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  • 1.
    Petrovic, Bojana
    Högskolan Dalarna, Institutionen för information och teknik, Byggteknik. Högskolan i Gävle, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik.
    Life cycle assessment and life cycle cost analysis of a single-family house2021Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Byggbranschen svarar för 35% av den slutliga energianvändningen och 38 % av koldioxidutsläppen på global nivå. Europeiska unionen strävar efter att minska koldioxidutsläppen i byggnadsindustrin med upp till 90% fram till 2050. Därför är det viktigt att beakta byggnaders miljöpåverkan. Syftet med denna avhandling var att undersöka miljöpåverkan och kostnader för ett enfamiljshus i Sverige. I studien har livscykelbedömningen (LCA) och livscykelkostnadsmetoderna (LCC) använts genom att tillämpa livscykelperspektivet ”vagga till grav”.

    Studien visar en stor minskning av global uppvärmningspotential (GWP), användning av primärenergi (PE) och kostnader vid växling från 50 till 100 års husets livslängd. Resultaten visar en årlig minskning med 27% för utsläpp av växthusgaser och med 18% för användningen av primärenergi. Med tanke på det totala LCC-utfallet, när diskonteringsräntan ökar från 3%, 5% till 7%, minskar de totala kostnaderna avsevärt (60%, 85% till 95%). Det noteras att klimatavtrycket, primärenergianvändningen och kostnaderna från produktionssteget/konstruktionssteget minskar avsevärt, medan underhålls- / utbytessteget visar den motsatta trenden när man byter från 50 till 100 års livslängd. Den operativa energianvändningen, vattenförbrukningen och avfallshanteringen är fortfarande nästan samma när man ändrar livslängden. Vidare betonar resultaten vikten av att använda träbaserade byggmaterial på grund av lägre klimatpåverkan från tillverkningsprocessen jämfört med alternativen.

    LCA- och LCC-resultaten studerades systematiskt och redovisades visuellt. De koldioxidsnåla och kostnadseffektiva materialen och installationerna måste identifieras i ett tidigt skede av en byggnadskonstruktion genom att välja lämpliga investeringsval som kommer att minska de totala miljö och ekonomiska effekterna på lång sikt. Resultaten från denna avhandling ger ökad förståelse för miljömässiga och ekonomiska konsekvenser som är relevanta för beslutsfattare vid byggnation av ett enfamiljshus.

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  • 2.
    Petrovic, Bojana
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Institutionen för information och teknik, Byggteknik. University of Gävle.
    Eriksson, Ola
    University of Gävle.
    Zhang, Xingxing
    Högskolan Dalarna, Institutionen för information och teknik, Energiteknik.
    Carbon assessment of a wooden single-family building – A novel deep green design and elaborating on assessment parameters2023Ingår i: Building and Environment, ISSN 0360-1323, E-ISSN 1873-684X, Vol. 233, artikel-id 110093Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate how the carbon accounting of a wooden single-family house is affected by (1) decreasing the carbon footprint by changes in building design, (2) differentiating biogenic carbon from fossil carbon and (3) including external benefits beyond the state-of-the-art system boundaries. The motivation of exploring different system boundaries, improved building design and investigating benefits aside of system boundaries rely on the fact of having the “full” picture of GHG emissions of building products. Changes in building design were analyzed by life cycle assessment (LCA) focusing on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, while the costs were assessed by using lice cycle cost (LCC). The findings showed that by including positive and negative emissions from the production phase for an improved building design within scenario 4 ‘Cradle to Gate + Biogenic Carbon + D module’ has the lowest embodied GHG emissions when compared to other approaches with −3.5 kg CO2e/m2/y50. Considering the impacts of the whole building, the lowest GHG emissions are within the scenario 8 ‘Cradle to Grave + Biogenic Carbon + D module‘ for the improved building design with −0.7 kg CO2e/m2/y50. The results suggest that a change to sustainable alternatives for building components that makes the whole building to be constructed by wood, could lead to significant reduction of GHG emissions compared to conventional material choices. Economically, testing sustainable solutions, the highlighted results are the construction costs that are almost double higher for CLT elements for the foundation compared to concrete. © 2023

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  • 3.
    Petrovic, Bojana
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Institutionen för information och teknik, Byggteknik. Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, University of Gävle, Gävle; NORSUS(Norwegian Institute for Sustainability Research), Kråkerøy, Norway.
    Eriksson, Ola
    Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, University of Gävle, Gävle.
    Zhang, Xingxing
    Högskolan Dalarna, Institutionen för information och teknik, Energiteknik.
    Wallhagen, Marita
    Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, University of Gävle, Gävle.
    Carbon Assessment of a Wooden Single-Family Building—Focusing on Re-Used Building Products2024Ingår i: Buildings, E-ISSN 2075-5309, Vol. 14, nr 3, artikel-id 800Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has shown a lack of studies with comparisons between primary (virgin) and secondary (re-used) building materials, and their embodied emissions. The creation of different scenarios comparing the environmental impact of virgin vs. re-used materials is also motivated by the scarcity of raw materials in the world and the emergency of mitigating greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from buildings. The aim of this study was to investigate scenarios, including new vs. re-used building products, applying the LCA method for a wooden single-family building. The findings showed a 23% reduction potential for total released (positive) CO2e when comparing the Reference scenario with Scenario I, using re-used wooden-based materials. Further, Scenario II, using all re-used building materials except for installations, showed a 59% CO2e reduction potential compared to the Reference scenario. Finally, Scenario III, which assumes all re-used building products, showed a 92% decreased global warming potential (GWP) impact compared to the Reference scenario. However, when including biogenic carbon and benefits (A5 and D module), the Reference scenario, based on newly produced wooden building materials, has the largest negative GHG emissions. It can be concluded that the re-use of building products leads to significant carbon savings compared to using new building products.

