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  • 101.
    Hansen, Fredrik
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    The Stern Review and its critics: economics at work in an interdisciplinary setting2011In: Journal of economic methodology, ISSN 1350-178X, E-ISSN 1018-5070, Vol. 18, no 3, p. 255-270Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Stern Review, Stern (2007), received a lot of attention upon its release. It also resulted in an intense and interesting debate within climate change economics. One of the central issues has been the question of the appropriate discount rate to use and more generally the proper role of ethics in an economic analysis of this kind. Some have argued against incorporating ethical considerations at all, while others argue that Stern did not involve ethics enough. There are also those who question whether Stern provided an economic analysis at all. This paper analyzes Stern (2007) and the surrounding debate from a methodological point of view. Basically three conclusions are reached. First, Stern involves a number of different kinds of interdisciplinarity based on the Mäki (2007) characterization of interdisciplinarity. Second, the interaction of economics and ethics is unavoidable within climate change research. Third, Stern uses a modified version of the standard economic approach to climate change and the deviations are well motivated (i.e. it is still a valuable economic analysis).

  • 102.
    Hansen, Fredrik
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Åkeriägaren, hastigheten och den ekonomiska beslutssituationen2009Report (Other academic)
  • 103.
    Haubeltova, Libuse
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Case study of Airbnb listings in Berlin: Hedonic pricing approach to measuring demand for tourist accommodation characteristics2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose of this degree project is to reveal the Airbnb customer’s preferences and quantify the impact of non-market factors on the market price of tourist accommodation in Berlin, Germany. The data retrieved from Airbnb listings, publicly available on Inside Airbnb (2017), was supplemented on indicator of sharing economy accommodation using machine learning method in order to distinguish between amateur and business-running professional hosts. The main aim is to examine the consumers’ preferences and quantify the marginal effect of "real sharing economy" accommodation and other key variables on market price.

    This is accomplished by model approach using hedonic pricing method, which is used to estimate the economic value of particular attribute. Surprisingly, our data indicates the negative impact of sharing economy indicator on price. The set of motivations of consumers, which determine their valuation of Airbnb listings, was identified. The trade-off between encompass and parsimony of the set was desired in order to build an effective model. Calculation of proportion of explained variance showed that the price is affected mainly by number of accommodated persons, degree of privacy, number of bedrooms, cancellation policy, distance from the city centre and sharing economy indicator in decreasing order.

  • 104.
    Heldt Cassel, Susanna
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Macuchova, Zuzana
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Rydell, Alexis
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Occupational science.
    Willingness to commute long distance among job seekers in Dalarna, Sweden2013In: Journal of Transport Geography, ISSN 0966-6923, E-ISSN 1873-1236, Vol. 28, p. 49-55Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies on commuting behavior and willingness towards commuting have analyzed individuals who are active in the workforce and have largely focused on larger metropolitan regions. This paper presents results from a survey of unemployed job seekers in the county of Dalarna, Sweden and analyzes the differences in willingness towards long-distance commuting between individuals with different socio-economic situations and experiences of unemployment. The analysis is conducted through a linear probability model complemented with a logistic regression model. Conclusions are drawn on the socio-economic factors that influence the probability of an individual’s willingness to commute longer than 40 minutes. The analysis also takes interaction between different factors into account. The study concludes that the factors influencing the willingness to commute are gender, level of education, and the presence of children in the household. Furthermore, the interactions between age and length of unemployment, age and educational level, and age and gender are shown to be significant in the willingness to commute long distances.

  • 105.
    Heldt, Tobias
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Co-creation of IT-services to finance nature based tourism: A study on willingness to pay for cross-country skiing services in Sweden2011In: Exploring Co-creation / [ed] Clarke, Alan, London: Pearson , 2011Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 106.
    Heldt, Tobias
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Co-creation of IT-services to finance nature based tourism: A study on willingness to pay for cross-country skiing services in Sweden2010In: International conference on "Exploring Co-creation", University of Pannonia, Veszprém, Hungary, 2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 107.
    Heldt, Tobias
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Conditional cooperation in the field: Cross-country skiers' behavior in Sweden2005In: Economic Science Association, European Meeting, Alessandria, Italien, 2005Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 108.
    Heldt, Tobias
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Economic impact analysis of a horse event: Landsmót 2016 - The National Icelandic Horse Competition2018In: Human-horse relationships in work and play: Interspecies encounters in business, tourism and beyond, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding the demand and the economic impact for an event is crucial knowledge not only for the event managers and host organization but also for public planners of the region where the event takes place.

