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  • 1. Alzubaidi, H.
    et al.
    Magnusson, Rolf
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Road Technology.
    Deterioration and Rating of Gravel Roads - State of the Art2002In: International Journal on Road Materials and Pavement Design, ISSN 1468-0629, E-ISSN 2164-7402, Vol. 3, no 3, p. 235-60Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2. Alzubaidi, H.
    et al.
    Magnusson, Rolf
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Road Technology.
    Statistical Analysis of Gravel Road Rating2002In: The international journal of pavement engineering, ISSN 1029-8436, E-ISSN 1477-268X, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 35-42Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3. Bergström, A.
    et al.
    Magnusson, Rolf
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Road Technology.
    Potential of Transferring Car Trips to Bicycle During Winter2003In: Transportation Research -Part A, ISSN 0191-2607, Vol. 37, p. 649-666Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4. Bergström, A
    et al.
    Åström, H
    Magnusson, Rolf
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Road Technology.
    Friction Measurements on Cycleways Using a Portable Friction Tester2003In: ASCEs Journal of Cold Regions Engineering, ISSN 1943-5495, Vol. 17, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Edvardsson, Karin
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Road Technology. KTH.
    Gustafsson, Alf
    Magnusson, Rolf
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Road Technology.
    Dust suppressants efficiency study: in situ measurements of dust generation on gravel roads2012In: The international journal of pavement engineering, ISSN 1029-8436, E-ISSN 1477-268X, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 11-31Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dust suppressants were applied on fifteen 1 km long test sections at four sites in Sweden during three summer seasons with the objective to compare their relative efficiency and determine minimum application rates in Nordic climate. Dust generation from the test sections was measured both visually and by PM10 measurements. All products except lignosulphonate, sugar and bitumen emulsion showed acceptable efficiency. Chloride solutions were the most efficient. Results indicate the possibility to reduce application rates of chlorides by applying them as solutions instead of solids. The minimum application rate for a chloride solution was estimated at 0.8m(3)/km, which is equivalent to a rate reduction of 50% by weight compared with traditionally applied rates of solid chloride. The results are expected to reduce life cycle costs for gravel roads and contribute to environmental gains by reducing the release of dust into the atmosphere and chemicals into the environment.

  • 6.
    Edvardsson, Karin
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Magnusson, Rolf
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Road Technology.
    Impact of fine materials content on the transport of dust suppressants in gravel road wearing courses2011In: Journal of materials in civil engineering, ISSN 0899-1561, E-ISSN 1943-5533, Vol. 23, no 8, p. 1163-1170Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A significant problem when dust-suppressing agents are used on gravel roads is that they tend to leach during rainfall. The purpose of this study is to illustrate this problem by using laboratory studies and studies in situ. Both capillary rise and leaching of suppressants were examined by using cylinders filled with wearing course material. Chloride was more prone than lignosulphonate to transport upwards by means of capillary rise, and therefore, it showed a more effective performance over a longer period of time. Optimal percentages of fine material for minimal lignosulphonate and chloride leaching were found to be 15% by weight and 10-15% by weight, respectively. Ions of calcium chloride seemed to flocculate clay particles, which probably prevents them from leaching. To study the in situ longevity of fine material in general, calcium carbonate, mesa, was used as a marker. The fine material in gravel wearing courses must be replenished regularly. Mesa loss was up to 80% after 1 year. DOI: 10.1061/(ASCE)MT.1943-5533.0000282. (C) 2011 American Society of Civil Engineers.

  • 7.
    Karim, Hawzheen
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Road Technology.
    Alam, Moudud
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Magnusson, Rolf
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Road Technology.
    Road barrier repair costs and influencing factors2011In: Journal of transportation engineering, ISSN 0733-947X, E-ISSN 1943-5436, Vol. 137, no 5, p. 349-359Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a study that examines repair costs for different road barrier types and factors that influence these costs. The analyses focused on w-beam and cable barriers used as median barriers. To some extent, pipe barriers, Kohlswa-beam barriers, and concrete barriers were also studied. The influencing factors included in this study were road type, speed limit, barrier type, and seasonal effects. A case study was conducted in four regions of the Swedish Road Administration. Data were collected from 1,625 barrier repairs carried out during 2005 and 2006. The results show that the number of barrier repairs and the average repair cost per vehicle kilometer are higher along collision-free roads than along motorways and 4-lane roads. The results also show that the number of barrier repairs and the average repair cost per vehicle kilometer are higher for cable barrier than for other barrier types. No conclusion can be drawn regarding influence of speed limits on barrier repairs and associated costs as the result from the regions are divergent and not statistically significant. DOI: 10.1061/(ASCE)TE.1943-5436.0000227. (C) 2011 American Society of Civil Engineers.

