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  • 1.
    Bales, Chris
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Gustafsson, Marcus
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Chiara, Dipasquale
    Roberto, Fedrizzi
    Alessandro, Bellini
    Matteo, D’Antoni
    Fabian, Ochs
    Georgios, Dermentzis
    Sarah, Birchall
    D2.1c Simulation Results of Reference Buildings2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report is the third part of the deliverable D2.1, where the other two parts report on the energy consumption in the building stock in Europe based on the available energy statistics (D2.1a) and the energy policies related to buildings (D2.1b).The aim of this report is to give complementary information about the heating and cooling demands of residential and office buildings based on simulations, so that the many gaps in the energy statistics can be filled and the statistics can be critically evaluated. The methodology results in a complete and consistent overview of the heating and cooling demands in residential and office buildings for seven different climate regions covering the whole of the EU and six different periods of construction, covering pre-1945 to post 2000. In addition, the data for the residential building stock is split into single family houses, small and large multifamily houses, while for offices the results are given for low and high rise offices with 6 or 12 office units per floor.The simulation models have been benchmarked (calibrated) against the energy statistics for each of the seven climate regions based on the aggregated data for the whole residential building stock and then for the office building stock in that climate region (in D2.1a). The methodology derives the aggregated average using weighted averages of data split into periods of construction and typology for both energy statistics and simulation results. The weighting is done based on heated and cooled floor area. As nearly all of the energy statistics are given in terms of consumption, while simulation results were calculated as demand, the demand data were converted to consumption data. One fixed conversion factor was used for heating (average efficiency 0.8) and one for cooling (average EER 2.5). Since the calculated demands strongly depend on the imposed heating or cooling set temperatures, this simulation parameter was varied so that the aggregated simulation result was the same as that for the consumption derived from the energy statistics. The calibrated models were then used to derive the average heating and cooling consumptions of the building stock in the seven climate regions.The methodology has a number of uncertainties, both in terms of the energy statistics as well as in terms of the simplifications and assumptions in the simulation models. During the calibration process a number of inconsistencies have been detected for individual countries and climate regions between simulation results and energy use from statistic data. The mismatches are analytically assessed, showing improvements necessary both in terms of statistic data necessary for reliable energy estimations and data to be gathered in order to guarantee consistent simulations outcomes.Beside the building stock survey completion and statistic data quality assessment, the work is also the basis for the definition of suitable Energy Renovation Packages and Products within the iNSPiRe project. The simulation results will be used to identify which building typologies, periods of construction and climate region have the largest potential for impact on the European scenario. Such information will be used within the iNSPiRe project to define reference Target buildings, as virtual demonstration cases to prove the potential improvements and impacts following the renovation process of a given share of the European building stock.

  • 2. Birchall, Sarah
    et al.
    Gustafsson, Marcus
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology. KTH.
    Wallis, Ian
    Dipasquale, Chiara
    Bellini, Alessandro
    Fedrizzi, Roberto
    Survery and simulation of energy use in the European building stock2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    the work towards increased energy efficiency. In order to plan and perform effective energy renovation of the buildings, it is necessary to have adequate information on the current status of the buildings in terms of architectural features and energy needs. Unfortunately, the official statistics do not include all of the needed information for the whole building stock.

     

    This paper aims to fill the gaps in the statistics by gathering data from studies, projects and national energy agencies, and by calibrating TRNSYS models against the existing data to complete missing energy demand data, for countries with similar climate, through simulation. The survey was limited to residential and office buildings in the EU member states (before July 2013). This work was carried out as part of the EU FP7 project iNSPiRe.

     

    The building stock survey revealed over 70% of the residential and office floor area is concentrated in the six most populated countries. The total energy consumption in the residential sector is 14 times that of the office sector. In the residential sector, single family houses represent 60% of the heated floor area, albeit with different share in the different countries, indicating that retrofit solutions cannot be focused only on multi-family houses.

