Dalarna University's logo and link to the university's website

du.sePublikasjoner
Endre søk
Begrens søket
1 - 37 of 37
RefereraExporteraLink til resultatlisten
Permanent link
Referera
Referensformat
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • chicago-author-date
  • chicago-note-bibliography
  • Annet format
Fler format
Språk
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Annet språk
Fler språk
Utmatningsformat
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Treff pr side
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sortering
  • Standard (Relevans)
  • Forfatter A-Ø
  • Forfatter Ø-A
  • Tittel A-Ø
  • Tittel Ø-A
  • Type publikasjon A-Ø
  • Type publikasjon Ø-A
  • Eldste først
  • Nyeste først
  • Skapad (Eldste først)
  • Skapad (Nyeste først)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Eldste først)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Nyeste først)
  • Disputationsdatum (tidligste først)
  • Disputationsdatum (siste først)
  • Standard (Relevans)
  • Forfatter A-Ø
  • Forfatter Ø-A
  • Tittel A-Ø
  • Tittel Ø-A
  • Type publikasjon A-Ø
  • Type publikasjon Ø-A
  • Eldste først
  • Nyeste først
  • Skapad (Eldste først)
  • Skapad (Nyeste først)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Eldste først)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Nyeste først)
  • Disputationsdatum (tidligste først)
  • Disputationsdatum (siste først)
Merk
Maxantalet träffar du kan exportera från sökgränssnittet är 250. Vid större uttag använd dig av utsökningar.
  • 1. Adami, C.
    et al.
    Hintze, Arend
    Michigan State University, East Lansing, United States.
    Erratum: Evolutionary instability of zero-determinant strategies demonstrates that winning is not everything (Nature Communications (2013) 4:2193 DOI: 10.1038/ncomms3193)2014Inngår i: Nature Communications, E-ISSN 2041-1723, Vol. 5, artikkel-id 3764Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 2. Adami, C.
    et al.
    Hintze, Arend
    Michigan State University, East Lansing, United States.
    Evolutionary instability of zero-determinant strategies demonstrates that winning is not everything2013Inngår i: Nature Communications, E-ISSN 2041-1723, Vol. 4, artikkel-id 2193Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Zero-determinant strategies are a new class of probabilistic and conditional strategies that are able to unilaterally set the expected payoff of an opponent in iterated plays of the Prisoner's Dilemma irrespective of the opponent's strategy (coercive strategies), or else to set the ratio between the player's and their opponent's expected payoff (extortionate strategies). Here we show that zero-determinant strategies are at most weakly dominant, are not evolutionarily stable, and will instead evolve into less coercive strategies. We show that zero-determinant strategies with an informational advantage over other players that allows them to recognize each other can be evolutionarily stable (and able to exploit other players). However, such an advantage is bound to be short-lived as opposing strategies evolve to counteract the recognition. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 3. Adami, C.
    et al.
    Hintze, Arend
    Michigan State University, East Lansing, United States.
    Thermodynamics of evolutionary games2018Inngår i: Physical review. E, ISSN 2470-0045, E-ISSN 2470-0053, Vol. 97, nr 6, artikkel-id 062136Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    How cooperation can evolve between players is an unsolved problem of biology. Here we use Hamiltonian dynamics of models of the Ising type to describe populations of cooperating and defecting players to show that the equilibrium fraction of cooperators is given by the expectation value of a thermal observable akin to a magnetization. We apply the formalism to the public goods game with three players and show that a phase transition between cooperation and defection occurs that is equivalent to a transition in one-dimensional Ising crystals with long-range interactions. We then investigate the effect of punishment on cooperation and find that punishment plays the role of a magnetic field that leads to an "alignment" between players, thus encouraging cooperation. We suggest that a thermal Hamiltonian picture of the evolution of cooperation can generate other insights about the dynamics of evolving groups by mining the rich literature of critical dynamics in low-dimensional spin systems. © 2018 American Physical Society.

  • 4. Adami, C.
    et al.
    Schossau, J.
    Hintze, Arend
    Michigan State University, East Lansing, United States.
    Evolution and stability of altruist strategies in microbial games2012Inngår i: Physical Review E. Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics, ISSN 1539-3755, E-ISSN 1550-2376, Vol. 85, nr 1, artikkel-id 011914Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    When microbes compete for limited resources, they often engage in chemical warfare using bacterial toxins. This competition can be understood in terms of evolutionary game theory (EGT). We study the predictions of EGT for the bacterial "suicide bomber" game in terms of the phase portraits of population dynamics, for parameter combinations that cover all interesting games for two-players, and seven of the 38 possible phase portraits of the three-player game. We compare these predictions to simulations of these competitions in finite well-mixed populations, but also allowing for probabilistic rather than pure strategies, as well as Darwinian adaptation over tens of thousands of generations. We find that Darwinian evolution of probabilistic strategies stabilizes games of the rock-paper-scissors type that emerge for parameters describing realistic bacterial populations, and point to ways in which the population fixed point can be selected by changing those parameters. © 2012 American Physical Society.