  • 8.
    Karim, Hawzheen
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Road Technology.
    Magnusson, Rolf
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Road Technology.
    Road Design for Future Maintenance Problems and Possibilities2008In: Journal of Transportation Engineering, ISSN 0733947X, Vol. 134, p. 523-531Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an investigation conducted to identify obstacles that prevent sufficient consideration of future road maintenance needs during the road planning and design phase. The investigation focuses on the road planning and design process within the Swedish Road Administration. For this reason the results are applicable for Nordic conditions concerning road design, maintenance, and climate. However, the results focus on general aspects of the planning and design process and ought to also be valid for other conditions outside the Nordic countries. The investigation was carried out using a method called ᅵchange analysis,ᅵ which consists of complementary steps for the analysis of problems, processes, and goals in order to identify necessary changes. The investigation identified several problems within the road planning and design process related to consulting, knowledge, planning and design activities, regulations, organization structure, and demands from other authorities. The

  • 9.
    Karim, Hawzheen
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Road Technology.
    Magnusson, Rolf
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Road Technology.
    Vägbarriärens inverkan på snöplogning2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna arbetsrapport presenterar en studie som utfördes i syfte att undersöka hur vägbarriärer påverkar utförandet av plogningen och till detta relaterade kostnader. Målet var att kunna identifiera och beräkna de eventuella ökningar i snöplogningskostnaderna som tillkommer på grund av vägbarriärer. Studien utfördes med hjälp av en metod som heter ”Case Study Reasearch Strategy”. Fältstudier av snöplogningen utfördes på 6 vägsträckor. Fältstudierna täckte fyra vägtyper: motorväg, mötesfria vägar, 4-fältiga vägar och målade 2+1-vägar. De barriärtyper som studerades var betongbarriär, stållineräcke, rörräcke och w-profilräcke. Plogningskvalité, arbetsmiljö, trafiksäkerhet och framkomlighet studerades med hjälp av direkta observationer av plogningsaktiviteter på fält. Genom at mäta tiden för att ploga en viss sträcka bestämdes plogningshastigheten. Resultatet visade att vägbarriärtypen påverkar varken snöplogningshastigheten eller plogningstiden nämnvärt. Vidare visade resultatet att vägbarriärtypen inte påverkar snöplogningskvaliteten längs med mittremsan. Däremot, försämras plogningskvalitén längs vägrenar med betongbarriärar eller w-profilräcken som sidobarriärer. Det är dock svårt att beräkna de kostnader som tillkommer på grund av försämrad plogningskvalité. Trots att både trafiksäkerheten och framkomligheten försämrades drastiskt under plogningen, kunde man konstatera att dessa två aspekter inte påverkades av vägbarriärtypen.

  • 10.
    Karim, Hawzheen
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Road Technology.
    Magnusson, Rolf
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Road Technology.
    Vägprojektering för minskade drift- och underhållskostnader: Brister och möjligheter2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    För att kunna bygga en ny väg måste den först planeras och projekteras. Vägplanering innebär att man undersöker förutsättningarna för att bygga vägen t.ex. konsekvenser för miljö, samhälle, trafiksäkerhet, framkomlighet, tillgänglighet samt tekniska och ekonomiska förutsättningar. Vägprojektering innebär att man bestämmer vägens utformning på detaljnivå t.ex. vägsträckning, bredd, profil, vägutrustning, etc. Planering och projektering av vägar är en komplicerad process med tanke på alla komponenter som en väg består av samt alla aspekter som man måste ta hänsyn till under vägens livstid. Planerings- och projekteringsprocessen utgör en avvägning av många aspekter för att hitta den optimala lösningen. Drift- och underhållsåtgärder på vägnätet föranleds ofta av att problem uppstått på ett fåtal ställen. Kostnaden för att åtgärda dessa ställen kan uppgå till stora belopp under vägens livslängd. Med en lämpligare utformning av vägen hade dessa problem i en del fall sannolikt kunnat undvikas. Bland de aktörer, som är inblandade i planerings- och projekteringsprocessen, finns det olika åsikter om orsaken till att man inte tar tillräcklig hänsyn till drift- och underhållaspekten under planerings- och projekteringsskedet. Vissa aktörer tycker att det är projektörens kunskapsbrister som leder till att vägen får olämplig utformning avseende drift och underhåll. Andra tycker att det är en kombination av olika brister hos väghållaren. Dessa brister kan då finnas i såväl planerings- och projekteringsprocessen som i drift- och underhållsprocessen. Denna rapport presenterar resultatet för en förstudie som har utförts inom doktorandprojektet ”Vägprojektering för minskade drift- och underhållskostnader”. Syftet med förstudien var att identifiera brister och problem på övergripande nivå som leder till att man inte tar tillräcklig hänsyn till drift- och underhållsaspekten vid planerings- och projekteringsprocessen. Ett annat syfte med förstudien var att föreslå förändringsbehov inom planerings- och projekteringsprocessen genom att analysera de identifierade problemen, analysera verksamheten vid planering och projektering, analysera verksamhetens mål, formulera nya mål för verksamheten och fastställa de nödvändiga förändringsbehoven.

