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  • 101.
    Ager, Bengt
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Wood Technology.
    Bergqvist, Mathias
    Bengtsson, Patrik
    Ahlström-Söderling, Ragnar
    Fröding, Anders
    Johansson, Lars
    Samverkan i träförädling: Dokumentation och preliminär analys av ett 30-tal samverkansfall1998Report (Other academic)
  • 102.
    Ager, Bengt
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Wood Technology.
    Liss, Jan-Erik
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Wood Technology.
    Systemstudier Ungskogsbränsle - Projektplan till Nutek1998Report (Other academic)
  • 103.
    Agerberg, Alexandra
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, German.
    Digitale Kompetenzen auf dem Stundenplan2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim:

    the paper at hand has four aims. Firstly, it examines teachers’ own understanding of the term digital competence. Secondly, a closer look is taken at how teachers assess their own digital competence. For this purpose, the term digital competence was divided into three aspects: technical, didactical and theoretical competences all of which shed a different light on the main term digital competence but are equally important in the implementation of digital competence in successful teaching and as according to the changes made to the Swedish curriculum in 2018. Thirdly, this paper tries to investigate how often digital competence and digital tools and media are implemented in language teaching and fourthly, a look is taken at what digital tools and media are at the teachers’ disposal and how their use is applied.

    Design/methods/ approach:

    Empirical study made with the help of an online questionnaire which was sent do different secondary schools in Sweden inviting language teachers to participate. The answers given in the survey are analysed and quantitatively and qualitatively presented. The results found are discussed and compared with other recent literature and research papers in the field of ICT and digital competence in teaching.

    Findings:

    according to the results, the author of this paper found that the teachers who participated in this study have a very varied understanding of the term digital competence. The definitions given reflect the terms complexity and the individual relations to the term itself and what importance is given to the digital tools and media associated. When asked to assess their own digital competences, which were divided into technical, didactical and theoretical digital competences, the participating teachers gave their own competences a generally high rating. Nevertheless, differences can be noted and the assessment, although generally high for all the competences involved, does show a falling curve in which the participants rate their technical digital competence at the highest and their theoretical digital competence at the lowest.

    According to the results analysed, digital tools and media are implemented in teaching on a regular and even daily basis and teachers generally have a broad variety of tools and media at their disposal. However, the study shows that the frequent use of these tools does not seem to have had an impact or changed the basic way they are applied in language teaching. A comparison with earlier studies and literature shows that a lack of methods may be the reason for the stagnation of development in this field.

  • 104.
    Agerberg, Alexandra
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, German.
    Im Zwiegespräch mit dem Computer: ICT und digitale Kompetenzen zur Förderung und zur Motivation der Sprachentwicklung von Lernern einer Fremdsprache mit Focus auf die mündliche Sprachentwicklung2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    – The paper at hand has three aims which are based on the recent adjustments made to the Swedish curriculum which take effect in summer 2018 and stipulate the implementation of digital competence in all subjects. Firstly, the study examines the effect of ICT and digital media/ aids on the WTC and motivation of second language learners. Secondly, a look is taken at how ICT and digital media/ aids are implemented in teaching today and thirdly, the challenges teachers face by the diverse interpretation and definition of the term digital competence and its realization in the classroom are investigated.

    Design/methodology/approach

    – The study is a literature review in which recent literature and research papers in the field of ICT in teaching with focus on second language teaching and learning were examined.

    Findings

    – According to the results, the author found that the use of ICT and digital media/ aids have a positive effect on the WTC and motivation of second language learners when used appropriately. The challenges teachers face in this respect is a lack of methods and strategies as well as technical support that are needed to successfully implement ICT in their lessons. Especially the lack of technical support is viewed as a time consuming one as it requires teachers to have a back-up-plan which in effect means more lesson planning on their part. Additionally and in regard to the implementation of digital competences in all subjects, teachers are faced with new challenges which comprise a technical; theoretical and didactical knowledge of the term and its practical realization. Due to the recency of the changes made to the curriculum, the investigation of the challenges that present themselves to the teachers open up for new research that can be made in this field.

  • 105.
    Agerberg, Alexandra
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, English.
    Jay Gatsby and Myrtle Wilson – Victims of Illusion and Destined to Fail: A Study of False-Consciousness in The Great Gatsby 2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 106.
    Agerberg, Sandra
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Norberg, Carina
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Faktorer av betydelse för god palliativ omvårdnadsett ur ett patientperspektiv- en litteraturöversikt2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The aim of this literature review was to, from a patient point of view, identify factors within the specialized palliative care that constituted good care from the.Method: A systematic literature review was undertaken. Fifteen articles were reviewed. Thirteen of these were qualitative and two were quantitative.Results: Four categories were identified: self determination, capability of the nurse, nursing relations and maintaining dignity.The patients self determination was a central part of nursing. Delegating control and self determination from a patient to a nurse is also a form of self determination.Capable nurses instill trust and gave patients the opportunity of more alternatives when it came to choices concerning the care of the patient.A good relation with the nurse could give the patient a feeling of being important and being a part of something bigger, despite lack of family or friends. Important factors regarding patient-nurse relations were continuity and nurse accessibility.Maintaining dignity included being seen as the human being that the patient was before the terminal illness was diagnosed.Conclusion: Patients noted several factors as important for good palliative care. These could be summarized as self determination, nurse capability, nursing relations and maintaining dignity.

  • 107.
    Aghanavesi, Somayeh
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    Smartphone-based Parkinson’s disease symptom assessment2017Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis consists of four research papers presenting a microdata analysis approach to assess and evaluate the Parkinson’s disease (PD) motor symptoms using smartphone-based systems. PD is a progressive neurological disorder that is characterized by motor symptoms. It is a complex disease that requires continuous monitoring and multidimensional symptom analysis. Both patients’ perception regarding common symptom and their motor function need to be related to the repeated and time-stamped assessment; with this, the full extent of patient’s condition could be revealed. The smartphone enables and facilitates the remote, long-term and repeated assessment of PD symptoms. Two types of collected data from smartphone were used, one during a three year, and another during one-day clinical study. The data were collected from series of tests consisting of tapping and spiral motor tests. During the second time scale data collection, along smartphone-based measurements patients were video recorded while performing standardized motor tasks according to Unified Parkinson’s disease rating scales (UPDRS).

    At first, the objective of this thesis was to elaborate the state of the art, sensor systems, and measures that were used to detect, assess and quantify the four cardinal and dyskinetic motor symptoms. This was done through a review study. The review showed that smartphones as the new generation of sensing devices are preferred since they are considered as part of patients’ daily accessories, they are available and they include high-resolution activity data. Smartphones can capture important measures such as forces, acceleration and radial displacements that are useful for assessing PD motor symptoms.

    Through the obtained insights from the review study, the second objective of this thesis was to investigate whether a combination of tapping and spiral drawing tests could be useful to quantify dexterity in PD. More specifically, the aim was to develop data-driven methods to quantify and characterize dexterity in PD. The results from this study showed that tapping and spiral drawing tests that were collected by smartphone can detect movements reasonably well related to under- and over-medication.

    The thesis continued by developing an Approximate Entropy (ApEn)-based method, which aimed to measure the amount of temporal irregularity during spiral drawing tests. One of the disabilities associated with PD is the impaired ability to accurately time movements. The increase in timing variability among patients when compared to healthy subjects, suggests that the Basal Ganglia (BG) has a role in interval timing. ApEn method was used to measure temporal irregularity score (TIS) which could significantly differentiate the healthy subjects and patients at different stages of the disease. This method was compared to two other methods which were used to measure the overall drawing impairment and shakiness. TIS had better reliability and responsiveness compared to the other methods. However, in contrast to other methods, the mean scores of the ApEn-based method improved significantly during a 3-year clinical study, indicating a possible impact of pathological BG oscillations in temporal control during spiral drawing tasks. In addition, due to the data collection scheme, the study was limited to have no gold standard for validating the TIS. However, the study continued to further investigate the findings using another screen resolution, new dataset, new patient groups, and for shorter term measurements. The new dataset included the clinical assessments of patients while they performed tests according to UPDRS. The results of this study confirmed the findings in the previous study. Further investigation when assessing the correlation of TIS to clinical ratings showed the amount of temporal irregularity present in the spiral drawing cannot be detected during clinical assessment since TIS is an upper limb high frequency-based measure. 

