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  • 1.
    Aalto-Hardy, Annette
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Språk och medier, Franska.
    Les influences françaises dans la Russie tsariste: sur les réformes culturelles, sociales et politiques2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [fr]

    Le mémoire traite de l’influence des idées françaises des Lumières sur la Russie et son évolution, notamment sociale, politique et culturelle. Cette étude est concentrée sur les deux tsars les plus célèbres et leur règne respectifs, Pierre Ier le Grand et Catherine II la Grande puisqu’ils ont été à l’origine de la plupart des réformes. Une description de la Russie avant l'époque de Pierre Ier et du siècle des Lumières, ses philosophes et ses idées fondamentales, est aussi présentée. Le mémoire se termine par une brève discussion sur les réformes essentielles faites dans la Russie tsariste.

  • 2.
    Abdul Kareem, Ala'a
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning och humaniora, Litteraturvetenskap.
    A Psychoanalytical Reading of Emily Brontë's Wuthering Heights: An Analysis of the Defense Mechanisms of Some Characters2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This essay presents a portrayal of Heathcliff, Catherine and Isabella from a psychoanalytical perspective with regard to four defense mechanisms; namely, repression, denial, sublimation and projection in order to see how these defense mechanisms have affected the characters’ decisions and behaviour, and led them to their destinations in life. It will include three major sections: repression in characters, denial in characters, and sublimation and projection in characters. These terms will be more clearly defined and explained in the subsequent sections.

  • 3.
    Abelin, Åsa
    et al.
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Thorén, Bosse
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Humaniora och medier, Svenska som andraspråk.
    The Perceptual Weight of Word Stress, Quantity and Tonal Word Accent in Swedish2017Inngår i: Phonology in Protolanguage and Interlanguage / [ed] Elena Babatsouli and David Ingram, Equinox Publishing, 2017, s. 316-341Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    When teaching the pronunciation of an additional language, the teacher should know which properties to give high priority and which to give lower priority. The present study aims at ranking the perceptual weight among the three phonemic prosodic contrasts of Swedish, namely word stress, quantity and tonal word accent. In two experiments, native Swedish subjects were presented with several disyllabic sequences; intact words, nonsense words and words that were distorted with respect to the three prosodic contrasts. The distorted words were not members of minimal pairs. In addition to intact words and non-word distractors, subjects heard originally trochaic words pronounced with iambic stress pattern and vice versa, originally /VːC/ words pronounced as /VCː/ and originally accent I words pronounced with accent II and vice versa. Listeners should decide whether the words were real words or not. The result shows that words with changed word accent category were rather easy to identify, words with changed stress pattern harder to identify, and changed quantity category caused most problems.

  • 4.
    Abelin, Åsa
    et al.
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Thorén, Bosse
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Humaniora och medier, Svenska som andraspråk.
    The relative perceptual weight of two Swedish prosodic contrasts2015Inngår i: Proceedings of the International Symposium on Monolingual and Bilingual Speech 2015 / [ed] Elena Babatsouli, David Ingram, Chania 73100, Greece: Institute of Monolingual and Bilingual Speech , 2015, s. 1-7Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract. In addition to 9 vowel and 18 consonant phonemes, Swedish has three prosodic phonemic contrasts: word stress, quantity and tonal word accent. There are also examples of distinctive phrase or sentence stress, where a verb can be followed by either an unstressed preposition or a stressed particle. This study focuses on word level and more specifically on word stress and tonal word accent in disyllabic words. When making curriculums for second language learners, teachers are helped by knowing which phonetic or phonological features are more or less crucial for the intelligibility of speech and there are some structural and anecdotal evidence that word stress should play a more important role for intelligibility of Swedish, than the tonal word accent. The Swedish word stress is about prominence contrasts between syllables, mainly signaled by syllable duration, while the tonal word accent is signaled mainly by pitch contour. The word stress contrast, as in armen [´arːmən] ‘the arm’ - armén [ar´meːn] ‘the army’, the first word trochaic and the second iambic, is present in all regional varieties of Swedish, and realized with roughly the same acoustic cues, while the tonal word accent, as in anden [´anːdən] ‘the duck’ - anden [`anːdən] ‘the spirit’ is absent in some dialects (as well as in singing), and also signaled with a variety of tonal patterns depending on region. The present study aims at comparing the respective perceptual weight of the two mentioned contrasts. Two lexical decision tests were carried out where in total 34 native Swedish listeners should decide whether a stimulus was a real word or a non-word. Real words of all mentioned categories were mixed with nonsense words and words that were mispronounced with opposite stress pattern or opposite tonal word accent category. The results show that distorted word stress caused more non-word judgments and more loss, than distorted word accent. Our conclusion is that intelligibility of Swedish is more sensitive to distorted word stress pattern than to distorted tonal word accent pattern. This is in compliance with the structural arguments presented above, and also with our own intuition.

  • 5.
    Abelin, Åsa
    et al.
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Thorén, Bosse
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Humaniora och medier, Svenska som andraspråk.
    What affects recognition most – wrong wordstress or wrong word accent?2015Inngår i: Proceedings of Fonetik 2015, Lund University, Sweden / [ed] Malin Svensson Lundmark, Gilbert Ambrazaitis and Joost van de Weijer, 2015, Vol. 55, s. 7-10Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In an attempt to find out which of the two Swedish prosodic contrasts of 1) wordstress pattern and 2) tonal word accent category has the greatest communicative weight, a lexical decision experiment was conducted: in one part word stress pattern was changed from trochaic to iambic, and in the other part trochaic accentII words were changed to accent I.Native Swedish listeners were asked to decide whether the distorted words werereal words or ‘non-words’. A clear tendency is that listeners preferred to give more‘non-word’ responses when the stress pattern was shifted, compared to when wordaccent category was shifted. This could have implications for priority of phonological features when teaching Swedish as a second language.

  • 6.
    Abenius, Jessica
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Humaniora och medier, Svenska som andraspråk.
    Studiehandledning på modersmål ur studiehandledares egna perspektiv2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Sedan år 2011 ligger det i skolans uppdrag att ordna med studiehandledning på modersmål, en stödinsats som är tätt sammankopplad med modersmålsundervisning. I skolförordningen, som reglerar Sveriges alla skolformer, kan man läsa att elever som behöver studiehandledning på sitt modersmål ska få det (Skolförordningen, 5. kap, 4 §). Syftet med den här studien är att skapa förståelse om studiehandledning på modersmål utifrån studiehandledarnas egna perspektiv samt utifrån innehållet i styrdokument.