  • 5. Adami, C.
    et al.
    Schossau, J.
    Hintze, Arend
    Michigan State University, East Lansing, United States.
    Evolutionary game theory using agent-based methods2016Inngår i: Physics of Life Reviews, ISSN 1571-0645, E-ISSN 1873-1457, Vol. 19, s. 1-26Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Evolutionary game theory is a successful mathematical framework geared towards understanding the selective pressures that affect the evolution of the strategies of agents engaged in interactions with potential conflicts. While a mathematical treatment of the costs and benefits of decisions can predict the optimal strategy in simple settings, more realistic settings such as finite populations, non-vanishing mutations rates, stochastic decisions, communication between agents, and spatial interactions, require agent-based methods where each agent is modeled as an individual, carries its own genes that determine its decisions, and where the evolutionary outcome can only be ascertained by evolving the population of agents forward in time. While highlighting standard mathematical results, we compare those to agent-based methods that can go beyond the limitations of equations and simulate the complexity of heterogeneous populations and an ever-changing set of interactors. We conclude that agent-based methods can predict evolutionary outcomes where purely mathematical treatments cannot tread (for example in the weak selection–strong mutation limit), but that mathematics is crucial to validate the computational simulations. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 6. Adami, C.
    et al.
    Schossau, J.
    Hintze, Arend
    Michigan State University, East Lansing, United States.
    The reasonable effectiveness of agent-based simulations in evolutionary game theory: Reply to comments on “Evolutionary game theory using agent-based methods”2016Inngår i: Physics of Life Reviews, ISSN 1571-0645, E-ISSN 1873-1457, Vol. 19, s. 38-42Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 7. Albantakis, L.
    et al.
    Hintze, Arend
    Michigan State University, East Lansing, United States.
    Koch, C.
    Adami, C.
    Tononi, G.
    Evolution of Integrated Causal Structures in Animats Exposed to Environments of Increasing Complexity2014Inngår i: PloS Computational Biology, ISSN 1553-734X, E-ISSN 1553-7358, Vol. 10, nr 12Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Natural selection favors the evolution of brains that can capture fitness-relevant features of the environment's causal structure. We investigated the evolution of small, adaptive logic-gate networks (“animats”) in task environments where falling blocks of different sizes have to be caught or avoided in a ‘Tetris-like’ game. Solving these tasks requires the integration of sensor inputs and memory. Evolved networks were evaluated using measures of information integration, including the number of evolved concepts and the total amount of integrated conceptual information. The results show that, over the course of the animats' adaptation, i) the number of concepts grows; ii) integrated conceptual information increases; iii) this increase depends on the complexity of the environment, especially on the requirement for sequential memory. These results suggest that the need to capture the causal structure of a rich environment, given limited sensors and internal mechanisms, is an important driving force for organisms to develop highly integrated networks (“brains”) with many concepts, leading to an increase in their internal complexity. © 2014 Albantakis et al.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 8. Boberg, E.
    Jonsson, M.
    Maad, Johanne
    Department of Plant Ecology and Evolution, Evolutionary Biology Centre, Uppsala University, Norbyvägen 18D, SE-752 36 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Ågren, J.
    Nilsson, L. A.
    Pollinator shifts and the evolution of spur length in the moth-pollinated orchid Platanthera bifolia2014Inngår i: Annals of Botany, ISSN 0305-7364, E-ISSN 1095-8290, Vol. 113, nr 2, s. 267-275Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 9. Bohm, C.
    et al.
    Ackles, A. L.
    Ofria, C.
    Hintze, Arend
    Michigan State University, East Lansing, United States.
    On sexual selection in the presence of multiple costly displays2020Inngår i: Proceedings of the 2019 Conference on Artificial Life: How Can Artificial Life Help Solve Societal Challenges, ALIFE 2019, MIT Press , 2020, s. 247-254Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Sexual selection is a powerful yet poorly understood evolutionary force. Research into sexual selection, whether biological, computational, or mathematical, has tended to take a top-down approach studying complex natural systems. Many simplifying assumptions must be made in order to make these systems tractable, but it is unclear if these simplifications result in a system which still represents natural ecological and evolutionary dynamics. Here, we take a bottom-up approach in which we construct simple computational systems from subsets of biologically plausible components and focus on examining the underlying dynamics resulting from the interactions of those components. We use this method to investigate sexual selection in general and the sexy sons theory in particular. The minimally necessary components are therefore genomes, genome-determined displays and preferences, and a process capable of overseeing parent selection and mating. We demonstrate the efficacy of our approach (i.e we observe the evolution of female preference) and provide support for sexy sons theory, including illustrating the oscillatory behavior that developed in the presence of multiple costly display traits. Copyright © ALIFE 2019.All rights reserved.

  • 10. Goldsby, H. J.
    et al.
    Young, R. L.
    Schossau, J.
    Hofmann, H. A.
    Hintze, Arend
    Michigan State University, East Lansing, United States.
    Serendipitous scaffolding to improve a genetic algorithm's speed and quality2018Inngår i: GECCO 2018 - Proceedings of the 2018 Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference, Association for Computing Machinery, Inc , 2018, s. 959-966Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A central challenge to evolutionary computation is enabling techniques to evolve increasingly complex target end products. Frequently, direct approaches that reward only the target end product itself are not successful because the path between the starting conditions and the target end product traverses through a complex fitness landscape, where the directly accessible intermediary states may be require deleterious or even simply neutral mutations. As such, a host of techniques have sprung up to support evolutionary computation techniques taking these paths. One technique is scaffolding where intermediary targets are used to provide a path from the starting state to the end state. While scaffolding can be successful within well-understood domains it also poses the challenge of identifying useful intermediaries. Within this paper we first identify some shortcomings of scaffolding approaches ' namely, that poorly selected intermediaries may in fact hurt the evolutionary computation's chance of producing the desired target end product. We then describe a light-weight approach to selecting intermediate scaffolding states that improve the efficacy of the evolutionary computation. © 2018 Association for Computing Machinery.