     

    The simulation results indicate that residential buildings in central and southern European countries are not always heated to 20 °C, but are kept at a lower temperature during at least part of the day. Improving the energy performance of these houses through renovation could allow the occupants to increase the room temperature and improve their thermal comfort, even though the potential for energy savings would then be reduced.

  • 3.
    Dermentzis, Georgios
    et al.
    Univeristy of Innsbruck.
    Gustafsson, Marcus
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology. KTH.
    Ochs, Fabian
    Univeristy of Innsbruck.
    Holmberg, Sture
    KTH.
    Feist, Wolfgang
    Passivhaus Institut.
    Calabrese, Toni
    University of Innsbruck.
    Oberrauch, Philipp
    University of Innsbruck.
    Evaluation of a versatile energy auditing tool2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy auditing can be an important contribution for identification and assessment of energy conservation measures (ECMs) in buildings. Numerous tools and software have been developed, with varying degree of precision and complexity and different areas of use.

     

    This paper evaluates PHPP as a versatile, easy-to-use energy auditing tool and gives examples of how it has been compared to a dynamic simulation tool, within the EU-project iNSPiRe. PHPP is a monthly balance energy calculation tool based on EN13790. It is intended for assisting the design of Passive Houses and energy renovation projects and as guidance in the choice of appropriate ECMs.

     

    PHPP was compared against the transient simulation software TRNSYS for a single family house and a multi-family house. It should be mentioned that dynamic building simulations might strongly depend on the model assumptions and simplifications compared to reality, such as ideal heating or real heat emission system. Setting common boundary conditions for both PHPP and TRNSYS, the ideal heating and cooling loads and demands were compared on monthly and annual basis for seven European locations and buildings with different floor area, S/V ratio, U-values and glazed area of the external walls.

     

    The results show that PHPP can be used to assess the heating demand of single-zone buildings and the reduction of heating demand with ECMs with good precision. The estimation of cooling demand is also acceptable if an appropriate shading factor is applied in PHPP. In general, PHPP intentionally overestimates heating and cooling loads, to be on the safe side for system sizing. Overall, the agreement with TRNSYS is better in cases with higher quality of the envelope as in cold climates and for good energy standards. As an energy auditing tool intended for pre-design it is a good, versatile and easy-to-use alternative to more complex simulation tools.

  • 4. Fedrizzi, Roberto
    et al.
    Dipasquale, Chiara
    Bellini, Alessandro
    Gustafsson, Marcus
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Bales, Chris
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Ochs, Fabian
    Dermentzis, Georgios
    Nouvel, Romain
    Cotrado, Mariela
    D6.3a Performance of the Studied Systemic Renovation Packages - Method2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the primary objectives of the iNSPiRe project was to develop a tool that predicts the energy and cost saving impacts of various systemic retrofit interventions. This tool is now available for all those involved in the renovation of older buildings (from consulting offices, moving through construction companies and to decision makers) to use as a means of selecting which retrofit package will deliver the greatest costs savings and most improved energy efficiencies.To this purpose, we have produced three databases that provide valuable information about the energy performance of a variety of buildings in different climates, based on different energy requirements. These are the results of a three stage process:1. Collection of energy use data (statistics) for the whole of EU 27, the structuring of a building stock database and the definition of reference buildings that represent the most typical buildings of the building stock. Data for six different age categories were derived, including typical construction information and insulation standards for these periods. Seven climatic regions were also defined to cover the EU 27. The structured data are available in the Building Stock Statistics database.2. Derivation of a complete and consistent database of heating and cooling demands in residential and office buildings covering the whole of the EU 27 based on the simulation of the defined reference buildings in seven climatic regions. The simulations were calibrated against the energy use statistics, and are thus consistent with these, but offer the full range of heating and cooling demands for all climates and building types for six different age categories. The results are available in the Reference Building Simulation database.3. Definition of a range of retrofit measures for the reference buildings including climatic shell, HVAC system and heating/cooling distribution. The matrix of these measures was then simulated for all building types for the seven different climatic regions to provide data for the third database, the Systemic Renovation Packages database.