    Studien baseras på halvstrukturerade intervjuer med tre informanter som arbetar som studiehandledare på modersmål på en gymnasieskola och på en granskning av styrdokument där studiehandledning på modersmål nämns. Resultatet visar att informanterna känner sig välbehövda och viktiga i sin yrkesroll. De vittnar om att nyanlända elever behöver stöttning i sitt modersmål för att nå de utsatta målen i ett eller flera ämnen. Det framgår dock att samarbetet mellan studiehandlarna och ämneslärarna behöver bli bättre för att lektionerna ska kunna planeras och utföras på ett bra sätt. Även studiehandledarnas status på skolan behöver höjas, som det ser ut nu så arbetar de i det tysta med ansvar för ett stort antal elever.

  • 7.
    Abis, Paolo
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Språk och medier, Engelska.
    Class Struggle, Elitism and Social Collectivism in Ngugi wa Thiong’o’s Devil on the Cross: A Marxist Approach2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Oppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Ngugi wa Thiong’o’s Devil on the Cross represents both an insightful interpretation and a scathing critique of Kenyan politics and society during the period of neo-colonialism. The present thesis aims to explore, with the help of Marxist ideology and criticism, the relevance of the issues of class struggle, elitism and social collectivism in the novel. At the same time, this study will attempt to define Devil on the Cross as a "national allegory" depicting situations that are common to almost all post-colonial societies, and in particular, how the novel's ideological and political commitment is an important feature as it reflects Ngugi’s effort to draw attention to how Kenya and Africa as a whole suffered from imperialism, neo-colonialism, and a corrupt and greedy capitalist society.

  • 8.
    Abozidan, Elias
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Humaniora och medier, Engelska.
    On the Second-Generation Migrants’ Hybridity and Otherness in Hanif Kureishi’s The Buddha of Suburbia. 2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 9.
    Abrahamsson, Linn
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Humaniora och medier, Religionsvetenskap.
    Fördomar, normer och generaliseringar: En studie av religionskunskapslärares förhållningsätt till mångfald2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie syftar till att undersöka lärares förhållningssätt till begreppet mångfald så som det skrivs fram i ämnesplanen för religionskunskap i LGY11. Fem kvalitativa intervjuer genomfördes med lärare i religionskunskap på gymnasiet. Dessa intervjuer har tolkats med hjälp av en narrativ analysmetod och relaterats dels till olika filosofiska perspektiv, normkritisk pedagogik samt fältet för kontroversiella frågor i undervisning. Resultatet påvisar att det finns såväl likheter som skillnader mellan lärarnas förhållningssätt. En likhet var att många av dem intog ett elevperspektiv i sin undervisning och berättade om hur de anpassar sin undervisning till olika elevgrupper. En skillnad berör hur man uppfattar själva religionsämnet som sådant; vissa av lärarna talade i termer av att motverka fördomar, andra om att ämnet kan bidra till en ökad förståelse hos eleverna själva.

  • 10.
    Abu Hammad, Omar
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Språk och medier, Engelska.
    Euphemism: Sweet Talking or Deception?2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Oppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to shed light on euphemism in two different senses: sweet talking and deception. I shall treat euphemism from two different perspectives: the usual use of euphemism, sweet talking, in which it is used to maintain one's face and the orthophemistic sense, deception, where 'torture' is referred to as "enhanced interrogation techniques". I shall analyze examples, taken from religious, cultural, political backgrounds, on each case. Moreover, I shall talk about taboo since it is usually associated with euphemism. I shall talk about the referential (semantic) and expletive (pragmatic) aspects of swearing expressions. In this essay, I shall show that euphemism can be used in two different senses: sweet talking and deception.

  • 11.
    Abu Hammad, Omar
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Språk och medier, Engelska.
    Prosodic Morphology: Gender in Arabic Perfect Active and Passive 3rd Person Singular Verbs2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Oppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Prosodic /template Morphology, that "draws heavily on the theoretical apparatus and formalisms of the generative phonology model known as autosegmental phonology" (Katamba, F. 1993: 154), is the best analysis that can handle Arabic morphology. Verbs in Arabic are represented on three independent tiers: root tier, the skeletal tier and the vocalic melody tier (Katamba, F. 1993). Vowel morphemes, which are represented by diacritics, are inserted within the consonant morphemes, which are represented by primary symbols, to form words. The morpheme tier hypothesis paves the way to understand the nonconcatenative Arabic morphology. This paper analyzes gender in perfect active and passive 3rd person singular verbs on the basis of PM. The focus of the analysis shall be drawn heavily on the most common Arabic verbs; triconsonantal verbs, with brief introduction of the less common verbs; quadriconsonantal perfect active and passive masculine and feminine 3rd person singular verbs. I shall, too, cast the light on some vowel changes that some verbs undergo when voice changes.

  • 12.
    Abu-Deeb, Kamal
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Språk och medier, Arabiska.
    al-Sūnaytāt aw al-tawāshīḥ al-kāmilah: bi-al-lughatayn al-ʻArabīyah wa-al-Inklīzīyah2012Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 13.
    Abu-Deeb, Kamal
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Språk och medier, Arabiska.
    الأدب العجائبي والعالم الغرائبي: في كتاب العظمة وفن السرد العربي2007Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 14.
    Abu-Deeb, Kamal
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Språk och medier, Arabiska.
    السذاجة العربيةفي مواجهة الدهاء الأوروبي2011Inngår i: الحياةArtikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 15.
    Abu-Deeb, Kamal
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Språk och medier, Arabiska.
    قليلا من العقل يا سورية2011Inngår i: القدس العربيArtikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 16.
    Abu-Deeb, Kamal
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Språk och medier, Arabiska.
    كتاب الحرية2012Bok (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 17.
    Abu-Deeb, Kamal
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Språk och medier, Arabiska.
    Nabsh, Dalal
    ديوان التدبيج: فتنة الإبداع وذروة الإمتاع2010Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 18.
    Adolphson, Ulrica
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Humaniora och medier.
    Elever i kommunikation med lärare: En samtalsanalytisk studie i klassrummet2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 19.
    Afrem, Toma
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Språk och medier, Ljud- och musikproduktion.
    Från Hakkaribergen till Orans kust: en jämförelse mellan genrerna raweh och rai2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Oppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie grundar sig på en undersökning där jag har försökt finna likheter mellan raweh och rai. För att kunna hitta eventuella likheter har jag valt att använda mig av en analysmetod, som heter cantometrics. Med hjälp av cantometrics kodningsformulär har jag analyserat sex olika musikstycken, tre av raweh och tre av rai. Av de 37 analyspunkter som cantometrics innefattar har jag valt att använda 25 av dessa i min analys. Efter analysen visade det sig att kodningsresultaten av raweh och rai endast är lika i 7 punkter medan de särskiljer sig i de andra 18 punkterna. Detta resultat tyddes till det följande: De sju gemensamma punkterna för raweh och rai anser jag inte vara tillräckligt för att bedöma att raweh och rai är lika. Enligt min analys samt undersökning som kodats enligt cantometricsmodellen finns det få likheter mellan raweh och rai.

