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  • 1.
    Chiatante, Donato
    et al.
    Università degli Studi dell'Insubria.
    Radoglou, Kalliopi
    Democritus University of Thrace.
    Sismanis, Nikos
    Democritus University of Thrace.
    Smirnakou, Sonia
    Democritus University of Thrace.
    Mattsson, Anders
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Forest and Wood Technology.
    Hernandez Velasco, Marco
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Schirone, Bartolomeo
    Universita degli Studi della Tuscia.
    Marras, Tatiana
    Universita degli Studi della Tuscia.
    Mechilli, Manuela
    Universita degli Studi della Tuscia.
    Ortolani, Maria Raffaella
    Universita degli Studi della Tuscia.
    Vessella, Federico
    Universita degli Studi della Tuscia.
    Terzaghi, Mattia
    Università degli Studi dell'Insubria.
    Fulgaro, Nicoletta
    Università degli Studi dell'Insubria.
    Montagnoli, Antonio
    Università degli Studi dell'Insubria.
    Càtia, Freitas
    Azorina S.A.
    Pietrzak, Malgorzata
    Azorina S.A.
    Casimiro, Pedro
    Azorina S.A.
    Ferreira, Raquel
    Azorina S.A.
    ZEPHYR Project – Deliverable D3.3: Final report on growth tests and biological validation2015Report (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Hernandez Velasco, Marco
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy and Environmental Technology.
    Performance Evaluation of Different PV-Array Configurations under Weak Light Conditions and Partial Shadings2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 12 credits / 18 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The paper analyses empirical performance data of five commercial PV-plants in Germany. The purpose was on one side to investigate the weak light performance of the different PV-modules used. On the other hand it was to quantify and compare the shading losses of different PV-array configurations. The importance of this study relies on the fact that even if the behavior under weak light conditions or the shading losses might seem to be a relatively small percentage of the total yearly output; in projects where a performance guarantee is given, these variation can make the difference between meeting or not the conditions.When analyzing the data, a high dispersion was found. To reduce the optical losses and spectral effects, a series of data filters were applied based on the angle of incidence and absolute Air Mass. To compensate for the temperature effects and translate the values to STC (25°C), five different methods were assessed. At the end, the Procedure 2 of IEC 60891 was selected due to its relative simplicity, usage of mostly standard parameters found in datasheets, good accuracy even with missing values, and its potential to improve the results when the complete set of inputs is available.After analyzing the data, the weak light performance of the modules did not show a clear superiority of a certain technology or technology group over the others. Moreover, the uncertainties in the measurements restrictive the conclusiveness of the results.In the partial shading analysis, the landscape mounting of mc-Si PV-modules in free-field showed a significantly better performance than the portrait one. The cross-table string using CIGS modules did not proved the benefits expected and performed actually poorer than a regular one-string-per-table layout. Parallel substrings with CdTe showed a proper functioning and relatively low losses. Among the two product generations of CdTe analyzed, none showed a significantly better performance under partial shadings.

  • 3.
    Hernandez Velasco, Marco
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy and Environmental Technology.
    Fiedler, Frank
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy and Environmental Technology.
    Timm, Dirk
    juwi Solar GmbH.
    COMPARISON OF PARTIAL SHADING LOSSES IN FREE FIELD PV-PLANTS WITH DIFFERENT ARRAY CONFIGURATIONS2013In: EU PVSEC Proceedings, 2013, p. 4171-4175Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A common problem when planning large free field PV-plants is optimizing the ground occupation ratio while maintaining low shading losses. Due to the complexity of this task, several PV-plants have been built using various configurations. In order to compare the shading losses of different PV technologies and array designs, empirical performance data of five free field PV-plants operating in Germany was analyzed. The data collected comprised 140 winter days from October 2011 until March 2012. The relative shading losses were estimated by comparing the energy output of selected arrays in the front rows (shading-free) against that of shaded arrays in the back rows of the same plant. The results showed that landscape mounting with mc-Si PV-modules yielded significantly better results than portrait one. With CIGS modules, making cross-table strings using the lower modules was not beneficial as expected and had more losses than a one-string-per-table layout. Parallel substrings with CdTe showed relatively low losses. Among the two CdTe products analyzed, none showed a significantly better performance.

