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  • 1.
    Brorsson, Sofia
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Carlsson, Tomas
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Medicinsk vetenskap.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Medicinsk vetenskap.
    A new electronic grip force measurement device for hand evaluation2013Inngår i: Abstracts of the Annual European Congress of Rheumatology EULAR. June 12-15, 2013. Madrid, Spain, 2013Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Hand grip force is a good indicator of general muscle strength and can also be used to predict multiple outcomes such as changes in activities of daily living (ADL), disability, mortality and general upper extremity strength. Hand grip force is often measured as the amount of static grip force a subject can produce when measured with a hydraulic dynamometer such as the Jamar or with an electronic device such as the Grippit. The Grippit device measures an average grip force, a peak grip force and force over a set time period. Grippit has shown good reliability for healthy subjects. Grippit, which was developed over 20 years ago in Gothenburg, Sweden is no longer manufactured. Therefore, the need for anewly developed and modernized measurement instrument for use in evaluating hand rehabilitation has arisen.

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the test-retest reliability of the newly developed instrument GRIP-it and to describe and validate the relationship between grip force measurements from GRIP-it and the original Grippit device.

    Methods: Healthy controls (n=43) were included in the study. Two devices were used to evaluate grip force (Newton, N), (i) GRIP-it a newly developed device and (ii) Grippit. Both instruments were used to measure mean and maximal force over 10 seconds.

    Results: GRIP-it displayed a mean measurement error of -1.7 ± 0.5% and the corresponding error for Grippit was -1.6 ± 1.9%. All subjects completed the grip force tests and the results for three attempts for each hand. The test-retest reliability was excellent for both pieces of equipment, with ICCs ranging from 0.963 to 0.947 (CI 95% between 0.103 and 0.041) for GRIP-it and from 0.979 to 0.968 (CI 95% between 0.087 and 0.042) for Grippit.

    Relationships between Grippit and GRIP-it

    There was a significant difference between the measured values derived from Grippit and GRIP-it for both the dominant hand (P < 0.001) and the non-dominant hand (P < 0.01). Grippit gives in general a higher grip force measurement than GRIP-it which is also indicated by the slope (β1) of the regression lines that deviates from 1. However, there were no substantial differences in the grip force when comparing the measurements for the dominant hand with the non-dominant hand for either Grippit (P = 0.071) or GRIP-it (P = 0.404). Based on these non-significant differences between hands and the fact that the model estimates for the intercept (β0) and the slope (β1) are contained within the confidence intervals of the model estimates for the opposite hand, a combined model was derived. The linear regression analysis, with grip force measurements for both hands included, gives: GRIP-it = 49.0 + 0.779 · Grippit. This explains 89.6% of the variance in grip force analyzed by GRIP-it (P < 0.001) see Figure 2. To enable an estimation of grip force measured by Grippit based on GRIP-it values a regression analysis with Grippit as dependent variable gives: Grippit = -18.1 + 1.15 · GRIP-it, which explains 89.6% of the variance in grip force analyzed by Grippit (P < 0.001).

    Conclusions: This study showed that GRIP-it has excellent test-retest reliability. Measurements of grip force with GRIP-it are strongly related to those from the original Grippit. The newly developed GRIP-it shows great potential for use in the assessment of hand function and the evaluation of hand rehabilitation.

  • 2.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Elitlängdskidåkningens fysiologiska krav2016Inngår i: Svensk idrottsmedicin, ISSN 1103-7652, Vol. 35, nr 1, s. 22-24Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 3.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap. Umeå universitet, Idrottsmedicin.
    Physiological demands of competitive elite cross-country skiing2015Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction Researchers have, for decades, contributed to an increased collective understanding of the physiological demands in cross-country skiing; however, almost all of these studies have used either non-elite subjects and/or performances that emulate cross-country skiing. To establish the physiological demands of cross-country skiing, it is important to relate the investigated physiological variables to the competitive performance of elite skiers. The overall aim of this doctoral thesis was, therefore, to investigate the external validity of physiological test variables to determine the physiological demands in competitive elite cross-country skiing.

    Methods The subjects in Study I – IV were elite male (I – III) and female (III – IV) cross-country skiers. In all studies, the relationship between test variables (general and ski-specific) and competitive performances (i.e. the results from competitions or the overall ski-ranking points of the International Ski Federation (FIS) for sprint (FISsprint) and distance (FISdist) races) were analysed. Test variables reflecting the subject’s general strength, upper-body and whole-body oxygen uptake, oxygen uptake and work intensity at the lactate threshold, mean upper-body power, lean mass, and maximal double-poling speed were investigated.

    Results The ability to maintain a high work rate without accumulating lactate is an indicator of distance performance, independent of sex (I, IV). Independent of sex, high oxygen uptake in whole-body and upper-body exercise was important for both sprint (II, IV) and distance (I, IV) performance. The maximal double-poling speed and 60-s double-poling mean power output were indicators of sprint (IV) and distance performance (I), respectively. Lean mass was correlated with distance performance for women (III), whereas correlations were found between lean mass and sprint performance among both male and female skiers (III). Moreover, no correlations between distance performance and test variables were derived from tests of knee-extension peak torque, vertical jumps, or double poling on a ski-ergometer with 20-s and 360-s durations (I), whereas gross efficiency while treadmill roller skiing showed no correlation with either distance or sprint performance in cross-country skiing (IV).

