assessment of this issue, through a comparison of Swedish students’ performance in perception and production tasks with those of American students reported in previous studies (Shen, 1989; Miracle, 1989; Hao, 2007).

  • 10.
    Gao, Man
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Chinese.
    Perception of Lexical Tones by Swedish Learners of Mandarin2016In: Proceedings of the joint workshop on NLP for Computer Assisted Language Learning and NLP for Language Acquisition at SLTC, Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press , 2016, Vol. 130, p. 33-40p. 33-40Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Models of cross-language perception suggest that listeners’ native language plays a significant role in perceiving another language, and propose that listeners assimilate non-native speech sounds to similar sounds in their native language. In this study, the effect of native language on the perception of Mandarin tones by Swedish learners is examined. Swedish learners participated in an identification task, and their performance was analyzed in terms of accuracy percentages and error patterns. The ranking of difficulty level among the four lexical tones by Swedish listeners differs from that found among English native listeners in previous studies. The error patterns also reveal that Swedish listeners confuse Tone 1 and 2, Tone 3 and 4, and Tone 2 and 4, the first two pairs rarely being confused by English listeners. These findings may be explained with the assimilation account: Swedish learners assimilate Tone 3 and 4 to Swedish pitch accents, thus they exhibit a unique pattern when perceiving the tones in Mandarin.

  • 11.
    Gao, Man
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Chinese.
    Perception of Tone 1-Tone 2 Contrast by Swedish Learners of Mandarin Chinese2019In: Proceedings from FONETIK 2019 / [ed] Mattias Heldner, Stockholm, 2019, Vol. XXVII, p. 7-12Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Little research has been carried out on the perception of tones by Swedish listeners previously. This study examined the perception of Mandarin tones by Swedish learners, with the focus on Tone 1-Tone 2 contrast. In addition to the four-alternative identification task, a two-way identification task with Tone 1-Tone 2 continua of stimuli with incrementally varied pitch contour was also carried out. The results show that Tone 1 and Tone 2 are more challenging for Swedish learners to identify correctly than the other two tones. Among Swedes who can identify Tone 1 and Tone 2 with a high accuracy score, native speakers of Swedish perceived the fine tonal variations differently from native Chinese speakers. The syllable duration is found to affect the perception of tone contrast, especially for Swedish learners. Possible auditory enhancement accounts for the effect of the duration are offered to explain the Swedish learners’ performance.

  • 12.
    Gao, Man
    Dalarna University, School of Languages and Media Studies, Chinese.
    Pitching it right: A comparative study between Swedish and American students’ tonal production in Mandarin Chinese2012In: SLE 2012, Stockholm University : Book of abstracts, 2012, p. 103-104Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Gao, Man
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Chinese.
    Teaching and Learning Chinese as a Foreign Language in Sweden2017Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Gao, Man
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Chinese.
    The Production of Mandarin Tones by Speakers of Swedish: The Effect of Pitch Accent on Tone Acquisition2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Gao, Man
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Chinese.
    Tone in Whispered Chinese2015In: Encyclopedia of Chinese Language and Linguistics / [ed] Rint Sybesma, Wolfgang Behr, Yueguo Gu, C. T. James Huang, Zev Handel, Leiden: Brill Academic Publishers, 2015Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Gao, Man
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Chinese.
    Lundmark, Malin Svensson
    Lund University.
    Schötz, Susanne
    Lund University.
    Frid, Johan
    Lund University.
    A Cross-Language Study of Tonal Alignment in Scania Swedish and Mandarin Chinese2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Gao, Man
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Languages and Media Studies, Chinese.
    Mooshammer, C.
    Hagedorn, C.
    Nam, H.
    Tiede, M.
    Chang, Y. C.
    Hsieh, F. F.
    Goldstein, L.
    Intra- and Inter-syllabic Coordination: An Articulatory Study of Taiwanese and English2011In: The 17th International Congress of Phonetic Sciences (ICPhS XVII): Congress Proceedings, Hong Kong: Wai-Sum Lee & Eric Zee , 2011, p. 273-276Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study the intra- and inter-gestural timing and coordination in English closed syllables and Taiwanese checked syllables is examined. Kinematic data elicited from a repetition task reveals that the vowel is co-articulated with the onset and coda consonants to a greater extent in Taiwanese checked syllables than English closed syllables; for Taiwanese greater overlap is observed between the hetero-syllabic coda and onset consonants. The different gestural overlap patterns in Taiwanese and English are accounted for with reference to the language-specific gestural pattern.