  • 20.
    Agerberg, Alexandra
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Humaniora och medier, Tyska.
    Digitale Kompetenzen auf dem Stundenplan2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Aim:

    the paper at hand has four aims. Firstly, it examines teachers’ own understanding of the term digital competence. Secondly, a closer look is taken at how teachers assess their own digital competence. For this purpose, the term digital competence was divided into three aspects: technical, didactical and theoretical competences all of which shed a different light on the main term digital competence but are equally important in the implementation of digital competence in successful teaching and as according to the changes made to the Swedish curriculum in 2018. Thirdly, this paper tries to investigate how often digital competence and digital tools and media are implemented in language teaching and fourthly, a look is taken at what digital tools and media are at the teachers’ disposal and how their use is applied.

    Design/methods/ approach:

    Empirical study made with the help of an online questionnaire which was sent do different secondary schools in Sweden inviting language teachers to participate. The answers given in the survey are analysed and quantitatively and qualitatively presented. The results found are discussed and compared with other recent literature and research papers in the field of ICT and digital competence in teaching.

    Findings:

    according to the results, the author of this paper found that the teachers who participated in this study have a very varied understanding of the term digital competence. The definitions given reflect the terms complexity and the individual relations to the term itself and what importance is given to the digital tools and media associated. When asked to assess their own digital competences, which were divided into technical, didactical and theoretical digital competences, the participating teachers gave their own competences a generally high rating. Nevertheless, differences can be noted and the assessment, although generally high for all the competences involved, does show a falling curve in which the participants rate their technical digital competence at the highest and their theoretical digital competence at the lowest.

    According to the results analysed, digital tools and media are implemented in teaching on a regular and even daily basis and teachers generally have a broad variety of tools and media at their disposal. However, the study shows that the frequent use of these tools does not seem to have had an impact or changed the basic way they are applied in language teaching. A comparison with earlier studies and literature shows that a lack of methods may be the reason for the stagnation of development in this field.

  • 21.
    Agerberg, Alexandra
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Humaniora och medier, Tyska.
    Im Zwiegespräch mit dem Computer: ICT und digitale Kompetenzen zur Förderung und zur Motivation der Sprachentwicklung von Lernern einer Fremdsprache mit Focus auf die mündliche Sprachentwicklung2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    – The paper at hand has three aims which are based on the recent adjustments made to the Swedish curriculum which take effect in summer 2018 and stipulate the implementation of digital competence in all subjects. Firstly, the study examines the effect of ICT and digital media/ aids on the WTC and motivation of second language learners. Secondly, a look is taken at how ICT and digital media/ aids are implemented in teaching today and thirdly, the challenges teachers face by the diverse interpretation and definition of the term digital competence and its realization in the classroom are investigated.

    Design/methodology/approach

    – The study is a literature review in which recent literature and research papers in the field of ICT in teaching with focus on second language teaching and learning were examined.

    Findings

    – According to the results, the author found that the use of ICT and digital media/ aids have a positive effect on the WTC and motivation of second language learners when used appropriately. The challenges teachers face in this respect is a lack of methods and strategies as well as technical support that are needed to successfully implement ICT in their lessons. Especially the lack of technical support is viewed as a time consuming one as it requires teachers to have a back-up-plan which in effect means more lesson planning on their part. Additionally and in regard to the implementation of digital competences in all subjects, teachers are faced with new challenges which comprise a technical; theoretical and didactical knowledge of the term and its practical realization. Due to the recency of the changes made to the curriculum, the investigation of the challenges that present themselves to the teachers open up for new research that can be made in this field.

  • 22.
    Agerberg, Alexandra
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Humaniora och medier, Engelska.
    Jay Gatsby and Myrtle Wilson – Victims of Illusion and Destined to Fail: A Study of False-Consciousness in The Great Gatsby 2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 23.
    Ahl, Josefin
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Humaniora och medier, Engelska.
    "That Little Box of Light": The Presence of Photography in John Banville’s Ghosts 2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 24.
    Ahlberg, Kerstin
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Humaniora och medier, Bild.
    Danielsson, Helena
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Humaniora och medier, Bild.
    Elevrespons på bloggen2013Inngår i: Meningsskapande fritidshem: Studio som arena för multimodalt lärande / [ed] Malin Rohlin, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2013, 1, s. 81-113Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    De äldre barnen på fritidshemmet är i fokus i detta kapitel, som behandlar barns lärande vid inkludering av visuella uttryck i den pedagogiska verksamheten. Vi lät elever i tolvårsåldern inspireras att samtala om bilder och multimodala texter via en digital utställningsplats. Det övergripande syftet med vår studie var att stärka barnens förmåga att återkoppla och reflektera kring egna och andras arbeten och på så sätt öka deras förståelse både för bildskapande och för de kunskapsområden som varit föremål för deras studier. Olika temaarbeten har följts under en längre tid - projekt som äger rum i skolans sammanhang men i kapitlet diskuteras som idéer för möjligt samarbete mellan lärare på fritidshem och i skolmiljön. Konkreta exempel från barnens arbete och process varvas i kapitlet med teorier och begrepp in området visuell gestaltning och estetiska lärprocesser.

  • 25.
    Ahlborg, Linus
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Humaniora och medier, Historia.
    Sjöbusar: En deskriptiv studie i svensk militärrätt vid Svenska Högsjöflottan under början av 1800-talet.2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här C-uppsatsen syftar till att genom en kvantitativ studie av domböcker från Karlskrona örlogsstation under representiva krigs- och fredsår undersöka ett relativt bortglömt kapitel i svensk militärrättshistoria, nämligen brottslighet och rättspraxis för krigsmakten inom den svenska högsjöflottan mellan åren 1798 och 1812.