  • 4.
    Hernandez Velasco, Marco
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Fiedler, Frank
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Timm, Dirk
    juwi Solar GmbH.
    Weak light performance efficiency in installed pv-arrays of different module technologies2014In: 29th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition Proceedings, 2014, p. 2515-2522Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This work analyses the weak light performance efficiency of six different free field and grid-connected PVarrays of various module technologies (mc-Si, CIGS, CdTe). The installed capacities per array range from 1,8kWp to 2,2kWp. The studied systems are located at the same site in Germany and are mounted on a ventilated and shaded-free structure. The irradiance was measured with both a pyranometer and a c-Si reference cell oriented at the plane of the array. Besides the weather conditions, the arrays share a similar system configuration (same inverter model, rack type and orientation, temperature sensors, etc.) making their results highly comparable. The data collected comprised 312 days from September 2011 until July 2012. When analyzing the data points at moments of low irradiance (< 800W/m2), a high dispersion was found which is most likely due to optical effects, different spectral distributions and changing module temperatures. To reduce the optical and spectral effects, a series of data filters were applied to limit the points used (Air Mass ≤4 and Angle of Incidence ≤50°). To compensate for the temperature effects and translate the values to STC (25°C), five different methods were assessed. The Procedure 2 of the IEC 60891 was considered the most suitable due to its relative simplicity, availability of parameters in the datasheets, good accuracy even with missing values, and the potential to improve the results when the complete set of inputs is available. The final analysis of the weak light performance showed no clear superiority of any particular PV-technology. From the results of this study, an overall advantage of thin-film over crystalline modules cannot be anymore concluded.

  • 5.
    Hernandez Velasco, Marco
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Kotilainen, Titta
    Valoya Ltd.
    New technology for pre-cultivation of forest seedlings under LED lamps – modification of light conditions to mitigate light shock stress after transplanting to open land2014In: 2nd Restoring Forests Conference Abstracts, 2014Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Forest restoration aims to cope with the increasing demand on forest products, as well as an aid in fighting climate change and compensating for accelerated deforestation. Funded by the European Commission under the Seventh Framework Program (FP7), the Zephyr project aims to introduce a zero-impact incubator for the pre-cultivation of forest regeneration materials. The consortium, involving 14 organizations of 10 different European countries, is developing innovative and cost-efficient technologies that will allow the production of standardized high quality forest seedlings ready to be transplanted. The technologies will be integrated into a functional and transportable unit not affected by the outdoor conditions and producing minimal emissions. To achieve this, the system will be powered mainly by solar energy and will recycle the water used. Specifically developed devices such as wireless sensors and LED lamps will be used to monitor and enhance the cultivation process, reduce the energy consumption and decrease the overall cost due to their high efficiency, long lifetime and low maintenance.

    The LED grow lights used have a continuous spectrum that has been selected and specifically tailored to the plants’ needs. Nevertheless, seedlings pre-cultivated under LED lights could face UV stress after transplanting to open land as these wavelengths are not included in the light spectrum used in the growth chamber. Moreover, light intensity levels during indoor cultivation are usually much lower compared to the outdoor conditions, which can cause a light shock to the plants. Juvenile plants are less efficient in the utilization of the absorbed light, and therefore, prone to photoinhibition by radiation fluxes that usually do not harm mature plants. Plant protective mechanisms against UV radiation and high PAR (400-700nm) light intensity are partly overlapping. Hence, exposure to UV or high light intensity before transplanting, or introducing a transient phase by using shading cloths during transplantation period could help to reduce this stress.

    The aim was to reduce the transplanting stress of Picea abies and Pinus sylvestris seedlings grown under LED-lamps for the first 5 weeks of cultivation. We investigated how different methods; UV-A pre-treatment or high irradiance during the indoor cultivation or usage of shading cloths for the first week(s) after transplanting outdoors can be used to mitigate light shock stress. Different methods and exposure times showed varying ability in ensuring good seedling growth and survival.

