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  • 1. Bergdahl, Anders
    et al.
    Kenger, Patrik
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Mechanical Engineering.
    Onori, Mauro
    The use of DFA/DFAA Analysis for early start up of Assembly System Design2005In: International Forum on Design for Manufacture and Assembly, Providence - Warwick, Rhode Island, USA, 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Assembly system design and development is still characterized by uncertainty resulting in increased lead-times in the design and development process and ineffective assembly system solutions. One important reason for this situation is that companies do not use methods for assembly system design and development in the extent needed, simply because there are no methods applicable. Methods developed by academia are still too complicated and not distinct enough, in quantifiable means, concerning the link to assembly system design. In this research four case studies in four different companies have been executed with the objective to find out more about how industry handles assembly system design and if there are possibilities for improvement. The findings in the case studies unambiguously point out that there is a need for a guideline supporting the assembly system design, development and re-design phases. The case studies do also indicate that the information from DFA/DFA2 analysis, valuable for the assembly system design process, is not used within the subsequent assembly system design phase. An assembly system design guideline that uses information and results from the DFA work, together with internal and external demands, would facilitate the assembly system design and development process. This paper will introduce a framework for such a method.

  • 2.
    Kenger, Patrick
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Mechanical Engineering.
    The way we design: a design process and manual for industrial product development2018In: Proceedings of NordDesign: Design in the Era of Digitalization, NordDesign 20182018, Linköping: The Design Society, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The design work made by designing engineers need to be clearly defined and structured. The design process to follow should naturally lead to a systematic design work that reduce wasteful work, and reuses competence and knowledge from previous design work. The design process should lead to a design work that is made with as little lead-time and cost as possible, yet with a resulting part or product with the right quality. In a time when products become more complex regarding performance, tolerances, material, and with more technological and digital things built into the products, this design process becomes even more important. The Way We Design (TWWD) presented in this paper is one contribution to such a design process for the day-to-day design work. The work behind TWWD is based on both research and industrial practice. The process is built on 11 (A to K) number of checkpoints which gives details on the design work and is customised for the specific company.

     

    Included in TWWD, as addition to the design work itself, are details regarding documentation and templates, standards, and directives. TWWD also include details of the design requirements from other departments within the company, such as sales, purchasing, assembly, manufacturing, painting and service. In this way, the designers can incorporate the requirements from their internal colleges and reduce much of the rework due to misinterpretations or design errors that are detected downstream in the manufacturing process or even at the customers. The TWWD process has been implemented at some companies as their manual for how to perform the design work. The results indicates that it is possible to reduce the design lead-time ranging from 5% to 20%, and with better precision in doing the right things and to reduce wasteful work. The design engineers at a medium and at a large company says that it is the resulting design quality that is the most beneficial from TWWD.

  • 3.
    Kenger, Patrick
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Mechanical Engineering.
    Erixon, Gunnar
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Mechanical Engineering.
    Studies of Design and Assembly Defects on Integrated and Modular Architectures2005In: 15th International Conference on Engineering Design, ICED 05, Melbourne: International Conference on Engineering Design (ICED) , 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is known that despite companies’ efforts to improve the quality of their products, design and assembly defects results in large repair costs both in terms of repair and providing feedback to the origin of the defect. The purpose of this paper is to study these types of defects and the defect rates in design and assembly. The paper presents a web based questionnaire answered by 29 companies. The result shows that the defect rate (defects per product) spanned from 0.01 to 10. Also, design and assembly defects covered 46%, 23% respectively, of all occurred defects. A case study is also presented, performed at a company who recently implemented a modular architecture. In this company, defects from 5 700 integrated product architectures are compared with defects from 431 modular architectures. The average defect rate increased by 21.5% – from 0.65 to 0.79 – when a more modular architecture has been implemented. Furthermore, the study showed that the assembly defects have decreased while the design defects increased. The results presented in this paper will also support the development of the MPV (Module Property Verification) method which is briefly described.

  • 4.
    Kenger, Patrik
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Mechanical Engineering.
    Beneftis of modularity and module level tests2005In: Emerging solutions for future manufacturing systems, International Federation for Information Processing., 2005, Vol. 159, p. 379-386Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many companies implement a modular architecture to support the need to create more variants with less effort. Although the modular architecture has many benefits, the tests to detect any defects become a major challenge. However, a modular architecture with defined functional elements seems beneficial to test at module level, so called MPV (Module Property Verification). This paper presents studies from 29 companies with the purpose of showing trends in the occurrence of defects and how these can support the MPV.