  • 5. Fedrizzi, Roberto
    et al.
    Dipasquale, Chiara
    Bellini, Alessandro
    Gustafsson, Marcus
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Bales, Chris
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Ochs, Fabian
    Dermentzis, Georgios
    Nouvel, Romain
    Cotrado, Mariela
    D6.3b Performance of the Studied Systemic Renovation Packages - Single Family Houses2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the primary objectives of the iNSPiRe project was to develop a tool that predicts the energy and cost saving impacts of various systemic retrofit interventions. This tool is now available for all those involved in the renovation of older buildings (from consulting offices, moving through construction companies and to decision makers) to use as a means of selecting which retrofit package will deliver the greatest costs savings and most improved energy performance.The whole set of Renovation Packages in the published database includes results for a range of SFH typologies, from detached to row houses, with different external surface over building volume ratio.In order to compare the same Envelope Renovation when applied to different SFH typologies and climates, we adopted the detached constructions as the basis to define insulation, windows and mechanical ventilation measures that match the heating demand standards sought (15, 25, 40, 70 kWh/m2y). Since the solutions found are the most conservative, lower heating demands are obtained for semi-detached and row houses.The solutions elaborated in terms of window features, and walls/roof cross sections and materials, are reported in Deliverable 6.3a for the whole range of buildings and the 7 climates analysed.In this document we comment the results relative to the reference buildings built 1945-1970, renovated with four generation systems (AWHP, GWHP, gas boiler and biomass boiler) and three distribution systems (radiant ceilings, radiators and fan coils). In order to limit the number of solutions discussed, here we report results only for the detached SFHs. The full range of solutions is published on the iNSPiRe website.The generation plants are hybrid solutions designed to combine heat pumps or boilers with solar thermal and/or PV technologies. These combinations integrate multiple renewable energy sources, thus allowing to reach in the best cases the 50 kWh/m2y primary energy consumption limit that is the objective of the retrofit packages devised.

  • 6. Fedrizzi, Roberto
    et al.
    Dipasquale, Chiara
    Bellini, Alessandro
    Gustafsson, Marcus
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Bales, Chris
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Ochs, Fabian
    Dermentzis, Georgios
    Nouvel, Romain
    Cotrado, Mariela
    D6.3c Performance of the Studied Systemic Renovation Packages - Multi-Family Houses2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this report, we comment the results relative to the reference buildings built within the first age (1945-1970), and renovated with 4 generation systems (air to water heat pump, ground water heat pump, gas boiler and biomass boiler) and 3 distribution systems (radiant ceilings, radiators and fan coils).According to the buildings classification (see D2.1a and D2.1c), two different Multi Family Houses typologies are identified, small Multi Family House (s-MFH) and large Multi Family House (l-MFH). In the published database, only s-MFHs are included, varying the number of floors (3, 5 and 7 floors) and, consequently, the surface over volume (S/V) ratio.As well as for the SFHs, we adopted a reference S/V ratio as the basis to define insulation, windows and mechanical ventilation measures to match the sought heating demand targets (15, 25, 45, 70 kWh/m²y), that is 5 floors and 10 apartments.

  • 7.
    Fiedler, Frank
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Bales, Chris
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Persson, Jannika
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Gustavsson, Marcus
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Kovacs, Peter
    RISE.
    Hemlin, Olleper
    RISE.
    Ollas, Patrik
    RISE.
    Thuvander, Liane
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskolan.
    Femenías, Paula
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskolan.
    Lundin, Michelle
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskolan.
    Larsson, David
    Solkompaniet.
    Miljontak Delprojekt 2: Sammanfattning av litteratursammanställning2018Report (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Gustafsson, Marcus
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy and Environmental Technology. KTH.
    Energy efficient and economic renovation of residential buildings with low-temperature heating and air heat recovery2015Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    With the building sector accounting for around 40% of the total energy consumption in the EU, energy efficiency in buildings is and continues to be an important issue. Great progress has been made in reducing the energy consumption in new buildings, but the large stock of existing buildings with poor energy performance is probably an even more crucial area of focus. This thesis deals with energy efficiency measures that can be suitable for renovation of existing houses, particularly low-temperature heating systems and ventilation systems with heat recovery. The energy performance, environmental impact and costs are evaluated for a range of system combinations, for small and large houses with various heating demands and for different climates in Europe. The results were derived through simulation with energy calculation tools.