  • 6.
    Hernandez Velasco, Marco
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Mattsson, Anders
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Forest and Wood Technology.
    A silvicultural practice to facilitate forest restoration: a new seedling cultivation technology for regeneration establishment2014In: The International Forestry Review Vol.16 (5), 2014 / [ed] John A. Parrotta, Cynthia F. Moser, Amy J. Scherzer, Nancy E. Koerth and Daryl R. Lederle, The Commonwealth Forestry Association, www.cfa-international.org , 2014, Vol. 16, no 5, p. 129-Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Forest restoration has become a primary task, not only to cope with an increasing demand on forest products, but also to fi ghtclimate change and compensate for an accelerated global deforestation. However, many of the current practices used in forestrynurseries to produce forest planting stock have adverse effects on the environment. The main objective of the ZEPHYR project,funded by the European Commission under the Seventh Framework Programme (FP7), is to develop an innovative zero-impacttechnology for the pre-cultivation of forest regeneration materials that is not affected by the outdoor climate. Among the maincomponents to be improved are artifi cial lighting sources used for cultivation. Traditional fl uorescence lamps are to be replacedby LED grow lights with spectra tailored to the seedlings’ needs. The present work investigates biological responses of Piceaabies and Pinus sylvestris to six different light spectra. The pre-cultivation has been done following standard growth protocolsduring 5 weeks with a photoperiod of 16 h at 100 μmol/m2/s. This has been done under controlled closed conditions with a roomtemperature of 20 °C and a relative humidity of 60%. The analyses have shown clear differences among the treatments and theiradapting capacity when transplanted.

  • 7.
    Hernandez Velasco, Marco
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Mattsson, Anders
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Forest and Wood Technology.
    Cultivation of forest regeneration materials under artificial radiant sources—effects of light intensity on energy consumptionand seedling development2014In: The International Forestry Review Vol.16 (5), 2014 / [ed] John A. Parrotta, Cynthia F. Moser, Amy J. Scherzer, Nancy E. Koerth and Daryl R. Lederle, 2014, Vol. 16, no 5, p. 300-300Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In times of major environmental challenges and increasing demand for forest products, planted forests have acknowledgedadvantages compared to other land uses. Despite not being able to completely take the place of natural forests, planted ones have,if properly managed, great potential to contribute in addressing these problems. Besides the ecological benefi ts such as carbonsequestration, planted forests can help meet the demand for wood products without further depletion of the natural forest. Forestrestoration, rehabilitation, and reforestation are limited by the capacity for producing forest regeneration materials. Often, asproduction is intensifi ed at forest nurseries, the practices begin to have an adverse impact on the environment and stop being trulysustainable. One of the main issues in nurseries is the energy consumption for grow lights during periods of short daylight.By using high-effi ciency LED grow lamps and adjusting the light intensity, this study aimed to reduce the energy consumptionfrom lighting per seedling without compromising seedling development. The precultivation of Picea abies and Pinus sylvestrisseedlings was done during 5 weeks under controlled conditions at 20 °C and a relative humidity of 60%. The photoperiod was16 hours at an intensity ranging from 50 to 350 μmol/m2/s in intervals of 50 μmol/m2/s intervals.

  • 8.
    Hernandez Velasco, Marco
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Mattsson, Anders
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Forest and Wood Technology.
    Energy efficiency in intensified production of forest regeneration materials – design of a photovoltaic system for sustainably powering an innovative forestry incubator2014In: The International Forestry Review Vol.16 (5), 2014 / [ed] John A. Parrotta, Cynthia F. Moser, Amy J. Scherzer, Nancy E. Koerth and Daryl R. Lederle, 2014, Vol. 16, no 5, p. 393-393Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Planted forests can contribute addressing problems of global concern such as climate change mitigation, biodiversity lost and pressure on ecosystems due to high demand of forestry products. However, in order to be able to profit from these benefits sustainably, production rates of forest regeneration materials should be higher than the harvesting rates. Nevertheless, intensive production methods often bring along adverse consequences for the environment. In the frame of the ZEPHYR project, funded by the European Commission under the Seventh Framework Programme (FP7), innovative and cost-friendly technologies for the pre-cultivation are being developed. They will be integrated into a functional and transportable system for a large scale production of seedlings, with zero-impact on the environment and not affected by outdoor conditions. To achieve this, high efficiency devices with low energy consumption will be used and the incubator will be powered by solar energy. This work aims to present the efforts made to reduce the energy loads and optimize the photovoltaic (PV) system. The power system will also be capable of connecting to the electricity grid, using a diesel generator as a back-up, and a battery bank with at least one day of autonomy (up to 7 kWh/day) in central European latitudes.   