  • 11.
    Hintze, Arend
    et al.
    Keck Graduate Institute of Applied Life Sciences, Claremont, United States.
    Adami, C.
    Darwinian evolution of cooperation via punishment in the "public goods" game2010Inngår i: Artificial Life XII: Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on the Synthesis and Simulation of Living Systems, ALIFE 2010, 2010, s. 445-450Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The evolution of cooperation has been a perennial problem for evolutionary biology because cooperation is undermined by selfish cheaters (or "free riders") that profit from cooper-ators but do not invest any resources themselves. In a purely "selfish" view of evolution, those cheaters should be favored. Evolutionary game theory has been able to show that under certain conditions, cooperation nonetheless evolves stably. One of these scenarios utilizes the power of punishment to suppress free riders, but only if players interact in a structured population where cooperators are likely to be surrounded by other cooperators. Here we show that cooperation via punishment can evolve even in well-mixed populations that play the "public goods" game, if the synergy effect of cooperation is high enough. As the synergy is increased, populations transition from defection to cooperation in a manner reminiscent of a phase transition. If punishment is turned off the critical synergy is significantly higher, illustrating that indeed punishment aids in establishing cooperation. We also show that the critical point depends on the mutation rate so that higher mutation rates actually promote cooperation, by ensuring that punishment never disappears.

  • 12.
    Hintze, Arend
    et al.
    Michigan State University, East Lansing, United States.
    Adami, C.
    Punishment in public goods games leads to meta-stable phase transitions and hysteresis2015Inngår i: Physical Biology, ISSN 1478-3967, E-ISSN 1478-3975, Vol. 12, nr 4, artikkel-id 046005Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The evolution of cooperation has been a perennial problem in evolutionary biology because cooperation can be undermined by selfish cheaters who gain an advantage in the short run, while compromising the long-term viability of the population. Evolutionary game theory has shown that under certain conditions, cooperation nonetheless evolves stably, for example if players have the opportunity to punish cheaters that benefit from a public good yet refuse to pay into the common pool. However, punishment has remained enigmatic because it is costly and difficult to maintain. On the other hand, cooperation emerges naturally in the public goods game if the synergy of the public good (the factor multiplying the public good investment) is sufficiently high. In terms of this synergy parameter, the transition from defection to cooperation can be viewed as a phase transition with the synergy as the critical parameter. We show here that punishment reduces the critical value at which cooperation occurs, but also creates the possibility of meta-stable phase transitions, where populations can 'tunnel' into the cooperating phase below the critical value. At the same time, cooperating populations are unstable even above the critical value, because a group of defectors that are large enough can 'nucleate' such a transition. We study the mean-field theoretical predictions via agent-based simulations of finite populations using an evolutionary approach where the decisions to cooperate or to punish are encoded genetically in terms of evolvable probabilities. We recover the theoretical predictions and demonstrate that the population shows hysteresis, as expected in systems that exhibit super-heating and super-cooling. We conclude that punishment can stabilize populations of cooperators below the critical point, but it is a two-edged sword: it can also stabilize defectors above the critical point. © 2015 IOP Publishing Ltd.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 13.
    Hintze, Arend
    et al.
    Michigan State University, East Lansing, United States.
    Hertwig, R.
    The evolution of generosity in the ultimatum game2016Inngår i: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 6, artikkel-id 34102Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    When humans fail to make optimal decisions in strategic games and economic gambles, researchers typically try to explain why that behaviour is biased. To this end, they search for mechanisms that cause human behaviour to deviate from what seems to be the rational optimum. But perhaps human behaviour is not biased; perhaps research assumptions about the optimality of strategies are incomplete. In the one-shot anonymous symmetric ultimatum game (UG), humans fail to play optimally as defined by the Nash equilibrium. However, the distinction between kin and non-kin - with kin detection being a key evolutionary adaption - is often neglected when deriving the "optimal" strategy. We computationally evolved strategies in the UG that were equipped with an evolvable probability to discern kin from non-kin. When an opponent was not kin, agents evolved strategies that were similar to those used by humans. We therefore conclude that the strategy humans play is not irrational. The deviation between behaviour and the Nash equilibrium may rather be attributable to key evolutionary adaptations, such as kin detection. Our findings further suggest that social preference models are likely to capture mechanisms that permit people to play optimally in an evolutionary context. Once this context is taken into account, human behaviour no longer appears irrational © The Author(s) 2016.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 14.
    Hintze, Arend
    et al.
    Michigan State University, East Lansing, United States.
    Mirmomeni, M.
    Evolution of autonomous hierarchy formation and maintenance2014Inngår i: Artificial Life 14 - Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on the Synthesis and Simulation of Living Systems, ALIFE 2014, MIT Press Journals , 2014, s. 366-367Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Hierarchy among social animals is ubiquitous, and affects the social structures of gregarious species not only by interaction among species within the population, but also through other social forces such as mating, nesting location, amount and the quality of food they receive, or reproductive success. Since T. Schjelderup-Ebbe developed the structural definition of dominance and hierarchy in 1922 (see, e.g., Drews (1993)), different aspects of this social behavior have been addressed. However, exactly how hierarchies can emerge and be maintained among social species is still a conundrum. To investigate this issue, here we analyze a population of autonomous agents ('animates') through the course of evolution. The results of our experiments demonstrate the importance of memory and brain plasticity for the emergence of hierarchy and dominance behavior. © Artificial Life 14 - Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on the Synthesis and Simulation of Living Systems, ALIFE 2014. All rights reserved.