    The present study measures the direct economic spending of visitors to the event Landsmot Hestamanna, The National Icelandic horse competition, which hosted in Hólar in mid June2016. The study is based on data from 404 respondents answering an on-site survey within the event arena. The key variables for the LM economic impact analysis consist of total number of visitors divided by visitor type and the average spending of the different types.

    Following the recommended approach by Sun et al. (2010) segmenting visitors by loding type the preliminary findings indicate a total for the Economic impact of Landsmót 2016 to 159,7 MISK. However, there are uncertainties regarding total number of visitors to the event as well as the division of visitors in lodging type. Moreover, the study finds that international tourists spend on average approximately 30 percentages more compared to national visitors.

  • 109.
    Heldt, Tobias
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Exploring the value of an event: comparing consumer surplus, willingness to pay and values of subjective wellbeing for the Peace & Love music festival in Sweden2014In: Proceedings of the 23st Nordic symposium in Tourism and Hospitality Research: The values of tourism / [ed] Budeanu, A, Möckel, M., and Gyimóthy, S., 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding the values and impact for a hallmark event is crucial knowledge not only for the event managers but also for the public planners of the host region.

    The purpose of this paper is to explore and compare values of a music event using on the one hand two non-market valuation techniques; and on the other hand individual measures of subjective well-being or happiness.  

    We use survey data collected from 716 visitors to the Peace & Love music festival held in Borlänge, Sweden, in 2011. The survey contains questions about the actual behaviour of the respondents such as expenditure patterns and travel behaviour but also questions on individuals’ subjective wellbeing (SWB) and willingness to pay (WTP) for certain features of the festival like “other people attending” and “length of the festival”. These data allow us to estimate consumer surplus for the event by applying the travel cost method but also average and individual measures of SWB. The latter can be used to explore correlations between individual’s SWB and individual socio economic characteristics but also consumer behaviour patterns.

    The preliminary findings of our study are that the consumer surplus value indicates an overall consumer value between 27 - 89 MSEK for the festival. The measure of happiness shows an average subjective wellbeing of 7.94 (likert scale 0-10) and correlations with a number of interesting variables. This paper contributes to the literature on valuation of tourism and events by highlighting the potential for using measures of consumer surplus in combination with actual visitor data on preferences to understand current and future impact and values of an event. 

  • 110.
    Heldt, Tobias
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Financing recreational infrastructure with micropayments and donations: a pilot study on cross-country ski track preparations in Sweden2010In: Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, ISSN 1502-2250, E-ISSN 1502-2269, Vol. 10, no 3, p. 386-394Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports the findings of a natural field experiment in which cross-country skiers had the option to use their mobile phones to call in a donation to fund ski track preparations. This paper takes the Right of Public Access as given and investigates the extent to which donations or voluntary contributions can be used to finance recreational infrastructure. The purpose of the study was to look at how different types of bonus services and offers, as well as the introduction of a trail pass, affected the willingness of individuals to make donations to ski track preparations at a Swedish ski resort. The study’s main finding was that it is not possible to rely on a simple voluntary approach when introducing a new system for financing recreational infrastructure using micropayments and new IT services.

  • 111.
    Heldt, Tobias
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Financing Recreational Infrastructures by Micro-payments and Donations: A Natural Field Experiment on XC-Ski Preparations in Sweden2008In: 2nd International conference on “Sustainable Tourism Development”, Södertörn, Sweden, 2008Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 112.
    Heldt, Tobias
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Financing recreational public goods for tourism development: Is there a case for voluntary contributions?2009In: International Conference “Central Europe and Tourism Competitiveness”, University of Pannonia, Veszprém, Hungary,, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 113.
    Heldt, Tobias
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Informal sanctions and conditional cooperation:: A natural experiment on voluntary contributions to a public good.2006In: Economic Science Association, Nottingham, UK, 2006Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In a natural experiment, this paper studies the impact of an informal sanctioning mechanism on individuals’ voluntary contribution to a public good. Cross-country skiers’ actual cash contributions in two ski resorts, one with and one without an informal sanctioning system, are used. I find the contributing share to be higher in the informal sanctioning system (79 percent) than in the non-sanctioning system (36 percent). Previous studies in one-shot public good situations have found an increasing conditional contribution (CC) function, i.e. the relationship between expected average contributions of other group members and the individual’s own contribution. In contrast, the present results suggest that the CC-function in the non-sanctioning system is non-increasing at high perceived levels of others’ contribution. This relationship deserves further testing in lab.