  • 18.
    Gao, Man
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Sound and Music Production.
    Mooshammer, C.
    Hagedorn, C.
    Nam, H.
    Tiede, M.
    Goldstein, L.
    A comparison of intra- and inter-syllabic coordination in repetitive speech of Taiwanese and English2011In: Proceedings of The 9th International Seminar on Speech Production 2011, Montreal, Canada, 2011, p. 289-296Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to compare English closed syllables and Taiwanese checked syllables regarding both 1) intra-syllabic coordination: the timing relations between onset and coda consonants within the syllable, and 2) inter-syllabic coordination: the temporal overlap between hetero-syllabic coda and following onset consonant. Tongue, lip and jaw movements of four speakers of Taiwanese and six speakers of American English were recorded by means of EMMA in a repetition task. Analyses of articulatory data suggest that Taiwanese checked syllables differ from English closed syllable in that: 1) Taiwanese displays much greater consonant-vowel co-articulation within a syllable than English; and 2) greater overlap is observed between hetero-syllabic consonants in Taiwanese. These different patterns will be discussed with respect to the gestural composition of coda consonant in Taiwanese and English, as well as the language specific regularities of gestural coordination.

  • 19.
    Gao, Man
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Languages and Media Studies, Chinese.
    Sundkvist, Peter
    An acoustic study of front rounded vowels in Shetland dialect2010In: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America: PROGRAM ABSTRACTS OF THE JOINT 159TH MEETING OF THE ACOUSTICAL SOCIETY OF AMERICA/NOISE-CON 2010, Baltimore, MD: Acoustical Society of America , 2010, Vol. 127, p. 2020-2020Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an acoustic analysis of front rounded vowels (FRVs) in the dialect spoken in the Shetland Islands, the northernmost locality of the British Isles. FRVs are typologically marked and estimated to occur in only 6.6% of the world’s languages [I. Maddieson, in Haspelmath et al. The World Atlas of Language Structures (2005)]. Their occurrence in the Shetland dialect is, at least partly, attributable to a Scandinavian substratum language. There is significant variation across the archipelago regarding several aspects such as (1) the number of lexically contrastive FRVs, (2) phonetic quality (close to half‐close), (3) contrastive length, and (4) lexical distribution and support. This paper presents an investigation of three speakers from one locality in which FRVs have retained firm lexical support. The issues addressed concern the dialect’s overall acoustic vowel space (based on F1, F2, and F3), the position of FRVs within the acoustic space, and what the contrasts among FRVs and other adjacent vowels appear to rest on acoustically. Special focus is directed to phonetic contexts that support the greatest number of vowel contrasts and display the most crowded acoustic vowels spaces.

  • 20.
    Gao, Man
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Chinese.
    Yang, Tao
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Chinese.
    Digital competence in practice: An investigation of Chinese teachers at Swedish secondary schools2019Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Gao, Man
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Chinese.
    Zhang, Chun
    Aarhus University.
    Teaching Mandarin Tones to University Students in Nordic Countries - Analysis of error patterns in a perception study by Danish, Finnish and Swedish students2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 22. Hsieh, F. F.
    et al.
    Chang, Y. C.
    Chen, W.
    Gao, Man
    Dalarna University, School of Languages and Media Studies, Chinese.
    Mooshammer, C.
    Nam, H.
    Tiede, M.
    Goldstein, L.
    Speech Errors in Taiwanese: An EMMA Study2011In: Proceedings of the 17th International Congress of Phonetic Sciences, Hong Kong: Wai-Sum Lee & Eric Zee , 2011, p. 894-897Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Speech errors in Taiwanese are investigated by means of a speeded repetition task. Our results show that the intrusion bias is also attested for word pairs with mismatched onsets, whereas in the alternating coda condition, reduction errors are the most frequent error type. This cross-linguistic difference can be attributed to language-specific implementation of stop codas.

  • 23.
    Sundkvist, Peter
    et al.
    Stockholm university.
    Gao, Man
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Chinese.
    A regional survey of the relationship between vowel and consonant duration in Shetland Scots2015In: Folia linguistica, ISSN 0165-4004, E-ISSN 1614-7308, Vol. 49, no 1, p. 57-83Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The local dialect spoken in the Shetland Isles constitutes a form of Lowland Scots. It has been suggested that stressed syllables in Shetland Scots tend to contain either a long vowel followed by a short consonant (V:C) or a short vowel followed by a long consonant ( C:), and furthermore that this pattern constitutes a trace of complementary quantity in Norn, a Nordic language spoken in Shetland approximately until the end of the eighteenth century. The existence of such a pattern has also been supported by acoustic measurements. Following a summary and overview of Norn's demise in the Shetland Isles, this paper presents a regional survey of the relationship between vowel and consonant duration in stressed syllables in Shetland Scots. Based on acoustic data from 43 speakers, representing ten separate regions across the Shetland Isles, the inverse correlation between vowel and consonant duration is assessed. The results reveal that the inverse correlation is strongest in the northern part of Shetland and weakest in the south, and displays a general north-to-south decline across Shetland. The results are thus generally consistent with predictions that follow from regional variation concerning Norn's death; evidence suggests that it survived the longest in the northern parts of Shetland.

  • 24.
    Sundkvist, Peter
    et al.
    Stockholm University.
    Gao, Man
    Dalarna University, School of Languages and Media Studies, Chinese.
    Pulmonic ingressive speech in English? Evidence from the Shetland Isles2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 25. Sundkvist, Peter
    et al.
    Gao, Man
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Chinese.
    Pulmonic ingressive speech in Orkney dialect2015In: Scottish Language, ISSN 0264-0198, Vol. 34, p. 1-13Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Sundkvist, Peter
    et al.
    Stockholm University.
    Gao, Man
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Chinese.
    Pulmonic ingressive speech in Orkney Scots2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 27.
    Sundkvist, Peter
    et al.
    Stockholm University.
    Gao, Man
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Chinese.
    Rhoticity in Yunnan English2016In: World Englishes, ISSN 0883-2919, E-ISSN 1467-971X, Vol. 35, no 1, p. 42-59Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a study of the pronunciation of English by speakers from Yunnan Province in Southwest China. Eight non-English major undergraduate students participated in three tasks: an informal interview, reading a text, and a dialectological-style questionnaire. The degree of rhoticity was assessed based on auditory analysis, with an inter-rater agreement of 97 per cent. The results revealed significant inter-speaker variation: two informants were virtually non-rhotic whereas the remaining six were rhotic to a considerable degree. Intra-speaker variation among these six was furthermore systematic: the degree of rhoticity was lowest in the interview, intermediate in reading, and highest in the questionnaire. These results are discussed with reference to several factors, including the level of formality and attention to speech triggered by the tasks, potentially emerging norms for rhoticity, and the stage of development of a local form of ‘Yunnan English’.

  • 28.
    Sundkvist, Peter
    et al.
    Stockholm University.
    Gao, Man
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Chinese.
    Rhoticity in Yunnan English: Stylistic and Phonological Conditioning2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 29.
    Sundkvist, Peter
    et al.
    Stockholm University.
    Gao, Man
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Chinese.
    Stylistic and phonological conditioning of rhoticity among Yunnan speakers of English2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 30.
    Sundkvist, Peter
    et al.
    Stockholm University.
    Gao, Man
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Chinese.
    Tracing syllable structure through time: Durational reflexes of complementary quantity in Shetland Scots2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Shetland Isles, the northernmost part of the British Isles, were colonized by Vikings from about 800 AD, and belonged to Norway and later Denmark until 1469, when they were ceded to Scotland. A Nordic language, first Old Norse and later Norn, constituted the dominant language for nearly 800 years, and native speakers of Norn could be found as late as the 18th or even early 19th century. While the modern Shetland dialect constitutes a form of Lowland Scots, the exact 78nature and extent of its Scandinavian trace features remain a topic of continuing inquiry. One of the most significant claims concerns its syllable structure. Catford (1957) suggested that stressed monosyllabic words contained either a long vowel followed by a short consonant, or a short vowel followed by a long consonant. This, in his view, constituted a trace of the complementary quantity that probably existed in Norn, and which is still found in Swedish and Norwegian: Sw. hat ‗hate‘ V:C vs. hatt ‗hat‘ VC:.This suggestion was previously examined on the basis of acoustic measurements (van Leyden 2002). The results indicated that the inverse correlation between vowel and consonant duration in Shetland Scots was weaker than in Norwegian but stronger than in mainland Scotland or the Orkney Isles, which are situated considerably closer to the Scottish mainland. A stronger correlation in Shetland than in Orkney is consistent with the timing of Norn‘s demise; it survived longer in Shetland.There is significant linguistic variation within the Shetland Isles (Mather & Speitel, 1986). This is partly attributable to the fact that they constitute an archipelago of over 100 islands, where interisland travel was at times limited. A recent regional survey of Shetland Scots therefore included an investigation of the relationship between vowel and consonant duration. 10 localities from the entire archipelago were included. In each locality 2 men and 2 women between the ages 55-75 were recorded, all of whom were born and had lived most of their lives in the locality in question. The present study focuses on the vowel system before /t/, as this context facilitates a comparison across regions, has revealed geographic variation previously (van Leyden 2002), and constitutes the primary context of Catford‘s original claim. Monosyllabic target words (feet, beat, bit, etc.) were produced (2 repetitions) by the informants in a carrier sentence. Vowel and consonant duration was measured, and the relation between the two was assessed on the basis of correlation measures.The results reveal a clear north-to-south cline in the strength of correlation within the Shetland archipelago: the pattern is strongest in the northern isles, decreases through the Shetland mainland, and becomes weakest in the southern part of the mainland and Fair Isle. This pattern is generally consistent with the timing of Norn‘s death; Norn is reported to have survived the longest in the northern parts. However alternative interpretations, involving more recent dialect leveling, are also discussed.

  • 31.
    Yang, Tao
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Chinese.
    Gao, Man
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Chinese.
    Teaching and learning Chinese in the virtual classroom: effective strategies and digital tools for teaching Chinese characters2019Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 32.
    Yang, Tao
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Languages and Media Studies, Chinese.
    Hu, Lung-Lung
    Dalarna University, School of Languages and Media Studies, Chinese.
    Yan, Jia
    Dalarna University, School of Languages and Media Studies, Chinese.
    Gao, Man
    Dalarna University, School of Languages and Media Studies, Chinese.
    Teaching Chinese Writing System in Web-based Education2014In: NGL2014 Next Generation Learning Conference: Conference programme, Falun: Högskolan Dalarna, 2014, p. 22-22Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Teaching the Chinese ideographic writing system in web-based education has become the biggest challenge to the Chinese instructors, in terms of teaching technology and pedagogy. This paper presents the outcome of a research project that aims to overcome the technological obstacles and develop an optimized pedagogic method for teaching characters.

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