    Rymmning det absolut vanligaste registrerade brottsligheten och de värvade volontärerna var rymningsbenägna än de indelta båtsmänen. Straffomvandlingen vid leuteration var återkommande väldigt godtycklig, även med omständigheter borträknat. Volontärerna begick i större utsträckning under rymning flera brott samtidigt och blev också i större utsträckning, efter leuteration av krigsrättens domslut, dömda till spöstraff samt fler antal gatlopp än båtsmän. Vid dubbel legas tagning var volontärer enormt överrepresenterade, speciellt under krigsår, jämfört med båtsmän. Tydligt är att båtsmäns och volontärers skilda positioner som deltids-respektive fulltid gav avtryck i straffregistret. Underofficerarna var klart överrepresenterade när det gällde fylleri i tjänst, angrepp, samt fångförsnillning. Manskapets representation av fylleri i tjänst lyser med sin frånvaro, vilket kan förklaras av extrajudiciell hantering utanför domstol.

  • 26.
    Ahlgren, Therese
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Språk och medier, Spanska.
    Un análisis sobre la comunicación oral en materiales didácticos de español como lengua extranjera2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Oppgave
  • 27.
    Ahlin, Erik
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Humaniora och medier, Bildproduktion.
    Redigeringsprogrammens påverkan på bilden: En jämförelse mellan Avid Media Composer och Adobe Premiere Pro2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Uppsatsen söker att svara på frågeställningen: Uppstår det skillnad i bildkvaliteten på material som komprimerats med redigeringsprogrammet Avid Media Composer till H.264, i jämförelse med material som har komprimerats till H.264 med Adobe Premiere Pro. Baserat på resultat från tidigare jämförelser och personlig erfarenhet är förförståelsen att det kommer finnas en märkbar skillnad men ingen av programmen kommer att överskugga den andra.Metoden som använts är att en undersökning i form av enkät har fyllts i av mediastudenter baserad på deras upplevelser av sex stycken bildexempel från varje redigeringsprogram utifrån fem faktorer som rör bildkvalitet: Kontrast, skärpa, brus, färg och rörelseåtergivning. Djupgående intervjuer har sedan utförts med fem av informanterna. Resultatet på undersökningen visar överlag små skillnader mellan Avid Media Composer och Adobe Premiere Pro. Informanterna upplevde i majoritet att materialet från Avid hade högre bildkvalitet.

  • 28.
    Ahlrik, Åsa
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Humaniora och medier, Svenska som andraspråk.
    Att arbeta med skönlitteratur inom SVA och SVE: En kvalitativ studie av hur arbete med skönlitteratur kan se ut inom SVA och SVE inom vuxenutbildningen.2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    The purpose of this study is to compare Swedish as a second language (SVA) and Swedish (SVE) with focus on how the teachers think about literary studies. Interviews with three teachers in each course have been made. The results of the study are indicative rather than measurable. The interviews show that the aspect of language is more important to the SVA-teachers. There are differences in the curriculums, not only connected to the aim of developing an acceptable language, but also in contents. The teachers in SVA chose modern literature and the teacher in SVE chose classic literature and this is coherent with the curriculum. The conclusions are that the aim on developing the language in SVA is necessary, since the students who are attending that course not have reached the same level in language as the SVE-students have. But earlier research in the subject indicates that the capability to read different kind of literature does not need to be connected with skills in language. There are no justifiable arguments for the differences in content in the curriculum according to literary studies. The students may have advantages in discussing literature in mixed classes but the prework need to be different with the starting point that the students in SVA need more help with the understanding of words. The difficulties with the understanding of the whole book do not necessarily have a connection with the difficulties with the language.

  • 29.
    Ahmadi, Sanaz
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Humaniora och medier, Japanska.
    Sorry for Thanking You: Expressions of Gratitude and Apology in Favor Asking Messages of Swedish Advanced Learners of Japanese2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [ja]

    日本語を勉強する外国人の重大な問題の一つは語用論と談話に関連する難しさである。言語習得には文化的な要素が重要であるが、文化の経験がない学習者が基本的な間違いをする人が多人数である。スウェーデン人の日本語学生に支障になる事の中では相手に迷惑や失礼を回避するような方法で要求文を作成する事である。文化的な相違点を参考にし、スウェーデン人の日本語学生に要求の言語行為のDCTを使いインターネット調査を行った。調べるにあたって注目した点は依頼の場合でのポライトネス・ストラテジーという言語行為である。結果的にスウェーデン人の日本語学生の間違いは特の言語行為による事ではなく、国の社会が個人主義か集団主義かという事によるようだ。スウェーデンは日本と比較して個人主義な社会である事で個人を基本とするポライトネス・ストラテジーを用いる事が多い。

  • 30.
    Aida Niendorf, Mariya
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Humaniora och medier, Japanska.
    Bastu i vått och torrt2017Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 31.
    Aida Niendorf, Mariya
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Humaniora och medier, Japanska.
    Cross-cultural analysis of Finnish vs. Japanese politeness strategies2018Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 32.
    Aida Niendorf, Mariya
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Humaniora och medier, Japanska.
    Cross-Cultural Analysis of Swedish vs. Japanese Politeness Strategies2018Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Japanese politeness discourse varies in complexity according to social distance, relative power between speakers, and social situations. However, the attitude surveys I conducted over the past eight years indicate that Swedish learners of Japanese often do not see the necessity of learning polite discourse and often view such forms negatively. Intentionally or unintentionally, Swedish students often fail to use appropriate politeness strategies as Sweden is one of the most egalitarian societies in the world, with the elimination of the second person plural form ni to indicate a higher level of politeness reflecting this change. However, it is important to point out to foreign language learners that cultural and social norms are not cross-culturally interchangeable and that speakers must often adapt to the language they are learning and the culture they find themselves in.

    Cross-cultural data on polite discourse shows that the politeness strategies differ considerably across cultures. While politeness, respect, and formality are closely associated in Japanese (e.g., Ide 1989, 2006; Matsumoto 1988, 1989, 1993) Swedish speakers perceive respect and politeness as separate matters (Björk 2014; Brumark 2006; Utrzén 2011; Norrbom 2006). Studies have also found that while Japanese speakers are inclined to use verbal politeness strategies, Swedish speakers tend to express respect through non-verbal actions or behaviors (Norrbom 2006; Pizziconi 2008; Utrzén 2011).