  • 114.
    Heldt, Tobias
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Informal sanctions and conditional cooperation: A natural experiment on voluntary contributions to a public good.2008In: 16th Annual Conference of the European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, Göteborg, Sweden, 2008Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 115.
    Heldt, Tobias
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Institutional Factors Influencing the Size and Structure of Tourism:: Comparing Dalarna (Sweden) and Maine (USA).2000In: Current Issues in Tourism, ISSN 1368-3500, E-ISSN 1747-7603, no 3 (4), p. 283-324Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 116.
    Heldt, Tobias
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Planning for bicycle tourism: estimating the economic effects of bicycle tourism in two Swedish regions2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Investing in developing bicycle trail networks is in many countries seen as strategy to develop the tourism industry, especially as part of regional development strategies. However, who should bear the cost of such infrastructure investments, the national, regional or local level authorities?      

    The starting point for this paper can be found in the conflicting interests in bicycle tourism and how these should be handled in infrastructure planning in Sweden. Who benefits from a developed bicycle trail network and how large can such benefits be? This paper aims at estimating the economic effects of bicycle tourism in two specific destinations in Sweden; Varberg and Gotland. We use data collected on site at the two destinations using a self-complete questionnaire following a mixed-stratified sampling strategy to be able to segment the visitors spending based on lodging types. In total 483 respondents are used in the analysis.

    The main finding is that there is a surprisingly large difference in visitor spending between the two regions and that the segmenting of visitor spending based on lodging gives a more reliable estimate of the economic impact from bicycle tourism compared to the most commonly used measure “average guest night spending”.  

  • 117.
    Heldt, Tobias
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Planning for bicycle tourism: estimating the economic effects of bicycle tourism in two Swedish regions2013In: Proceedings of the 22st Nordic symposium in Tourism and Hospitality Research, Bodø & Lofoten Islands, Norway, 24-27 September, 2013: Innovation and value creation in experience‐based tourism / [ed] Lindberg, Frank, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Investing in developing bicycle trail networks is in many countries seen as strategy to develop the tourism industry, especially as part of regional development strategies. However, who should bear the cost of such infrastructure investments, the national, regional or local level authorities?      

    The starting point for this paper can be found in the conflicting interests in bicycle tourism and how these should be handled in infrastructure planning in Sweden. Who benefits from a developed bicycle trail network and how large can such benefits be? This paper aims at estimating the economic effects of bicycle tourism in two specific destinations in Sweden; Varberg and Gotland. We use data collected on site at the two destinations using a self-complete questionnaire following a mixed-stratified sampling strategy to be able to segment the visitors spending based on lodging types. In total 483 respondents are used in the analysis.

    The main finding is that there is a surprisingly large difference in visitor spending between the two regions and that the segmenting of visitor spending based on lodging gives a more reliable estimate of the economic impact from bicycle tourism compared to the most commonly used measure “average guest night spending”.  

  • 118.
    Heldt, Tobias
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Sustainable Nature Tourism and the Nature of Tourists’ Cooperative Behavior: Recreation Conflicts, Conditional Cooperation and the Public Good Problem2005Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 119.
    Heldt, Tobias
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Tourism economic impact of a horse race venue: the case of harness racing at DalaTravet Rättvik, Sweden2015In: Proceedings of the 24th Nordic symposium in Tourism and Hospitality Research, Reykjavik, Iceland, 1-3 October, 2015, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Harness racing events in Sweden attracts in between 5 000 to 10 000 visitors each weekend during summertime with the Solvalla International “Elitlopp” in Stockholm as the biggest event with 50 000 visitor over two days. 

    For smaller regional harness racing venues the industry and its events is quite often used as part of destination marketing. However there are no previous examples of the overall significance of the industry at regional levels and specifically the tourism economic impact of the industry at regional level.

    The purpose of this study is to estimate the tourism economic impact of harness racing at regional levels using the case of DalaTravet (DT) Rättvik, in Sweden as a case. The study uses register based data as well as data from a questionnaire study conducted at six of the DT Rättvik events during summer season 2014. In total a sample of 444 respondents are used in the analysis.

    The results of the study indicates that the turnover related to the harness racing industry at the regional level amounts to approximately 31.1 Million SEK of which 11.1 MSEK is counted as tourism economic impact.

    This paper contributes to the literature on tourism impact analysis of specific events in smaller regional areas. The results of the study may be of use for tourism and regional planners in regions with a harness racing venue. 