  • 5.
    Kenger, Patrik
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Mechanical Engineering. KTH, Industriell produktion.
    Module property verification: A method to plan and perform quality verifications in modular architectures2006Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Modular product architectures have generated numerous benefits for companies in terms of cost, lead-time and quality. The defined interfaces and the module’s properties decrease the effort to develop new product variants, and provide an opportunity to perform parallel tasks in design, manufacturing and assembly. The background of this thesis is that companies perform verifications (tests, inspections and controls) of products late, when most of the parts have been assembled. This extends the lead-time to delivery and ruins benefits from a modular product architecture; specifically when the verifications are extensive and the frequency of detected defects is high. Due to the number of product variants obtained from the modular product architecture, verifications must handle a wide range of equipment, instructions and goal values to ensure that high quality products can be delivered. As a result, the total benefits from a modular product architecture are difficult to achieve.

    This thesis describes a method for planning and performing verifications within a modular product architecture. The method supports companies by utilizing the defined modules for verifications already at module level, so called MPV (Module Property Verification). With MPV, defects are detected at an earlier point, compared to verification of a complete product, and the number of verifications is decreased.

    The MPV method is built up of three phases. In Phase A, candidate modules are evaluated on the basis of costs and lead-time of the verifications and the repair of defects. An MPV-index is obtained which quantifies the module and indicates if the module should be verified at product level or by MPV. In Phase B, the interface interaction between the modules is evaluated, as well as the distribution of properties among the modules. The purpose is to evaluate the extent to which supplementary verifications at product level is needed. Phase C supports a selection of the final verification strategy. The cost and lead-time for the supplementary verifications are considered together with the results from Phase A and B.

    The MPV method is based on a set of qualitative and quantitative measures and tools which provide an overview and support the achievement of cost and time efficient company specific verifications. A practical application in industry shows how the MPV method can be used, and the subsequent benefits

  • 6.
    Kenger, Patrik
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Mechanical Engineering.
    Verifiera Modulerna i Produkten: Tidig felelimineringspunkt2004In: Svenskt Monteringsforum, Stockholm, 2004Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Kenger, Patrik
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Mechanical Engineering.
    Bergdahl, Anders
    Product verification and defect repair - status and considerations2004In: 2nd International Precision Assembly Seminar, IPAS, Bad Hofgastein, Austria, 2004Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Product verifications have become a cost-intensive and time-consuming aspect of modern electronics production, but with the onset of an ever-increasing miniaturisation, these aspects will become even more cumbersome. One may also go as far as to point out that certain precision assembly, such as within the biomedical sector, is legally bound to have 0 defects within production. Since miniaturisation and precision assembly will soon become a part of almost any product, the verifications phases of assembly need to be optimised in both functionality and cost. Another aspect relates to the stability and robustness of processes, a pre-requisite for flexibility. Furthermore, as the re-engineering cycle becomes ever more important, all information gathered within the ongoing process becomes vital. In view of these points, product, or process verification may be assumed to be an important and integral part of precision assembly. In this paper, product verification is defined as the process of determining whether or not the products, at a given phase in the life-cycle, fulfil the established specifications. Since the product is given its final form and function in the assembly, the product verification normally takes place somewhere in the assembly line which is the focus for this paper.

  • 8.
    Kenger, Patrik
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Mechanical Engineering.
    Bergdahl, Anders
    Onori, Mauro
    Modular Product Verifications Based on Design for Assembly2005In: International Forum on Design for Manufacture and Assembly, Providence - Warwick, Rhode Island, USA, 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The desire to conquer markets through advanced product design and trendy business strategies are still predominant approaches in industry today. In fact, product development has acquired an ever more central role in the strategic planning of companies, and it has extended its influence to R&D funding levels as well. It is not surprising that many national R&D project frameworks within the EU today are dominated by product development topics, leaving production engineering, robotics, and systems on the sidelines. The reasons may be many but, unfortunately, the link between product development and the production processes they cater for are seldom treated in depth. The issue dealt with in this article relates to how product development is applied in order to attain the required production quality levels a company may desire, as well as how one may counter assembly defects and deviations through quantifiable design approaches. It is recognized that product verifications (tests, inspections, etc.) are necessary, but the application of these tactics often result in lead-time extensions and increased costs. Modular architectures improve this by simplifying the verification of the assembled product at module level. Furthermore, since Design for Assembly (DFA) has shown the possibility to identify defective assemblies, it may be possible to detect potential assembly defects already in the product and module design phase. The intention of this paper is to discuss and describe the link between verifications of modular architectures, defects and design for assembly. The paper is based on literature and case studies; tables and diagrams are included with the intention of increasing understanding of the relation between poor designs, defects and product verifications.