  • 108.
    Aghanavesi, Somayeh
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    Bergquist, Filip
    Nyholm, Dag
    Senek, Marina
    Memedi, Mevludin
    Motion sensor-based assessment of Parkinson’s disease motor symptoms during leg agility tests: results from levodopa challenge2019In: IEEE journal of biomedical and health informatics, ISSN 2168-2194, E-ISSN 2168-2208Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a degenerative, progressive disorder of the central nervous system that mainly affects motor control. The aim of this study was to develop data-driven methods and test their clinimetric properties to detect and quantify PD motor states using motion sensor data from leg agility tests. Nineteen PD patients were recruited in a levodopa single dose challenge study. PD patients performed leg agility tasks while wearing motion sensors on their lower extremities. Clinical evaluation of video recordings was performed by three movement disorder specialists who used four items from the motor section of the Unified PD Rating Scale (UPDRS), the treatment response scale (TRS) and a dyskinesia score. Using the sensor data, spatiotemporal features were calculated and relevant features were selected by feature selection. Machine learning methods like support vector machines (SVM), decision trees and linear regression, using 10-fold cross validation were trained to predict motor states of the patients. SVM showed the best convergence validity with correlation coefficients of 0.81 to TRS, 0.83 to UPDRS #31 (body bradykinesia and hypokinesia), 0.78 to SUMUPDRS (the sum of the UPDRS items: #26-leg agility, #27-arising from chair and #29-gait), and 0.67 to dyskinesia. Additionally, the SVM-based scores had similar test-retest reliability in relation to clinical ratings. The SVM-based scores were less responsive to treatment effects than the clinical scores, particularly with regards to dyskinesia. In conclusion, the results from this study indicate that using motion sensors during leg agility tests may lead to valid and reliable objective measures of PD motor symptoms.

  • 109.
    Aghanavesi, Somayeh
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    Bergquist, Filip
    Gothenburg University.
    Nyholm, Dag
    Uppsala University.
    Senek, Marina
    Uppsala University.
    Memedi, Mevludin
    Örebro University.
    Objective assessment of Parkinson’s disease motor symptoms during leg agility test using motion sensors2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Title: Objective assessment of Parkinson’s disease motor symptoms during leg agility test using motion sensors

    Objective: To develop and evaluate machine learning methods for assessment of Parkinson’s disease (PD) motor symptoms using leg agility (LA) data collected with motion sensors during a single dose experiment.

    Background: Nineteen advanced PD patients (Gender: 14 males and 5 females, mean age: 71.4, mean years with PD: 9.7, mean years with levodopa: 9.5) were recruited in a single center, open label, single dose clinical trial in Sweden [1].

    Methods: The patients performed up to 15 LA tasks while wearing motions sensors on their foot ankle. They performed tests at pre-defined time points starting from baseline, at the time they received a morning dose (150% of their levodopa equivalent morning dose), and at follow-up time points until the medication wore off. The patients were video recorded while performing the motor tasks. and three movement disorder experts rated the observed motor symptoms using 4 items from the Unified PD Rating Scale (UPDRS) motor section including UPDRS #26 (leg agility), UPDRS #27 (Arising from chair), UPDRS #29 (Gait), UPDRS #31 (Body Bradykinesia and Hypokinesia), and dyskinesia scale. In addition, they rated the overall mobility of the patients using Treatment Response Scale (TRS), ranging from -3 (very off) to 3 (very dyskinetic). Sensors data were processed and their quantitative measures were used to develop machine learning methods, which mapped them to the mean ratings of the three raters. The quality of measurements of the machine learning methods was assessed by convergence validity, test-retest reliability and sensitivity to treatment.

    Results: Results from the 10-fold cross validation showed good convergent validity of the machine learning methods (Support Vector Machines, SVM) with correlation coefficients of 0.81 for TRS, 0.78 for UPDRS #26, 0.69 for UPDRS #27, 0.78 for UPDRS #29, 0.83 for UPDRS #31, and 0.67 for dyskinesia scale (P<0.001). There were good correlations between scores produced by the methods during the first (baseline) and second tests with coefficients ranging from 0.58 to 0.96, indicating good test-retest reliability. The machine learning methods had lower sensitivity than mean clinical ratings (Figure. 1).

    Conclusions: The presented methodology was able to assess motor symptoms in PD well, comparable to movement disorder experts. The leg agility test did not reflect treatment related changes.

  • 110.
    Aghanavesi, Somayeh
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    Bergquist, Filip
    Nyholm, Dag
    Senek, Marina
    Memedi, Mevludin
    Treatment response index from a multi-modal sensor fusion platform for assessment of motor states in Parkinson's disease2019Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to develop and evaluate a multi-sensor data fusion platform for quantifying Parkinson’s disease (PD) motor states. More specifically, the aim is to evaluate the clinimetric properties (validity, reliability, and responsiveness to treatment) of the method, using data from motion sensors during lower- and upper-limb tests.

    Methods: Nineteen PD patients and 22 healthy controls were recruited in a single center study. Subjects performed standardized motor tasks of Unified PD Rating Scale (UPDRS), including leg agility, hand rotation, and walking after wearing motion sensors on ankles and wrists. PD patients received a single levodopa dose before and at follow-up time points after the dose administration. Patients were video recorded and their motor symptoms were rated by three movement disorder experts. Experts rated each and every test occasions based on the six items of UPDRS-III (motor section), the treatment response scale (TRS) and the dyskinesia score. Spatiotemporal features were extracted from the sensor data. Features from lower limbs and upper limbs were fused. Feature selection methods of stepwise regression (SR), Lasso regression and principle component analysis (PCA) were used to select the most important features. Different machine learning methods of linear regression (LR), decision trees, and support vector machines were examined and their clinimetric properties were assessed.

    Results: Treatment response index from multimodal motion sensors (TRIMMS) scores obtained from the most valid method of LR when using data from all tests. Features were selected by SR, and this method resulted in r=0.95 to TRS. The test-retest reliability of TRIMMS was good with intra-class correlation coefficient of 0.82. Responsiveness of the TRIMMS to levodopa treatment was similar to the responsiveness of TRS.

    Conclusions: The results from this study indicate that fusing motion sensors data gathered during standardized motor tasks leads to valid, reliable and sensitive objective measurements of PD motor symptoms. These measurements could be further utilized in studies for individualized optimization of treatments in PD.

  • 111.
    Aghanavesi, Somayeh
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    Filip, Bergquist
    Gothenburg University.
    Nyholm, Dag
    Uppsala University.
    Senek, Marina
    Uppsala University.
    Memedi, Mevludin
    Örebro University.
    Feasibility of a multi-sensor data fusion method for assessment of Parkinson’s disease motor symptoms2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Title: Feasibility of a multi-sensor data fusion method for assessment of Parkinson’s disease motor symptoms

    Objective: To assess the feasibility of measuring Parkinson’s disease (PD) motor symptoms with a multi-sensor data fusion method. More specifically, the aim is to assess validity, reliability and sensitivity to treatment of the methods.

    Background: Data from 19 advanced PD patients (Gender: 14 males and 5 females, mean age: 71.4, mean years with PD: 9.7, mean years with levodopa: 9.5) were collected in a single center, open label, single dose clinical trial in Sweden [1].

    Methods: The patients performed leg agility and 2-5 meter straight walking tests while wearing motion sensors on their limbs. They performed the tests at baseline, at the time they received the morning dose, and at pre-specified time points until the medication wore off. While performing the tests the patients were video recorded. The videos were observed by three movement disorder specialists who rated the symptoms using a treatment response scale (TRS), ranging from -3 (very off) to 3 (very dyskinetic). The sensor data consisted of lower limb data during leg agility, upper limb data during walking, and lower limb data during walking. Time series analysis was performed on the raw sensor data extracted from 17 patients to derive a set of quantitative measures, which were then used during machine learning to be mapped to mean ratings of the three raters on the TRS scale. Combinations of data were tested during the machine learning procedure.

    Results: Using data from both tests, the Support Vector Machines (SVM) could predict the motor states of the patients on the TRS scale with a good agreement in relation to the mean ratings of the three raters (correlation coefficient = 0.92, root mean square error = 0.42, p<0.001). Additionally, there was good test-retest reliability of the SVM scores during baseline and second tests with intraclass-correlation coefficient of 0.84. Sensitivity to treatment for SVM was good (Figure 1), indicating its ability to detect changes in motor symptoms. The upper limb data during walking was more informative than lower limb data during walking since SVMs had higher correlation coefficient to mean ratings.  