  • 120.
    Heldt, Tobias
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Turskidåkares värdering av externaliteter från skoter2000Report (Other academic)
  • 121.
    Heldt, Tobias
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Hansen, Fredrik
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Social Approval and Framing in the Field: Behaviour of Snowmobilers in Sweden2009In: 4th Nordic Conference on Behavioral and Experimental Economics, Oslo, 2009Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 122.
    Heldt, Tobias
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Heldt Cassel, Susanna
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Skoterturismen och utvecklingen i Funäsdalsfjällen: En uppföljning av projektet "Hållbar utveckling i Funäsdalsfjällen"2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Projektet ”Hållbar utveckling i Funäsdalsfjällen” pågick under 1999-2001 och har både nationellt och internationellt omskrivits som ett lyckosamt och banbrytande projekt med målsättning att utveckla skoterturism i den svenska fjällvärlden utan att konflikter och störningar uppstår som kan försämra förutsättningarna för andra turismgrenar i området. Syftet med denna rapport är att redovisa resultaten från en uppföljningsstudie av projektet ”Hållbar utveckling i Funäsdals¬fjällen”. Projektets olika delmål har följts upp dels via en enkätstudie riktad till ett urval av skoter- och turskidåkare som besökt Funäsdalsfjällen, dels via ett antal djupintervjuer med företrädare för de olika lokala intressegrupperna. Dessutom har skoterturismens effekter på den lokala ekonomin specialstuderas inom ramen för ett examensarbete. Vi bedömer att projektet har varit lyckat och uppfyllt de målsättningar som satts upp för projektets verksamhet på kort sikt. En viktig förklaring till detta har varit projektets utgångspunkt i konsensusbeslut. Från intervjustudien blir det tydligt att de olika grupperna av aktörer och intressenter har olika syn på hur utvecklingen i Funäsdalsfjällen ska se ut på lång sikt. Vissa vill exempelvis fortsätta att utveckla skoterturismen medan andra anser att gränsen för skoteråkningens påverkan i området är nådd. För fortsatt hållbar utveckling i området är det sannolikt mycket viktigt att alla intressegrupper fortsätter att delta i arbetet med att utveckla Funäsdalfjällen.

  • 123.
    Heldt, Tobias
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Klerby, Anna
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Peace & Love 2010: Värderade och icke-värderade ekonomiska effekter2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport syftar till at kartlägga samt värderat och presenterat ekonomiska effekter koppladetill Peace & Love festivalen 2010. Utgångspunkten är en definition av festivalens intressenter.Uppskattningen av de ekonomiska effekter som presenterats är baserade på enkätsvar från 519festivalbesökare. Resultaten från studien pekar på att festivalbesökare definierade som turister igenomsnitt spenderar drygt 2000 kr i samband med sitt besök exklusive utgifter för resa ochfestivalbiljett. Den totala festivalkopplade konsumtionen beräknas till 154 Mkr genom attmultiplicera siffrorna för genomsnittlig festivalkonsumtion för en besökare med det totala antaletbetalande besökare. Studien visar också att det finns ett betydande läckage ur den regionalaekonomin till följd av att försäljare inom festivalområdet kommer från andra delar i Sverige.Peace & Love-festivalens bidrag till den lokala ekonomin inklusive biljettintäkter beräknas istudien till 89 Mkr. Slutligen pekar studien på att fördjupade studier innehållande en mernoggrann uppskattning över besökargruppernas andelar respektive konsumtion krävs vid nästaårs festival för att säkerställa de resultat denna studie redovisar.

  • 124.
    Heldt, Tobias
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Klerby, Anna
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Peace, love and well-being: Volunteering at the Peace & Love festival in Borlänge, Sweden2014In: Event Volunteering: International Perspectives on the Volunteering Experience at Events / [ed] Smith, K. A., Lockstone-Binney, L., Holmes, K. and Baum, T., Routledge, 2014Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on research on how volunteering contributes to people’s subjective well‐being, this study uses the case of the Peace & Love festival in Borlänge, Sweden, the largest music and societal cohesion city festival in Sweden, to suggest an individual, organizational, and societal cost-benefit model, including intangible values such as subjective well-being and social capital. Previous studies on the festival’s audience correlated an individual’s subjective well‐being and their voluntary engagements. Does this relationship hold for the volunteers?

     

    The festival calls for about 6,000 volunteers. Their contribution, in traditional economic terms, is about SEK 18 million (€2.1 million), corresponding to about 20 percent of the festival’s net turnover. Volunteers seem to be necessary to make ends meet financially. Volunteer motives, ranging from rational choice to pure altruism, are addressed. For a teenager, the weekly pass is quite expensive: as a result, some people only volunteer to get festival access. Such participants usually require more supervision than altruistic volunteers. However, the societal return may be large for this group considering the amount of young, first-time volunteers introduced to civil engagement. The festival volunteers report an average subjective well-being of 8.2 compared to the festival visitors averaging 7.6 on a scale 0–10, where 10 is the maximum, implying positive effects on the intangible values.