  • 15.
    Hintze, Arend
    et al.
    Michigan State University, East Lansing, United States.
    Olson, R. S.
    Adami, C.
    Hertwig, R.
    Risk sensitivity as an evolutionary adaptation2015Inngår i: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 5, artikkel-id 8242Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Risk aversion is a common behavior universal to humans and animals alike. Economists have traditionally defined risk preferences by the curvature of the utility function. Psychologists and behavioral economists also make use of concepts such as loss aversion and probability weighting to model risk aversion. Neurophysiological evidence suggests that loss aversion has its origins in relatively ancient neural circuitries (e.g., ventral striatum). Could there thus be an evolutionary origin to risk aversion? We study this question by evolving strategies that adapt to play the equivalent mean payoff gamble. We hypothesize that risk aversion in this gamble is beneficial as an adaptation to living in small groups, and find that a preference for risk averse strategies only evolves in small populations of less than 1,000 individuals, or in populations segmented into groups of 150 individuals or fewer - numbers thought to be comparable to what humans encountered in the past. We observe that risk aversion only evolves when the gamble is a rare event that has a large impact on the individual's fitness. As such, we suggest that rare, high-risk, high-payoff events such as mating and mate competition could have driven the evolution of risk averse behavior in humans living in small groups.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 16.
    Hintze, Arend
    et al.
    Michigan State University, East Lansing, United States.
    Olson, R. S.
    Lehman, J.
    Orthogonally evolved AI to improve difficulty adjustment in video games2016Inngår i: Applications of Evolutionary Computation. EvoApplications 2016. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol 9597 / [ed] Squillero G., Burelli P., Springer Verlag , 2016, Vol. 9597, s. 525-540Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Computer games are most engaging when their difficulty is well matched to the player’s ability, thereby providing an experience in which the player is neither overwhelmed nor bored. In games where the player interacts with computer-controlled opponents, the difficulty of the game can be adjusted not only by changing the distribution of opponents or game resources, but also through modifying the skill of the opponents. Applying evolutionary algorithms to evolve the artificial intelligence that controls opponent agents is one established method for adjusting opponent difficulty. Less-evolved agents (i.e., agents subject to fewer generations of evolution) make for easier opponents, while highlyevolved agents are more challenging to overcome. In this publication we test a new approach for difficulty adjustment in games: orthogonally evolved AI, where the player receives support from collaborating agents that are co-evolved with opponent agents (where collaborators and opponents have orthogonal incentives). The advantage is that game difficulty can be adjusted more granularly by manipulating two independent axes: by having more or less adept collaborators, and by having more or less adept opponents. Furthermore, human interaction can modulate (and be informed by) the performance and behavior of collaborating agents. In this way, orthogonally evolved AI both facilitates smoother difficulty adjustment and enables new game experiences. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016.