  • 9.
    Hernandez Velasco, Marco
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Mattsson, Anders
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Forest and Wood Technology.
    Light quality and intensity of light-emitting diodes during pre-cultivation of Picea abies (L.) Karst. and Pinus sylvestris L. seedlings - impact on growth performance, seedling quality and energy consumption2019In: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, Vol. 34, no 3, p. 159-177Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Three different LED lamps with continuous spectra were compared against commonly used fluorescent lights. The lamps were characterized by light output, energy consumption and spectral quality for plant growth. The biological effects of light quality were compared by pre-cultivating seedlings of Picea abies (L.) Karst. and Pinus sylvestris L. under each spectrum for 35 days in a growth chamber with controlled temperature, humidity and photoperiod. The seedlings were then transplanted and cultivated for one vegetation period at the nursery, then planted outdoors on a forest field trial and followed for three years. The seedlings showed similar growth performance for all spectra tested. LED lamps have several advantages to fluorescent light such as energy consumption, longer life span and adjustable light intensity. Regarding light intensity the effects on growth performance were studied for both species using the most promising LED spectra. The photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) was maintained at 50, 100, 200 and 400 mu mol m(-2) s(-1). Unlike energy consumption, seedling development did not display a linear relationship to light intensity. Instead, the results show an optimum light level between 100 and 200 mu mol m(-2) s(-1) for the shade tolerant Picea abies seedlings and a level of around 200 mu mol m(-2) s(-1) for the more shade intolerant Pinus sylvestris seedlings.

  • 10.
    Hernandez Velasco, Marco
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Mattsson, Anders
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Forest and Wood Technology.
    Long night treatment for induction of cold hardiness using artificial lights: effects of photoperiod on seedling storabilityand energy consumption2014In: The International Forestry Review Vol.16 (5), 2014 / [ed] John A. Parrotta, Cynthia F. Moser, Amy J. Scherzer, Nancy E. Koerth and Daryl R. Lederle, 2014, Vol. 16, no 5, p. 379-379Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Human-assisted forest regeneration in Nordic climates is considerably limited by the harsh outdoor conditions. There is onlya small open window of time during the summer when the weather is favorable for transplantation and establishment ofpre-cultivated seedlings in open land. Greenhouses and modern growth chambers help to cope with this limitation by allowingyear-round seedling cultivation. Nonetheless, production levels are constrained to the cold storage capacity during the nontransplantingseason. This storage is in turn dependent on the ability of the conifer to adapt to freezing temperatures and withstand theoverall stress associated with cold hardening. Long night treatments can induce dormancy with cessation of growth and terminalbuds initiation, leading to a better cold resistance. When growing forest regeneration materials under artifi cial lights, the lengthsof the long night treatment and the photoperiod will have a signifi cant impact not only on the biological response of the seedlingsbut also on the energy consumption, and thus on the CO2 emissions. The aim of this work was to explore different long nighttreatment regimes for induction of cold hardiness in Picea abies and Pinus sylvestris seedlings using artifi cial lights. This wasdone with the purpose of studying the relationship between the energy consumption and the biological responses.

  • 11.
    Hernandez Velasco, Marco
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Mattsson, Anders
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Forest and Wood Technology.
    Nuevas tecnologías para el pre-cultivo de plantas forestales - diseño de una incubadora sustentable para minimizar el impacto ambiental2014In: VI Congreso Forestal Latinoamericano: Latinoamérica unida en armonia por la sustentabilidad de los recursos forestales, 2014Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [es]

    Los bosques plantados pueden contribuir a combatir problemas globales como el cambio climático, la erosión del suelo y la presión en los ecosistemas debido a la alta demanda de productos forestales. Para que este beneficio sea sustentable, la producción del material para la regeneración forestal tiene que ser mayor a la velocidad en que se tala. Las técnicas intensivas en los viveros forestales puede traer efectos adversos al ambiente como el uso de fertilizantes, pesticidas y alto consumo energético de los invernaderos. 