    Conclusions: The methodology demonstrates good validity, reliability, and sensitivity to treatment. This indicates that it could be useful for individualized optimization of treatments among PD patients, leading to an improvement in health-related quality of life.

  • 112.
    Aghanavesi, Somayeh
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    Fleyeh, Hasan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Memedi, Mevludin
    Dougherty, Mark
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    Feasibility of using smartphones for quantification of Parkinson’s disease motor states during hand rotation tests2019Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 113.
    Aghanavesi, Somayeh
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    Memedi, Mevludin
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Dougherty, Mark
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    Nyholm, Dag
    Westin, Jerker
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Verification of a method for measuring Parkinson’s disease related temporal irregularity in spiral drawings2017In: Sensors, ISSN 1424-8220, E-ISSN 1424-8220, Vol. 17, no 10, article id 2341Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive movement disorder caused by the death of dopamine-producing cells in the midbrain. There is a need for frequent symptom assessment, since the treatment needs to be individualized as the disease progresses. The aim of this paper was to verify and further investigate the clinimetric properties of an entropy-based method for measuring PD-related upper limb temporal irregularities during spiral drawing tasks. More specifically, properties of a temporal irregularity score (TIS) for patients at different stages of PD, and medication time points were investigated. Nineteen PD patients and 22 healthy controls performed repeated spiral drawing tasks on a smartphone. Patients performed the tests before a single levodopa dose and at specific time intervals after the dose was given. Three movement disorder specialists rated videos of the patients based on the unified PD rating scale (UPDRS) and the Dyskinesia scale. Differences in mean TIS between the groups of patients and healthy subjects were assessed. Test-retest reliability of the TIS was measured. The ability of TIS to detect changes from baseline (before medication) to later time points was investigated. Correlations between TIS and clinical rating scores were assessed. The mean TIS was significantly different between healthy subjects and patients in advanced groups (p-value = 0.02). Test-retest reliability of TIS was good with Intra-class Correlation Coefficient of 0.81. When assessing changes in relation to treatment, TIS contained some information to capture changes from Off to On and wearing off effects. However, the correlations between TIS and clinical scores (UPDRS and Dyskinesia) were weak. TIS was able to differentiate spiral drawings drawn by patients in an advanced stage from those drawn by healthy subjects, and TIS had good test-retest reliability. TIS was somewhat responsive to single-dose levodopa treatment. Since TIS is an upper limb high-frequency-based measure, it cannot be detected during clinical assessment.

  • 114.
    Aghanavesi, Somayeh
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Memedi, Mevludin
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Nyholm, Dag
    Senek, Marina
    Medvedev, Alexander
    Askmark, Håkan
    Equilonius, Sten-Magnus
    Bergquist, Filip
    Gonstantinescu, Radu
    Ohlsson, Fredrik
    Spira, Jack
    Sara, Lycke
    Ericsson, Enders
    Quantification of upper limb motor symptoms of Parkinson’s disease using a smartphone2016In: Abstracts of the Twentieth International Congress of Parkinson's Disease and Movement Disorders / [ed] Somayeh Aghanavesi, 2016, Vol. 31, p. S640-, article id 1948Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 115.
    Aghanavesi, Somayeh
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    Nyholm, Dag
    Marina, Senek
    Bergquist, Filip
    Memedi, Mevludin
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    A smartphone-based system to quantify dexterity in Parkinson's disease patients2017In: Informatics in Medicine Unlocked, ISSN 2352-9148, Vol. 9, p. 11-17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: The aim of this paper is to investigate whether a smartphone-based system can be used to quantify dexterity in Parkinson’s disease (PD). More specifically, the aim was to develop data-driven methods to quantify and characterize dexterity in PD. Methods: Nineteen advanced PD patients and 22 healthy controls participated in a clinical trial in Uppsala, Sweden. The subjects were asked to perform tapping and spiral drawing tests using a smartphone. Patients performed the tests before, and at pre-specified time points after they received 150% of their usual levodopa morning dose. Patients were video recorded and their motor symptoms were assessed by three movement disorder specialists using three Unified PD Rating Scale (UPDRS) motor items from part III, the dyskinesia scoring and the treatment response scale (TRS). The raw tapping and spiral data were processed and analyzed with time series analysis techniques to extract 37 spatiotemporal features. For each of the five scales, separate machine learning models were built and tested by using principal components of the features as predictors and mean ratings of the three specialists as target variables. Results: There were weak to moderate correlations between smartphone-based scores and mean ratings of UPDRS item #23 (0.52; finger tapping), UPDRS #25 (0.47; rapid alternating movements of hands), UPDRS #31 (0.57; body bradykinesia and hypokinesia), sum of the three UPDRS items (0.46), dyskinesia (0.64), and TRS (0.59). When assessing the test-retest reliability of the scores it was found that, in general, the clinical scores had better test-retest reliability than the smartphone-based scores. Only the smartphone-based predicted scores on the TRS and dyskinesia scales had good repeatability with intra-class correlation coefficients of 0.51 and 0.84, respectively. Clinician-based scores had higher effect sizes than smartphone-based scores indicating a better responsiveness in detecting changes in relation to treatment interventions. However, the first principal component of the 37 features was able to capture changes throughout the levodopa cycle and had trends similar to the clinical TRS and dyskinesia scales. Smartphone-based scores differed significantly between patients and healthy controls. Conclusions: Quantifying PD motor symptoms via instrumented, dexterity tests employed in a smartphone is feasible and data from such tests can also be used for measuring treatment-related changes in patients.

  • 116.
    Aghanavesi, Somayeh
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Westin, Jerker
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    A review of Parkinson’s disease cardinal and dyskinetic motor symptoms assessment methods using sensor systems2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is reviewing objective assessments of Parkinson’s disease(PD) motor symptoms, cardinal, and dyskinesia, using sensor systems. It surveys the manifestation of PD symptoms, sensors that were used for their detection, types of signals (measures) as well as their signal processing (data analysis) methods. A summary of this review’s finding is represented in a table including devices (sensors), measures and methods that were used in each reviewed motor symptom assessment study. In the gathered studies among sensors, accelerometers and touch screen devices are the most widely used to detect PD symptoms and among symptoms, bradykinesia and tremor were found to be mostly evaluated. In general, machine learning methods are potentially promising for this. PD is a complex disease that requires continuous monitoring and multidimensional symptom analysis. Combining existing technologies to develop new sensor platforms may assist in assessing the overall symptom profile more accurately to develop useful tools towards supporting better treatment process.

  • 117.
    Agirman, Nesim
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Ali, Mustafa
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    U-värde av isoleringsmaterial i en kassett: En experimentell jämförelse mellan en fönsterkassett som har isolering och en utan isolering2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Insulation and insulation material is one of the most important components in the construction industry and has a wide range of applications and therefore the demand is huge. Because of the high costs on the market, new and different researches take place every day to find alternative insulation materials. The technology make the opportunities greater to find and use cheaper materials. Therefore, it is not un common to see insulations made of different materials every day.

    The purpose of this study is to investigate two Moniflexcassettes, one with insulation and one without, in a climate chamber, to then compare their u-values.

    The results showed the influence on the insulation, that the u-value was lower on the cartridge with the insulation, and therefore a proof that the insulation can use as an additional insulation. This applied especially for windows and glass portions who have a high u-value, which mean that windows and glass portions do not have to change to newer windows with lower u-values.

    The company Isolight´s current u-value of the cassette with the isolation was not the same as with the tested U-value in Högskolan Dalarnas climate chamber. On the cassette without insulation, there has been no comparison between the tested value and the value of the company because the company does not have a u-value for that.

  • 118.
    Agnas, Maja
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Holmenäs, Anna
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Egenvårdsråd vid "Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease". Effekter och följsamhet: En litteraturöversikt2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet var att undersöka vilka egenvårdsråd och effekterna av dessa som finns beskrivna i litteraturen vid NAFLD samt hur följsamheten av dessa beskrivs. Studien utfördes som en litteraturöversikt som inkluderade 16 artiklar, alla med kvantitativ ansats. Resultatet visade att livsstilsförändringar i form av fysisk aktivitet och ändrade matvanor var det bästa sättet för att minska NAFLD. Viktminskning hade en god effekt på NAFLD och även små viktminskningar reducerade mängden fett i levern. Det framkom även att fysisk aktivitet utan viktminskning var effektivt för att reducera mängden fett i levern. Vidare visade det sig att följsamheten ökade med individuellt utformade program och kontinuerlig stöttning. Förutsättningar för att uppnå livsstilsförändringar ökade med realistiskt uppsatta mål.