    Low-temperature heating and air heat recovery were both found to be promising with regard to increasing energy efficiency in European houses. These solutions proved particularly effective in Northern Europe as low-temperature heating and air heat recovery have a greater impact in cold climates and on houses with high heating demands. The performance of heat pumps, both with outdoor air and exhaust air, was seen to improve with low-temperature heating. The choice between an exhaust air heat pump and a ventilation system with heat recovery is likely to depend on case specific conditions, but both choices are more cost-effective and have a lower environmental impact than systems without heat recovery. The advantage of the heat pump is that it can be used all year round, given that it produces DHW.

    Economic and environmental aspects of energy efficiency measures do not always harmonize. On the one hand, lower costs can sometimes mean larger environmental impact; on the other hand there can be divergence between different environmental aspects. This makes it difficult to define financial subsidies to promote energy efficiency measures.

  • 9.
    Gustafsson, Marcus
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology. KTH, Strömnings- och klimatteknik.
    Energy Efficient Renovation Strategies for Swedish and Other European Residential and Office Buildings2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The high energy use in the European building stock is attributable to the large share of old buildings with poor energy performance. Energy renovation of buildings is therefore vital in the work towards energy efficiency and reduced environmental impact in the EU. Yet, the strategies and energy system implications of this work have not been made clear, and the rate of building renovation is currently very low.

    The aim of this thesis is to investigate the economic and environmental aspects of energy renovation strategies, with two main objectives:

    • Renovation of Swedish district heated multi-family houses, including life-cycle cost and environmental analysis and impact on the local energy system;

    • Renovation of European residential and office buildings, including life-cycle cost and environmental analysis and influence of climatic conditions.

    Buildings typical for the respective regions and the period of construction 1945-1970 were simulated, in order to determine the feasibility and energy saving potential of energy renovation measures in European climates. A variety of systems for heating, cooling and ventilation were studied, as well as solar energy systems, with focus on heat pumps, district heating, low-temperature heating systems and air heat recovery.

    Compared to normal building renovation, energy renovation can often reduce the life-cycle costs and environmental impact. In renovation of typical European office buildings, as well as Southern European multi-family houses, more ambitious renovation levels can also be more profitable.

    Exhaust air heat pumps can be cost-effective complements in district heated multi-family houses, while ventilation with heat recovery is more expensive but also more likely to reduce the primary energy use. From a system perspective, simple exhaust ventilation can reduce the primary energy use in the district-heating plant as much as an exhaust air heat pump, due to the lower electricity use.

  • 10.
    Gustafsson, Marcus
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy and Environmental Technology. KTH.
    Bales, Chris
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy and Environmental Technology.
    Myhren, Jonn Are
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Holmberg, Sture
    KTH.
    Techno-economic analysis of three HVAC retrofitting options2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Accounting for around 40% of the total final energy consumption, the building stock is an important area of focus on the way to reaching the energy goals set for the European Union. The relatively small share of new buildings makes renovation of existing buildings possibly the most feasible way of improving the overall energy performance of the building stock. This of course involves improvements on the climate shell, for example by additional insulation or change of window glazing, but also installation of new heating systems, to increase the energy efficiency and to fit the new heat load after renovation. In the choice of systems for heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC), it is important to consider their performance for space heating as well as for domestic hot water (DHW), especially for a renovated house where the DHW share of the total heating consumption is larger.