    Financiado por Séptimo Programa de Investigación y Desarrollo de la Unión Europea, el proyecto ZEPHYR está enfocado a desarrollar nuevas tecnologías para el pre-cultivo de plantas forestales de una manera sustentable y económicamente viable. Estas innovaciones estarán integradas en una incubadora transportable y totalmente funcional para la producción a gran escala. El cuarto de crecimiento será independiente de las condiciones exteriores y tendrá un mínimo impacto ambiental. Para lograr esto se usaran aparatos de alta eficiencia y bajo consumo energético como lámparas LED y todo funcionará con un sistema solar fotovoltaico.

  • 12.
    Hernandez Velasco, Marco
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Mattsson, Anders
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Forest and Wood Technology.
    Outdoor performance of forest seedlings pre-cultivated under artificial lights: effects of the light spectra used for pre-cultivation on the future establishment and development2015In: Rainforest challenges: Book of abstracts / [ed] Vladan Ivetić and Tatjana Ćirković‐Mitrović , 2015, p. 20-20Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Forest nurseries are essential for producing good quality seedlings, thus being a key element in the reforestation process. With increasing climate change awareness, nursery managers are looking for new tools that can help reduce the effects of their operations on the environment. The ZEPHYR project, funded by the European Commission under the Seventh Framework Programme (FP7), has the objective of finding new alternatives for nurseries by developing innovative zero-impact technologies for forest plant production. Due to their direct relationship to the energy consumption of the nurseries, one of the main elements addressed are the grow lights used for the pre-cultivation. New LED luminaires with a light spectrum tailored to the seedlings’ needs are being studied and compared against the traditional fluorescent lamps. Seedlings of Picea abies and Pinus sylvestris were grown under five different light spectra (one fluorescent and 4 LED) during 5 weeks with a photoperiod of 16 hours at 100 μmol∙m-2∙s-1 and 60% humidity. In order to evaluate if these seedlings were able cope with real field stress conditions, a forest field trial was also designed. The terrain chosen was a typical planting site in mid-Sweden after clear-cutting. Two vegetation periods after the outplanting, the seedlings that were pre-cultivated under the LED lamps have performed at least as well as those that were grown under fluorescent lights. These results show that there is a good  potential for lightning substitution in forestry nurseries.

  • 13.
    Hernandez Velasco, Marco
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Mattsson, Anders
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Forest and Wood Technology.
    Swedish experiences and visions on the production of containerized seedlings2016In: / [ed] Palle Madsen, 2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Hernandez Velasco, Marco
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Pérez-Mora, Nicolás
    University of Balearic Islands and Sampol Ingenieria y Obras.
    Marras, Tatiana
    Universita degli Studi della Tuscia.
    Using Hybrid Solar Photovoltaic + Combined Heat and Power Systems (PV+CHP) to Enable Industrial Scale Indoor Plant Cultivation: a Feasibility Study2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A rapid population growth linked to intensive agriculture has originated several problems such as soil degradation, groundwater depletion, forestland transformation, and eutrophication of aquatic systems. Vertical farming offers an alternative for producing plants indoors in a resources and space efficient manner, reducing leakage of chemicals, optimizing water and land use, and allowing year-round cultivation. Controlled environment agriculture (CEA) also enables urban residents to access locally grown plants that would have otherwise been imported from far away, reducing transport and storage emissions. This comes with a caveat: the energy loads increase to provide artificial illumination and keep an optimal climate. To address this issue, the present work studies the feasibility of using a hybrid photovoltaics and combined heat and power system (PV+CHP) to satisfy the energy demands of an industrial-sized growth room. For this, different European locations and climates have been considered as well as various growth protocols.

  • 15.
    Hernandez Velasco, Marco
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    R Pamidi, Sreenivaasa
    Exergy Ltd..
    The Zephyr concept and the energetic autonomy2014In: CAFFEINA 2014: Il Futuro e le Radici - The Future and the Roots, 2014Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Currently, forest ecosystems are facing many sustainability problems due to drastic climate changes and extreme exploitation of their resources. Planted forests can contribute to more sustainable practices and help addressing some of these issues. In order to be able to profit from these benefits sustainably, production rates of forest regeneration materials should be higher than the harvesting rates. Nevertheless, intensive production methods often bring along adverse consequences for the environment.