    Language and identity are closely related, and language use is based on culture and society. Understanding both one’s own politeness strategies as well as foreign norms can help learners realize how culture, language, and their own identity are intertwined. Learners of Japanese should therefore consider polite discourse as part of the rules of the language rather than as something that can be modified based on one’s opinion.

    Based on an analysis of cross-cultural differences in politeness strategies between Japanese and Swedish seen from both cultural and linguistic viewpoints, this study investigates politeness strategies used by Swedish and Japanese speakers by conducting attitude surveys and by analyzing the types of pragmatic errors made by Swedish learners of Japanese along with possible reasons for such errors.

    Teaching communicative competence is extremely important in language instruction. Speakers can avoid embarrassing situations and conflicts caused by misunderstandings if they are aware of differences in inter-cultural pragmatics. Studies have shown that pragmatics can be taught effectively by using appropriate methods and tools (Cohen & Ishihara 2005, Bardovi-Harlig & Mahan-Taylor 2003). By demonstrating the use of the Japanese honorific system more systematically and contrasting it with Swedish politeness strategies, I aim to motivate students to learn honorific expressions, thus enabling them to communicate more successfully in Japanese.

    In this presentation, I will first offer various definitions and views of politeness in Japan and Sweden suggested by previous studies and discuss the reasons why these came to be viewed as they are today. Second, Swedish speakers’ attitudes toward the use of Japanese polite forms will be examined using data from the surveys and error analyses I conducted. Finally, various methods for overcoming cross-cultural miscommunication caused by differences in politeness strategies will be discussed.

     

  • 33.
    Aida Niendorf, Mariya
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Humaniora och medier, Japanska.
    Cross-cultural pragmatics: Challenges and implications of teaching Japanese politeness strategies to learners of L2 Japanese2019Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Japanese politeness discourse varies in complexity according to social distance, relative power between speakers, and social situations. Yet Swedish learners of Japanese often do not see the necessity of learning polite discourse and often view such forms negatively. Intentionally or otherwise, Swedish learners often fail to use appropriate politeness strategies in large part because Sweden is one of the most egalitarian societies in the world. However, it is important to point out to foreign language learners that cultural and social norms are not cross-culturally interchangeable and that speakers must often adapt to the language they are learning and to the culture they find themselves in.

    In this presentation, I will first offer various definitions and views of politeness in Japan, Sweden, and the US as well as other English-speaking countries as suggested by previous studies, and I will discuss the reasons why these came to be viewed as they are today. Second, Swedish learners’ attitudes toward the use of Japanese polite forms will be examined using data from surveys and error analyses. Finally, various methods for overcoming cross-cultural miscommunication caused by differences in politeness strategies will be proposed, which may be applied to learners of other languages.

  • 34.
    Aida Niendorf, Mariya
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Humaniora och medier, Japanska.
    Finland and Japan: A peek into shared histories through tango's migration, transformation, and assimilation2016Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 35.
    Aida Niendorf, Mariya
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Humaniora och medier, Japanska.
    Finrando to nihon no tango būmu kara kaimamiru ryōkoku kyōtsū no rekishiteki, shakaiteki haikei2019Inngår i: Nihon to finrando no deai to tsunagari: / [ed] Juha Saunavaara, Ojiro Suzuki, Okayama: Daigaku Kyoiku Shuppan , 2019, s. 197-209Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 36.
    Aida Niendorf, Mariya
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Språk och medier, Japanska.
    From Buenos Aires to Finland and Japan: The tango's unusual migration2014Inngår i: List of Abstracts for Conference Transcultural Identity Constructions in a Changing World, Dalarna University, Sweden, April 2-4, 2014, 2014, s. 19-20Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In Finland, thousands of miles away from Buenos Aires, people crowd the dance floors of restaurants and dance halls nightly to dance to tango music, while the tango has also caught the heart of the people on the other side of the world in Japan. The popularity of the tango in both Finland and Japan, however, is not very well known to the outside world.

    Though some scholars have stated that the tango reflects the personality, mentality and identity of the Finnish and Japanese people, this may only be partially true. Moreover, it is difficult to generalize what the Finnish or Japanese personality is. I argue that the tango's success in these two countries also has significant connections to historical and social factors. As being a dancer myself, I also believe that the 'liminality' (originally a term borrowed from Arnold van Gennep's formulation of rites de passage) of tango dancing plays an important role in these two nations that went through difficult struggles to recover from the damage caused by the war. “The liminal phase is considered sacred, anomalous, abnormal and dangerous, while the  pre- and post-liminal phases are normal and a profane state of being (Selänniemi 1996) and “the regular occurrence of sacred-profane alternations mark important periods of social life or even provide the measure of the passage of time itself”(Leach 1961).

    In this paper, I will discuss motives and paths of how a culture travels, settles and shapes into a new form, using the tango as an example.

  • 37.
    Aida Niendorf, Mariya
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Språk och medier, Japanska.
    Improving Intercultural Competence for the Distance Students in Sweden through Online Joint-Seminars in Japanese with University Students from the United States2014Inngår i: Next Generation Learning Conference, March 19–20 2014, Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden: Book of abstracts, Falun: Högskolan Dalarna, 2014Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    There have been quite a few studies (Helm 2009, Chun 2011, Schenker 2012, Kitade 2012, etc.) regarding the development of intercultural competence through online exchanges. Most of these exchanges, however, are between native speakers and learners of that language. The benefit of such exchanges can be maximized if both parties are learning each other’s language and they both have the opportunity to utilize the languages they are learning during the exchange, but often times, this is not the case.  Byram (1997) suggests that intercultural competence can be assessed using the following components: knowledge, skills, attitudes, and critical awareness.  If ‘intercultural competence’ means not just learning about the target culture, but also about becoming aware of one’s own culture (Liaw 2006), connecting students from different countries who are studying the same target language and culture would be an ideal setting in order for the students to evaluate both their own and target cultures critically. Having learners of a target language from different countries in a virtual classroom also helps create an environment which mimics the language classroom in the target country enabling them to experience studying abroad without leaving their home countries.