  • 11.
    Karim, Hawzheen
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Road Technology. KTH.
    Magnusson, Rolf
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Road Technology.
    Natanaelsson, Kenneth
    Life-cycle cost analyses for road barriers2011In: Journal of transportation engineering, ISSN 0733-947X, E-ISSN 1943-5436, Vol. 138, no 7, p. 830-851Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aimed at applying and evaluating a new approach for analyzing life-cycle costs for road components during the road planning and design process. Road median barriers were chosen as an example. The approach is based on a method called “Activity-Based Life-Cycle Costing using the Monte Carlo Simulation” for managing future costs and the associated risks. The results show a potential for increasing efficiency throughout the road planning and design process by minimizing the life-cycle costs of road components. The results also show that implementation of life-cycle cost analyses in the road planning and design process is possible, but difficult, mainly due to lack of relevant data.

  • 12.
    Karim, Hawzheen
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Road Technology.
    Magnusson, Rolf
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Road Technology.
    Wiklund, Mats
    Assessment of Injury Rates Associated with Road Barrier Collisions2012In: Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, ISSN 1877-0428, E-ISSN 1877-0428, Vol. 48, p. 52-63Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a study aimed at quantifying and comparing the risk of personal injuries associated with road barrier collisions. Documented data from actual barrier collisions, including post-impact collisions, in Sweden between 2005 and 2008 were analyzed. The analyses were based on the injury classification made by healthcare services. The injury rates, measured in number of injuries per vehicle kilometer travelled, were calculated for the different injury classes as a basis for evaluating barrier performance. The results show that the rate of injuries was higher due to collisions with flexible barrier systems, such as cable barrier, than with other semi-rigid and rigid barrier system, such as w-beam and concrete barriers. This result might be explained by a high rate of post-impact events, such as post-impact collisions, roll-overs and over-rides, associated with the placement and mechanical properties of the cable barriers. The study also showed a considerable difference in injury classifications made by the police and the healthcare services, as well as a considerable under-reporting of barrier collisions by the police.

  • 13. Odermatt, N.
    et al.
    Janoo, V.
    Magnusson, Rolf
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Road Technology.
    Analysis of Permanent Deformation in Subgrade Material Using a Heavy Vehicle Simulator1999In: Paper no CS11-05. International Conference in Accelerated Pavement Testing, Reno, Nevada, USA, 1999Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 14. Odermatt, N
    et al.
    Wiman, L. G
    Arm, M
    Magnusson, Rolf
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Road Technology.
    Deformation of Unbound Pavement Materials – Heavy Vehicle Simulator and Cyclic Load Triaxial Tests2004In: 2nd International Conference on Accelerated Pavement Testing, Minneapolis, Minnisota, 2004Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 15. Offrell, P.
    et al.
    Magnusson, Rolf
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Road Technology.
    Computerised Tomography as a Tool for Crack Analyses in Asphalt Layers2002In: International Journal on Road Materials and Pavement Design, ISSN 1468-0629, E-ISSN 2164-7402, Vol. 3, p. 49-72Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 16. Offrell, P
    et al.
    Magnusson, Rolf
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Road Technology.
    In Situ Photographic Survey of Crack Propagation in Flexible Pavements2004In: The international journal of pavement engineering, ISSN 1029-8436, E-ISSN 1477-268X, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 91-102Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 17. Offrell, P
    et al.
    Sjögren, L
    Magnusson, Rolf
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Road Technology.
    Repeatability in crack data collection on flexible pavements: comparison between surveys using video cameras, laser cameras and a simplified manual Survey2005In: Journal of transportation engineering, ISSN 0733-947X, E-ISSN 1943-5436, Vol. 131, no 7, p. 552-562Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Crack data can be collected using manual or automatic surveys. Traditionally, manual methods are used, and they are still the most common. Changing into automatic systems will enhance the efficiency of data collection as well as the objectivity. In this study the repeatability of an automatic crack data collection system using video images was evaluated. Ten repetitive measurements were made on a 10-km-long road section. Cracking was measured using six laser cameras attached to the same vehicle. The results from the two methods were compared. Simultaneously, a simplified manual windshield survey was conducted by three different persons, and the repeatability obtained was used for comparison with the repeatability established using the image and laser method, respectively. The correlation between repeated measurements using the two automatic systems was high, while the repeatability for the manual, subjective method was low. Suitable measures for crack characterization are discussed.

  • 18.
    Oscarsson, Karin
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Road Technology. KTH.
    Ekblad, Jonas
    Magnusson, Rolf
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Road Technology.
    Methods for quantification of lignosulphonate and chloride in gravel wearing courses2010In: International Journal on Road Materials and Pavement Design, ISSN 1468-0629, E-ISSN 2164-7402, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 171-185Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to oxidation, breakdown, and leaching, dust suppressants will be lost from the gravel road surface. Methods for residual dust suppressant concentration supervision are a valuable tool for estimating life-length and optimal application rates, and, hence, efficiency of different products. The objective of this study was to identify methods for quantitative analyses of lignosulphonate and chloride, develop and adapt the methods for application on a gravel matrix, and validate the methods using samples collected in-situ. Results strongly suggest that the reliability and repeatability of the developed methods (23 % for lignosulphonate and 30 % for chloride, respectively) are acceptable for determination of relative variations in residual concentrations of dust suppressed gravel wearing courses.

  • 19.
    Oscarsson, Karin
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Road Technology.
    Magnusson, Rolf
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Road Technology.
    Monitoring of dust emission on gravel roads: development of a mobile methodology and examination of horizontal diffusion2009In: Atmospheric Environment, ISSN 1352-2310, E-ISSN 1873-2844, Vol. 43, no 4, p. 889-896Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Traffic-generated fugitive dust on gravel roads impairs visibility and deposits on the adjacent environment. Particulate matter smaller than 10 µm in diameter (PM10) is also associated with human health problems. Dust emission strength depends on the composition of granular material, road moisture, relative humidity, local climate (precipitation, wind velocity, etc.), and vehicle characteristics. The objectives of this study were to develop a reliable and rapid mobile methodology to measure dust concentrations on gravel roads, evaluate the precision and repeatability of the methodology and correspondence with the currently used visual assessment technique. Downwind horizontal diffusion was studied to evaluate the risk of exceeding the maximum allowed particulate matter concentration in ambient air near gravel roads according to European Council Directive [European Council Directive 1999/30/EC of 22 April 1999 relating to limit values for sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide and oxides of nitrogen, particulate matter and lead in ambient air. Official Journal of the European Communities. L163/41.]. A TSI DustTrak Aerosol Monitor was mounted on an estate car travelling along test sections treated with various dust suppressants. Measured PM10 concentrations were compared to visual assessments performed at the same time. Airborne particles were collected in filters mounted behind the vehicle to compare the whole dust fraction with the PM10 concentration. For measuring the horizontal diffusion, DustTraks were placed at various distances downwind of a dusty road section. The mobile methodology was vehicle and speed dependent but not driver dependent with pre-specified driving behaviours. A high linear correlation between PM10 of different vehicles makes relative measurements of dust concentrations possible. The methodology gives continuous data series, mobility, and easy handling and provides fast, reliable and inexpensive measurements for estimating road conditions to make road maintenance more efficient. Good correlations between measured PM10-values, visually assessed dust generation and dust collected in filters were obtained. PM10 seems to be correlated to the whole dust fraction that impairs visibility on gravel roads. A decay in PM10 concentration as a function of distance from the road was observed. Measured particles principally did not travel further than 45 m from the road. The risk of exceeding the PM10 concentration stated in the EC-directive seems small.

  • 20.
    Selvén, Catherine
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    Magnusson, Rolf
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    Bärförmåga hos lågtrafikerade vägar: Tjälrestriktioner2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport redovisar en förstudie som genomförts i syfte att belysa nuvarande hantering av tjälrestriktioner inom Vägverket, utforma ett förslag till en verksgemensam metodbeskrivning och föreslå en fortsatt verksamhet inom området för att komma tillrätta med identifierade problem och utvecklingsbehov. Syftet med denna förstudie är att: - Inventera nuvarande hantering av tjälrestriktioner vid Vägverkets regionala enheter. - Utarbeta en metodbeskrivning med uppföljningsrutiner, som i rimlig utsträckning tar hänsyn till regionernas olika förutsättningar. - Redogöra för överväganden bakom lagda förslag i metodbeskrivningen och dokumentera utgångspunkter. - Beskriva nödvändiga förändringar i berörda IT-system - Ge förslag till en arbetsgång för implementering av metoden i regionerna - Utarbeta ett förslag till fortsatt arbete med tjälrestriktioner med en grov beskrivning av kostnader och nytta. - Definiera och förtydliga begreppet tjälrestriktioner och andra betydelsefulla begrepp av betydelse för området. - Göra en grov sammanställning av näringslivets önskemål huvudsakligen genom studier av tidigare utredningar. Arbetet har genomförts genom intervjuer med ansvariga för verksamheten vid Vägverkets regioner och vid Vägverkets huvudkontor. IT-frågor har diskuterats med förvaltare av olika system och med ansvariga för utvecklingsprojekt i anslutning till området. Under arbetet har ett antal dokument insamlats och studerats. Resultatet av arbetet redovisas under rubriker som anknyter till ovanstående punkter och i bilagor.

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