    Conclusion The results in this thesis show that, depending on discipline and sex, maximal and peak oxygen uptake, work intensity at the lactate threshold, lean mass, double-poling mean power output, and double-poling maximal speed are all externally valid physiological test variables for evaluation of performance capability among elite cross-country skiers; however, to optimally indicate performance capability different test-variable expressions should be used; in general, the absolute expression appears to be a better indicator of competitive sprint performance whereas the influence of body mass should be considered when evaluating competitive distance performance capability of elite cross-country skiers.

  • 4.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Assarsson, Hannes
    Högskolan Dalarna.
    Carlsson, Tomas
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    The influence of sex, age, and race experience on pacing profiles during the 90 km Vasaloppet ski race2016Inngår i: Open Access Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 1179-1543, E-ISSN 1179-1543, Vol. 7, s. 11-19Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to investigate pacing-profile differences during the 90 km Vasaloppet ski race related to the categories of sex, age, and race experience. Skiing times from eight sections (S1 to S8) were analyzed. For each of the three categories, 400 pairs of skiers were matched to have a finish time within 60 seconds, the same start group, and an assignment to the same group for the other two categories. Paired-samples Student’s t-tests were used to investigate sectional pacing-profile differences between the subgroups. Results showed that males skied faster in S2 (P=0.0042), S3 (P=0.0049), S4 (P=0.010), and S1–S4 (P<0.001), whereas females skied faster in S6 (P<0.001), S7 (P<0.001), S8 (P=0.0088), and S5–S8 (P<0.001). For the age category, old subjects (40 to 59 years) skied faster than young subjects (19 to 39 years) in S3 (P=0.0029), and for the other sections, there were no differences. Experienced subjects (≥4 Vasaloppet ski race completions) skied faster in S1 (P<0.001) and S1–S4 (P=0.0054); inexperienced skiers (<4 Vasaloppet ski race completions) had a shorter mean skiing time in S5–S8 (P=0.0063). In conclusion, females had a more even pacing profile than that of males with the same finish time, start group, age, and race experience. No clear age-related pacing-profile difference was identified for the matched subgroups. Moreover, experienced skiers skied faster in the first half whereas inexperienced skiers had higher skiing speeds during the second half of the race.

  • 5.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Carlsson, Tomas
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Styrketräning för äldre: mirakelkur för individen, familjen och samhället?2008Inngår i: Svensk idrottsmedicin, ISSN 1103-7652, Vol. 27, nr 1, s. 14-19Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 6.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Carlsson, Tomas
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Hammarström, Daniel
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Granath, Johan
    Regional Sports Federation of Dalarna.
    Westergren, Jens
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Malm, Christer
    Idrottsmedicin, Umeå Universitet.
    Tonkonogi, Michail
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Validation of off-season physiological tests with ski ranking in elite male junior cross-country skiing2012Inngår i: Book of Abstract: Supplement to Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, Volume 44, Number 5, May 2012, 2012, s. 353-353Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 7.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Medicinsk vetenskap.
    Carlsson, Tomas
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Medicinsk vetenskap.
    Hammarström, Daniel
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Granath, Johan
    Westergren, Jens
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Malm, Christer
    Tonkonogi, Michail
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Validation of off-season physiological tests with ski ranking in elite male junior cross-country skiing2012Inngår i: Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, ISSN 0195-9131, E-ISSN 1530-0315, Vol. 44, nr s2, s. 516-516Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 8.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap. Sports Medicine Unit, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden, Dala Sports Academy, Falun, Sweden.
    Carlsson, Tomas
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap. Sports Medicine Unit, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden, Dala Sports Academy, Falun, Sweden.
    Hammarström, Daniel
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap. Lillehammer University College, Lillehammer, Norway.
    Malm, Christer
    Sports Medicine Unit, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Tonkonogi, Michail
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Prediction of race performance of elite cross-country skiers by lean mass2014Inngår i: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, ISSN 1555-0265, E-ISSN 1555-0273, Vol. 9, nr 6, s. 1040-1045Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To investigate the relationship between race performance and lean mass (LM) variables, as well as to examine sex differences in body composition in elite-standard cross-country skiers. 

    Methods: Thirty-four elite cross-country skiers (18 men and 16 women) underwent a dual-emission x-ray absorptiometry body composition test to determine LM, fat mass, and bone mineral content. For both sexes, performance data were collected from a sprint prologue and a distance race. 

    Results: The absolute expression of LM variables [whole body (LMWB), upper body (LMUB), and lower body (LMLB)] was significantly correlated with finishing time in the sprint prologue independent of sex. Distance-race performance was significantly related to LMWB, LMUB, and LMLB in women; however, no correlation was found in men. Men had a significantly higher LM and lower fat mass, independent of expression (absolute or relative), for the whole body, arms, trunk, and legs, except for the absolute fat mass in the trunk. 

    Conclusions: The absolute expressions of LMWB, LMUB, and LMLB were significant predictors of sprint-prologue performance in both sexes, as well as of distance-race performance in women only. Compared with women, male skiers have a higher LM in the body segments that are major contributors to propelling forces. These results suggest that muscle mass in the lower and upper body is equally important for race performance; thus, more focus of elite skiers’ training should be directed to increasing whole-body muscle mass to improve their competitive performance capability.

  • 9.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Medicinsk vetenskap.
    Carlsson, Tomas
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Medicinsk vetenskap.
    Hammarström, Daniel
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Malm, Christer
    Tonkonogi, Michail
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Time trials predict the competitive performance capacity of junior cross-country skiers2014Inngår i: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, ISSN 1555-0265, E-ISSN 1555-0273, Vol. 9, nr 1, s. 12-18Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: This study investigated whether there is a correlation between time-trial performance and competitive performance capacity of male and female junior cross-country skiers and sought to explain sex-specific competitive performance capacity through multiple-regression modeling.