  • 17.
    Hintze, Arend
    et al.
    Michigan State University, East Lansing, United States.
    Phillips, N.
    Hertwig, R.
    The Janus face of Darwinian competition2015Inngår i: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 5, artikkel-id 13662Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Without competition, organisms would not evolve any meaningful physical or cognitive abilities. Competition can thus be understood as the driving force behind Darwinian evolution. But does this imply that more competitive environments necessarily evolve organisms with more sophisticated cognitive abilities than do less competitive environments? Or is there a tipping point at which competition does more harm than good? We examine the evolution of decision strategies among virtual agents performing a repetitive sampling task in three distinct environments. The environments differ in the degree to which the actions of a competitor can affect the fitness of the sampling agent, and in the variance of the sample. Under weak competition, agents evolve decision strategies that sample often and make accurate decisions, which not only improve their own fitness, but are good for the entire population. Under extreme competition, however, the dark side of the Janus face of Darwinian competition emerges: Agents are forced to sacrifice accuracy for speed and are prevented from sampling as often as higher variance in the environment would require. Modest competition is therefore a good driver for the evolution of cognitive abilities and of the population as a whole, whereas too much competition is devastating.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 18. Husby, Arild
    et al.
    Kawakami, Takeshi
    Rönnegård, Lars
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Statistik. SLU.
    Smeds, Linnéa
    Ellegren, Hans
    Qvarnström, Anna
    Genome-wide association mapping in a wild avian population identifies a link between genetic and phenotypic variation in a life-history trait2015Inngår i: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 282, nr 1806Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding the genetic basis of traits involved in adaptation is a major challenge in evolutionary biology but remains poorly understood. Here, we use genome-wide association mapping using a custom 50 k single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array in a natural population of collared flycatchers to examine the genetic basis of clutch size, an important life-history trait in many animal species. We found evidence for an association on chromosome 18 where one SNP significant at the genome-wide level explained 3.9% of the phenotypic variance. We also detected two suggestive quantitative trait loci (QTLs) on chromosomes 9 and 26. Fitness differences among genotypes were generally weak and not significant, although there was some indication of a sex-by-genotype interaction for lifetime reproductive success at the suggestive QTL on chromosome 26. This implies that sexual antagonism may play a role in maintaining genetic variation at this QTL. Our findings provide candidate regions for a classic avian life-history trait that will be useful for future studies examining the molecular and cellular function of, as well as evolutionary mechanisms operating at, these loci.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 19. Jack, C. N.
    et al.
    Friesen, M. L.
    Hintze, Arend
    Michigan State University, East Lansing, United States.
    Sheneman, L.
    Third-party mutualists have contrasting effects on host invasion under the enemy-release and biotic-resistance hypotheses2017Inngår i: Evolutionary Ecology, ISSN 0269-7653, E-ISSN 1573-8477, Vol. 31, nr 6, s. 829-845Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Plants engage in complex multipartite interactions with mutualists and antagonists, but these interactions are rarely included in studies that explore plant invasiveness. When considered in isolation, we know that beneficial microbes can enhance an exotic plant’s invasive ability and that herbivorous insects often decrease an exotic plant’s likeliness of success. However, the effect of these partners on plant fitness has not been well characterized when all three species coevolve. We use computational evolutionary modeling of a trait-based system to test how microbes and herbivores simultaneously coevolving with an invading plant affect the invaders’ probability of becoming established. Specifically, we designed a model that explores how a beneficial microbe would influence the outcome of an interaction between a plant and herbivore. To model novel interactions, we included a phenotypic trait shared by each species. Making this trait continuous and selectable allows us to explore how trait similarities between coevolving plants, herbivores and microbes affect fitness. Using this model, we answer the following questions: (1) Can a beneficial plant-microbe interaction influence the evolutionary outcome of antagonistic interactions between plants and herbivores? (2) How does the initial trait similarity between interacting organisms affect the likelihood of plant survival in novel locations? (3) Does the effect of tripartite interactions on the invasion success of a plant depend on whether organisms interact through trait similarity [Enemy Release Hypothesis (ERH)] or dissimilarity (Biotic Resistance Hypothesis)? We found that it was much more difficult for plants to invade under the ERH but that beneficial microbes increase the probability of plant survival in a novel range under both hypotheses. To our knowledge, this model is the first to use tripartite interactions to explore novel species introductions. It represents a step towards gaining a better understanding of the factors influencing establishment of exotic species to prevent future invasions. © 2017, The Author(s).

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 20. Jahns, J.
    et al.
    Hintze, Arend
    Michigan State University, East Lansing, United States.
    How the integration of group and individual level selection affects the evolution of cooperation2020Inngår i: ALIFE 2018 - 2018 Conference on Artificial Life: Beyond AI, MIT Press , 2020, s. 530-535Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Many evolutionary models that explore the emergence of cooperation rely on either individual level selection or group level selection. However, natural systems are often more complex and selection is never just on the level of the individual or group alone. Here we explore how systems of collaborating agents evolve when selection is based on a mixture of group and individual performances. It has been suggested that under such situations free riders thrive and hamper evolution significantly. Here we show that free rider effects can almost be ignored. Sharing resources even with free riders benefits the evolution of cooperators, which in the long run is more beneficial than the short term cost. Copyright © ALIFE 2018.All rights reserved.

  • 21.
    Johansson, Sverker
    Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, Högskolan i Jönköping, HLK, Ämnesforskning.
    Sagan om hur livet kom till Jorden1996Annet (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 22.
    Johansson, Sverker
    Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, Högskolan i Jönköping, HLK, Ämnesforskning.
    The Monkey Trail: On the Fossil Record of Non-Human Primates1999Rapport (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 23.
    Johansson, Sverker
    Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, Högskolan i Jönköping, HLK, Ämnesforskning.
    Är kreationismen vetenskapligt hållbar?1992Inngår i: Svensk Teologisk Kvartalsskrift, nr 68, s. 19-28Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 24. Kirkpatrick, D.
    et al.
    Hintze, Arend
    Michigan State University, East Lansing, United States.
    The role of ambient noise in the evolution of robust mental representations in cognitive systems2020Inngår i: Proceedings of the 2019 Conference on Artificial Life: How Can Artificial Life Help Solve Societal Challenges, ALIFE 2019, MIT Press , 2020, s. 432-439Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Natural environments are full of ambient noise; nevertheless, natural cognitive systems deal greatly with uncertainty but also have ways to suppress or ignore noise unrelated to the task at hand. For most intelligent tasks, experiences and observations have to be committed to memory and these representations of reality inform future decisions. We know that deep learned artificial neural networks (ANNs) often struggle with the formation of representations. This struggle may be due to the ANN's fully interconnected, layered architecture. This forces information to be propagated over the entire system, which is different from natural brains that instead have sparsely distributed representations. Here we show how ambient noise causes neural substrates such as recurrent ANNs and long short-term memory neural networks to evolve more representations in order to function in these noisy environments, which also greatly improves their functionality. However, these systems also tend to further smear their representations over their internal states making them more vulnerable to internal noise. We also show that Markov Brains (MBs) are mostly unaffected by ambient noise, and their representations remain sparsely distributed (i.e. not smeared). This suggests that ambient noise helps to increase the amount of representations formed in neural networks, but also requires us to find additional solutions to prevent smearing of said representations. Copyright © ALIFE 2019.All rights reserved.