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  • 4.
    Petrovic, Bojana
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Byggteknik.
    Myhren, Jonn Are
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Byggteknik.
    Zhang, Xingxing
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Energiteknik.
    Wallhagen, Marita
    Eriksson, Ola
    Life cycle assessment of a wooden single-family house in Sweden2019Ingår i: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 251, s. 113-253, artikel-id 113253Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    To understand the reasons behind the large environmental impact from buildings the whole life cycle needs to be considered. Therefore, this study evaluates the carbon dioxide emissions in all stages of a single-family house in Sweden from the production of building materials, followed by construction and user stages until the end-of-life of the building in a life cycle assessment (LCA). The methodology applied is attributional life cycle assessment (LCA) based on ‘One Click LCA’ tool and a calculated life span of 100 years. Global warming potential (GWP) and primary energy (PE) are calculated by using specific data from the case study, furthermore the data regarding building materials are based on Environmental Product Declarations (EPDs). The results show that the selection of wood-based materials has a significantly lower impact on the carbon dioxide emissions in comparison with non-wood based materials. The total emissions for this single-family house in Sweden are 6 kg CO 2 e/m 2 /year. The production stage of building materials, including building systems and installations represent 30% of the total carbon dioxide equivalent emissions, while the maintenance and replacement part represents 37%. However, energy use during the in-use stage of the house recorded lower environmental impact (21%) due to the Swedish electricity mix that is mostly based on energy sources with low carbon dioxide emissions. The water consumption, construction and the end-of-life stages have shown minor contribution to the buildings total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (12%). The primary energy indicator shows the largest share in the operational phase of the house.

  • 5.
    Petrovic, Bojana
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Byggteknik.
    Myhren, Jonn Are
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Byggteknik.
    Zhang, Xingxing
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Energiteknik.
    Wallhagen, Marita
    Eriksson, Ola
    Life cycle assessment of building materials for a single-family house in Sweden2019Ingår i: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 158, s. 3547-3552Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Nordic countries have shown great interest in using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) in the building sector compared to the past years. Sweden has set up an objective to be carbon neutral (no greenhouse gas emissions to the atmosphere) by 2045. This paper presents a case study of a single-family house “Dalarnas Villa” in the region Dalarna, Sweden within a 100-year perspective. The assessment is implemented using a new software based on hard data agreed by Environmental Product Declarations (EPDs). It focuses on building materials, transport distances of the materials, and replacement of essential construction materials. The LCA in this study demonstrates the environmental impact related to building materials from production and construction phase including transport, replacement and deconstruction phase. The study does not cover energy use and water consumption. The results show that the building slab made by concrete is the part of the construction most contributing to CO2e, while the wood frame and cellulose insulation have low environmental impact. Replacement of materials takes nearly half of total environmental impact over 100 years. Having a large share of wood-based products, make greenhouse gas emissions remains low.

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  • 6.
    Petrovic, Bojana
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Institutionen för information och teknik, Byggteknik.
    Zhang, Xingxing
    Högskolan Dalarna, Institutionen för information och teknik, Energiteknik.
    Eriksson, Ola
    Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, University of Gävle.
    Wallhagen, Marita
    Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, University of Gävle.
    Life cycle cost analysis of a single-family house in Sweden2021Ingår i: Buildings, E-ISSN 2075-5309, Vol. 11, nr 5, artikel-id 215Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this paper was to explore long-term costs for a single-family house in Sweden during its entire lifetime. In order to estimate the total costs, considering construction, replacement, operation, and end-of-life costs over the long term, the life cycle cost (LCC) method was applied. Different cost solutions were analysed including various economic parameters in a sensitivity analysis. Economic parameters used in the analysis include various nominal discount rates (7%, 5% and 3%), an inflation rate of 2%, and energy escalation rates (2-6%). The study includes two lifespans (100 and 50 years). The discounting scheme was used in the calculations. Additionally, carbon-dioxide equivalent (CO2e) emissions were considered and systematically analysed with costs. Findings show that when the discount rate is decreased from 7% to 3% the total costs are increased significantly, by 44% for a 100-year lifespan, while for a 50 years lifespan the total costs show a minor increase by 18%. The construction costs represent a major part of total LCC, with labor costs making up half of them. Considering costs and emissions together, a full correlation was not found, while a partial relationship was investigated. Results can be useful for decision-makers in the building sector.

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