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  • 1.
    Bagga-Gupta, Sangeeta
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap.
    Messina Dahlberg, Giulia
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Pedagogik. Örebro universitet.
    Learning on-the-go in institutional telecollaboration: Anthropological perspectives on the boundaries of digital spaces2015Inngår i: Researching Language Learner Interaction Online: From Social Media to MOOCs / [ed] Edward Dixon and Michael Thomas, CALICO , 2015Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    As Digitally Mediated Communication increasingly becomes a dimension of everyday life across the globe, a greater number of individuals have access to newer ways of engaging in learning practices on-the-go. Learning here, i.e. in institutionalized educational settings like the videoconferencing program Adobe Connect explicitly can be conceptualized in terms of participation in distributed networks of relationships across both physical geopolitical as well as virtual spaces.

    The study presented here is interested in (i) examining the nature of languaging ‘in situ’ in digital institutional learning settings like virtual classroom, including the types of practices that unfold at the boundaries of different glocal communities, and (ii) throwing light upon the relationship(s) between the openness and parallel closure of online glocal spaces. We draw upon ethnographic data from a project at the CCD[1] research group in Sweden. Our anthropologically framed study takes sociocultural and postcolonial perspectives as points of departure and focuses upon screen recordings of online sessions of an Italian for Beginners course (80 hours) offered by a Swedish university.

    Sociocultural and postcolonial perspectives on culture, language and identity allow us to empirically investigate how students in cyber communities negotiate and co-construct SpaceTime as a single dimension during the institutionally framed agenda of an online language course focused in this study. We argue that in order to understand and empirically study such encounters (or sites of engagement) it is fruitful to use the epistemological lenses of TimeSpace as well as the postcolonial concepts of Third Space and Hybridity. This allows us an analytical shift in focus, from what happens inside a space or a community, to what occurs at the boundaries, in-between (virtual) spaces.

    Our results highlight the need to focus the distributed-discursive and the discursive-technological constitution of participants’ worlds i.e. humans-in-concert-with-artifacts in the shared space(s) of the virtual classroom, where the boundaries of what is real-tangible and what is curtailed-obscure become both fluid-diffuse and concrete-tangible. Dismantling notions of one nation-one language, facilitated by emerging media practices, it is suggested, also challenges dominant language ideologies based on monolingual-monomodal communication.

    [1]www.oru.se/humus/ccd/

  • 2.
    Messina Dahlberg, Giulia
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Pedagogik.
    “I’m not so good at this”: An analysis of processes of inclusion and marginalization in online institutional virtual environments, across and between boundaries of time and space2011Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In this presentation, we will focus on the analysis of student-student and students-teacher interaction occurring in online synchronous virtual settings in higher education. The preliminary findings from the study draws upon empirical material that consist of 24 sessions (both student-only and teacher-led, with approximately 30h of interaction material), that are part of an “Italian for beginners” language online course for adults. Our interests here relate to accounting for how students make sense of the multilingual, multimodal online learning environment as a place where the keys to gain access to the processes of inclusion and marginalization are provided by the competence of the students to understand the “mode of communication” or the “rules” of the community-of-practice in these settings.

    The use of digital tools in institutionalized language learning arenas to promote a more flexible learning is becoming more and more crucial in order to reach a larger group of students who would otherwise not have access to such a course. By using Technology Mediated Communication (TMC), it is potentially possible to attend the course from anywhere in the world, with the help of digital tools such as a computers and smart phones

    Being inside the virtual classroom and only engaging in TMC to interact in a learning community, means that the students need to adjust to the new media and artifacts that are available. Our capability of thinking is embedded within the frame of the current ways of thinking and communication in interaction in the society we live in (Säljö, 2005: 41). If face-to-face interaction is not available, students and teachers draw upon interactional strategies according to the possibilities offered in the environment in order to negotiate meaning and participation as well as their role inside the virtual classroom.