  • 25.
    Maad, Johanne
    Norwegian Univ Sci & Technol, Dept Biol, NO-7491 Trondheim, Norway.
    On the mechanism of floral shifts in speciation: gained pollination efficiency from tongue- to eye-attachment of pollinia in Platanthera (Orchidaceae)2004Inngår i: Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, ISSN 0024-4066, E-ISSN 1095-8312, Vol. 83, nr 4, s. 481-495Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 26.
    Maad, Johanne
    Uppsala Univ, Evolutionary Biol Ctr, Dept Systemat Bot, Norbyvagen 18D, SE-75236 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Phenotypic selection in hawkmoth-pollinated Platanthera bifolia: Targets and fitness surfaces2000Inngår i: Evolution, ISSN 0014-3820, E-ISSN 1558-5646, Vol. 54, nr 1, s. 112-123Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 27.
    Maad, Johanne
    et al.
    Norwegian Univ Sci & Technol, Dept Biol, NO-7491 Trondheim, Norway.
    Alexandersson, R.
    Variable selection in Platanthera bifolia (Orchidaceae): phenotypic selection differed between sex functions in a drought year2004Inngår i: Journal of Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1010-061X, E-ISSN 1420-9101, Vol. 17, nr 3, s. 642-650Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 28. Marstaller, L.
    et al.
    Hintze, Arend
    Michigan State University, East Lansing, United States.
    Adami, C.
    The evolution of representation in simple cognitive networks2013Inngår i: Neural Computation, ISSN 0899-7667, E-ISSN 1530-888X, Vol. 25, nr 8, s. 2079-2107Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Representations are internalmodels of the environment that can provide guidance to a behaving agent, even in the absence of sensory information. It is not clear how representations are developed and whether they are necessary or even essential for intelligent behavior.We argue here that the ability to represent relevant features of the environment is the expected consequence of an adaptive process, give a formal definition of representation based on information theory, and quantify it with a measure R. To measure how R changes over time, we evolve two types of networks-an artificial neural network and a network of hiddenMarkov gates-to solve a categorization task using a genetic algorithm. We find that the capacity to represent increases during evolutionary adaptation and that agents form representations of their environment during their lifetime. This ability allows the agents to act on sensorial inputs in the context of their acquired representations and enables complex and context-dependent behavior. We examine which concepts (features of the environment) our networks are representing, how the representations are logically encoded in the networks, and how they form as an agent behaves to solve a task. We conclude that R should be able to quantify the representations within any cognitive system and should be predictive of an agent's long-term adaptive success. © 2013 Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

  • 29.
    Mehra, Priyanka
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Institutionen för information och teknik, Mikrodataanalys.
    Hintze, Arend
    Högskolan Dalarna, Institutionen för information och teknik, Mikrodataanalys. BEACON Center for the Study of Evolution in Action Michigan State University East Lansing, USA.
    An extension to the NK fitness landscape model to study pleiotropy, epistasis, and ruggedness independently2022Inngår i: Proceedings of the 2022 IEEE Symposium Series on Computational Intelligence, SSCI 2022, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2022, s. 1259-1267Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The NK model is designed to study evolutionary adaptation in rugged fitness landscapes. The factor K determines the number of interacting genes, their degree of pleiotropy and epistasis, and consequently the ruggedness of the fitness landscape. However, in natural organisms, the degree of epistatic interactions and the number of functions a gene can have are to a certain degree determining the ruggedness of the landscape. Still, pleiotropy and epistasis can evolve independently from each other, and are to some degree independent of the ruggedness of the landscape. Here, we propose an extension to the standard NK model to investigate these factors independently of each other. Over the course of evolution the computational model organisms can now change how their genes interact and how they control phenotypic traits. Further, the degree of epistasis and pleiotropy is affected by the ruggedness of the landscape and becomes reduced with increasing ruggedness. While this proves that the extension of the model performs as expected, the adaptations are minor, presumably because only relatively short periods of adaptations with few mutations can be studied. © 2022 IEEE.