  • 119. Agndal, Henrik
    et al.
    Elbe, Jörgen
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    The internationalization process of small and medium-sized Swedish tourism firms2007In: Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, ISSN 1502-2250, E-ISSN 1502-2269, Vol. 7, no 4, p. 301-327Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper develops eight propositions regarding internationalization processes for small and medium-sized tourism firms (SMTFs). A SMTF is defined here as a company that produces a tourist attraction locally, its product based on local resources. This means that SMTFs rely on customers seeking them on the firms' home market. This has implications for the SMTF's expansion into new markets and, consequently, its internationalization process. In a study based on the propositions, the internationalization processes of ten Swedish SMTFs were investigated. It was found that some SMTFs internationalized slowly; initially displayed a reactive and emergent approach, and entered markets that were culturally and geographically close. Born global SMTFs, however, searched more actively for opportunities, also in more remote markets. Intermediaries were the dominant mode throughout the process for all firms. Over time, most of the SMTFs developed a more strategic and deliberate approach in their selection of counterparts and new markets. The support of a destination management organization was important initially for some of the firms.

  • 120.
    Agyeiwaa Owusu, Jacqueline
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Raul Aguirre Gonzalez, Victor
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS WHICH INFLUENCE THE INTERNATIONALIZATION OF SMEs: A Case Study from a Ghanaian SME. 2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim:

    The purpose of this research is to develop an in-depth understanding on the environmental factors that influence the internationalization of SMEs in an emerging African market environment.

    Methods:

    The study was conducted by using a qualitative research design. To fulfil the purpose of this research, the researchers adopted the use of a single case study to explain the different aspects of the topic being studied within the emerging market context. The research was supported with primary data obtained directly from the company through interviews and also with secondary data in order to support and compare the results obtained from this research. Results were analyzed using thematic analysis with the use of the NVivo software to represent data collected.

    Results:

    The main findings of this research indicate the internationalization process of financial SMEs in an African country like Ghana is heavily influenced by the socio-cultural factors in their home market environment and the technological factors in their host markets. Again, it was realized that the internal resources of the firm, particularly the competitive advantage, remained highly relevant and influential in the internationalization process on both markets. Furthermore, it was found that the internationalization process was not only influenced by the firm’s resources or the environmental factors but also by the firm’s organizational internal processes, international activities, level of foreign experiences and firm identity.

    Conclusions:

    Environmental factors have both positive and negative influence on the internationalization process of financial SMEs in an emerging economy like Ghana. Some factors have more impact on the home market than on the host market and vice versa. In addition, the internationalization process of financial SMEs in Ghana can mostly be initiated and successful when the firm has a market gap or foothold strong enough to sustain competitive advantage in the long run on both host and home markets. More importantly, this unique edge must be buttressed by ample firm resources.

  • 121.
    Ahamed, Anees
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Accelerated Aging of First-surface Enhanced Aluminum Solar Reflectors under Damp Heat Conditions2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 25 credits / 37,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Solar reflectors are one of the main components of concentrating solar power systems. With new products being developed, durability studies become a necessity for assessing the feasibility of commercial application. In this project, accelerated aging of three types of first-surface enhanced aluminum reflectors and one type of second-surface silvered thick glass mirror under damp heat conditions is studied. The project is conducted at the Plataforma Solar de Almería (PSA), in collaboration with German Aerospace Center (DLR), and Center for Energy, Environment and Technology (CIEMAT), Spain.

     

    The study is centered on analyzing the effect of soiling on degradation of reflectors. In addition to conventional methods, space resolved specular reflectometry is utilized for comparative purpose. Damp heat test conditions are simulated in a climatic test chamber. Test is conducted with reference to International Electrotechnical Commission standard IEC 62108 10.7a: damp heat test guidelines. The reflector samples are artificially soiled with natural and synthetic test sands of varying composition. Reflector performance is assessed based on the reduction in monochromatic specular reflectance.

     

    From the tests, a comparative assessment of the candidate reflectors is obtained. Aluminum samples suffered higher degradation than silvered glass mirrors. Aluminum reflectors with polymer top coat permanently retained soil residue. It is observed that presence of chlorides and organic components caused corrosion on all the types of reflectors tested. Surface roughening is the reason for performance deterioration in most of the cases. By comparing different reflectance measurement methods, the significance of total area of the measurement spot in the measurement procedures could be highlighted. It is suggested that for studies involving artificial soiling, the grain size of sand is to be factored in.

  • 122.
    Ahl, Josefin
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, English.
    "That Little Box of Light": The Presence of Photography in John Banville’s Ghosts 2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 123.
    Ahlberg, Kerstin
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Art Education.
    Danielsson, Helena
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Art Education.
    Elevrespons på bloggen2013In: Meningsskapande fritidshem: Studio som arena för multimodalt lärande / [ed] Malin Rohlin, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2013, 1, p. 81-113Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    De äldre barnen på fritidshemmet är i fokus i detta kapitel, som behandlar barns lärande vid inkludering av visuella uttryck i den pedagogiska verksamheten. Vi lät elever i tolvårsåldern inspireras att samtala om bilder och multimodala texter via en digital utställningsplats. Det övergripande syftet med vår studie var att stärka barnens förmåga att återkoppla och reflektera kring egna och andras arbeten och på så sätt öka deras förståelse både för bildskapande och för de kunskapsområden som varit föremål för deras studier. Olika temaarbeten har följts under en längre tid - projekt som äger rum i skolans sammanhang men i kapitlet diskuteras som idéer för möjligt samarbete mellan lärare på fritidshem och i skolmiljön. Konkreta exempel från barnens arbete och process varvas i kapitlet med teorier och begrepp in området visuell gestaltning och estetiska lärprocesser.

  • 124.
    Ahlborg, Linus
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, History.
    Sjöbusar: En deskriptiv studie i svensk militärrätt vid Svenska Högsjöflottan under början av 1800-talet.2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här C-uppsatsen syftar till att genom en kvantitativ studie av domböcker från Karlskrona örlogsstation under representiva krigs- och fredsår undersöka ett relativt bortglömt kapitel i svensk militärrättshistoria, nämligen brottslighet och rättspraxis för krigsmakten inom den svenska högsjöflottan mellan åren 1798 och 1812.

    Rymmning det absolut vanligaste registrerade brottsligheten och de värvade volontärerna var rymningsbenägna än de indelta båtsmänen. Straffomvandlingen vid leuteration var återkommande väldigt godtycklig, även med omständigheter borträknat. Volontärerna begick i större utsträckning under rymning flera brott samtidigt och blev också i större utsträckning, efter leuteration av krigsrättens domslut, dömda till spöstraff samt fler antal gatlopp än båtsmän. Vid dubbel legas tagning var volontärer enormt överrepresenterade, speciellt under krigsår, jämfört med båtsmän. Tydligt är att båtsmäns och volontärers skilda positioner som deltids-respektive fulltid gav avtryck i straffregistret. Underofficerarna var klart överrepresenterade när det gällde fylleri i tjänst, angrepp, samt fångförsnillning. Manskapets representation av fylleri i tjänst lyser med sin frånvaro, vilket kan förklaras av extrajudiciell hantering utanför domstol.

  • 125.
    Ahlbäck, Karin
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Holmqvist, Marianne
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Sexuell samvaro vid hjärtsjukdom2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Varje år är det cirka 38 000 personer som vårdas för hjärtsjukdom. Personer som genomgått en hjärtinfarkt kan få problem med sina sexuella relationer som en följd av sjukdomen, medicinering eller på grund av ångest. Syfte: att beskriva vanligt förekommande känslor inför sexuellt samliv hos personer med hjärtsjukdom samt beskriva hur sexualrådgivning kan erhållas av vårdpersonalen. Studien genomfördes som en litteraturöversikt. Artiklar söktes i databasen Cinahl samt genom sökmotorn Elin. Sjutton vetenskapliga artiklar, både kvantitativa och kvalitativa granskades. Resultat: personer med hjärtsjukdom känner ofta rädsla och oro inför sexuell aktivitet. Rädsla över att utlösa en hjärtinfarkt, eller till och med att dö. Även partnern till den hjärtsjuke kan känna oro och rädsla över sin maka eller make. Rådgivningen är ofta otillräcklig och bristfällig. Även där är den bristfällig till den hjärtsjukes partner. Diskussion: vården behöver bli bättre på att ta upp detta ämne till diskussion. Problemet behöver synliggöras så att personer med hjärtsjukdom och deras partner kan känna sig trygga med att återuppta sitt sexuella samliv. Slutsatsen är att sexualrådgivning till personer med hjärtsjukdom är ett eftersatt område inom sjukvården. För att förbättra vården och livskvaliteten hos personer med hjärtsjukdom behövs mer utbildning av vårdpersonalen samt utformning av riktlinjer för sexuell rådgivning.