    The study takes a sociocultural approach to tracing the ways technology enhances or hinders communication in a community of practice as well as the affordances of the multimodal, multilingual setting where different literacy practices occur at the same time (Gee & Hayes, 2011: 22). The findings show that the teacher, as well as the students, position themselves at times as facilitators of the use of the different modes, at times as more peripheral participants, who need to be guided in the communication and whose presence in the group is to be confirmed by the other members of the community, thus creating patterns and processes of inclusion and empowerment as well as marginalization in the interaction.

    References

    Gee, J.P. & Hayes, E. R. (2011) Language and Learning in the Digital Age. Oxon: Routledge

    Säljö, R. (2005) Lärande och kulturella redskap. Om lärprocesser och det kollektiva minnet. Stockholm: Norstedt Akademiska Förlag

  • 3.
    Messina Dahlberg, Giulia
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Pedagogik. Örebro universitet.
    Languaging in virtual learning sites: studies of online encounters in the language-focused classroom2015Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis focuses upon a series of empirical studies which examine communication and learning in online glocal communities within higher education in Sweden. A recurring theme in the theoretical framework deals with issues of languaging in virtual multimodal environments as well as the making of identity and negotiation of meaning in these settings; analyzing the activity, what people do, in contraposition to the study of how people talk about their activity. The studies arise from netnographic work during two online Italian for Beginners courses offered by a Swedish university. Microanalyses of the interactions occurring through multimodal video-conferencing software are amplified by the study of the courses’ organisation of space and time and have allowed for the identification of communicative strategies and interactional patterns in virtual learning sites when participants communicate in a language variety with which they have a limited experience.

    The findings from the four studies included in the thesis indicate that students who are part of institutional virtual higher educational settings make use of several resources in order to perform their identity positions inside the group as a way to enrich and nurture the process of communication and learning in this online glocal community. The sociocultural dialogical analyses also shed light on the ways in which participants gathering in discursive technological spaces benefit from the opportunity to go to class without commuting to the physical building of the institution providing the course. This identity position is, thus, both experienced by participants in interaction, and also afforded by the ‘spaceless’ nature of the online environment.

  • 4.
    Messina Dahlberg, Giulia
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Pedagogik. Örebro universitet.
    Learning analytics to visually represent the mobility of learners in the language-focused virtual classroom: a multivocal approachManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 5.
    Messina Dahlberg, Giulia
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Pedagogik.
    Bagga-Gupta, Sangeeta
    Örebro Universitet.
    Communication in the virtual classroom in higher education: languaging beyond the boundaries of time and space2013Inngår i: Learning, Culture and Social Interaction, ISSN 2210-6561, E-ISSN 2210-657X, Vol. 2, nr 3, s. 127-142Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The empirical study presented here focuses upon naturalistic social interaction in online synchronous communities within higher education. Our interests here relate to accounting for the communicative strategies employed by participants who are dealing with a common task, and how these specific tasks are negotiated within the constraints and opportunities accorded in the multimodal multilingual virtual setting. Taking sociocultural theoretical points of departure, we focus on students' languaging and use of tools when they have access to a range of resources inside the online videoconferencing program. The study is based upon screen recordings of both student-only and teacher-lead meetings during one semester in the online course Italian for beginners offered by a Swedish university. The analysis is two-fold: we provide an overview of the interactional patterns at the general lesson level in the data complemented by a micro-interactional analysis of selected slices of everyday life from two meetings. Our findings indicate that students make use of several resources that dialectically shape how they get positioned within the virtual community culture. These identification processes function as ways of enriching and nurturing learning, both of appropriating the target language, as well as enabling ways of being in multimodal, multilingual communities of practices.

  • 6.
    Messina Dahlberg, Giulia
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Pedagogik.
    Bagga-Gupta, Sangeeta
    Örebro Universitet.
    Constraints and affordances in epistemic practices: Socialization in the virtual classroom as an affinity space2013Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 7.
    Messina Dahlberg, Giulia
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Pedagogik.
    Bagga-Gupta, Sangeeta
    Örebro Universitet.
    Languaging – multilingual, multimodal ways of being in online educational environments2011Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The study presented here is trying to understand the nature of human communication and learning in online synchronous communities within higher education in Sweden. The preliminary findings from the pilot study draws upon empirical material that consist of 12 sessions of approximately 30 minutes each, that are part of an “Italian for beginners” language online course. These sessions take place once a week over a period of one semester.