  • 30.
    Mehra, Priyanka
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Institutionen för information och teknik, Mikrodataanalys.
    Hintze, Arend
    Högskolan Dalarna, Institutionen för information och teknik, Mikrodataanalys. BEACON Center for the Study of Evolution in Action, Michigan State University, East Lansing, USA.
    Reducing Epistasis and Pleiotropy Can Avoid the Survival of the Flattest Tragedy2024Inngår i: Biology, E-ISSN 2079-7737, Vol. 13, nr 3, artikkel-id 193Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates whether reducing epistasis and pleiotropy enhances mutational robustness in evolutionary adaptation, utilizing an indirect encoded model within the “survival of the flattest” (SoF) fitness landscape. By simulating genetic variations and their phenotypic consequences, we explore organisms’ adaptive mechanisms to maintain positions on higher, narrower evolutionary peaks amidst environmental and genetic pressures. Our results reveal that organisms can indeed sustain their advantageous positions by minimizing the complexity of genetic interactions—specifically, by reducing the levels of epistasis and pleiotropy. This finding suggests a counterintuitive strategy for evolutionary stability: simpler genetic architectures, characterized by fewer gene interactions and multifunctional genes, confer a survival advantage by enhancing mutational robustness. This study contributes to our understanding of the genetic underpinnings of adaptability and robustness, challenging traditional views that equate complexity with fitness in dynamic environments. © 2024 by the authors.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 31. Nitash, C. G.
    et al.
    LaBar, T.
    Hintze, Arend
    Michigan State University, East Lansing, United States.
    Adami, C.
    Origin of life in a digital microcosm2017Inngår i: Philosophical Transactions. Series A: Mathematical, physical, and engineering science, ISSN 1364-503X, E-ISSN 1471-2962, Vol. 375, nr 2109, artikkel-id 20160350Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    While all organisms on Earth share a common descent, there is no consensus on whether the origin of the ancestral self-replicator was a oneoff event or whether it only represented the final survivor of multiple origins. Here, we use the digital evolution system Avida to study the origin of self-replicating computer programs. By using a computational system, we avoid many of the uncertainties inherent in any biochemical system of self-replicators (while running the risk of ignoring a fundamental aspect of biochemistry). We generated the exhaustive set of minimal-genome self-replicators and analysed the network structure of this fitness landscape. We further examined the evolvability of these self-replicators and found that the evolvability of a self-replicator is dependent on its genomic architecture. We also studied the differential ability of replicators to take over the population when competed against each other, akin to a primordialsoup model of biogenesis, and found that the probability of a self-replicator outcompeting the others is not uniform. Instead, progenitor (mostrecent common ancestor) genotypes are clustered in a small region of the replicator space. Our results demonstrate how computational systems can be used as test systems for hypotheses concerning the origin of life. This article is part of the themed issue 'Reconceptualizing the origins of life'.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 32. Olson, R. S.
    et al.
    Hintze, Arend
    Michigan State University, East Lansing, United States.
    Dyer, F. C.
    Knoester, D. B.
    Adami, C.
    Predator confusion is sufficient to evolve swarming behaviour2013Inngår i: Journal of the Royal Society Interface, ISSN 1742-5689, E-ISSN 1742-5662, Vol. 10, nr 85Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Swarming behaviours in animals have been extensively studied owing to their implications for the evolution of cooperation, social cognition and predator-prey dynamics. An important goal of these studies is discerning which evolutionary pressures favour the formation of swarms. One hypothesis is that swarms arise because the presence of multiple moving prey in swarms causes confusion for attacking predators, but it remains unclear how important this selective force is. Using an evolutionary model of a predator-prey system, we show that predator confusion provides a sufficient selection pressure to evolve swarming behaviour in prey. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the evolutionary effect of predator confusion on prey could in turn exert pressure on the structure of the predator's visual field, favouring the frontally oriented, high-resolution visual systems commonly observed in predators that feed on swarming animals. Finally, we provide evidence that when prey evolve swarming in response to predator confusion, there is a change in the shape of the functional response curve describing the predator's consumption rate as prey density increases. Thus, we show that a relatively simple perceptual constraint-predator confusion-could have pervasive evolutionary effects on prey behaviour, predator sensory mechanisms and the ecological interactions between predators and prey. © 2013 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  • 33. Olson, R. S.
    et al.
    Hintze, Arend
    Michigan State University, East Lansing, United States.
    Dyer, F. C.
    Moore, J. H.
    Adami, C.
    Exploring the coevolution of predator and prey morphology and behavior2016Inngår i: Proceedings of the Artificial Life Conference 2016, ALIFE 2016, MIT Press Journals , 2016Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A common idiom in biology education states, “Eyes in the front, the animal hunts. Eyes on the side, the animal hides.” In this paper, we explore one possible explanation for why predators tend to have forward-facing, high-acuity visual systems. We do so using an agent-based computational model of evolution, where predators and prey interact and adapt their behavior and morphology to one another over successive generations of evolution. In this model, we observe a coevolutionary cycle between prey swarming behavior and the predator’s visual system, where the predator and prey continually adapt their visual system and behavior, respectively, over evolutionary time in reaction to one another due to the well-known “predator confusion effect.” Furthermore, we provide evidence that the predator visual system is what drives this coevolutionary cycle, and suggest that the cycle could be closed if the predator evolves a hybrid visual system capable of narrow, high-acuity vision for tracking prey as well as broad, coarse vision for prey discovery. Thus, the conflicting demands imposed on a predator’s visual system by the predator confusion effect could have led to the evolution of complex eyes in many predators. © 2016 MIT Press. All rights reserved.