    Methods: The International Ski Federation's (FIS) junior ranking points for distance (FISdist) and sprint (FISsprint) competitions were used as performance parameters. A total of 38 elite junior (age 18.5 +/- 1.0 y) cross-country skiers (24 men and 14 women) completed 3 time-trial tests: a 3-km level-running time trial (TTRun), a 2-km moderate uphill (1.2 slope) roller-skiing time trial using the double-poling technique (TTDP), and a 2-km uphill (2.8 slope) roller-skiing time trial using the diagonal-stride technique (TTDiag). The correlations were investigated using Pearson correlation analysis, and regression models were created using multiple-linear-regression analysis. Results: For men, FISsprint and FISdist were correlated with the times for TTRun, TTDP, and TTDiag (all P < .001). For women, FISsprint was correlated with the times for TTRun (P < .05), TTDP (P < .01), and TTDiag (P < .01), whereas FISdist was correlated only with the times for TTDP (P < .01) and TTDiag (P < .05). The models developed for FISdist and FISsprint explained 73.9-82.3% of the variance in the performance capacity of male junior cross-country skiers. No statistically valid regression model was found for the women.

    Conclusions: Running and roller-skiing time trials are useful tests for accurately predicting the performance capacity of junior cross-country skiers.

  • 10.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Carlsson, Tomas
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Hammarström, Daniel
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Tiivel, Toomas
    Malm, Christer
    Tonkonogi, Michail
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Validation of physiological tests in relation to competitive performances in elite male distance cross-country skiing2012Inngår i: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, ISSN 1064-8011, E-ISSN 1533-4287, Vol. 26, nr 6, s. 1496-1504Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the present study was to establish which physiological test parameters reflects the distance performances in the Swedish National Championships in cross-country skiing (SNC) and the International Ski Federation's ranking points for distance performances (FISdist). The present study also aimed to create multiple regression models to describe skiing performance for the SNC distance races and International Ski Federation's (FIS) ranking. Twelve male, Swedish, national elite, cross-country skiers (maximal oxygen consumption [(V) over dotO(2)max] = 5.34 +/- 0.34 L.min(-1)) volunteered to participate in the study. Their results in the 2008 SNC (15 km race [SNC15] and 30 km race [SNC30]) and FISdist points were used as performance data. On the week preceding the Championship, subjects completed a test battery consisting of 7 physiological tests: isokinetic knee extension peak torque (PT), vertical jumps (VJ), lactate threshold (LT), (V) over dotO(2)max, and 3 double poling tests of different durations (DP20, DP60, and DP360). Correlations were established using Pearson's correlation analysis, and models to describe skiing performance were created using standard multiple linear regression analysis. Significant correlations were found between the performance parameters and test parameters derived from LT, (V) over dotO(2)max, and DP60 tests. No correlations with any performance parameter were found for PT, VJ, DP20, and DP360 tests. For FISdist and SNC15, the models explain 81% and 78% of the variance in performance, respectively. No statistically valid regression model was found for SNC30. The results of this study imply that the physiological demands in male elite distance cross-country skiing performances are different in different events. To adequately evaluate a skier's performance ability in distance cross-country skiing, it is necessary to use test parameters and regression models that reflect the specific performance.

  • 11.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap. Sports Medicine Unit, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden; Dala Sports Academy, Falun, Sweden.
    Carlsson, Tomas
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap. Sports Medicine Unit, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden; Dala Sports Academy, Falun, Sweden.
    Knutsson, Magnus
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap. Dala Sports Academy, Falun, Sweden.
    Malm, Christer
    Sports Medicine Unit, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden; Winternet, Boden, Sweden .
    Tonkonogi, Michail
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Oxygen uptake at different intensities and sub‑techniques predicts sprint performance in elite male cross‑country skiers2014Inngår i: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, E-ISSN 1439-6327, Vol. 114, nr 12, s. 2587-2595Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose. To investigate the relationship between sprint-prologue performance (using the classical technique) and the oxygen uptake at the lactate threshold ( V˙O2obla), maximal oxygen uptake ( V˙O 2max), and mean oxygen uptake during double poling ( V˙O 2dp).

    Methods. Eight elite male cross-country skiers [age 24.8 ± 4.8 years, (mean ± SD)] completed two treadmill roller-skiing tests using the diagonal-stride technique and a 60 s double-poling test on a ski-ergometer to determine their V˙O2obla, V˙O 2max, and V˙O 2dp. Performance data were generated from a 1.25 km sprint prologue. Power-function modelling was used to predict the skiers’ race speeds based on the oxygen-uptake variables and body mass.

    Results. There were correlations between the race speed and the absolute expression of the V˙O2obla (r = 0.79, P = 0.021), V˙O 2max (r = 0.86, P = 0.0069), and V˙O 2dp (r = 0.94, P = 0.00062). The following power-function models were established for race-speed prediction: 1.09 · V˙O 2obla0.21, 1.05 · V˙O 2max0.21, and 1.19 · V˙O 2dp0.20; these models explained 60 % (P = 0.024), 73 % (P = 0.0073), and 87 % (P = 0.00073), respectively, of the variance in the race speed. However, body mass did not contribute to any of the models (P = 0.97, 0.88, and 0.21, respectively).