    The present study treats the retrofitting of a generic single family house, which was defined as a reference building in a European energy renovation project. Three HVAC retrofitting options were compared from a techno-economic point of view: A) Air-to-water heat pump (AWHP) and mechanical ventilation with heat recovery (MVHR), B) Exhaust air heat pump (EAHP) with low-temperature ventilation radiators, and C) Gas boiler and ventilation with MVHR. The systems were simulated for houses with two levels of heating demand and four different locations: Stockholm, Gdansk, Stuttgart and London. They were then evaluated by means of life cycle cost (LCC) and primary energy consumption. Dynamic simulations were done in TRNSYS 17.

    In most cases, system C with gas boiler and MVHR was found to be the cheapest retrofitting option from a life cycle perspective. The advantage over the heat pump systems was particularly clear for a house in Germany, due to the large discrepancy between national prices of natural gas and electricity. In Sweden, where the price difference is much smaller, the heat pump systems had almost as low or even lower life cycle costs than the gas boiler system. Considering the limited availability of natural gas in Sweden, systems A and B would be the better options. From a primary energy point of view system A was the best option throughout, while system B often had the highest primary energy consumption. The limited capacity of the EAHP forced it to use more auxiliary heating than the other systems did, which lowered its COP. The AWHP managed the DHW load better due to a higher capacity, but had a lower COP than the EAHP in space heating mode. Systems A and C were notably favoured by the air heat recovery, which significantly reduced the heating demand.

    It was also seen that the DHW share of the total heating consumption was, as expected, larger for the house with the lower space heating demand. This confirms the supposition that it is important to include DHW in the study of HVAC systems for retrofitting.

  • 11.
    Gustafsson, Marcus
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy and Environmental Technology. KTH.
    Dermentzis, Georgios
    Univeristy of Innsbruck.
    Myhren, Jonn Are
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Bales, Chris
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy and Environmental Technology.
    Ochs, Fabian
    Univeristy of Innsbruck.
    Holmberg, Sture
    KTH.
    Feist, Wolfgang
    Energy performance comparison of three innovative HVAC systems for renovation through dynamic simulation2014In: Energy and Buildings, ISSN 0378-7788, E-ISSN 1872-6178, Vol. 82, p. 512-519Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, dynamic simulation was used to compare the energy performance of three innovativeHVAC systems: (A) mechanical ventilation with heat recovery (MVHR) and micro heat pump, (B) exhaustventilation with exhaust air-to-water heat pump and ventilation radiators, and (C) exhaust ventilationwith air-to-water heat pump and ventilation radiators, to a reference system: (D) exhaust ventilation withair-to-water heat pump and panel radiators. System A was modelled in MATLAB Simulink and systems Band C in TRNSYS 17. The reference system was modelled in both tools, for comparison between the two.All systems were tested with a model of a renovated single family house for varying U-values, climates,infiltration and ventilation rates.It was found that A was the best system for lower heating demand, while for higher heating demandsystem B would be preferable. System C was better than the reference system, but not as good as A or B.The difference in energy consumption of the reference system was less than 2 kWh/(m2a) betweenSimulink and TRNSYS. This could be explained by the different ways of handling solar gains, but also bythe fact that the TRNSYS systems supplied slightly more than the ideal heating demand.

  • 12.
    Gustafsson, Marcus
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Dipasquale, C.
    Poppi, Stefano
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Bellini, A.
    Fedrizzi, R.
    Bales, Chris
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Ochs, F.
    Sié, M.
    Holmberg, S.
    Economic and environmental analysis of energy renovation packages for European office buildings2017In: Energy and Buildings, ISSN 0378-7788, E-ISSN 1872-6178, Vol. 148, p. 155-165Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A large share of the buildings in Europe are old and in need of renovation, both in terms of functional repairs and energy efficiency. While many studies have addressed energy renovation of buildings, they rarely combine economic and environmental life cycle analyses, particularly for office buildings. The present paper investigates the economic feasibility and environmental impact of energy renovation packages for European office buildings. The renovation packages, including windows, envelope insulation, heating, cooling and ventilation systems and solar photovoltaics (PV), were evaluated in terms of life cycle cost (LCC) and life cycle assessment (LCA) through dynamic simulation for different European climates. Compared to a purely functional renovation, the studied renovation packages resulted in up to 77% lower energy costs, 19% lower total annualized costs, 79% lower climate change impact, 89% lower non-renewable energy use, 66% lower particulate matter formation and 76% lower freshwater eutrophication impact over a period of 30 years. The lowest total costs and environmental impact, in all of the studied climates, were seen for the buildings with the lowest heating demand. Solar PV panels covering part of the electricity demand could further reduce the environmental impact and, at least in southern Europe, even reduce the total costs. © 2017 Elsevier B.V.

