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  • 1.
    Bexell, Ulf
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Materialvetenskap.
    Carlsson, Per
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Materialvetenskap.
    Olsson, Mikael
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Materialvetenskap.
    Characterisation of Thin Films of a Non-Organofunctional Silane on Al-43.4Zn-1.6Si Alloy Coated Steel by ToF-SIMS1999Inngår i: SIMS XII, Brussels, Belgium, 1999Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 2.
    Bexell, Ulf
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Materialvetenskap.
    Carlsson, Per
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Materialvetenskap.
    Olsson, Mikael
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Materialvetenskap.
    Tribological Characterisation of an Organic Coating by the use of ToF-SIMS2003Inngår i: Applied Surface Science, ISSN 0169-4332, E-ISSN 1873-5584, Vol. 203-204, s. 596-599Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    ToF-SIMS has been used to analyse tribological induced chemical changes of organic coatings deposited on steel strip hot-dip coated with a 55.0% Al–43.4% Zn–1.6% Si alloy (Aluzink). The organic coating was a styrene–acrylic co-polymer containing different forming additives. The forming properties of the organic coatings were evaluated with modified scratch testing. The friction curves show that organic coated hot-dip coated steel displays significantly better tribological properties, i.e. lower coefficient of friction and lower wear, as compared to hot-dip coated steel. Furthermore, the organic coatings showing the highest material transfer tendency also show the highest wear. ToF-SIMS spectra show that a transfer film consisting of species from the organic coating is formed on the ball counter surface. Finally, a combination of SEM and ToF-SIMS analysis shows that mechanical failure of the coating dominates, i.e. no tribochemical changes of the coatings could be detected in the wear track.

  • 3.
    Bexell, Ulf
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Materialvetenskap.
    Olsson, Mikael
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Materialvetenskap.
    Johansson, M
    Sundell, P.-E
    Carlsson, Per
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Materialvetenskap.
    Hellsing, Magnus
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Materialvetenskap.
    A ToF-SIMS Study of Linseed Oil Bonded to Mercaptosilane Treated Aluminium2003Inngår i: Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry, SIMS XIV, San Diego, California, USA, 2003Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 4.
    Carlsson, Per
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Materialvetenskap.
    Surface engineering in sheet metal forming2005Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 5.
    Carlsson, Per
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Materialvetenskap.
    Bexell, Ulf
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Materialvetenskap.
    Hörnström, Sven Erik
    Corrosion Behaviour of Aluzink with Different Passivation Treatments2001Inngår i: GALVATECH 2001, Brussels, Belgium, 2001Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 6.
    Carlsson, Per
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Materialvetenskap.
    Bexell, Ulf
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Materialvetenskap.
    Olsson, Mikael
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Materialvetenskap.
    Automatic Scratch Testing - A New Tool for Evaluating the Stability of Tribological Conditions in Sheet Metal Forming2001Inngår i: GALVATECH 2001, Brussels, Belgium, 2001Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 7.
    Carlsson, Per
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Materialvetenskap.
    Bexell, Ulf
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Materialvetenskap.
    Olsson, Mikael
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Materialvetenskap.
    Friction and Wear Mechanisms of Thin Organic Permanent Coatings Deposited on Hot-Dip Coated Steel2001Inngår i: Wear, ISSN 0043-1648, E-ISSN 1873-2577, Vol. 247, nr 1, s. 88-99Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Adhesive wear, generally defined as ‘wear due to localised bonding between contacting solid surfaces leading to material transfer between the two surfaces or loss from either surface’ is a common phenomenon in many sliding contact tribosystems, e.g. sheet metal forming operations. In these operations, galling, i.e. seizure of the sheet surface caused by transfer of sheet material to the tool surface, is frequently a problem since it may results in scratching of the formed sheet surface and eventually cracking and fracture of the product due to high friction forces. In order to reduce the coefficient of friction and the galling tendency in sheet metal forming operations thin organic coatings has been introduced on the market with the intention of improving the performance of hot-dip coated steel sheet. In summary, these coatings have the potential to increase the formability without additional lubrication and serve as temporary corrosion protection during transportation. In the present study, the friction and wear mechanisms of five different thin organic permanent coatings deposited on hot-dip coated (Zn and 55% Al–Zn) steel sheet is evaluated by modified scratch testing. The results obtained show that this test method permits easy and reproducible evaluation of the tribological properties of thin organic coatings. Further, these coatings show a high potential when it comes to improve the formability of hot-dip coated steel. The results obtained are discussed in relation to the identified friction and wear mechanisms.