  • 126.
    Ahlenius, Linda
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Psychology.
    Yrkesstolthetens komponenter hos anställda på Försäkringskassan Dalarna2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med föreliggande undersökning var att identifiera faktorer som bidrog till känslan av "yrkesstolthet" hos anställda vid Försäkringskassan Dalarna inkluderande personalens tillfredsställelse med yrkesrollen. Sammanlagt 163 personer, 123 kvinnor och 40 män, från 25 till 66 år (X= 49,8 år) deltog i undersökningen. Denna genomfördes med hjälp av General Nordic Questionnaire for Psychological and Social Factors at Work (QPS Nordic) inkluderande 123 frågor samt 9 frågor gällande yrkesrollen. Frågorna besvarades väsentligen med hjälp av en 5-gradig skala av Likert-typ. Huvudresultatet uträknades med hjälp av Cronbachs Alpha, Principal Component Analysis och multipel regressionsanalys. Det konstaterades att beroendevariabeln "yrkesstolthets" variation förklarades till 62,7% av oberoende-variablerna "interaktionsintelligens" "yrkesrealism", "arbetstillfredsställelse" och "arbetsengagemang". Även kön, ålder, utbildning och yrkeserfarenhet hade betydelse.

  • 127.
    Ahlenius, Linda
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Psychology.
    Törneman, Malin
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Psychology.
    Samband mellan personlighet och yrkesval2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Är poliser mer spänningssökande än andra? Det är frågan som ligger till grund för studien där syftet är att jämföra poliser med lärare i vilken utsträckning de söker spänning. Studien genomfördes med hjälp av ett frågeformulär bestående av 28 påståenden som kommer ifrån redan vedertagna skalor. Dessa är Eysenck Personality Inventory och Zuckerman’s Sensation Seeking Scale. 62 personer deltog i studien varav hälften var lärare och hälften poliser. Poliserna fick signifikant högre poäng än lärarna på de påståenden som handlade om att ta risker och fatta snabba beslut. Lärarna fick i sin tur signifikant högre poäng på de påståenden som handlar om impulsivitet gällande resor. Den slutsats man kan dra av denna studie är att poliser söker sig till arbeten som i sig innebär mer spänning medan lärare i större utsträckning söker spänning utanför arbetet.

  • 128.
    Ahlenius, Victoria
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Irarrazabal, Maria
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Sjuksköterskans upplevelse av att ge personcentrerad vård till personer med demenssjukdom: En litteraturstudie2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Dementia impairs cognitive functions, such as memory and

    speech, changing a person’s life forever. Providing person-centred care to these

    persons intend to retain their identities, dignity and autonomy. Such care demands

    time, devotion and good knowledge of the caring nurse. Dementia is expected to

    increase in the future and therefore nurses will have to face new challenges.

    Aim: To describe nurses’ experience of providing person-centred care for people

    with dementia.

    Method: A literature review of 15 articles, published between 2009-2016, that

    have been read and analysed through content-analysis.

    Results: Nurses experience a positive change in their attitudes, when providing

    person-centred care to people with dementia, as they gained better understanding

    of their patients’ dignity and integrity. Education, training and support from

    management were seen as key factors for providing up-to-date care. Time was

    viewed as a hindrance for person-centred care, and often led to nurses prioritizing

    other routines. Two common outcomes of person-centred care were increased

    satisfaction as well as emotional burnout.

    Conclusion: Since dementia is increasing and nurses find person-centred care

    time-consuming, there is a risk of such care becoming poor. To prevent this nurses

    need good leadership and education.

  • 129.
    Ahlepil, Björn
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    Jääskeleinen, Marcus
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    Shop4athletes: E-handelswebbplats och användbarhet2003Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Medvetenheten har ökat hos svenska folket om att det är viktigt att motionera och att det till viss del krävs funktionell utrustning. Situationen idag för svensk friidrott är att sporten är het med alla internationella framgångar samt att tillgången till träningsmöjligheter är stor. Trots detta är det svårt för friidrottare att hitta ett brett sortiment av friidrottsartiklar, speciellt för de som inte bor nära storstäderna. Vår affärsidé är att starta ett e-handelsföretag som ska sälja ett brett sortiment av friidrottsartiklar över Internet där marknaden är Sverige och på sikt kanske även övriga skandinaviska länder. Även om marknaden ofta är för liten i enskilda svenska städer för ett stort sortiment av friidrottsartiklar tror vi att marknaden ändå är tillräckligt stor sammantaget i Sverige. Projektet har utmynnat i en fullt funktionell e-handelswebbplats som ska kunna ligga till grund för startandet av e-handelsföretaget shop4athletes. Förutom att e-handelswebbplatsen ska vara funktionell har fokus legat på att skapa en unik, stilren och lättnavigerad webbplats som genom design och användbarhet ska kunna attrahera målgruppen.

  • 130.
    Ahlfors, Marie
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Kvinnors upplevelse av urinläckage och behov av egenvård: En kvantitativ empirisk studie2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie var att beskvirva kvinnors upplevelse, erfarenhet, behov av egenvård vid urinläckage samt om de klarade att träna bäckenbottenmuskulaturen som en del i sin egenvård. Hur kan barnmorskors och distriktssköterskors samarbete förbättras. Metod: I denna enkätstudie som gjordes i en stad i Dalarna där 51 kvinnor besökte vårdcentralernas barnmorskor och BHV- sköterskor (barnhälsovård) under fyra veckor. De kom på planerade besök till barnmorskor för efterkontroll eller cellprovtagning (30-40 år) eller till BHV-sköterskor för 18 månaders kontroll av sin baby där de besvarade enkäterna. Barnmorskorna besvarade enenkät om hur de informerade kvinnorna om bäckenbottenträning för att åtgärda eller förhindra urinläckage. Resultat: Kvinnorna hade fåttinformation om bäckenbottenträning av barnmorskorna verbalt eller skriftligt men användandet av informationen om bäckenbottenträning för att förhindra urinläckage genomfördes inte regelbundet. De flesta i denna studie ansåg att de inte hade några problem med urinläckage eller mycket sällan. De läckte urin övervägande sällan vid aktivitet och de flesta använde inte knipövningar regelbundet. Diskussion: Hur kan vården öka förståelsen för preventiv egenvård med bäckenbottenträning för att minska urinläckage. Skulle ett ökat samarbete mellan barnmorskor och distriktssköterskor underlätta för kvinnor att med egenvård lättare hantera inkontinensproblem?

  • 131.
    Ahlgren, Therese
    Dalarna University, School of Languages and Media Studies, Spanish.
    Un análisis sobre la comunicación oral en materiales didácticos de español como lengua extranjera2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
  • 132.
    Ahlin, Erik
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Moving Image Production.
    Redigeringsprogrammens påverkan på bilden: En jämförelse mellan Avid Media Composer och Adobe Premiere Pro2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Uppsatsen söker att svara på frågeställningen: Uppstår det skillnad i bildkvaliteten på material som komprimerats med redigeringsprogrammet Avid Media Composer till H.264, i jämförelse med material som har komprimerats till H.264 med Adobe Premiere Pro. Baserat på resultat från tidigare jämförelser och personlig erfarenhet är förförståelsen att det kommer finnas en märkbar skillnad men ingen av programmen kommer att överskugga den andra.Metoden som använts är att en undersökning i form av enkät har fyllts i av mediastudenter baserad på deras upplevelser av sex stycken bildexempel från varje redigeringsprogram utifrån fem faktorer som rör bildkvalitet: Kontrast, skärpa, brus, färg och rörelseåtergivning. Djupgående intervjuer har sedan utförts med fem av informanterna. Resultatet på undersökningen visar överlag små skillnader mellan Avid Media Composer och Adobe Premiere Pro. Informanterna upplevde i majoritet att materialet från Avid hade högre bildkvalitet.