    It is often said to be difficult or almost impossible for students in distance courses to develop intercultural competence because of the lack of opportunity to study abroad or the lack of an international atmosphere in the classroom (Tyberg 2009). Thus, the goal of this study is to provide opportunities for all students, regardless of their circumstances, to develop intercultural competence.  In this study, a group of intermediate/advanced level Japanese students from a university in Sweden (all distance students) and a group from a university in the U.S. were brought together in a virtual classroom using an online video conferencing system.  Through their interactions and post-seminar reflections, I examined how students develop intercultural competence.

     

    The results from this study show that through interactions with university students from other countries who study Japanese at the same level, the students can gain not only Japanese skills, but expand their horizons and deepen their understanding of another culture as well as of the topics discussed during the meetings thus satisfying each of the criteria in Byram's model. Not everyone has the opportunity to study abroad, but today's technology allows every student to be a part of the internationalization process, develop his/her cultural-literacy and reflect on his/her identity.

  • 38.
    Aida Niendorf, Mariya
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Humaniora och medier, Japanska.
    Intercultural communicative competence: the challenges and implications of teaching Japanese politeness strategies to Swedish learners of Japanese2015Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Teaching communicative competence is extremely important in language instruction. One can avoid embarrassing situations and conflicts caused by misunderstandings if she/he understands the differences in intercultural pragmatics. Politeness discourse varies in complexity according to social distance, relative power between the speakers, and situations. The data I have collected during the past 6 years indicates that Swedish learners of Japanese often do not see the necessity of learning the polite/honorific discourse and often view these negatively as Swedish society is one of the most egalitarian in the world. As a consequence, Swedish students often fail to utilize appropriate politeness strategies when speaking in Japanese. However, it is important to point out to foreign language learners that cultural and social norms are not interchangeable and that one must adapt to the language one is using and the culture one is in. Thus Swedish Learners of Japanese should consider politeness discourse as a part of the rules of the language rather than something that can be modified based on one’s opinion.

    The current study investigates the differences in politeness strategies between Swedish and Japanese discourse. Student surveys and analysis of students’ errors have revealed clear differences in the use of politeness strategies in Swedish and in Japanese context. While the politeness, respect, and formality are closely intertwined in Japanese; the Swedes perceive respect and politeness as separate matters. It is also found that while the Japanese are inclined to using verbal politeness strategies, the Swedes express their respect more through non-verbal actions or behaviors. Various Japanese and Swedish utterances have also been examined to determine the Discourse Politeness Default suggested by Usami (2006) in order to systematize the politeness strategies in ways similar to grammatical rules.

                                                                                                                                                                          

                                                                          

                                                                                                                                                                          

  • 39.
    Aida Niendorf, Mariya
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Språk och medier, Japanska.
    Internationalization at home: Effectiveneess of online joint-seminars with overseas university students: Results from a pilot study2013Inngår i: INTED2013 Proceedings: 7th International Technology, Education and Development Conference, Valencia, Spain. 4-5 March, 2013 / [ed] International Association of Technology, Education and Development, IATED , 2013, s. 5242-5247Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In the recent years, both the Swedish National Agency for Higher Education or Högskoleverket (HSV) and individual universities in Sweden have been promoting “internationalization at home.” In an attempt to make it possible for all the students to be part of internationalization regardless of their financial, family and other situations that prevent them from studying abroad, I have brought a virtual international classroom to the students studying Japanese. The initial pilot study was conducted to examine the interactions during online joint-seminars with overseas students. In order to eventually create an ideal virtual classroom environment in an international setting, I focused on finding answers to the following three questions: (1) How do the students from different countries interact during on-line video conferencing seminars? (2) What can teachers do to make the students feel comfortable in such seminars and maximize learning? (3) Do functions such as ‘Chat’ that are available in the video-conferencing system Adobe® Connect™ help improve communication between students from both countries? In the study conducted during the spring 2012 term, I examined the students’ interactions during the joint-seminars using a video conferencing system. I analyzed not only the conversation during the online-seminars but also the chat during the seminars and blog entries as well as comments outside the class to see how they compliment the verbal communication. The positive feedback from the participating students indicates that, through interactions with university students from other countries who study Japanese at the same level, the students can gain not only Japanese skills, but also expand their horizons and deepen their understanding of another culture as well as the topics discussed during the meetings. The success of the initial pilot study implies a great potential in internet-based university education contributing to ‘internationalization at home’.

  • 40.
    Aida Niendorf, Mariya
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Humaniora och medier, Japanska.
    Internationalization at home: effectiveness of online joint-seminars with overseas university students - results from a pilot study2013Inngår i: 7th International technology, education and development conference (INTED2013), 2013, s. 5242-5247Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In the recent years, both the Swedish National Agency for Higher Education or Hogskoleverket (HSV) and individual universities in Sweden have been promoting "internationalization at home." In an attempt to make it possible for all the students to be part of internationalization regardless of their financial, family and other situations that prevent them from studying abroad, I have brought a virtual international classroom to the students studying Japanese. The initial pilot study was conducted to examine the interactions during online joint-seminars with overseas students. In order to eventually create an ideal virtual classroom environment in an international setting, I focused on finding answers to the following three questions: (1) How do the students from different countries interact during online video conferencing seminars? (2) What can teachers do to make the students feel comfortable in such seminars and maximize learning? (3) Do functions such as 'Chat' that are available in the video-conferencing system Adobe (R) Connect (TM) help improve communication between students from both countries? In the study conducted during the spring 2012 term, I examined the students' interactions during the joint-seminars using a video conferencing system. I analyzed not only the conversation during the online-seminars but also the chat during the seminars and blog entries as well as comments outside the class to see how they compliment the verbal communication. The positive feedback from the participating students indicates that, through interactions with university students from other countries who study Japanese at the same level, the students can gain not only Japanese skills, but also expand their horizons and deepen their understanding of another culture as well as the topics discussed during the meetings. The success of the initial pilot study implies a great potential in internet-based university education contributing to 'internationalization at home'.