  • 8.
    Carlsson, Per
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Materialvetenskap.
    Bexell, Ulf
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Materialvetenskap.
    Olsson, Mikael
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Materialvetenskap.
    Tribological Behaviour of Thin Organic Permanent Coatings Deposited on Hot-Dip Coated Steel Sheet - a Laboratory Study2000Inngår i: Surface & Coatings Technology, ISSN 0257-8972, E-ISSN 1879-3347, Vol. 132, nr 2-3, s. 169-180Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The forming and handling of hot-dip coated steel sheets is frequently associated with problems such as galling, scratching and discoloration. Recently, a new generation of thin organic coatings has been introduced on the market in order to improve the performance of hot-dip coated steel sheets and reduce these kinds of problems. In summary, these coatings have the potential to increase the formability of the steel sheet without additional lubrication, the anti-finger print properties and the corrosion protection of the product. Besides, they should also provide a pre-treatment for painting, i.e. they can be classified as permanent coatings. In the present study, the tribological behaviour of three different thin organic permanent coatings deposited on hot-dip coated (pure zinc and 55% Al–Zn) steel sheets is evaluated by three different laboratory tests; modified scratch testing, pin-on-disc testing and bending under tension testing. The results obtained show that all tests yield consistent and valuable information concerning the friction and wear properties of the materials and can, therefore, be used in order to study the tribology in sheet metal forming and the performance of different types of permanent coatings. Of the permanent coatings investigated, a pure organic coating shows the lowest coefficient of friction (µ close to 0.1) and the highest wear resistance, thus offering excellent anti-galling properties. In contrast, a mixed organic/inorganic coating displays a relatively high coefficient of friction (µ close to 0.3) and a significantly lower wear resistance. Surface analyses of the tested surfaces show that the thickness and coverage of the thin organic coating play an important role in controlling friction and wear. Furthermore, a thin organic coating optimized for improved formability and handling should display: a high adhesion to the underlying substrate material, a low coefficient of friction, a high load carrying capacity and a high intrinsic wear resistance.

  • 9.
    Carlsson, Per
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Materialvetenskap.
    Bexell, Ulf
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Materialvetenskap.
    Olsson, Mikael
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Materialvetenskap.
    Tribological Performance of Thin Organic Permanent Coatings Deposited on 55%Al-Zn Coated Steel – Influence of Coating Composition and Thickness on Friction and Wear2001Inngår i: Wear, ISSN 0043-16.48, Vol. 251, nr 1-12, s. 1075-1084Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Dry lubricants are today increasingly being used in various types of sheet metal forming operations. Among these, permanent coatings, based on organic resins are the only lubricants which have the potential to increase the formability without additional lubrication, serve as temporary corrosion protection during transportation and, finally, serve as a pre-treatment before subsequent painting. In the present study, the influence of coating composition and thickness on the friction and wear behaviour of different thin organic permanent coatings deposited on 55%Al–Zn coated steel sheet have been evaluated by various types of laboratory tests. Surface profilometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF–SIMS) were used in order to characterise and model the tribological behaviour of the coatings. The results obtained show that the tribological properties of thin organic permanent coatings are strongly influenced by the coating thickness. In order to reduce problems associated with high friction and galling, the coating must be deposited with a uniform thickness, i.e. uncoated regions must be avoided. Furthermore, the addition of various types of additives can be used in order to further improve the tribological performance of these types of coatings.

  • 10.
    Carlsson, Per
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Materialvetenskap.
    Bexell, Ulf
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Materialvetenskap.
    Olsson, Mikael
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Materialvetenskap.
    Klang, Hans
    A study of the initial stages of atmospheric corrosion of formed hot dip zinc coated steel1997Inngår i: EUROCORR-97, Trondheim, Norway, 1997Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Hot-dip zinc coated steel sheet is extensively used to improve the corrosion protection of steel constructions. When the sheet is formed cracks in the zinc coating develop in strained areas. The zinc coating gives a galvanic protection of the steel in damaged areas of the coating and at cut edges of the sheet. The degree of protection is, however, dependent on factors such as the geometry and the area of the defects, the coating thickness, the presence of corrosive ions in the electrolyte and the wet time. In this work we have studied the initial atmospheric corrosion of zinc coated steel in defects on bended and scribed material. The samples were exposed to a cyclic indoor corrosion test developed by Volvo (Volvo standard 1027). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) were used to monitor the initial stages of corrosion and the growth of corrosion products. The corrosion products were identified as predominantly zinc hydroxycarbonate, zinc hydroxychloride and zinc hydroxide. The amount of corrosion products increases with the size of the damaged area, which suggests that the cathodic reduction of oxygen at the steel substrate controls the corrosion rate.

  • 11.
    Carlsson, Per
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Materialvetenskap.
    Bexell, Ulf
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Materialvetenskap.
    Olsson, Mikael
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Materialvetenskap.
    Klang, Hans
    Initial Atmospheric Corrosion Behavior of Formed Hot Dip Zinc Coated Steel - An Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy Study1997Inngår i: SCANDEM-97, Gothenburg, Sweden, 1997Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 12.
    Harlin, Peter
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Materialvetenskap.
    Carlsson, Per
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Materialvetenskap.
    Bexell, Ulf
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Materialvetenskap.
    Olsson, Mikael
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Materialvetenskap.
    Influence of surface roughness of PVD coatings on tribological performance in sliding contacts2006Inngår i: Surface & Coatings Technology, ISSN 0257-8972, E-ISSN 1879-3347, Vol. 201, nr 7, s. 4253-4259Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of surface roughness on the tribological performance, i.e. friction, wear and material pick-up tendency, of two different commercial PVD coatings, TiN and WC/C, in sliding contact with ball bearing steel has been evaluated using two different types of sliding wear laboratory tests. Post-test characterisation using SEM/EDS, AES, ToF-SIMS and XPS was used to evaluate the prevailing friction and wear. The results show that the surface roughness of the coating is of importance in order to control the initial material pick-up tendency and thus the friction characteristics in a sliding contact. Once initiated, the material pick-up tendency will increase, generating a tribofilm at the sliding interface. For steel–TiN sliding couples a FeO-based tribofilm is generated on the two surfaces and FeO/FeO becomes the sliding interface (interfilm sliding) resulting in a high friction coefficient. For steel–WC/C sliding couples the WC/C displays a pronounced running-in behaviour which generates a WO3-based tribofilm on the steel surface while a carbon rich surface layer is formed on the WC/C surface, i.e. WO3/C becomes the sliding interface (interface sliding) resulting in a low friction coefficient.

  • 13.
    Lindgren, Lars-Erik
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Materialvetenskap.
    Olsson, Mikael
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Materialvetenskap.
    Carlsson, Per
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Materialvetenskap.
    Simulation of hydroforming of steel tube made of metastable stainless steel2010Inngår i: International journal of plasticity, ISSN 0749-6419, E-ISSN 1879-2154, Vol. 26, nr 11, s. 1576-1590Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Olson-Cohen model for strain-induced deformation, further developed by Stringfellow and others, has been calibrated together with a flow stress model for the plastic deformation of metastable stainless steel. Special validation tests for checking one of the limitations of the model have also been carried out. The model has been implemented into a commercial finite element code using a staggered approach for integrating the stress-strain relations with the microstructure model. Results from a thermo-mechanical coupled simulation of hydroforming of a tube have been compared with corresponding experiments. The agreement between experimental results of radial expansion and martensite fraction and the corresponding computed results is good. 

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