    Our study focuses upon interaction in the virtual classroom as a community of practice where students participate without teacher intervention. Our interests here relate to accounting for what communicative strategies are employed by students who are dealing with a common task without teacher supervision, and how these activities are negotiated within the constraints and opportunities accorded in the multimodal multilingual virtual setting. Taking sociocultural theoretical points of departure, we are currently analyzing how students create meaning in language learning using tools that allow them to interact when they have access to multimodal resources.

    Preliminary findings suggest that the students interact in the online videoconferencing environment using communication strategies in a rather flexible manner. Examples of the use of different modes – i.e. instant messaging, whiteboard and audio – and different codes will be presented. These highlight the complexity of communication in online communities of practice.

  • 8.
    Messina Dahlberg, Giulia
    et al.
    University of Skövde.
    Bagga-Gupta, Sangeeta
    Örebro universitet.
    Mapping languaging in digital spaces: literacy practices at borderlands2016Inngår i: Language Learning & Technology, ISSN 1094-3501, E-ISSN 1094-3501, Vol. 20, nr 3, s. 80-106Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 9.
    Messina Dahlberg, Giulia
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Pedagogik.
    Bagga-Gupta, Sangeeta
    Örebro Universitet.
    Socialization in transnational epistemic practices: lesson types and representations in virtual classrooms2013Inngår i: Abstracts: 13th International Pragmatics ConferenceNEW DELHI, INDIA8-13 September 2013, International Pragmatics Association , 2013, s. 301-Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 10.
    Messina Dahlberg, Giulia
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Pedagogik.
    Bagga-Gupta, Sangeeta
    School of Humanities, Education and Social Science, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Understanding glocal learning spaces: an empirical study of languaging and transmigrant positions in the virtual classroom2014Inngår i: Learning, Media & Technology, ISSN 1743-9884, E-ISSN 1743-9892, Vol. 39, nr 4, s. 468-487Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of digital tools like computers and tablets in institutional learning arenas give rise to forms of flexibility where time and space boundaries become diffuse. Online learning sites are understood as being crucial today, especially in large parts of the Global North, where anyone anywhere potentially can become a student and have access to educational opportunities.

    This study focuses on the analysis of recorded sessions, part of an ‘Italian for(adult) beginners’ online course. Our interests relate to accounting for how students negotiate different language varieties, including modalities, and how communication in virtual learning settings enables both flexible participation trajectories and identity positions in and across the boundaries of time and space. The sociocultural and dialogical analyses here are framed in terms of fluidity of ‘glocal’ positions and (trans)languaging that emerge in and across time and space in Technology Mediated Communication. Our findings suggest that online environments support meaning-making where it is possible to identify alternative ways of (co)constructing and mediating learning. Such hybridity as well as the performative character of learning and identity display have important implications for online glocal communities.

  • 11.
    Messina Dahlberg, Giulia
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Pedagogik.
    Bagga-Gupta, Sangeeta
    Örebro Universitet.
    Virtual learning sites as transnational borderlands: Dialogical approaches to participants ‘multilingual-modal’ languaging2012Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Use of digital tools like computers and smart phones in institutional settings provide flexibility in that the boundaries of time and space disintegrate. Such learning sites are conceptualized as being crucial in today’s globalized existence whereby anyone anywhere could potentially become a student and have access to institutional higher educational opportunities. 

     

    The study presented here is based on the analysis of recorded sessions (both student-only and teacher-led) of an “Italian for beginners” language online course provided by a college in the geopolitical space of Sweden. Our interests relate to accounting for how students negotiate the ‘multilingual-modal’ online synchronous learning site where the environment itself constitutes a boundary object, an artifact “that articulate(s) meaning and address(es) different perspectives” (Akkerman & Bakker, 2011: 10). We contend that students, in this virtual language-focused classroom orient their communication in specific ways.

     

    In such sites learning is understood as mutually related to processes of identification and acculturation (Ligorio, 2010) and in such a global-local or “glocal” (Robertson 1992; Hampton Keith, 2010) community of practice, language learning also means understanding and re-constructing interactional modes and norms shared by its virtual members. In addition, we consider the interaction occurring in online  ‘multilingual-modal’ environments not in terms of the performance of second language acquisition but rather as the result of language use, or languaging. This center-stages what the participants do with the language and modality resources they have at hand and how the interaction is enhanced or constrained by the environment. Digital language use in such sites allows for mobility through time and space where new geocultural processes affect the emergence of new multimodal forms of communication (Blommaert, 2010).The meaning making potentials in these types of borderlands also challenge issues related to multiliteracies (Hornberger, 2003) and identification (Bagga-Gupta 2011, forthcoming).

    The sociocultural-dialogical and postcolonial analyses here are framed in terms of the inherent fluidity of identity positions and languaging (Bagga-Gupta, forthcoming; Garcia, 2009; Linell 2009). Such fluidity emerges in and across the boundaries of time, space and, not least, specifically Technology Mediated Communication (TMC) thus creating a glocal nexus (Hermans & Hermans-Konopka, 2010) in virtual sites. Interactions here offer diverse “ways of being” and of “ways with words” in the world (Bagga-Gupta, in press). Our study traces both the range and the ways in which discursive-technologies provide affordances and obstacles to oral and written communication (Gee & Hayes, 2011). Preliminary findings suggest that online environments support meaning-making in a creative process of reification (Wenger, 1998) where it is possible to identify alternative ways of (co)constructing and nurturing learning. We argue that this hybridization of learning across contexts (Akkerman & Van Eijk, 2011) and modes, as well as the performative character of learning (Säljö, 2010) and identity display have important implications for analytically understanding what it means to become literate and a member of a community.

  • 12.
    Messina Dahlberg, Giulia
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Pedagogik.
    Lindberg, Ylva
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation.
    Virtual sites for sustainable lifelong language learning2014Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 13.
    Viberg, Olga
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Informatik.
    Messina Dahlberg, Giulia
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Pedagogik.
    MOOCs’ structure and knowledge management2013Inngår i: ICCE 2013 Conference Proceedings C3, 2013Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 14.
    Viberg, Olga
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Informatik.
    Messina Dahlberg, Giulia
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Pedagogik.
    Who Gains the Leading Position in Online Interaction?2011Inngår i: NGL 2012, Next Generation Learning Conference: Conference Proceedings, Falun: Högskolan Dalarna , 2011, s. 113-137Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, the focus is on the analysis of student-teacher interaction occurring in online synchronous virtual settings in higher education. The preliminary findings of the study draw upon empirical material that consists of 20 online sessions (both students-only and teacher-led, with approximately 40 hours of interaction material), that are parts of the “Italian for beginners” and “Russian for beginners” online language courses at university level and informal interviews with the participants.Our interests here relate to accounting for how students and teachers of the two online language courses interact inside a multimodal and multilingual online synchronous environment. The study deals with issues of how technology mediated multimodal communication affects power shift between teacher – student and student – student interaction. In particular the paper illustrates how videoconferencing reflects on power shifts between the participants and in what ways these shifts become significant for the learning process in these settings. Being inside the virtual classroom and only engaging in technology mediated communication to interact in a learning community means that the students and teachers need to adjust to the new media and artifacts available. The study takes a sociocultural theoretical approach to tracing the ways technology enhances or hinders communication in a community of practice where different literacy practices occur at the same time (Gee & Hayes, 2011).Preliminary findings show that the teachers as well as the students position themselves both as facilitators for other participants of the use of different modes as text chat, whiteboard, audio and video, and also as more peripheral participants who need to be guided in the communication afforded in the online environment. The active users of these different modes seem to obtain the keys to get access to the environment and the participation inside the group in contrast to the students who do not use all the available modes in the virtual settings, thus influencing the power shifts in the group during the same session.

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