  • 133. Ahlm, Kristin
    et al.
    Lindqvist, Per
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Medical Science. Karolinska institutet.
    Saveman, Britt-Inger
    Björnstig, Ulf
    Suicidal drowning deaths in northern Sweden 1992-2009: The role of mental disorder and intoxication2015In: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine, ISSN 1752-928X, E-ISSN 1878-7487, Vol. 34, p. 168-172Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Suicides by drowning have received limited attention by researchers. A recent finding that almost one-third of all drowning deaths in Sweden were classified as suicide instigated this study. We identified 129 cases of suicide by drowning in Northern Sweden and analyzed the circumstances and the psychiatric history prior to the suicide. Information was obtained from autopsy, police and medical records, as well as from the National Inpatient Register. One-third of the suicide victims had previously attempted suicide and half of the victims had been hospitalized due to mental health problems. One-third of these had left the hospital less than one week before the suicide. Alcohol and psychoactive drugs were present in 16% and 62% of the cases, respectively. A history of mental disorder and previous suicide attempt (s), especially by drowning, is an ominous combination necessitating efficient clinical identification, treatment and follow-up if a complete suicide is to be prevented.

  • 134.
    Ahlqvist, Emelie
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Vinblad, Jennie
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Penningtvätt: Påverkas kunderna i Dalarna av penningtvätt?2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the spring of 2019, the world received the news that one of the major Swedish banks had been laundering money for quite some time. There has been discussion in the media over the last year about how the bank will be able to move forward after this. A question that has not yet been addressed in the media is how this crisis affects the opinions and actions of the bank’s customers in Dalarna. Earlier research indicates that a crisis in the banking world affects a bank’s credibility to the extent that the customers choose to change banks. To find out if this crisis regarding money laundering has a similar effect, a survey was created, and a total of 95 people answered. Statistical methods were used to get the results, and they show that the general opinion regarding the bank’s credibility indeed was affected, but not enough to make the customers change banks.

  • 135.
    Ahlrik, Åsa
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Swedish as Second Language.
    Att arbeta med skönlitteratur inom SVA och SVE: En kvalitativ studie av hur arbete med skönlitteratur kan se ut inom SVA och SVE inom vuxenutbildningen.2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    The purpose of this study is to compare Swedish as a second language (SVA) and Swedish (SVE) with focus on how the teachers think about literary studies. Interviews with three teachers in each course have been made. The results of the study are indicative rather than measurable. The interviews show that the aspect of language is more important to the SVA-teachers. There are differences in the curriculums, not only connected to the aim of developing an acceptable language, but also in contents. The teachers in SVA chose modern literature and the teacher in SVE chose classic literature and this is coherent with the curriculum. The conclusions are that the aim on developing the language in SVA is necessary, since the students who are attending that course not have reached the same level in language as the SVE-students have. But earlier research in the subject indicates that the capability to read different kind of literature does not need to be connected with skills in language. There are no justifiable arguments for the differences in content in the curriculum according to literary studies. The students may have advantages in discussing literature in mixed classes but the prework need to be different with the starting point that the students in SVA need more help with the understanding of words. The difficulties with the understanding of the whole book do not necessarily have a connection with the difficulties with the language.

  • 136.
    Ahlstrand, Pernilla
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet.
    Björkholm, Eva
    Stockholms universitet, CeHum.
    Frohagen, Jenny
    Stockholms universitet.
    Nyberg, Gunn
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science. Stockholms universitet, CeHum.
    Learning Study as a way to inquire the meaning of knowing what is to be known: The meaning of knowing how to move in specific ways2013In: WALS - World Association of Lesson Studies, International conference 2013: Lesson and Learning Study as teacher research, 5-9 september: Conference Programme and Abstracts of papers, 2013, p. 82-82Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Learning Study inquires teaching and learning in relation to a specific object of learning. The meaning of knowing the specific object of learning is specified in the research process – in the planning and analysis of the pre-test as well as in designing and analysis of research lessons. In this symposium the focus will be on different aspects of the knowledge generation in a Learning Study concerning the meaning of knowing what is expected to be known. By inquiring teaching and learning of a specific content our knowledge regarding that content will be differentiated and deepened. The meaning of knowing a specific object of learning is a dynamic knowledge object – depending on the specific group of students in interaction with a specific content. Each new group of students will make it possible to discern new aspects of the learning object. By analyzing student difficulties as well as interactions in the classroom new aspects of the learning object will be discerned. In the symposium four different Learning Studies from different school subjects will be presented. The meaning of knowing will be explored and discussed from different angles – from the perspective of the learners (in the pre-tests) and  the teachers (in the teacher discussions) as well as from how it is constituted in the classroom interaction (documented in the videos from the research lessons).

    Chair: Ingrid Carlgren

    Discussant: Ference Marton

     

    Contributions:

    Pernilla AhlstrandLearning Study as a way to inquire about progress in acting and presence on stage.

    Theatre is a subject in upper secondary school in Sweden as part of the national aesthetic program. The new kind of syllabus is organized in relation to content areas as well as subject specific capabilities for the students to develop. The syllabus also includes criteria for the assessment of students’ capabilities – to be used when giving marks to the students and working with formative assessment or assessment for learning (Black & Wiliam, 1998, Gipps 1995. The criteria are expressed in general, non-subject specific terms. This is for example formulated as the difference between a simple and complex way of being able to express something in the theatre syllabus. In my research I investigate how learning study as a research approach and phenomenography as a method of analyzing pretests can be used as another and deepened way to describe different levels of knowing in relation to the national criteria.

    Theatre knowledge and the way knowledge is transferred is in previous research to a great extent described as tacit (Lagerström 2005, Järleby 2003, Johansson 2012). This gives theatre teachers even further challenges, trying to formulate what is described as tacit knowing (Polanyi 1958/1998 &1967/2009, Johannessen 1988, 1999, 2002, Janik 1995, 1996, Schön 1983).

    The capability of being present was found suitable as an object of learning, as it is something that teachers have experienced difficulties with when teaching and instructing. Presence is a core quality in acting and it is one of the criteria teachers agree on being of great importance when assessing a student but in what way can the knowing of the capability of being present be described?

    It will be discussed whether an outcome space (in relation to filmed material) can be a way to develop teachers and students understanding of the meaning of knowing as a help to work with assessment for learning.

     

    Eva Björkholm - The meaning of knowing how to construct a  linkage mechanism. Discerning aspects of the object of learning by analyzing classroom interactions

    This presentation describes a Learning Study within primary technology education focusing on the capability to construct a specific linkage mechanism. What one has to know in order to be able to construct a linkage mechanism is, however, not self-evident. The study reported here explores the meaning of this specific knowing. The study was conducted in collaboration with two primary school teachers and their two classes (children aged 6-7 years). Throughout the whole study step by step, starting with the analysis of the pre-test, followed by three cycles of planning and evaluation of research lessons, and the analysis of post-test, the meaning of the object of learning was specified (Marton & Pang, 2006; Carlgren, 2012). The presentation will focus on knowledge generated from the video recorded lessons by analyzing the classroom interactions and students’ difficulties that were made visible through these interactions. Teacher-student interactions as well as student-student interactions were analyzed. By analyzing students’ difficulties regarding the specific object of learning, critical aspects of the expected knowing were discerned and in this way the meaning of knowing what is expected to be known was made explicit.

    The results are presented in the form of critical aspects of what it means to know how to construct a linkage mechanism for this group of students. The critical aspects identified in the pre-test were further elaborated in the research lessons and by analyzing the classroom interactions in terms of student difficulties, additional aspects that were critical for students’ learning were identified. By gradually identifying the critical aspects, the collective understanding of the meaning of the object of learning was developed and specified.

     

    Jenny Frohagen – The meaning of knowing how to make expressions in artifacts: generating knowledge through designing lesson tasks   

    The school subject sloyd derives from a practical knowledge tradition which covers knowing in craft and art (Mäkelä, 2011; Hasselskog, 2010; Borg, 2001). However, sloyd teachers express difficulties when trying to explain and deal with aesthetic aspects when teaching sloyd (Fransson, 2010; Borg, 2007). There has been a tendency of trivializing the subject content into a shallow form of craft knowledge understood as ‘merely’ working with traditional craft techniques (Borg, 2008; Skolverket, 2005). There is a need to articulate the aesthetical features of knowing in sloyd. In my contribution I will present results from a Learning Study in sloyd focusing on the knowing of interpreting symbolic expressions in sloyd artefacts.

    In my presentation I will focus on how the iterative process of designing (short) lesson tasks given to the students during the research lessons and also in pre- and post-tests in each cycle, can be a way of understanding the object of learning. Since explicit tests of the students knowing are rarely found in sloyd education, conducting Learning Studies in sloyd can be a meaningful way of developing subject specific tasks. In this Learning Study different designs of tasks has been explored during the process as a way to inquire the knowing of interpreting symbolic expressions in sloyd artefacts. The results from this study show how the articulation of an object of learning in sloyd can be specified and validated throughout the process of designing and carrying out subject specific tests and lesson tasks. Depending on how the object of learning was articulated, the tasks/tests changed focus and the meaning of the knowing differed. By analyzing the students learning outcomes and redesigning the pre- and post-test in a Learning study as well as the given lesson tasks, new aspects of the learning object can be discerned.

     

    Gunn NybergThe meaning of knowing how to move in specific ways: embodied understanding as somatic grasping

    The subject physical education has a tradition of being a ‘practical’ subject. However, practical forms of knowing such as for example bodily awareness and capability to move (e.g. jumping, running or dancing) do not, neither for teachers nor pupils, seem to be a main issue of learning in PE (Tinning, 2010; Redelius et al, 2009,). The knowing involved in moving is not easily articulated and may, according to Polanyi (1954), “often result in explaining away quite genuine practices or experiences” (p. 385). The aim of this study is to explore and articulate the meaning of knowing how to move in a specific way exemplified through a movement called ‘house hop’.

    The study takes as it’s starting point an epistemological perspective on capability to move corresponding with Ryle’s (1949) “knowing how”, not separating mental and physical skills. Accordingly, a phenomenographic analysis of students’ experiencing of the learning object (‘house hop’) have been used.

     

    The paper draws mainly on data from video recordings of the pre-test and transcripts of two video recorded lessons from a Learning Study in upper secondary school. The findings show the meaning of knowing house hop as different ways of knowing the movement as well as several aspects to discern in order to know the movement in a powerful way.

    This presentation will focus on how students’ experiencing of a movement are expressed in their way of moving. Taking this as a starting point when teaching and learning movements can contribute to an approach to capability to move as comprising mental and physical processes as one process. Conceiving the knowing involved in ‘house hopping’ (as well as other ways of moving) this way could also contribute to a discussion concerning subject specific knowledge in PE and particularly it’s ‘practical’ dimension.

     

     

     

  • 137.
    Ahlstrand, Pernilla
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet.
    Carlgren, Ingrid
    Stockholms universitet.
    Nyberg, Gunn
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science. Stockholms universitet.
    Learning Study as a way to inquire the meaning of knowing what is to be known: The meaning of knowing how to move in specific ways2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Learning Study inquires teaching and learning in relation to a specific object of learning. The meaning of knowing the specific object of learning is specified in the research process – in the planning and analysis of the pre-test as well as in designing and analysis of research lessons. In this symposium the focus will be on different aspects of the knowledge generation in a Learning Study concerning the meaning of knowing what is expected to be known. By inquiring teaching and learning of a specific content our knowledge regarding that content will be differentiated and deepened. The meaning of knowing a specific object of learning is a dynamic knowledge object – depending on the specific group of students in interaction with a specific content. Each new group of students will make it possible to discern new aspects of the learning object. By analyzing student difficulties as well as interactions in the classroom new aspects of the learning object will be discerned. In the symposium four different Learning Studies from different school subjects will be presented. The meaning of knowing will be explored and discussed from different angles – from the perspective of the learners (in the pre-tests) and  the teachers (in the teacher discussions) as well as from how it is constituted in the classroom interaction (documented in the videos from the research lessons).

    Pernilla AhlstrandLearning Study as a way to inquire about progress in acting and presence on stage.

    Theatre is a subject in upper secondary school in Sweden as part of the national aesthetic program. The new kind of syllabus is organized in relation to content areas as well as subject specific capabilities for the students to develop. The syllabus also includes criteria for the assessment of students’ capabilities – to be used when giving marks to the students and working with formative assessment or assessment for learning (Black & Wiliam, 1998, Gipps 1995. The criteria are expressed in general, non-subject specific terms. This is for example formulated as the difference between a simple and complex way of being able to express something in the theatre syllabus. In my research I investigate how learning study as a research approach and phenomenography as a method of analyzing pretests can be used as another and deepened way to describe different levels of knowing in relation to the national criteria.

    Theatre knowledge and the way knowledge is transferred is in previous research to a great extent described as tacit (Lagerström 2005, Järleby 2003, Johansson 2012). This gives theatre teachers even further challenges, trying to formulate what is described as tacit knowing (Polanyi 1958/1998 &1967/2009, Johannessen 1988, 1999, 2002, Janik 1995, 1996, Schön 1983).

    The capability of being present was found suitable as an object of learning, as it is something that teachers have experienced difficulties with when teaching and instructing. Presence is a core quality in acting and it is one of the criteria teachers agree on being of great importance when assessing a student but in what way can the knowing of the capability of being present be described?

    It will be discussed whether an outcome space (in relation to filmed material) can be a way to develop teachers and students understanding of the meaning of knowing as a help to work with assessment for learning.

    Gunn NybergThe meaning of knowing how to move in specific ways: embodied understanding as somatic grasping

    The subject physical education has a tradition of being a ‘practical’ subject. However, practical forms of knowing such as for example bodily awareness and capability to move (e.g. jumping, running or dancing) do not, neither for teachers nor pupils, seem to be a main issue of learning in PE (Tinning, 2010; Redelius et al, 2009,). The knowing involved in moving is not easily articulated and may, according to Polanyi (1954), “often result in explaining away quite genuine practices or experiences” (p. 385). The aim of this study is to explore and articulate the meaning of knowing how to move in a specific way exemplified through a movement called ‘house hop’.

    The study takes as it’s starting point an epistemological perspective on capability to move corresponding with Ryle’s (1949) “knowing how”, not separating mental and physical skills. Accordingly, a phenomenographic analysis of students’ experiencing of the learning object (‘house hop’) have been used.

     

    The paper draws mainly on data from video recordings of the pre-test and transcripts of two video recorded lessons from a Learning Study in upper secondary school. The findings show the meaning of knowing house hop as different ways of knowing the movement as well as several aspects to discern in order to know the movement in a powerful way.

    This presentation will focus on how students’ experiencing of a movement are expressed in their way of moving. Taking this as a starting point when teaching and learning movements can contribute to an approach to capability to move as comprising mental and physical processes as one process. Conceiving the knowing involved in ‘house hopping’ (as well as other ways of moving) this way could also contribute to a discussion concerning subject specific knowledge in PE and particularly it’s ‘practical’ dimension.

     

     

  • 138.
    Ahlstrand, Roland
    et al.
    Malmö Högskola.
    Rydell, Alexis
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Occupational science.
    Corporate Social Responsibility in Connection with Business Closures and Downsizing: A Literature Review2017In: Contemporary Management Research, ISSN 1813-5498, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 53-78Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper was to review the research on corporate social responsibility (CSR) in connection with business closures and downsizing to identify gaps in our knowledge. The study consisted of a systematic review of 24 refereed articles. The review identified four themes in the literature on CSR in connection with business closure and downsizing, namely CSR, transition programs and the local community; CSR and business strategy; CSR, power and reputation; and lastly, other articles on CSR in connection with business closures and downsizing. The review revealed a lack of understanding of the reasons, outcomes and methodology of CSR development in connection with business closures and downsizing.

  • 139.
    Ahlström, Sara
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Motion för frisk pension: En kvalitativ fallstudie om implementering av träning på arbetstid2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The purpose of this study is to investigate the implementation of training during working hours, and to describe the leaders and employees own experiences of success factors and difficulties that exist.

    Method: This essay is designed as a qualitative case study at Kalmar Vatten where semi-structured interviews were conducted. The research study, which is based on the interpretive qualitative approach with a focus on a hermeneutic perspective. The empirical material has been analyzed by an abductive method of analysis.

    Result and conclusion: The study concludes that the implementation of training during working hours is about creating a behavioral change and that management must create these conditions and follow up employees experiences.

    Suggestions for future research: For future research, it may be of interest to examine how exercise affects the employees physical and mental condition to measure productivity and sick leave. It may also be interesting to study additional companies that have introduced training during working hours.

  • 140.
    Ahlström Söderling, Ragnar
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Difficulties in the Start-up Process of Strategic SME Business Networks: Some Observations in the Swedish Wood Manufacturing Industry2001In: SEEANZ Conference, Wellington, New Zealand, 2001Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 141.
    Ahlström Söderling, Ragnar
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Does Benchmarking Support Innovation That Leads To Competitive Advantages?: Some observations in a study of manufacturing companies' use of best practices2003In: The Symposium on the Entreprenurship-Innovation-Marketing Interface, Karlsruhe, Germany, 2003Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 142.
    Ahlström Söderling, Ragnar
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Does Benchmarking Support Innovation that Leads to Competitive advantages?: Some observations in a study of manufacturing companies' use of best practices2005In: The Entreprenership - Innovation - Marketing Interface / [ed] Würt, Reinhold; Gaul, Wolfgang; Jung, Viktor, Künzelsau: Swiridoff Verlag , 2005Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describe a search for evidence that use of benchmarking is one driving factor supporting innovation and further if it is possible to see some relationship between the use of innovation as a practice and a created competitive advantage. The basis for the analysis is a dataset that was collected in beginning of 2001 through a survey (BPPS) among manufacturing sites with 10 and more employees in the region of Dalarna in Sweden. The Business Practices and Performance Model (BPPS) have been developed from a Practice Based View that is operationalized in a survey instrument. It has been used in three large scale empirical investigations in New Zealand during the 1990s and recently in five regions in Sweden. Traditionally a common view on strategy has been conceptualized as a situational choice of generic strategies (e.g. Porter) assuming a type of contingency based view of the firm. During the last decade and still dominating is the focus on core competencies or distinctive capabilities assuming a resource based view of the firm (RBV). But where do the capabilities come from? It is generally acknowledged in research that these often intangible or tacit capabilities are developed through experiential learning or learning by practicing. This is the basis of a “practice based view of the firm” (PBV), often assumed in quality theories and methodologies, as a variant or specification of RBV. It is in PBV assumed, based on research findings, that there are practices that, in combination and when effectively linked together, can be expected to consistently improve operational performance and thus provide firms who adopt them with an advantage over those that do not. Thus good business practices, and the learning and knowledge creation developed through using them, can be thought of as the base or foundation on which distinctive capabilities and hence competitive advantage is built.

  • 143.
    Ahlström Söderling, Ragnar
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Entrepreneurial Spin-offs: do we understand them?1999In: 44th ICSB World Conference, Naples, Italy, 1999Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses different aspects of entrepreneurial spin-offs in the private sector, a definition as well as a theoretical discussion on the driving forces, the pre spin-off process, key actors in the spin-off process and their roles played in the process. The chosen definition of entrepreneurial spin-offs is: When one or more individual/s is/are leaving an organization (quitting his/her/their employment) with the intention to start a new firm that is based on elements from the firm he/she/they is/are leaving, and where the originating organization (the employer) does neither have a dominant influence in the new firm according to ownership or power. The discussed spin-off pre-process is divided in the following steps: One or more individuals becomes aware of a possible business venture The idea to try to exploit this business venture arises The desire to do it in an own firm arises Investigation of possibilities to start a new firm The decision to start a new firm The actual start of the new firm (the time of the spin-off) The spin-off entrepreneur/s is/are leaving the employment of the originating firm with the intention to run their own business The key actors in the spin-off process that is discussed are: The spin-off entrepreneur/s The management of the originating (incubator) firm The initial customers of the spin-off firm The initial suppliers and other supporters of the spin-off firm. The paper ends with some hypotheses of the differences between genuine, new, start-ups and establishment of new firms through entrepreneurial spin-offs.

  • 144.
    Ahlström Söderling, Ragnar
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Entreprenörskap i destinationsutvecklingen2007In: Utveckla turistdestinationer / [ed] Bohlin, Magnus; Elbe, Jörgen, Uppsala: Uppsala Publishing House , 2007Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 145.
    Ahlström Söderling, Ragnar
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Factors Limiting Growth in Different Phases of Firm Development: a Systems Theory Approach1998In: 10th Nordic Conference on Small Business Research, Växjö, Sweden, 1998Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes some thoughts on local economic development through the focus on existing firms growth potential. It also copes with the need to identify growth limiting factors in these firms in order to enforce growth. Further a number of different firm situations and a number of limiting factors to growth, grouped in categories are described. This presentation is followed by a theoretical discussion of which limiting factors that are to be expected in each of the possible firm situations.

  • 146.
    Ahlström Söderling, Ragnar
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Giving Regional and Local Policy Makers a View of the Regions Firms foundation for Sustainable Competitiveness2006In: Innovations and Entrepreneurship in Functional Regions / [ed] Johansson, Iréne, Trollhättan: University West , 2006, p. 73-99Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The basic assumption in this paper is that policy makers intervene to help regional businesses because they believe they need to correct for market failures. And the sources for these imperfections in the context of regional development might be: • The individual firms do not understand the need to be innovative • The individual firms do not exploit the potential in collaboration and cooperation • Firms do not exploit their full market potential • Firm managers do not choose to grow their business • Etc. This paper deals with the following question: “Can Best Business Practice Studies support regional policy makers with knowledge about imperfections that might need policy interventions?” The basis for this discussion is a regional study in the county of Dalarna in Sweden.

  • 147.
    Ahlström Söderling, Ragnar
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Giving Regional and Local Policy Makers a View of the Regions Firms Foundation for Sustainable Competitiveness: Some Reflections after a Best Business Practice Study in a County of Sweden2005In: 8th Uddevalla Symposium, Udevalla, Sweden, 2005Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper deals with the following question: “Can Best Business Practice Studies support regional policy makers with knowledge about imperfections that might need policy interventions?” The basic assumption behind this question is that policy makers intervene to help regional businesses because they believe they need to correct for market failures. The initial part of this paper discusses a ‘Practice Based View’ (PBV) as an alternative or complement to the ‘Resource Based View’ (RBV). The later part show some imperfections or unbalances that can be unfold through a Best Business Practice Study. The basis for this discussion is a Best Business Practice Study in the county of Dalarna in Sweden.

  • 148.
    Ahlström Söderling, Ragnar
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    How to Succeed with the Creation of a Strategic Business Network?: - Some thoughts based on a longitudinal analysis of Business Networks in the Swedish Wood Manufacturing Industry.2002In: 47th ICSB World Conference, San Juan, Puerto Rico, 2002Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 149.
    Ahlström Söderling, Ragnar
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Innovation Entrepreneurship in Manufacturing Firms2005In: 2nd Symposium on the Entrepreneurship-Innovation-Marketing Interface, Karlsruhe, Germany, 2005Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Entrepreneurial activities are often defined as the creation of new organizations (Gartner, 1988) but according to Schumpeter (1934); the entrepreneur is the innovator who implements change within markets through the carrying out of new combinations. These new combinations can take several forms; 1) the introduction of a new good or quality thereof, 2) the introduction of a new method of production, 3) the opening of a new market, 4) the conquest of a new source of supply of new materi-als or parts, 5) the carrying out of the new organization of any industry. Tang and Linghui (2004) make a distinction between two types of entrepreneurship activities. Venture Entrepreneurship (VE), which deals with new venture creation and Innovation Entrepreneurship (IE), which involves innovations within existing enterprises. This paper examines the existence of Innovation Entrepreneurship within existing firms in manufac-turing industries as well as to what degree the innovation are in the area of; • introduction onto the market of any new or significantly improved goods or services • implementation of any new or significantly improved operational processes • implementation of any new or significantly improved organizational / managerial processes • implementation of any new or significantly improved sales or marketing methods which were intended to increase the appeal of goods or services for specific market segments and/or enter new markets The basis for the analysis is a dataset that was collected in beginning of 2005 through a survey (BPPS) among all manufacturing sites with 5 and more employees in one region in Sweden. The Business Practices and Performance Survey (BPPS) used have been developed from a Practice Based View that is adapted to a survey instrument. It has been used in three large scale empirical in-vestigations in New Zealand during the 1990s and in five regions in Sweden during 2001-2003. The number of firms analyzed is 145 based on a response rate of 36.6 percent. The analysis shows that almost half of the firms have introduced new products or services during the two last years and that one third of them have introduced a product or service that was new for the world market.

  • 150.
    Ahlström Söderling, Ragnar
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Innovation Manufacturing in Manufacturing Firms2007In: The Entrepreneurship - Innovation - Marketing Interface / [ed] Würth, Reinhold; Gaul, Reinhold, Künzelsau: Swiridoff Verlag , 2007, Vol. IEP Volume 12aChapter in book (Other academic)
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