  • 13.
    Gustafsson, Marcus
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy and Environmental Technology. KTH.
    Myhren, Jonn Are
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Bales, Chris
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy and Environmental Technology.
    Comparison of two HVAC renovation solutions: A case study2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Within the aging building stock of Europe, there is great potential of saving energy through renovation and upgrading to modern standards, and to thereby approach the internationally set goals of lower energy use. This paper concerns the planned renovation of the building envelope and HVAC systems in a multi-family house in Ludwigsburg, Germany. Five systemic HVAC solutions were compared, with special focus on two systems: A) Balanced ventilation with HRC + Micro heat pump, and B) Forced exhaust ventilation + Heat pump with exhaust air HRC + Ventilation radiators. Given the predicted heating demand and ventilation rate of the house after renovation, the performance of the two systems was compared, alongside three common systems for reference. Calculations were made using TMF Energi, a tool developed by SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden.

       Both systems A and B were found to have the lowest electrical energy use together with the ground source heat pump system for the assumed conditions. For other assumptions, including different climate and degree of insulation, some differences between these three systems were noted. Most significant is the increased electrical use of system B for higher heating loads due to limitations in the power available from the heat source, exhaust air, which is dependent on the ventilation rate.

  • 14.
    Gustafsson, Marcus
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology. KTH.
    Ochs, Fabian
    Univeristy of Innsbruck.
    Birchall, Sarah
    Dermentzis, Georgios
    Univeristy of Innsbruck.
    Bales, Chris
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Calabrese, Toni (Contributor)
    University of Innsbruck.
    Report on auditing tool for assessment of building needs2015Report (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Gustafsson, Marcus
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology. KTH.
    Poppi, Stefano
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology. KTH.
    Bales, Chris
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Fedrizzi, Roberto
    Dipasquale, Chiara
    Bellini, Alessandro
    Ochs, Fabian
    Univeristy of Innsbruck.
    Dermentzis, Georgios
    Univeristy of Innsbruck.
    Performance of Studied Systemic Renovation Packages – Office Buildings2016Report (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Gustafsson, Marcus
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy and Environmental Technology. KTH.
    Swing Gustafsson, Moa
    Falu Energi och Vatten.
    Myhren, Jonn Are
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Bales, Chris
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy and Environmental Technology.
    Holmberg, Sture
    KTH.
    Economic and environmental analysis of energy renovation measures for a district heated multi-family houseManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Renovation of existing buildings plays an important part in the work towards European climate and energy goals. The present paper treats energy efficiency renovation measures for a district heated Swedish multi-family house, evaluated through dynamic simulation. Five HVAC systems were studied in combination with three renovation levels, starting from basic renovation to maintain functionality and then adding 1) better insulating windows and flow-reducing water taps, and 2) additional insulation on roof and façade. The HVAC systems were based on the existing district heating substation and included mechanical ventilation with heat recovery and different configurations of exhaust air heat pump. Life cycle cost, discounted payback period, primary energy consumption, CO₂ emissions and non-renewable energy use were assessed for all combinations.

    The system with the lowest cost and environmental impact was, in most cases, the one where district heating and heat pump were combined for both heating and DHW. Low-temperature heating improved the performance factor of the heat pump, but reduced the heat output and increased the need for backup heating. Changing windows and water taps was found to be profitable, while additional insulation reduced the environmental impact but increased the life cycle cost.