  • 9.
    Kenger, Patrik
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Mechanical Engineering.
    Coda, Mariana
    An approach to evaluate product verifications2004In: IV Internatioal Congress on Mechanical Engineering Technologies, Varna, Bulgaria, 2004Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Companies implement a module product assortment as a part of their strategy to, among others, shorten lead-times, increase the product quality and to create more product variants with fever parts. However, the increased number of variants becomes a challenging task for the personnel responsible for the product verifications. By implementing verifications at module level, so called MPV (Module Property Verification) several advantages ensue. The advantages is not only a decrease in cost of verifications, but also a decrease in repair times, occupied space, storages with spare parts, and repair tools. Further, MPV also give an increased product quality due to an increased understanding of which defects that may occur. As an approach to implement MPV, this paper discusses defects and verification processes based on a study at a Swedish company. It also describes a matrix which is used to map relations between company specific cost drivers and so called verification factors. The matrix may indicate cost drivers which have a large impact on the total cost of product verifications.

  • 10.
    Kenger, Patrik
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Mechanical Engineering.
    Erixon, Gunnar
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Mechanical Engineering.
    Lennartsson, S
    Module Property Verification: A Conceptual Framework to Perform Product Verifications at Module level2003In: The 14th International Conference on Engineering Design, Stockholm, 2003Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Kenger, Patrik
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Mechanical Engineering.
    Hagström, Lina
    Integrated Product Development in Truck Industry - A Case Study on Product Development Processes2003Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the result from a case study at Scania on product development processes. The objective with the case study was to gather information on Scania’s product development process (PDP) including the use of CAD and simulation tools, and project work. The objective was also to find any deviations or different interpretations among the employees on the PDP. To gather the information, semi-structured tape-recorded interviews have been used to ensure that individual interpretations from the interviewees could be gathered. Scania uses a defined and structured PDP which facilitates concurrent and cross-functional work. The PDP is implemented and followed to various degrees. The newly employed personnel may have difficulties with communication, both to find and to give information. Although, newly graduated personnel may find it easier to adapt to changes, and also to use a structured process which they have studied at universities. It was also known during the case study that the PDP is a major support for the newly employed personnel, which in turn decreases the time to get into the same working process as the more experienced personnel. Employees with decades of experience know the right sources from which to both give and gather information. Also, the terminology and definitions in the product development process may not be used as intended. This makes it difficult for other project members or teams who need to interpret the information received. At the same time, the routines among the more experienced personnel, which have been set-up throughout the years, make them more inflexible in adapting changes. The findings in the case study as well as challenges with implementing the PDP are known to Scania and are a part of the continuing work with improvement.

  • 12.
    Kenger, Patrik
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Mechanical Engineering.
    Karlsson, Anders
    Human error driving the development of a checklist for foreign material exclusion in the nuclear industry2007In: Human Factors and Ergonomics in Manufacturing, ISSN 1090-8471, E-ISSN 1520-6564, Vol. 17, no 3, p. 283-298Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article we describe an approach to develop a checklist for foreign material exclusion. Foreign material is material that should not be part of, or supplied with, the product because it can affect the performance of, for example, nuclear fuel rods of nuclear plants. The research itself was initiated by the presence of different types of human errors. Specifically in the nuclear industry, where there is zero tolerance for errors, work to continuously improve safety and quality is of major importance. Our approach should support such work. As a theoretical base, we have considered team errors as well as individual errors. The suggested practical approach is based on foreign materials that originate in or are introduced into a product or a process.

  • 13.
    Kenger, Patrik
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Mechanical Engineering.
    Onori, M
    Module Property Analysis in the Assembly Process2003In: Proceedings of the International Precision Assembly Seminar, Bad Hofgastein, Austria, 2003Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 14. Thevenot, Henri
    et al.
    Simpson, Timothy
    Jiao, Roger
    Kenger, Patrick
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Mechanical Engineering.
    Product platforming for a global marketplace2008In: Journal of engineering design (Print), ISSN 0954-4828, E-ISSN 1466-1837, Vol. 19, no 6, p. 461-463Article in journal (Refereed)
1 - 14 of 14
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