    Conclusions. Oxygen uptake at different intensities and sub-techniques is an indicator of elite male sprint-prologue performance. The absolute expression of the investigated oxygen-uptake variables should be used when evaluating elite male sprint-prologue performances; if skiers oxygen uptake differs by 1 %, their performances will likely differ by 0.2 % in favour of the skier with higher oxygen uptake.

  • 12.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Carlsson, Tomas
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Olsson, Mats
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Brorsson, Sofia
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Malm, Christer
    Idrottsmedicin, Umeå Universitet.
    Tonkonogi, Michail
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Peak hand-grip force predicts competitive performance in elite female cross-country skiers2014Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 13.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap. Umeå universitet; Dala Sports Academy.
    Carlsson, Tomas
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap. Umeå universitet; Dala Sports Academy.
    Wedholm, Lars
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap. Dala Sports Academy.
    Nilsson, Mattias
    Regional Sports Federation of Dalarna.
    Malm, Christer
    Idrottsmedicin, Umeå Universitet.
    Tonkonogi, Michail
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Medicinsk vetenskap.
    Physiological demands of competitive sprint and distance performance in elite female cross-country skiing2016Inngår i: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, ISSN 1064-8011, E-ISSN 1533-4287, Vol. 30, nr 8, s. 2138-2144Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose was to investigate the relationship between elite females' competitive performance capability in sprint and distance cross-country skiing and the variables of gross efficiency (GE), work rate at the onset of blood-lactate accumulation (OBLA4mmol), maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), maximal speed (Vmax), and peak upper-body oxygen uptake (VO2peak). Ten elite female cross-country skiers (age 24.5 ± 2.8 years) completed treadmill roller-skiing tests to determine GE, OBLA4mmol, and VO2max using the diagonal-stride technique as well as Vmax and VO2peak using the double-poling technique. International Ski Federations ranking points for sprint (FISsprint) and distance (FISdist) races were used as competitive performance data. There were correlations between the FISsprint and the VO2max expressed absolutely (P = 0.0040), Vmax (P = 0.012), and VO2peak expressed absolutely (P < 0.001) and as a simple ratio-standard (P = 0.049). The FISdist were correlated with OBLA4mmol (P = 0.048), VO2max expressed absolutely (L·min) (P = 0.015) and as a simple ratio-standard (P = 0.046), and VO2peak expressed absolutely (P = 0.036) and as a simple ratio-standard (mL·min·kg) (P = 0.040). The results demonstrate that the physiological abilities reflected by VO2max and VO2peak are indicators of competitive sprint and distance performance in elite female cross-country skiing. In addition, the ability to generate a high Vmax indicates the performance in sprint races whereas the skier's OBLA4mmol reflects the performance capability in distance races. Based on the results, when evaluating the performance capacity of elite female cross-country skiers, it is recommended to use physiological variables that reflect competitive performance.

  • 14.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Isberg, Jenny
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Nilsson, Johnny
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Carlsson, Tomas
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    The acute effects of a short technique-intense training period on side-foot kick performance among elite female soccer players2019Inngår i: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, ISSN 0022-4707, E-ISSN 1827-1928, Vol. 59, nr 9, s. 1442-1449Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Previously, it was shown that elite soccer teams were 24% more likely to win matches if their passing effectiveness were increased by 1%. However, research interventions aiming to improve passing performance are scarce. The current study aimed to investigate the effect of a short technique-intense training period on side-foot kick performance among elite female soccer players.

    METHODS: Four side-foot kick tests were completed before and after a training period: kicking a stationary ball using match-relevant (SBRS) and maximal ball speed (SBMS), passing the ball on the move using match-relevant ball speed (RBRS), and repeated side-foot kicks onto a rebound-box with continuously increasing passing distance (RRB). The players were assigned to either the intervention group or the control group. The training intervention consisted of six 55-min training sessions with five side-foot kick exercises. Within-group and between-group differences were investigated using paired-samples t-test and Mann-Whitney U test, respectively.

    RESULTS: The intervention group improved the performance in the RBRS and RRB tests (both P < 0.05), but no differences were found for the SBRS and SBMS tests (both P > 0.05). No improvements were found for the control group independent of test condition (all P > 0.05). Significant between-group differences were found for the RBRS and RRB tests (both P < 0.05), whereas no differences were found for the SBRS and SBMS tests (both P > 0.05).

    CONCLUSIONS: The fundamental soccer skill of passing a moving ball was improved in elite female soccer players by a short technique-intense training period.

  • 15.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Isberg, Jenny
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Nilsson, Johnny
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Carlsson, Tomas
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    The effect of training on side foot-kick performance among swedish first league women´s soccer players2018Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    THE EFFECT OF TRAINING ON SIDE FOOT-KICK PERFORMANCE AMONG SWEDISH FIRST LEAGUE WOMEN’S SOCCER PLAYERS

    Carlsson, M.1, Isberg, J.1, Nilsson, J.1, Carlsson, T.1 1: Dalarna University (Falun, Sweden)

    Introduction

    A high completion rate for passes is important for success in soccer, because longer passing sequences are related to more scored goals (Hughes & Franks, 2005). In a recent study, it was found that female players had a lower pass-completion rate than male players at the highest competitive standard of European soccer, which suggests that elite female players in general do not have the same technical characteristics as elite male players (Paul S. Bradley et al., 2014). The purpose of the study was investigate the effect of a 2-week training intervention on side foot-kick performance among Swedish first league women’s soccer players.

     Methods

    To investigate the effect of training on side foot-kick performance, a pre-post-intervention study was implemented where four side foot-kick tests were performed before and after a 2-week training period. The side foot-kick accuracy were investigated when kicking a stationary ball using match-relevant ball speed (SBRS) and maximal ball speed (SBMS) as well as subsequent to a 5-m run with the ball from different approach angles (0°, 30°, and 60°) to a predetermined position, where passing of the ball on the move was executed using match-relevant ball speed (RBRS). The fourth test comprised repeated side-foot kicks onto a rebound-box with continuously increasing passing distance (RRB).

    Based on the results from the pre-tests, the players were assigned to either the intervention group (INT) or the control group (CON). The training intervention consisted of six 55-min training sessions. In each session, two rounds of five exercises focusing on improvement of side foot-kick accuracy were executed. Within-group and between-group differences were investigated using paired samples Student’s t-tests and Mann-Whitney U tests, respectively.

    Results

    Prior to the training intervention, there were no significant differences between the groups for any of the investigated test variables. The INT group improved RBRS (P = 0.036) and RRB (P = 0.010) during the training intervention, whereas no significant within-group changes were found for either SBRS or SBMS (both P > 0.05). No within-group differences were found for any of the test variables in the CON group (all P > 0.05). Significant between-group differences were found for RBRS (P = 0.040) and RRB (P = 0.005), whereas no differences were found for either SBRS or SBMS (both P > 0.05).

    Conclusion

    The fundamental soccer skill of passing a moving ball could be improved in elite women players by a 2-week training period focusing on improving   side foot-kick performance.

    References

    Bradley PS, Carling C, Diaz AG, Hood P, Barnes C, Ade J, Boddy M, Krustrup P, Mohr M (2013) Hum Mov Sci, 32, 808-821.

    Hughes M, Franks I (2005) J Sports Sci, 23, 509-514.

  • 16.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Nilsson, Johnny
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Hellström, John
    Svenska Golfförbundet.
    Tinmark, Fredrik
    Gymnastik och idrottshögskolan.
    Carlsson, Tomas
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    The effect of ball temperature on ball speed and carry distance in golf drives2019Inngår i: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology, ISSN 1754-3371, Vol. 233, nr 2, s. 186-192Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of ball temperature on impact ball speed and carry distance during golf drives in a blind randomized test design. The balls were exposed to a temperature-controlled environment (4 °C, 18 °C, 32 °C, and 46 °C) for 24 h prior to the test and each temperature group consisted of 30 balls. The 120 drives were performed by an elite male golfer (handicap: 0.0) in an indoor driving range. All drives were measured by a Doppler-radar system to determine the club-head speed, launch angle, spin rate, ball speed, and carry distance. Differences between the groups were investigated using a one-way analysis of variance. The results indicated that ball-speed and carry-distance differences occurred within the four groups (p < 0.001 and p < 0.01, respectively). The post hoc analyses showed that the ball temperatures of 18 °C and 32 °C had greater ball speeds and carry distances than balls at 4 °C and 46 °C (all p < 0.05). The intervals for the between-group differences were 0.6–0.7 m s−1 and 2.9–3.9 m for ball speed and carry distance, respectively. Hence, the results showed that ball temperature influences both the ball speed and the carry distance. Based on the findings in this study, standardization of ball temperature should be factored into governing body regulation tests for golf equipment.

  • 17.
    Carlsson, Tomas
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Felleki, Majbritt
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Statistik.
    Hammarström, Daniel
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Heil, Daniel
    Montana State University.
    Malm, Christer
    Umeå Universitet, Idrottsmedicin.
    Tonkonogi, Michail
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Scaling maximal oxygen uptake to predict performance in elite-standard men cross-country skiers2013Inngår i: Journal of Sports Sciences, ISSN 0264-0414, E-ISSN 1466-447X, Vol. 31, nr 16, s. 1753-1760Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to: 1) establish the optimal body-mass exponent for maximal oxygen uptake (O2max) to indicate performance in elite-standard men cross-country skiers; and 2) evaluate the influence of course inclination on the body-mass exponent. Twelve elite-standard men skiers completed an incremental treadmill roller-skiing test to determine O2max and performance data came from the 2008 Swedish National Championship 15-km classic-technique race. Log-transformation of power-function models was used to predict skiing speeds. The optimal models were found to be: Race speed = 7.86 · O2max · m −0.48 and Section speed = 5.96 · O2max · m −(0.38 + 0.03 · α) · e−0.003 · Δ (where m is body mass, α is the section's inclination and Δ is the altitude difference of the previous section), that explained 68% and 84% of the variance in skiing speed, respectively. A body-mass exponent of 0.48 (95% confidence interval: 0.19 to 0.77) best described O2max as an indicator of performance in elite-standard men skiers. The confidence interval did not support the use of either “1” (simple ratio-standard scaled) or “0” (absolute expression) as body-mass exponents for expressing O2max as an indicator of performance. Moreover, results suggest that course inclination increases the body-mass exponent for O2max.

  • 18.
    Carlsson, Tomas
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Hammarström, Daniel
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Malm, Christer
    Umeå Universitet, Idrottsmedicin.
    Tonkonogi, Michail
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Scaling of upper-body power output to predict time-trial roller skiing performance2013Inngår i: Journal of Sports Sciences, ISSN 0264-0414, E-ISSN 1466-447X, Vol. 31, nr 6, s. 582-588Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the present study was to establish the most appropriate allometric model to predict mean skiing speed during a double-poling roller skiing time-trial using scaling of upper-body power output. Forty-five Swedish junior cross-country skiers (27 men and 18 women) of national and international standard were examined. The skiers, who had a body mass (m) of 69.3 ± 8.0 kg (mean ± s), completed a 120-s double-poling test on a ski ergometer to determine their mean upper-body power output (W). Performance data were subsequently obtained from a 2-km time-trial, using the double-poling technique, to establish mean roller skiing speed. A proportional allometric model was used to predict skiing speed. The optimal model was found to be: Skiing speed = 1.057 · W 0.556 · m −0.315, which explained 58.8% of the variance in mean skiing speed (P < 0.001). The 95% confidence intervals for the scaling factors ranged from 0.391 to 0.721 for W and from −0.626 to −0.004 for m. The results in this study suggest that allometric scaling of upper-body power output is preferable for the prediction of performance of junior cross-country skiers rather than absolute expression or simple ratio-standard scaling of upper-body power output.

  • 19.
    Carlsson, Tomas
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap. Umeå universitet.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap. Umeå universitet.
    Hammarström, Daniel
    Lillehammer University College.
    Rønnestad, Bent R
    Lillehammer University College.
    Malm, Christer
    Umeå Universitet, Idrottsmedicin.
    Tonkonogi, Michail
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Optimal V. O2max-to-mass ratio for predicting 15 km performance among elite male cross-country skiers2015Inngår i: Open Access Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 1179-1543, E-ISSN 1179-1543, Vol. 6, s. 353-360Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was 1) to validate the 0.5 body-mass exponent for maximal oxygen uptake (V. O2max) as the optimal predictor of performance in a 15 km classical-technique skiing competition among elite male cross-country skiers and 2) to evaluate the influence of distance covered on the body-mass exponent for V. O2max among elite male skiers. Twenty-four elite male skiers (age: 21.4±3.3 years [mean ± standard deviation]) completed an incremental treadmill roller-skiing test to determine their V. O2max. Performance data were collected from a 15 km classicaltechnique cross-country skiing competition performed on a 5 km course. Power-function modeling (ie, an allometric scaling approach) was used to establish the optimal body-mass exponent for V . O2max to predict the skiing performance. The optimal power-function models were found to be race speed = 8.83⋅(V . O2max m-0.53) 0.66 and lap speed = 5.89⋅(V . O2max m-(0.49+0.018lap)) 0.43e0.010age, which explained 69% and 81% of the variance in skiing speed, respectively. All the variables contributed to the models. Based on the validation results, it may be recommended that V. O2max divided by the square root of body mass (mL⋅min−1 ⋅kg−0.5) should be used when elite male skiers’ performance capability in 15 km classical-technique races is evaluated. Moreover, the body-mass exponent for V . O2max was demonstrated to be influenced by the distance covered, indicating that heavier skiers have a more pronounced positive pacing profile (ie, race speed gradually decreasing throughout the race) compared to that of lighter skiers.

  • 20.
    Carlsson, Tomas
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Hammarström, Daniel
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Tonkonogi, Michail
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Scaling oxygen consumption to body mass in real elite cross-country skiing performances2009Inngår i: Book of Abstracts: Sport sciences: Nature, Nurture and Culture / [ed] Loland, S., et al., 2009, s. 351-352Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Which are the main physiological differences between a successful and less successful cross-country skier? To our knowledgeno previous studies have examined a real elite cross-country ski competition. Main purpose of this study was therefore to validatecommonly used test parameters to skiing time and to International Ski Federation (FIS) overall seasonal ranking points and to createmultiple regression models to predict skiing performances.Methods: Twelve highly motivated male Swedish national elite cross-country skiers completed a test battery consisting of: isokinetic kneeextensor peak torque tests at three different velocities; three different vertical jumps tests; two-part treadmill roller skiing test determininglactate markers, maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) and time to exhaustion; 60 and 360 s double poling tests determining meanupper-body power (DP60Pmean) (DP360Pmean) and mean oxygen consumption (DP60VO2mean) (DP360VO2mean).Performance data were collected from the Swedish National Championship (SNC) in cross-country skiing (13-17 March 2008): 15-km withindividual start in classical technique (SNC15); 30-km double pursuit with mass-start (SNC30); sprint prolog in free-style technique(SNCsprint). In addition to ski races, overall seasonal ski ranking points were collected from FIS 3rd Cross-Country Points List 2007/2008published before SNC for distance (FISdist) and sprint (FISsprint) races.Correlations between test parameters and performance data were established using Pearson´s correlation analysis. Prediction modelswere created using standard multiple linear regression analysis.Results: Time to exhaustion during the incremental treadmill roller ski test is best correlated with both SNC15 (r = -0.86, p < 0.001) andSNC30 (r = -0.81, p < 0.01). For SNC15 significant correlations were shown with VO2max both absolute and relative to body weight, lactatemarkers, DP60Pmean and DP60VO2mean. Corresponding correlations for SNC30 were: lactate markers, DP60VO2mean and percentagedecrease in mean knee extension peak torque when comparing highest and lowest velocities. Highest correlation coefficient forSNCsprint was found for DP60Pmean (r = -0.93, p < 0.05). Significant correlations for SNCsprint was also detected for DP360Pmean aswell as DP360VO2mean and jump height in squat jump.Prediction models explain 68, 91, 68, 77 and 82% of the variance in performance for SNC15, SNC30, SNCsprint, FISdist and FISsprint,respectively.Discussion: Correlations found in this study have validated several commonly used physiological tests with real elite cross-country skiingperformances. Frequently investigated test parameters like VO2max and anaerobic thresholds are of great importance for success incross-country skiing. Many recent research studies have focused on upper-body capacity and we could confirm that high mean powerproduction in double poling is necessary to be successful as elite skier in both sprint and distance races.

  • 21.
    Carlsson, Tomas
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Rønnestad, Bent
    Lillehammer University College.
    Hammarström, Daniel
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Malm, Christer
    Umeå Universitet, Idrottsmedicin.
    Tonkonogi, Michail
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    The importance of scaling VO2MAX to predict cross-country skiing performance2013Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction A high maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) is of importance for success in elite male competitive distance cross-country skiing (Carlsson et al. 2012). However, it is still debatable how VO2max should be expressed to best indicate skiing performance. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to establish the optimal body mass exponent for VO2max to indicate performance in elite-standard male cross-country skiers. Methods Twenty-four elite-standard male cross-country skiers completed an incremental treadmill roller skiing test in diagonal stride technique determining VO2max. Performance data was compiled from a 15-km classic technique race. To predict performance a log-transformation of power-function model: Race speed = β0 • VO2max^β1 • m^β2 was used, where β0 to β2 are constants, and m is body mass. Statistical analyses used R version 2.13.2 (R Development Core Team, New Zeeland) and alpha was 0.05. Results Participants’ VO2max was 5.39 ± 0.57 l/min (mean ± s) and m was 75.5 ± 6.3 kg. Mean race speed was 5.83 ± 0.41 m/s. The model that best predicted performance was: Race speed = 8.829 • VO2max^0.663 • m^-0.355 = 8.829 • (VO2max • m^–0.535 )^0.663, that explains 69.2% of the variance in race speed for the 15-km classic technique race (P < 0.001). For the VO2max-to-mass ratio within the model, the 95% confidence interval (CI) for the body-mass exponent ranged from -0.947 to -0.122. Discussion The optimal body mass exponent for VO2max to indicate performance in elite-standard male cross-country skiers was -0.535. Moreover, the CI for the body-mass exponent does not support the use of simple ratio-standard scaling and absolute expression of VO2max as indicators of 15 km classic ski racing performance in elite-standard men skiers. 

  • 22.
    Carlsson, Tomas
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Isberg, Jenny
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Nilsson, Johnny
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    The influence of task conditions on side foot-kick accuracy among swedish first league women’s soccer players2018Inngår i: Journal of Sports Science and Medicine (JSSM), ISSN 1303-2968, Vol. 17, nr 1, s. 74-81Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 23.
    Carlsson, Tomas
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Nilsson, Johnny
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap. Gymnastik och idrottshögskolan, Stockholm.
    Hellström, John
    Svenska golfförbundet, Stockholm.
    Tinmark, Fredrik
    Gymnastik och idrottshögskolan, Stockholm.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    The effect of ball temperature on ball speed and carry distance in golf drives2018Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    THE EFFECT OF BALL TEMPERATURE ON BALL SPEED AND CARRY DISTANCE IN GOLF DRIVES

    Carlsson, T.1, Nilsson, J.1,2, Hellström, J.3, Tinmark, F.2, Carlsson, M.1. 1: Dalarna University (Falun, Sweden), 2: The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences (Stockholm, Sweden), 3: The Swedish Golf Federation (Stockholm, Sweden). 

    Introduction

    Previously it was reported that golf-ball temperature has influence on the golf balls’ coefficient of restitution, impact duration, and maximal deformation (Allen et al., 2012). They concluded that their research was the first step in a process for determining the effect of temperature on a golf drive. However, how large influence the golf-ball temperature has on golf drives remains to be investigated. The purpose was to investigate the effect of ball temperature on impact ball speed and carry distance during golf drives in a blind randomized test design. 

    Methods

    The balls were exposed to a temperature-controlled environment (4°C, 18°C, 32°C, and 46°C) for twenty-four hours prior to the test, and each of the four different ball-temperature groups consisted of 30 balls. The 120 drives were performed by an elite male golfer (handicap: 0.0) in an indoor driving range. All drives were measured by a Doppler-radar system to determine club-head speed, launch angle, spin rate, ball speed, and carry distance. Differences between the four ball-temperature groups were investigate using a one-way analysis of variance. 

    Results

    The results indicate that there are ball-speed and carry-distance differences within the four ball-temperature groups (P < 0.001 and P < 0.01, respectively). The post-hoc analyses showed that the ball temperatures 18°C and 32°C had both greater ball speeds and carry distances compared to the balls in the ball-temperature groups 4°C and 46°C (all P < 0.05); the intervals for the between-group differences were 2.0 to 2.4 km/h and 2.9 to 3.9 m for ball speed and carry distance, respectively.

    Conclusion

    The novel results of the current study show that the ball’s temperature has a significant effect on the ball speed after club-head impact and carry distance for drives performed by an elite golfer. The ball temperatures 18°C and 32°C gave significantly increased ball speeds and carry distances compared to the ball-temperature groups 4°C and 46°C. This knowledge could be used to maximise the carry distance and/or to minimise the carry-distance variability related to ball temperature.

    REFERENCES:

    Allen T, Bowley A, Wood P, Henrikson E, Morales E, James D. (2012) Procedia Eng, 34, 634-639.

  • 24.
    Carlsson, Tomas
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Tonkonogi, Michail
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Medicinsk vetenskap.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Aerobic power and lean mass are indicators of competitive sprint performance among elite female cross-country skiers2016Inngår i: Open Access Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 1179-1543, E-ISSN 1179-1543, Vol. 7, s. 153-160Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to establish the optimal allometric models to predict International Ski Federation’s ski-ranking points for sprint competitions (FISsprint) among elite female cross-country skiers based on maximal oxygen uptake (V̇O2max) and lean mass (LM). Ten elite female cross-country skiers (age: 24.5±2.8 years [mean ± SD]) completed a treadmill roller-skiing test to determine V̇O2max (ie, aerobic power) using the diagonal stride technique, whereas LM (ie, a surrogate indicator of anaerobic capacity) was determined by dual-emission X-ray anthropometry. The subjects’ FISsprint were used as competitive performance measures. Power function modeling was used to predict the skiers’ FISsprint based on V̇O2max, LM, and body mass. The subjects’ test and performance data were as follows: V̇O2max, 4.0±0.3 L min-1; LM, 48.9±4.4 kg; body mass, 64.0±5.2 kg; and FISsprint, 116.4±59.6 points. The following power function models were established for the prediction of FISsprint: 3.91×105 ∙ VO -6.002maxand 6.95×1010 ∙ LM-5.25; these models explained 66% (P=0.0043) and 52% (P=0.019), respectively, of the variance in the FISsprint. Body mass failed to contribute to both models; hence, the models are based on V̇O2max and LM expressed absolutely. The results demonstrate that the physiological variables that reflect aerobic power and anaerobic capacity are important indicators of competitive sprint performance among elite female skiers. To accurately indicate performance capability among elite female skiers, the presented power function models should be used. Skiers whose V̇O2max differs by 1% will differ in their FISsprint by 5.8%, whereas the corresponding 1% difference in LM is related to an FISsprint difference of 5.1%, where both differences are in favor of the skier with higher V̇O2max or LM. It is recommended that coaches use the absolute expression of these variables to monitor skiers’ performance-related training adaptations linked to changes in aerobic power and anaerobic capacity.

  • 25.
    Carlsson, Tomas
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Wedholm, Lars
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Nilsson, Johnny
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    The effects of strength training versus ski-ergometer training on double-poling capacity of elite junior cross-country skiers2017Inngår i: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, E-ISSN 1439-6327, Vol. 117, nr 8, s. 1523-1532Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    To compare the effects of strength training versus ski-ergometer training on double-poling gross efficiency (GE), maximal speed (Vmax), peak oxygen uptake (V&#x02D9;O2peak" role="presentation" style="box-sizing: border-box; display: inline-table; line-height: normal; letter-spacing: normal; word-spacing: normal; word-wrap: normal; white-space: nowrap; float: none; direction: ltr; max-width: none; max-height: none; min-width: 0px; min-height: 0px; border: 0px; padding: 0px; margin: 0px; position: relative;">V˙O2peakV˙O2peak) for elite male and female junior cross-country skiers.

    Methods

    Thirty-three elite junior cross-country skiers completed a 6-week training-intervention period with two additional 40-min training sessions per week. The participants were matched in pairs and within each pair randomly assigned to either a strength-training group (STR) or a ski-ergometer-training group (ERG). Before and after the intervention, the participants completed three treadmill roller-skiing tests to determine GE, Vmax, and V&#x02D9;O2peak" role="presentation" style="box-sizing: border-box; display: inline-table; line-height: normal; letter-spacing: normal; word-spacing: normal; word-wrap: normal; white-space: nowrap; float: none; direction: ltr; max-width: none; max-height: none; min-width: 0px; min-height: 0px; border: 0px; padding: 0px; margin: 0px; position: relative;">V˙O2peakV˙O2peak. Mixed between-within subjects analysis of variance (ANOVA) was conducted to evaluate differences between and within groups. Paired samples t tests were used as post hoc tests to investigate within-group differences.

    Results

    Both groups improved their Vmax and V&#x02D9;O2peak" role="presentation" style="box-sizing: border-box; display: inline-table; line-height: normal; letter-spacing: normal; word-spacing: normal; word-wrap: normal; white-space: nowrap; float: none; direction: ltr; max-width: none; max-height: none; min-width: 0px; min-height: 0px; border: 0px; padding: 0px; margin: 0px; position: relative;">V˙O2peakV˙O2peak expressed absolutely (all P < 0.01). For the gender-specific sub-groups, it was found that the female skiers in both groups improved both Vmax and V&#x02D9;O2peak" role="presentation" style="box-sizing: border-box; display: inline-table; line-height: normal; letter-spacing: normal; word-spacing: normal; word-wrap: normal; white-space: nowrap; float: none; direction: ltr; max-width: none; max-height: none; min-width: 0px; min-height: 0px; border: 0px; padding: 0px; margin: 0px; position: relative;">V˙O2peakV˙O2peak expressed absolutely (all P < 0.05), whereas the only within-group differences found for the men were improvements of Vmax in the STR group. No between-group differences were found for any of the investigated variables.

    Conclusions

    Physiological and performance-related variables of importance for skiers were improved for both training regimes. The results demonstrate that the female skiers’ physiological adaptations to training, in general, were greater than those of the men. The magnitude of the physiological adaptations was similar for both training regimes.

  • 26.
    Isberg, Jenny
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Nilsson, Johnny
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Carlsson, Tomas
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Effekten av en träningsintervention avseende kvinnliga elitfotbollsspelares bredsidespassningsprecision och deras uppfattning om sin tekniska färdighet2018Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
1 - 26 of 26
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