  • 41.
    Aida Niendorf, Mariya
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Humaniora och medier, Japanska.
    Issues on cross-cultural pragmatics: Swedish learners' attitudes regarding the learning of Japanese politeness strategies2016Inngår i: Abstracts, 2016Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Teaching communicative competence is considered extremely important in today’s language instruction. One can avoid embarrassing situations and conflicts caused by misunderstandings if one understands the differences in intercultural pragmatics. This study investigates the differences in politeness strategies between Swedish and Japanese discourse and how Japanese politeness strategies can be taught effectively to the Swedish learners of Japanese. Politeness discourse varies in complexity according to social distance, relative power between the speakers, and situations. It has been indicated in the course evaluations and comments from the students that Swedish learners of Japanese often do not see the necessity of learning the polite/honorific discourse and they often view these negatively as Swedish society is one of the most egalitarian in the world. As a consequence, Swedish students often fail to utilize appropriate politeness strategies when speaking in Japanese. However, it is important to point out to foreign language learners that cultural and social norms are not interchangeable and that one must adapt to the language one is using and the culture one is in. Thus Swedish Learners of Japanese should consider politeness discourse as a part of the rules of the language rather than something that can be modified based on one’s opinion. Student surveys and analysis of students’ errors I have complied during the past six years have revealed clear differences in the use of politeness strategies in Swedish and in Japanese context. While politeness, respect, and formality are closely intertwined in Japanese; the Swedes perceive respect and politeness as separate matters. It is also found that while the Japanese are inclined to use verbal politeness strategies, the Swedes express respect more through non-verbal actions or behaviors. This paper suggests ways in which learners of Japanese may overcome these differences.

  • 42.
    Aida Niendorf, Mariya
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Språk och medier, Japanska.
    Language education and identity: Discussing identity in the Sweden-U.S. online joint seminars2013Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 43.
    Aida Niendorf, Mariya
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Humaniora och medier, Japanska.
    Migration, transformation, and the homecoming of a culture: Tango in Finland and Japan as an example2016Inngår i: Migration, transformation, and the homecoming of a culture: Tango in Finland and Japan as an example, 2016Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In Finland, a great distance away from Buenos Aires, people crowd dance floors nightly to dance to tango music, while the tango has also captured the hearts of the people on the other side of the world in Japan. The popularity of the tango in both Finland and Japan, however, is not so familiar to the outside world.

     

    In this paper, I will discuss the motives and the paths by which a culture travels, settles and shapes itself into a new form, using the tango as an example. First, the tango’s relationship to society and history in each of these countries are explored using archives and literature. Then such aspects as inner emotion, solitude, illusion, and liminality are analyzed through data collected from surveys, interviews, and forum discussions in the SNS.

     

    Some scholars suggest that the tango reflects the personality, mentality, and identity of the Finnish and Japanese peoples. Though this may be partially true, it is difficult to generalize about the Finnish or Japanese personality. It is argued, rather, that the tango's prosperity in these two countries has significant connections to some shared historical and social factors. I also propose that the 'liminality' of tango dancing plays an important role in both nations that went through difficult struggles to recover from the damage caused by war. “The liminal phase is considered sacred, anomalous, abnormal and dangerous, while the pre- and post-liminal phases are normal and a profane state of being” (Selänniemi 1996). Tango dancing can be considered an escape or a vacation from the hardship of everyday life as well as a fuel which enables the people to keep moving forward.

    The tango’s transformation in Finland and Japan, and its homecoming back to Argentina are also examined. The results reveal some of the unusual paths a culture can travel.

  • 44.
    Aida Niendorf, Mariya
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Humaniora och medier, Japanska.
    Politeness as a part of intercultural competence2015Inngår i: Japanese Language Education in Europe, ISSN 1745-7165, Vol. 20, s. 395-396Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Teaching communicative competence is extremely important in language instruction. While politeness discourse varies in complexity according to social distance, relative power between the speakers, and situations, Swedish learners of Japanese often do not see the necessity of learning the polite/honorific discourse and often view these negatively as Swedish society is one of the most egalitarian in the world. However, it is important to point out to foreign language learners that cultural/social norms are not modifiable based on one’s opinion and that one must adapt to the language one is using and the culture one is in. The current study investigates the differences in politeness strategies between Swedish and Japanese discourse. Student surveys and analysis of students’ errors have revealed clear differences in the use of politeness strategies. While politeness, respect, and formality are closely intertwined in Japanese; the Swedes perceive respect and politeness as separate matters. It is also found that while the Japanese are inclined to use verbal politeness strategies, the Swedes express their respect more through non-verbal actions/behaviors. Various Japanese and Swedish utterances have also been examined to determine the DP default (Usami 2006) in order to systematize the politeness strategies in ways similar to grammatical rules.

  • 45.
    Aida Niendorf, Mariya
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Humaniora och medier, Japanska.
    Review Understanding Intercultural Communication (Second Edition) Stella Ting-Toomey and Leeva C. Chung (2012)2015Inngår i: Sociolinguistic Studies, ISSN 1750-8649, E-ISSN 1750-8657, Vol. 9, nr 4, s. 507-513Artikkel, omtale (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 46.
    Aida Niendorf, Mariya
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Humaniora och medier, Japanska.
    Tangon huumaa: Musiikki ja tanssi mielenmaisemien siltana2019Inngår i: Suomi ja Japani: Kaukaiset mutta läheiset / [ed] Juha Saunavaara, Laura Ipatti, Helsinki: Edita Publishing Oy, 2019, s. 190-199Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 47.
    Aida Niendorf, Mariya
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Humaniora och medier, Japanska.
    The Development of Identity and Intercultural Communicative Competence in NNS-NNS Online Interaction2019Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    As demonstrated in recent studies of Computer-assisted language learning (CALL), authentic intercultural contexts can be created by using online exchanges to enhance students’ foreign language learning and identity. While research on telecollaboration and identity has mainly focused on NS-NNS interactions, this study examines NNS-NNS telecollaborative interactions.

    The study examines two sets of NNSs with different L1 backgrounds, namely NNSs of Japanese from universities in the US and Sweden. The project combines telecollaborative activities consisting of both asynchronous written (blogs) and synchronous verbal (online discussions).

    The Intercultural Dialogue (ID) model (Houghton, 2012) was used to evaluate the outcome. The model consists of five stages: 1) Analysis of Self; 2) Analysis of Other; 3) Critical analysis of value similarities (or differences) between Self and Other; 4) Critical evaluation of the values of Self and Other relative to a standard; and 5) Identity development.

    Results indicate that through their written and oral discussions, the students’ choice of words constructed images of the person they are or wished to be perceived as while building an understanding of their own identities. This shows that language use does not necessarily reflect who one is but is used to contribute to the construction of one’s identities. We also observed that there exists a stage prior to the first stage in the ID-model, namely a “no-awareness” stage. Furthermore, our findings indicate that Stage 1 “Awareness of Self” occurs as two sub-stages: 1-a) Awareness of single identity; and 1-b) Awareness of having multiple identities. Our data also suggest that at one point, several students were offering different critical evaluations of Self and Other as a result of their own and the Japanese cultural standard not fitting the standard identity development model, suggesting that the multicultural nature of NNS-NNS interactions involving different L1 backgrounds can accelerate identity development.

  • 48.
    Aida Niendorf, Mariya
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Humaniora och medier, Japanska.
    Yuge no nakae, hi-nichijō no sekai e (Into the steam, into the dream): Tsūka girei to shite no finrando no sauna to nihon no furo (The Finnish sauna and the Japanese furo as rite of passage)2019Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [ja]

    湯気の中へ、非日常の世界へ:

    通過儀礼としてのフィンランドのサウナと日本の風呂

     

    遠く離れた北欧フィンランドと極東日本。気候もそこに暮らす人々も一見全く異なるこのふたつの国に共通する熱い湯気の文化がある。フィンランド人が長い歴史の中で大切にしてきた「サウナ」、そして多くの日本人にとって欠かせない「風呂」。どちらも身体を清潔にする場所というだけではなく、宗教的・文化的意味合いや、癒し、儀礼とも深く関係していると考えられている。1998年にはフィンランドのユヴァスキュラで風呂とサウナに関するエキシビションも催されている。

    本発表では、フィンランドと日本での過去20年間のフィールドワークの結果をもとに、サウナと風呂が、それぞれどのようにそこに暮らす人々の人生や日々の生活の節目に行われる通過儀礼(van Gennep 1909)として機能しているのかを明らかにし、サウナと風呂文化に共通して見られるリミナリティー (Turner 1974)を「マクロモデルとマイクロモデル」(Niendorf 2000)を用いて文化人類学的観点から検証する。

  • 49.
    Aida Niendorf, Mariya
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Språk och medier, Japanska.
    Inose, Hiroko
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Språk och medier, Japanska.
    Investigating the use of the verbs ”naru” in Japanese and ”bli” in Swedish through translation2013Inngår i: Nordic Association of Japanese and Korean Studies (NAJAKS): Abstracts for 2013, 2013Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates how use of the Swedish verb “bli” corresponds to the Japanese verb “naru” using translated materials as a corpus.  

     

    Japanese is said to be a situation-oriented language, while English is person-oriented.

              e.g., Mariko wa kekkon surukotoni NARImashita.

                       (It became so that Mariko will be married.)

                       ‘Mariko will get married’ in English.

     

    The Swedish verb ”bli” usually means ’to become’ or ’to be (as an auxiliary verb),’ yet is used more widely than these English meanings.

              e.g., Det blir 100 kronor, tack.

                       (100 kr ni NARI-masu.)

                       ’It makes/will be 100kr.’

     

    Examples like this lead to the observation that ”bli” is used in a context more similar to the Japanese verb ”naru.” than English verb “become.” Comparison of some translated materials also shows that “bli” is often translated into Japanese as “naru” while it is more likely to be replaced by a transitive or intransitive verb in English.

     

    However, erros such as

               *okoru ni NARU (verb ‘to be upset’+naru)

                  [okoru: a verb]

               *annshin ni NARU (noun ‘feeling at ease’ +naru)   

                  [annshin suru: a verb derived from a noun]

    which are made by Swedish learners of Japanese indicate that the translation of “bli” into Japanese is not so straight forward.

     

    In this study, we examined the following questions:

    1. How is ”bli” translated into Japanese/English?
    2. If ”bli” is translated into ”naru” in Japanese, in what grammatical context(s) does it occur?
    3. How are these variations related to the errors students make in translating ”bli” into  Japanese?

     

    In order to examine the above research questions, we conducted two separate studies:

     

    Study I: Examining how Swedish bli is translated into Japanese in literature translation

     

    Using children´s novels “Sommerboken” by Tove Jansson and “Pippi Långstrump” by Astrid Lindgren as the data source, all the sentences that contain bli were extracted along with their translations into English and Japanese. The extracted sentences were, then, categorized according to the various types of usage of the verb bli, and the translation into Japanese for each of those categories was analyzed.

     

    Study II: The translation of various uses of bli into Japanese by Swedish students

     

    Study I above showed usages of the verb bli in various context. In Study II, we tried to see if some of these usages cause more problems than the others for the Swedish students. The students in the Japanese-English translation course at Högskolan Dalarna (Sweden) were given 7 Swedish sentences containing various usages of bli, and were asked to translate them into Japanese. Then the accuracy of the translation and the translation techniques used were analyzed.

     

    The results from Study I showed that there were numerous usages of the verb bli, such as describing conditions, describing the changes of conditions, indicating certain emotional status, and so on, which naturally led to the variety in Japanese translation. Furthermore,  apart from the most literal translation, which is to use the verb naru, various types of compound verbs (main verb – help verb combinations) were used in order to express different nuances.

     

    In some of the usages identified above, translation shifts were obligatory when translated into Japanese; i.e. the literal translation was impossible, and the translator has to make minor changes from the ST (source text) to the TT (target text), such as changes of grammatical categories or of voice (e.g. passive to active).

     

    The results from the Study II show that the sentences which require more complicated translation shifts tend to cause more errors when students translate them into Japanese.

     

    Clarifying how the use of “bli” correlates with the use of “naru” will not only help Swedish students understand the use of the somewhat difficult concept of “naru,” but also help translators deal with this issue. Finding a more systematic way to translate “bli” into Japanese using more tokens from various genres would be necessary in order to achieve this.

     

  • 50.
    Aida Niendorf, Mariya
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Humaniora och medier, Japanska.
    Saito, Rieko
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Humaniora och medier, Japanska.
    Creating an effective environment for development of intercultural competence through online Japanese Language exchanges: How it is done and what it takes2013Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Developing intercultural competence has been an important focal point of university education especially in the area of foreign language instruction. In order to incorporate intercultural competence in our Japanese language instruction, we have brought together students studying Japanese from the U.S., Korea and China to join our students studying Japanese in Sweden for online exchanges. In order to create an ideal virtual classroom environment in an international setting, we have examined how students from different countries interact during the online exchanges in Japanese. In this presentation, we will discuss the process, strength, difficulties and potential of such exchanges.

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