    At the moment, there exist several options such as greenhouses or plant growth chambers that allow producing forest materials more rapidly. Unfortunately these systems consume considerable high amounts of energy for lighting, acclimatization and irrigation having a negative impact on the environment.

    The Zephyr project aims to introduce an innovative technology built on pre-cultivation of forest regeneration materials in a zero-impact and cost-friendly production unit. The project will integrate several technologies into a functional and transportable system for large scale production of pre-cultivated forest regeneration materials adapted to transplanting and further growth at forest nurseries.

    A transportable and closed incubator independent from the outdoor climate provides a better control on the seedlings production. The plants can be produced directly at the place where they are needed avoiding further transportation to the reforestation/afforestation zone. The closed-climate allows seedlings pre-cultivation in places where it would not be possible otherwise (e.g. near deserts). Additionally, it extends the production time throughout the whole year even during the winter. Moreover, it will allow a certified and standardized production of reforestation materials, with a noticeable increasing of the efficiency of the reforestation operations.

    Specially developed LED growth lamps and wireless sensors will be used to reduce energy consumption and monitor the cultivation process. The main part of the energy will be provided by solar PV-panels, depending from the geographic and climatic area the power system should be able to provide at least one day of autonomy (in central Europe). The energy savings will result in a reduction of greenhouse gas emissions; moreover, since the LED lamps do not produce additional warming, there will be further energy saving through the reduction of air conditioning costs.

    The PV system is designed based on the load specifications of the different subsystems involved for advanced state-of-art pre-cultivation of forest seedlings. It will be further evaluated based on the changes in the load profiles as the growth protocols for different species are defined.  The main objectives are to maximize the power/energy flow delivered to the load and to investigate feasible options for an external backup power source whilst considering options to reduce the overall load of the system.

  • 16.
    Hernandez Velasco, Marco
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Sreenivaasa R, Pamidi
    Exergy Ltd.
    Climate control in the production of forest plants: using photovoltaics to power an innovative forestry incubator2015In: Solar Air-Conditioning: 6th International conference, Regensburg, Germany: Ostbayerisches Technologie-Transfer-Institut (Verlag) , 2015, p. 106-111Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Forest ecosystems are currently challenged by fluctuations in the climate and an extreme exploitation of their resources.  Forest restoration requires among other things, high amounts of healthy forest seedlings to replace the lost trees.  However, the cultivation of these seedlings often involves intensive methods in forest nurseries which consume considerable amounts of energy for lighting, acclimatization and irrigation.

    The ZEPHYR project, funded by the European Commission under the Seventh Framework Programme (FP7), is developing innovative and cost-friendly technologies for the pre-cultivation of forest plants. Devices such as LED growth lights and a new generation of wireless sensors will be integrated into a functional and transportable system for large scale production of forest seedlings. The unit will have a very low impact on the environment, will be independent of the outdoor conditions and will be powered by solar energy. The whole concept represents a breakthrough in forest nursery production for reforestation purposes. It addresses issues such as energy use, water recycling, reduction of fertilizers and avoidance of pesticides.

    One of the main features of the Zephyr incubator is the fact that the seedlings will be pre-cultivated during the first stage in an isolated environment. A transportable and closed incubator possess several advantages: it provides a better climate control for the production of seedlings and reduces the need for pesticides and fertilizers. The closed-climate allows growing seedlings in places where it would not be possible otherwise (e.g. near deserts). The plants can be produced directly at the place where they are needed avoiding further transport to the reforestation/afforestation site. Additionally, it extends the production time throughout the whole year even during the winter. Moreover, it will allow a certified and standardized production of reforestation materials, with a noticeable increase in the success of the restoration actions.

    In order to benefit from the advantages of a closed growing environment without having a negative impact on the environment, the incubator will be powered mainly by a solar photovoltaic (PV) system which will be mounted on the roof of the unit. In order to reduce the amount of air conditioning needed, the chamber has been isolated from the rest of the system. The growth protocols have been set to a certain temperature range that allows a more flexible operation of the air conditioning system without compromising the development of the seedlings. Finally, since the LED growth lamps do not produce as much additional heat compared to other lightning sources so there will be further savings.