  • 34. Ostman, B.
    et al.
    Hintze, Arend
    Keck Graduate Institute of Applied Life Sciences, Claremont, United States; Michigan State University, East Lansing, United States.
    Adami, C.
    Impact of epistasis and pleiotropy on evolutionary adaptation2012Inngår i: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 279, nr 1727, s. 247-256Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Evolutionary adaptation is often likened to climbing a hill or peak. While this process is simple for fitness landscapes where mutations are independent, the interaction between mutations (epistasis) as well as mutations at loci that affect more than one trait (pleiotropy) are crucial in complex and realistic fitness landscapes. We investigate the impact of epistasis and pleiotropy on adaptive evolution by studying the evolution of a population of asexual haploid organisms (haplotypes) in a model of N interacting loci, where each locus interacts with K other loci. We use a quantitative measure of the magnitude of epistatic interactions between substitutions, and find that it is an increasing function of K. When haplotypes adapt at high mutation rates, more epistatic pairs of substitutions are observed on the line of descent than expected. The highest fitness is attained in landscapes with an intermediate amount of ruggedness that balance the higher fitness potential of interacting genes with their concomitant decreased evolvability. Our findings imply that the synergism between loci that interact epistatically is crucial for evolving genetic modules with high fitness, while too much ruggedness stalls the adaptive process. © 2012 The Royal Society.

  • 35. Schossau, J.
    et al.
    Adami, C.
    Hintze, Arend
    Michigan State University, East Lansing, United States.
    Information-theoretic neuro-correlates boost evolution of cognitive systems2016Inngår i: Entropy, E-ISSN 1099-4300, Vol. 18, nr 1, artikkel-id 6Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Genetic Algorithms (GA) are a powerful set of tools for search and optimization that mimic the process of natural selection, and have been used successfully in a wide variety of problems, including evolving neural networks to solve cognitive tasks. Despite their success, GAs sometimes fail to locate the highest peaks of the fitness landscape, in particular if the landscape is rugged and contains multiple peaks. Reaching distant and higher peaks is difficult because valleys need to be crossed, in a process that (at least temporarily) runs against the fitness maximization objective. Here we propose and test a number of information-theoretic (as well as network-based) measures that can be used in conjunction with a fitness maximization objective (so-called "neuro-correlates") to evolve neural controllers for two widely different tasks: A behavioral task that requires information integration, and a cognitive task that requires memory and logic. We find that judiciously chosen neuro-correlates can significantly aid GAs to find the highest peaks. © 2015 by the authors.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 36. Schossau, J.
    et al.
    Hintze, Arend
    Michigan State University, East Lansing, United States.
    Neuronal variation as a cognitive evolutionary adaptation2020Inngår i: ALIFE 2018 - 2018 Conference on Artificial Life: Beyond AI, MIT Press , 2020, s. 57-58Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Computational scientists studying cognition, robotics, and Artificial Intelligence have discovered that variation is beneficial for many applications of problem-solving. With the addition of variation to a simple algorithm, local attractors may be avoided (breaking out of poor behaviors), generalizations discovered (leading to robustness), and exploration of new state spaces made. But exactly how much variation and where it should be applied is still difficult to generalize between implementations and problems as there is no guiding theory or broad understanding for why variation should help cognitive systems and in what contexts. Historically, computational scientists could look to biology for insights, in this case to understand variation and its effect on cognition. However, neuroscientists also struggle with explaining the variation observed in neural circuitry (neuronal variation) so cannot offer strong insights whether it originates externally, internally, or is merely the result of an incomplete neural model. Here, we show preliminary data suggesting that a small amount of internal variation is preferentially selected through evolution for problem domains where a balance of cognitive strategies must be used. This finding suggests an evolutionary explanation for the existence of and reason for internal neuronal variation, and lays the groundwork for understanding when and why to apply variation in Artificial Intelligences. Copyright © ALIFE 2018.All rights reserved.

  • 37. Østman, B.
    et al.
    Hintze, Arend
    Keck Graduate Institute of Applied Life Sciences, Claremont, United States.
    Adami, C.
    Critical properties of complex fitness landscapes2010Inngår i: Artificial Life XII: Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on the Synthesis and Simulation of Living Systems, ALIFE 2010, 2010, s. 126-132Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Evolutionary adaptation is the process that increases the fit of a population to the fitness landscape it inhabits. As a consequence, evolutionary dynamics is shaped, constrained, and channeled, by that fitness landscape. Much work has been expended to understand the evolutionary dynamics of adapting populations, but much less is known about the structure of the landscapes. Here, we study the global and local structure of complex fitness landscapes of interacting loci that describe protein folds or sets of interacting genes forming pathways or modules. We find that in these landscapes, high peaks are more likely to be found near other high peaks, corroborating Kauffman's "Massif Central" hypothesis. We study the clusters of peaks as a function of the ruggedness of the landscape and find that this clustering allows peaks to form interconnected networks. These networks undergo a percolation phase transition as a function of minimum peak height, which indicates that evolutionary trajectories that take no more than two mutations to shift from peak to peak can span the entire genetic space. These networks have implications for evolution in rugged landscapes, allowing adaptation to proceed after a local fitness peak has been ascended.

1 - 37 of 37
RefereraExporteraLink til resultatlisten
Permanent link
Referera
Referensformat
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • chicago-author-date
  • chicago-note-bibliography
  • Annet format
Fler format
Språk
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Annet språk
Fler språk
Utmatningsformat
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf