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  • 1.
    Ganuza, Natalia
    et al.
    Univeristy of Uppsala.
    Rydell, Maria
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Swedish as Second Language.
    Skönlitteratur i ett sociolingvistiskt perspektiv: Språkliga gränsdragningspraktiker i några samtida svenska romaner2019Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Under sessionen presenterar vi ett urval data från en korpus under uppbyggnad bestående av exempel på fiktiva och autofiktiva skildringar av individers upplevelser av språkliga gränsdragningspraktiker. Korpusen inkluderar för närvarande exempel från ett 30-tal samtida skönlitterära svenska verk (företrädesvis romaner, men även några exempel på poesi, drama och självbiografier, jmf. Hübinette 2019). Exemplen illustrerar och synliggör 13 gränsdragningspraktiker i skildringar av flerspråkiga individers upplevelser av och insikter om språk när de förflyttar sig i tid och i rum; från/till Sverige, från förort till innerstad, i samtal mellan generationer, i kontakten med svenska utbildningsinstitutioner och i situationer där de fiktiva karaktärerna definierar sig eller blir definierade som ”svenska” eller ”ickesvenska”. Under datasessionen belyser vi några framträdande teman i dataurvalet. Vi vill även diskutera de språkliga medel som författarna nyttjar för att gestalta olika gränsdragningspraktiker och hur språklig variation används för att särskilja och upprätthålla olika typer av relationer. Den aktuella datasessionen koncentreras till exempel ur verk av Ahmed (2017), Al-Khamisi (2015), Bečević (2009 och 2014), Hashemzadeh (2012), Kuklarz (2005) och Milfuegos (2015).

  • 2.
    Nikolaidou, Zoe
    et al.
    Södertörn University.
    Rydell, Maria
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Swedish as Second Language.
    Intergenrationell migrationshistoria och språkideologier i svenskgrekiska familjer2019Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vi skulle vilja presentera data från en pågående studie av språkideologier i svenskgrekiska familjer. Materialet består av familjeintervjuer och självrapporterade litteracitetspraktiker. Intervjuerna är gjorda både med familjer som bott en längre tid i Sverige och familjer som relativt nyligen flyttat till Sverige. I vissa av familjerna har föräldrarna erfarenhet av att ha flyttat mellan länderna som barn eller att deras föräldrar (dvs far- och morföräldragenerationen) har erfarenhet av migration till Sverige men sedan flyttat tillbaka till Grekland. Studier av språkideologier i familjer aktualiserar hur transnationella familjer hanterar språkliga, spatiala och geografiska gränser (t.ex. Faist et. al 2013, Soler & Zabrodskaja 2017) och vilken betydelse det får för familjers förhållningssätt till sin flerspråkighet. Till datasession har vi valt ut utdrag från intervjuer med två familjer som har intergenerationella migrationserfarenheter av att flytta mellan Sverige och Grekland. På datasessionen vill vi gärna diskutera hur migrationserfarenheter och klass påverkar språkideologier i familjen och familjens förhållningssätt till sin flerspråkiga repertoar. Datasessionen kommer att hållas på svenska och utdrag från intervjuerna är på grekiska med engelska översättningar.

  • 3.
    Rydell, Maria
    Stockholms universitet, Institutionen för svenska och flerspråkighet.
    Assessing interactional competence in a superdiverse setting2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports from an on-going study on interaction in paired speaking tests.The main data consists of video recorded speaking tests in the final national test in Swedish for adult immigrants (B1/B1+ on the CEFR-scale). The participants have varying ethnic, linguistic and educational backgrounds. Oral proficiency is generally considered difficult to assess in a valid and reliable way. The rationale for using the paired format (a candidate-candidate discussion) is that it elicits a wider range of speech functions and results in more complex talk compared to traditional oral proficiency interviews (Brooks 2009). Meanwhile, there are also problems linked to the format; the interlocutor effect is hard to control and giving individual scores in a co-constructed interaction is a challenge (McNamara 1997). The theoretical framework for the national test in Swedish for immigrants draws on different models of communicative competence (eg. Celce-Murcia 2007). Interactional competence is a key feature in the theoretical framework underpinning the test. Candidates are tested through interaction (by a candidate candidate discussion) and on interaction (by criteria on interaction set out in the syllabus). How is interactional competence manifested in a test setting? Can different proficiency levels of interactional competence be described and assessed? Can different contextual recourses (Linell 2009), like prior schooling and background knowledge, have an impact on the understanding of the situation and on the interaction? Preliminary findings indicate that the candidates use different interactional resources and strategies during the test. Different proficiency levels of interactional competence cannot be easily described and assessed.

  • 4.
    Rydell, Maria
    Stockholms universitet, Svenska/Nordiska språk.
    Att fånga den muntliga färdigheten2014In: Lisetten, ISSN 1101-5128, no 4, p. 3p. 21-23Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Sedan den kommunikativa språkundervisningens genomslag på 70-talet, har fokus riktats alltmer mot språkinlärares förmåga att använda språket i olika situationer. Muntliga övningar har en given plats både i undervisningen som språkutvecklande metod och som en del av prov och andra bedömningssammanhang. Samtidigt är det också en färdighet som ofta lyfts fram som svårbedömd och svårfångad.

  • 5.
    Rydell, Maria
    Stockholms universitet, Svenska/Nordiska språk.
    Being ‘a competent language user’ in a world of Others – Adult migrants’ perceptions and constructions of communicative competence2018In: Linguistics and Education, ISSN 0898-5898, E-ISSN 1873-1864, Vol. 45, p. 101-109Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article investigates the lived experience of language (Busch, 2017) in relation to perceptions of what it means to be ‘a competent language user’. How to define language competence is an ongoing discussion in applied linguistics. However, relatively little attention has been given to the lived experiences of adult migrants with respect to their perceptions of competence. Drawing on an analysis of focus group discussions with adult migrants enrolled in a language program in basic Swedish, this article builds on understandings of communicative competence as a relational construct shaped by intersubjective processes. Corroborating the relational view of competence is the importance given to emotional perspectives on competence and the role played by assessments, both those made by others and internalized self-assessments. Meanwhile, discourses on the language competence of adult migrants often frame successful language learning as an individual responsibility and achievement, obscuring the relational process underlying the perceptions and constructions of communicative competence.

  • 6.
    Rydell, Maria
    Stockholms universitet, Institutionen för svenska och flerspråkighet.
    Constructions of Language Competence: Sociolinguistic Perspectives on Assessing Second Language Interactions in Basic Adult Education2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The current thesis is concerned with constructions and perceptions of what it means to be ‘a competent language user’ in the context of a language programme in basic Swedish called Swedish for Immigrants (SFI). A particular focus is given to the testing and assessment of oral interaction. The prevailing communicative approach to language teaching and testing makes it relevant to investigations of both language use and reflections on communicative experiences. The thesis is based on three studies. Drawing on insights from linguistic anthropology, multimodal interaction analysis, phenomenology and social theory, the three studies address different sociolinguistic perspectives on language testing and assessment. Whereas Studies I and II investigate paired speaking tests in the final national exam in SFI as a speech event, Study III builds upon focus group discussions with SFI participants with the aim of exploring the participants’ reflections on communicative experiences.

           Drawing on linguistic anthropological performance theory, Study I makes the case that the paired speaking tests can be analysed as staged institutionalized performances that put speaking and ideologies on display. Study I draws on an analysis of sequences in the test data where the participants expressed beliefs on language learning, language use and language competence. One important resource for the test takers to maintain the discussion in front of the examiners was to draw on dominant discourses on language and integration, such as stating the importance of learning Swedish, speaking only Swedish, attempting to find Swedish friends and taking responsibility for one’s learning, making testing practices an important site for the reproduction of such discourse. The orientation to being ‘a competent language user’ was performed by indexing other images of being ‘a good student’ and ‘a good immigrant’.

          Study II takes an interactional practice in the paired speaking tests, word searching sequences, as its starting point. Word searches tap into two aspects of communicative language testing: vocabulary knowledge and the ability to negotiate meaning and solve interactional problems. The test takers drew on different embodied semiotic resources to negotiate participation and meaning or to display an avoidance to participating in the fellow test taker’s word search. Overall, the participants prioritized the progressivity of talk over lexical precision. By avoiding using languages other than Swedish during the test, the test takers sustained and constructed a monolingual orientation to language competence.

         Study III discusses how the SFI participants’ lived experience of language constituted their understanding of what it means to be ‘a competent language user’. Accordingly, the participants’ comments primarily constructed a view of competence as made relevant through and being shaped in social interactions, making language competence a primarily relational construct. Corroborating the relational construction of language competence was the importance given to language assessments, both those made by others and internalized self-assessments. In the focus group discussions, overall, being ‘a competent language user’ was oriented to as a desired, but yet unstable and vulnerable subject position.

          Taken together, the three studies address ideological, embodied, emotional and relational perspectives on language and language competence. By contrast, language testing practices are built upon a view of language competence as an individual and objective ability that can be measured. The main conclusions drawn in the thesis are that testing and assessment practices constitute a social practice where perceptions and constructions of language competence are constructed and regimented metapragmatically as well as interactionally. Furthermore, embodied experiences of language assessment made in institutional and everyday practices make competence a powerful concept influencing L2 users’ self-perception and agency. 

  • 7.
    Rydell, Maria
    Stockholms universitet, Svenska/Nordiska språk.
    Det talade språkets roll2017Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med den här delen är att diskutera det talade språkets roll för andraspråksutvecklingen. Fokus ligger på vad som kännetecknar muntlig språkanvändning  och hur talat språk kan synliggöras, stöttas och bedömas i undervisningen, exempelvis genom arbete med dramatisering för att främja språkutveckling och språklig medvetenhet.

  • 8.
    Rydell, Maria
    Stockholms universitet, Svenska/Nordiska språk.
    Kan språkinlärning vara en plikt?2018In: Skola & samhälle, E-ISSN 2001-6727, no 7 majArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Politiska krav på att invandrare ska lära sig svenska bättre och snabbare dyker upp i debatten med jämna mellanrum. För ett par veckor sedan lanserade Socialdemokraterna “språkplikt”. Maria Rydell ställer sig frågande till detta och pekar på komplexiteten i vuxnas språkinlärning. Möjligheten att lära sig ett nytt språk hänger inte bara ihop med en individs “vilja” utan även med de organisatoriska förutsättningarna.

  • 9.
    Rydell, Maria
    Stockholms universitet, Svenska/Nordiska språk.
    Konsten att föra ett samtal framåt - om bedömning av muntlig interaktion på sfi2016In: Flerspråkighet som resurs: symposium 2015 / [ed] Björn Kindenberg, Stockholm: Liber , 2016, p. 236-247Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Muntlig färdighet är centralt för människan men samtidigt svårbedömt för läraren. I det här kapitlet vill författaren lyfta fram att det är viktigt för lärare att ingående studera samtal för att bli bättre på att bedöma dem. För att öka kvaliteten i samtal – och därmed ge mer underlag för bedömning – beskrivs i det här kapitlet vikten av att ge alla elever utrymme i samtalen, lyfta lyssnandets roll i samtal och visa hur förhandling om mening utgör en viktig del i interaktion. Författaren beskriver också hur diskussioner kring muntlig språkanvändning synliggör resurser och strategier för elever samtidigt som det bygger upp deras språkliga medvetenhet kring talat språk.

  • 10.
    Rydell, Maria
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Swedish as Second Language.
    Language testing and ideologies of language competence2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As a prime example of communicative language teaching and testing, the paired format (a discussion between peers) is widely used in language classrooms and as a test format. This paper draws on an interactional analysis of 27 video recorded paired speaking tests in the final national test in Swedish for immigrants (SFI) and discusses how language testing practices bring different ideologies of language competence to the fore. In this way, testing oral interaction sheds light on tensions made on the ‘nature’ of language competence such as being an individual or relational construct or by framing language as primarily logocentric or an embodied practice (Rydell, 2018). By analyzing the paired speaking tests as staged institutionalized performances that put speaking and ideologies on display (Rydell, 2015), this paper discusses how perceptions and constructions of language competence are regimented metapragmatically as well as interactionally during the test, by, inter alia, sustaining and reproducing a monolingual ideology of language competence during the test event. Considering the increased importance given to testing in migration contexts (Kahn, 2019), it is pertinent to investigate language testing from a sociolinguistic perspective. A sociolinguistic understanding of paired speaking tests adds to our understanding of how the test situation impacts the discourse produced, and ultimately, how testing is a specific social practice leading to the conclusion that interpretations of a student’s language competence solely based on test scores should be treated with caution.

  • 11.
    Rydell, Maria
    Stockholms universitet, Institutionen för svenska och flerspråkighet.
    L'Évaluation de capacités d'expression orale: le cas du suédois pour les immigrés adultes2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Rydell, Maria
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Swedish as Second Language. Stockholms universitet, Svenska/Nordiska språk.
    Negotiating co-participation: Embodied word searching sequences in paired L2 speaking tests2019In: Journal of Pragmatics, ISSN 0378-2166, E-ISSN 1879-1387, Vol. 149, p. 60-77Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores embodied word searching sequences in paired L2 speaking tests in a national test in basic Swedish for adult migrants in Sweden. A particular focus is given to sequences where the speaker invites the interlocutor to participate in the search and to extended word searches where co-participation is negotiated in different ways. Drawing on an embodied interactional analysis of 27 video recorded paired speaking tests, this study shows how embodied semiotic resources are used both to negotiate participation in the word searching sequences and to display an avoidance to participate in the word search even when being invited to do so. Overall, the participants prioritize the progressivity of talk rather than pursuing lexical precision. This study argues that even though word search behaviour is similar across languages, it remains important to treat word searching as a contextualized interactional practice. Finally, this study makes the case that the test situation entails contextual constraints to the possibility of negotiation of meaning. 

  • 13.
    Rydell, Maria
    Stockholms universitet, Institutionen för svenska och flerspråkighet.
    Paired speaking tests in a superdiverse setting2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Rydell, Maria
    Stockholms universitet, Svenska/Nordiska språk.
    Performance and ideology in speaking tests for adult migrants2015In: Journal of Sociolinguistics, ISSN 1360-6441, E-ISSN 1467-9841, Vol. 19, no 4, p. 535-558Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Language learning linked to migration is an important issue in many contemporary societies. This article discusses how adult migrants following a L2 Swedish course express beliefs on competence, language learning and language use during a test event. The theoretical framework is based on performance theory and the Bakhtinian notion of addressivity. Drawing on an interactional analysis of 27 video-recorded paired speaking tests (acandidate-candidate discussion) in the final national exam in an L2 Swedish course for adult migrants, the article discusses how the speaking tests could be interpreted as institutionalized staged performance. It is argued here that institutional performance puts ideologies on display. Stance-taking, interactional alignment and an orientation to dominant discourses on monolingualism and integration become important resources for keeping the discussion going in front of the examiners. Finally, the study argues that the view of speaking tests as performance provides a deeper understanding of the complexity of language use in test settings.

  • 15.
    Rydell, Maria
    Stockholms universitet, Institutionen för svenska och flerspråkighet.
    Performing ideologies: speaking tests as a social practice2015In: Tenth ISB: Tenth International Symposium on Bilingualism: Abstracts, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports from an on-going study on interaction in oral proficiency tests in the national exam in Swedish for Adult Immigrants. The main data consists of video recorded paired speaking tests (a candidate-candidate discussion) in the final National test (B1/B1+ on the CEFR-scale) and interviews with the test takers. The aim is to investigate speaking tests as a social practice. The findings of an interactional analysis of the paired speaking tests show how language testing is not a neutral activity, which can be observed by the ideologies performed in the interaction during the speaking tests. 

    From the point of view of testing bodies, providing valid, fair and reliable test is a main concern, and this has for a long time been the focus of much language testing research.  This “practical focus” (McNamara 2012, p.564) has been criticized for not recognizing language testing as a social and political practice (e.g. McNamara 2011, Shohamy 2013).One way of investigating language tests as a social practice is to examine the embedded ideologies in testing practices (Spotti 2011). The context of Swedish for Adult Immigrants is a highly multilingual and diverse setting. Yet, a monolingual norm is manifested in the speaking test by the candidates themselves. This is not a coincidence, this monolingual norm can be found in testing practice (Shohamy 2011), the educational system (Blackledge & Creese 2010) and in the society as a whole (Kroskrity 2000).

    In this paper, I will argue that Goffmans (1959) notion of performance and Bakthins (1986) notion of addressitivity offers interesting perspectives for the understanding of speaking tests as a social practice. Language learning in migration contexts are intertwined with political discourses concerning national identity and integration policies (Blackledge & Creese 2010). The interaction in the speaking tests in this study reveals an ongoing dialogue with monolingual ideologies in society.

  • 16.
    Rydell, Maria
    Stockholms universitet, Svenska/Nordiska språk.
    Språkkrav får inte fler att lära sig svenska2018In: Pedagogiska Magasinet, ISSN 1401-3320, no 21 septArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Sverige är ett flerspråkigt samhälle. Det är ett faktum som är kännetecknande för både Sveriges historia, samtid och framtid. Vuxna invandrares språkliga kompetens tillmäts i dag ett allt större symboliskt värde. Allt oftare hörs i den politiska debatten krav på språkkompetens, exempelvis i tal om språkplikt och språktest för medborgarskap.

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