  • 17.
    Gustafsson, Marcus
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Swing Gustafsson, Moa
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Myhren, Jonn Are
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Bales, Chris
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Holmberg, Sture
    Techno-economic analysis of energy renovation measures for a district heated multi-family house2016In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 177, p. 108-116Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Renovation of existing buildings is important in the work toward increased energy efficiency and reduced environmental impact. The present paper treats energy renovation measures for a Swedish district heated multi-family house, evaluated through dynamic simulation. Insulation of roof and façade, better insulating windows and flow-reducing water taps, in combination with different HVAC systems for recovery of heat from exhaust air, were assessed in terms of life cycle cost, discounted payback period, primary energy consumption, CO2 emissions and non-renewable energy consumption. The HVAC systems were based on the existing district heating substation and included mechanical ventilation with heat recovery and different configurations of exhaust air heat pump.Compared to a renovation without energy saving measures, the combination of new windows, insulation, flow-reducing taps and an exhaust air a heat pump gave up to 24% lower life cycle cost. Adding insulation on roof and façade, the primary energy consumption was reduced by up to 58%, CO2 emissions up to 65% and non-renewable energy consumption up to 56%. Ventilation with heat recovery also reduced the environmental impact but was not economically profitable in the studied cases. With a margin perspective on electricity consumption, the environmental impact of installing heat pumps or air heat recovery in district heated houses is increased. Low-temperature heating improved the seasonal performance factor of the heat pump by up to 11% and reduced the environmental impact.

  • 18.
    Kuhn, Tillmann
    et al.
    Fraunhofer ISE.
    Fath, Karoline
    Fraunhofer ISE.
    Bales, Chris
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Gustafsson, Marcus
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Nouvel, Romain
    ZAFH.
    Fedrizzi, Roberto
    EURAC.
    D2.3 RES availability survey and boundary conditions for simulations2014Report (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Lidberg, Tina
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Gustafsson, Marcus
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology. KTH.
    Myhren, Jonn Are
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology. Umeå universitet.
    Trygg, L.
    Comparing different building energy efficiency refurbishment packages performed within different district heating systems2017In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 105, p. 1719-1724Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study analyses the differences in primary energy (PE) use of a multi-family building refurbished with different refurbishment packages situated in different district heating systems (DHS). Four models of typical DHS are defined to represent the Swedish DH sector. The refurbishment packages are chosen to represent typical, yet innovative ways to improve the energy efficiency of a representative multi-family building in Sweden. The study was made from a broad system perspective, including valuation of changes in electricity use on the margin. The results show a significant difference in PE savings for the different refurbishment packages, depending on both the package itself as well as the type of DHS. Also, the package giving the lowest specific energy use per m2 was not the one which saved the most PE. © 2017 The Authors.

  • 20.
    Lidberg, Tina
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Gustafsson, Marcus
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology. KTH.
    Myhren, Jonn Are
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction. Umeå universitet.
    Ödlund, L
    Environmental impact of energy refurbishment of buildings within different district heating systems2018In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 227, no SI, p. 231-238Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The refurbishment of existing buildings is often considered a way to reduce energy use and CO2 emissions in the building stock. This study analyses the primary energy and CO2 impact of refurbishing a multi-family house with different refurbishment packages, given various district heating systems. Four models of typical district heating systems were defined to represent the Swedish district heating sector. The refurbishment packages were chosen to represent typical, yet innovative ways to improve the energy efficiency and indoor climate of a multi-family house. The study was made from a system perspective, including the valuation of changes in electricity use on the margin. The results show a significant difference in primary energy use for the different refurbishment packages, depending on both the package itself as well as the type of district heating system. While the packages with heat pumps had the lowest final energy use per m2 of floor area, air heat recovery proved to reduce primary energy use and emissions of CO2-equivalents more, independent of the type of district heating system, as it leads to a smaller increase in electricity use.

  • 21.
    Swing Gustafsson, Moa
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology. Mälardalen University.
    Gustafsson, Marcus
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology. KTH.
    Myhren, Jonn Are
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Dotzauer, Erik
    Mälardalen University.
    Primary energy use in buildings in a Swedish perspective2016In: Energy and Buildings, ISSN 0378-7788, E-ISSN 1872-6178, Vol. 130, p. 202-209Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The building sector accounts for a large part of the energy use in Europe and is a sector where the energy efficiency needs to improve in order to reach the EU energy and climate goals. The energy efficiency goal is set in terms of primary energy even though there are different opinions on how to calculate primary energy. When determining the primary energy use in a building several assumptions are made regarding allocation and the value of different energy sources. In order to analyze the difference in primary energy when different methods are used, this study use 16 combinations of different assumptions to calculate the primary energy use for three simulated heating and ventilations systems in a building. The system with the lowest primary energy use differs depending on the method used. Comparing a system with district heating and mechanical exhaust ventilation with a system with district heating, mechanical exhaust ventilation and exhaust air heat pump, the former has a 40% higher primary energy use in one scenario while the other has a 320% higher in another scenario. This illustrates the difficulty in determining which system makes the largest contribution to fulfilling the EU energy and climate goals.

  • 22.
    Wallinder, Maria
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Perman, Karin
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Causse, Emmanuelle
    Schröpfer, Veronika
    Gyori, Gabriella
    Grauer, Marlene
    Mohammadi, Max
    Bales, Chris
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Gustafsson, Marcus
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Report on Non-Technical Barriers to the market placement2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The iNSPiRe project addresses the need for energy efficiency measures by focussing on making so called deep renovations using multifunctional, industrialised kits in order to speed up the on-site installation process and reduce costs. Energy renovation investment is a multi-factor decision and many of these factors are not technical, which is why this report analyses the non-technical barriers to this investment decision. The study focusses on the kits developed within the iNSPiRe project, but many of the findings are relevant for other single stage deep renovation projects. Both the planning and implementation phases are considered. The aim was to develop suggestions for overcoming these non-technical barriers so that the iNSPiRe kits can more easily be deployed in the market.

    The report is based on a study of policy documents, the experiences of European umbrella organisations for architects, property owners and local governments as well as on a large number of in-depth interviews with relevant stakeholders. Many of the 60 participants were made in conjunction with stakeholder workshops that were organised for specific focus groups such as architects, private property owners, public procurers and the stakeholders of the European Housing Forum. The non-technical barriers have been split into economic, political and social barriers, with most interviewed stakeholders emphasising the economic aspects.

    Subsidies are considered by most as essential for property owners to take the decision to make a deep renovation, but stability of the subsidy programs is essential to have a good impact. Low-interest loans are not as favoured. Other key economic issues are the increase in the asset value of the property after such a renovation and the green value of the resulting low energy building. These are both difficult to quantify, partly due to the fact that such renovated buildings are not as yet so common, and vary in the different property markets.

    The EU has many policies on energy efficiency that are relevant for renovation of buildings, with the 2010 Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD recast) and the 2012 Energy Efficiency Directive (EED) being the most important. Many member states were late in implementing these and most have problems with forcing compliance with them. National tenancy laws can also make energy renovations difficult by restricting the possibility of raising rents for. For the iNSPiRe kits, regulations and standards are seen as a barrier in the short term as the kits combine several different functions into one product that are covered by several different regulations and/or standards.

    The social barriers are mostly concerned with the tenants, while architectural considerations are also important. In buildings with owner-occupied flats, the decision process for renovation is difficult and even more so when deep renovation is to be considered. In rental properties the owners and tenants have different interests and incentives, leading to possible conflicts. All have uncertainties about the use of multifunctional kits and how well they will perform technically as well as about how much they will save economically.

    The report makes a number of suggestions for overcoming these barriers. Especially important for the iNSPiRe kits is training of relevant installers and planners and use of Life Cycle Cost calculations to show the expected benefits over the lifetime of the products.

    In each section of the report, in addition to the analysis of the specific barrier, there are sections with specific comments from the interviewed stakeholders.

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