  • 17.
    Mattsson, Anders
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Forest and Wood Technology.
    Hernandez Velasco, Marco
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Rusu, Cristina
    Acreo Swedish ICT AB.
    Pietrzak, Malgorzata
    Azorina S.A.
    Ferreira, Raquel
    Azorina S.A.
    Radoglou, Kalliopi
    Democritus University of Thrace.
    Smirnakou, Sonia
    Democritus University of Thrace.
    Bantis, Filippos
    Democritus University of Thrace.
    Fulgaro, Nicoletta
    Università degli Studi dell'Insubria.
    Kotilainen, Titta
    Valoya OY.
    ZEPHYR Project – Deliverable D7.6: Articles and peer-reviewed papers2015Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 18.
    Pamidi R., Sreenivaasa
    et al.
    Exergy Ltd..
    Polidori, Carlo
    Veltha IVZW.
    Mattsson, Anders
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Forest and Wood Technology.
    Hernandez Velasco, Marco
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Ghrissi, Meftah
    Robosoft SA.
    Carrel, Aubert
    Robosoft SA.
    Menta, Andrea
    CO.MET.ART. SAS.
    Ramiro, Manuel
    ADVANTIC Sistemas y Servicios.
    Kotilainen, Titta
    Valoya OY.
    Aikala, Lars
    Valoya OY.
    ZEPHYR Project – Deliverable D2.4: Technical specification for the Power system with solar panels2013Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 19.
    Pamidi, Sreenivaasa R
    et al.
    Exergy Ltd..
    Hernandez Velasco, Marco
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Reducing the impact of forest plant production - Design of a stand-alone PV-hybrid system for powering an innovative forestry incubator2014In: 29th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition Proceedings, 2014, p. 3811-3814Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Nowadays, the high demand of forestry products imposes a high pressure on the ecosystems and can derive in biodiversity lost and other ecological problems. Planted forests can contribute to more sustainable practices and help addressing other problems of global concern such as climate change, erosion and desertification. Large scale production of seedling is required to offset the high harvesting rates; however these intensive methods often have a negative impact on the environment. Funded by the European Commission under the Seventh Framework Programme (FP7), the ZEPHYR project consortium is developing innovative and cost-friendly technologies for the pre-cultivation of forestry species. These will be integrated into a functional and transportable system for pre-cultivation of seedlings, with zeroimpact on the environment and not affected by outdoor conditions. To achieve this, the incubator will be powered mainly by solar energy. This work aims to present the efforts made to design and optimize the solar photovoltaic (PV) system which will be mounted on the roof of the unit. Especially developed devices such as LED growth lamps and wireless sensors will be used to reduce energy consumption and monitor the cultivation process. A load profile study was conducted and the growth protocols were adapted to perform most of the tasks during daytime to use the energy from the PV panels directly. A battery bank will be designed to provide at least one day of autonomy in central European latitudes. Moreover, the power system will also be capable of connecting to the electricity grid or use a diesel generator as a backup.

  • 20.
    Radoglou, Kalliopi
    et al.
    Democritus University of Thrace.
    Sismanis, Nikos
    Democritus University of Thrace.
    Smirnakou, Sonia
    Democritus University of Thrace.
    Mattsson, Anders
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Forest and Wood Technology.
    Hernandez Velasco, Marco
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Schirone, Bartolomeo
    Universita degli Studi della Tuscia.
    Marras, Tatiana
    Universita degli Studi della Tuscia.
    Vessella, Federico
    Universita degli Studi della Tuscia.
    Chiatante, Donato
    Università degli Studi dell'Insubria.
    Terzaghi, Mattia
    Università degli Studi dell'Insubria.
    Fulgaro, Nicoletta
    Università degli Studi dell'Insubria.
    Montagnoli, Antonio
    Università degli Studi dell'Insubria.
    ZEPHYR Project – Deliverable D3.2: Intermediate report on growth tests2014Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
1 - 20 of 20
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