  • 125.
    Heldt, Tobias
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Klerby, Anna
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Volunteering at events - motives, costs and benefits: A Peace & Love case study2012In: Developing Tourism – Sustaining Regions: Book of Abstracts / [ed] Marcus Ednarsson, Fredrik Hoppstadius, Linda Lundmark, Roger Marjavaara, Dieter Müller, Kati Pitkänen and Ulrika Åkerlund, Umeå: Department of Geography and Economic History, Umeå University , 2012, p. 71-71Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on research on how volunteering contributes to people’s subjective well‐being, our research uses the case of the Peace & Love festival in Borlänge, Sweden, the largest city festival (focusing on music and societal cohesion) in Sweden, to test a number of hypotheses. Previous studies on the festival’s audience have found a positive correlation between individual’s subjective well‐being and their voluntary engagements. Does this relationship hold also for the volunteers?

     

    Moreover, the festival on its own calls for about 5.000 volunteers. Their contribution, in traditional economic terms makes up to about 20 percent of the festival’s net turnover and seems to be necessary to make ends meet financially. The festival brings an opportunity to volunteer, with its positive effects of well‐being, increased social and cultural capital, but it may also have a downside. For a teenager the weekly pass is quite pricy and so far sold out before the festival starts, some people only sign up as volunteers to ascertain them access to the festival. According to the festival management such participants are more demanding to supervise than “voluntary volunteers”. However the societal return may be even larger considering the introduction of the involuntary volunteers into the world of volunteering. In this paper we also study motives for volunteering in relationship to both the individual and the festival management perspectives. 

  • 126.
    Heldt, Tobias
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Macuchova, Zuzana
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    Alnyme, Omar
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Tourism Studies.
    National and regional economic effects of the horse industry in Sweden Estimations from a BI-model for 2016: Estimations from a BI-model for 20162018In: Human-horse relationships in work and play: Interspecies encounters inbusiness, tourism and beyond, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the first results from a newly developed BI (business intelligence) model for the Swedish horse industry. Compared to previous studies of the impact from the horse industry we are able to present both figures for the national level as well as a decomposition to regional levels.

    The size of the horse industry in Sweden for 2016, is measured departing from the expenditure approach, i.e. summing the final use of horse related goods and services. One implication of the approach is that results are comparable with overall GDP figures for a country and with other subsectors of an economy, e.g. the tourism industry or the car producing industry. The model has two main inputs. Firstly, estimates of the geographical position of all Sweden’s 355.500 horses of different type and use, based on JBVs statistics and postal codes from horse associations. Secondly, estimates of the horse owner’s consumption pattern related to their leisure or professional use. Other horse related activities like riding schools, education, race tracks, betting etc. is treated separately, measured and added to the overall calculation.

    The preliminary results indicate that the horse industry in Sweden amounts to somewhere in the interval of 26-32 Billion SEK corresponding to approximately 0,5-0,6 percentage of Swedish GDP. Looking at regional variations, the region of Skåne has most horses and consistently also the region with largest share of the horse industry.

  • 127.
    Heldt, Tobias
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Macuchova, Zuzana
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    Alnyme, Omar
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Andersson, Hans
    SLU.
    Samhällsekonomiska effekter av hästnäringen: Skattningar baserat på en B.I. – modell av hästnäringen för 20162018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport presenterar skattningar av den svenska hästnäringens samhällsekonomiska effekter på nationell och regional nivå. År 2016 uppskattades hästnäringen i Sverige generera en direkt omsättning på 31,3 miljarder kronor motsvarande en sysselsättning om ca 16 900 helårsarbetskrafter. Skattningarna bygger på en modell för hästnäringens samhällsekonomi som har sin utgångspunkt i summering av total konsumtion av hästrelaterade varor och tjänster i Sverige under ett år. Rapporten presenterar även den Business Intelligence (BI) lösning som ligger till grund samt hur bakgrundsdata har samlats in, lagrats och paketerats för att slutligen presenteras med hjälp av ett BI-verktyg (https://hastnaringen-i-siffror.se).

  • 128.
    Heldt, Tobias
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Mortazavi, Reza
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Estimating and comparing demand for a music event using stated choice and actual visitor behavior data2016In: Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, ISSN 1502-2250, E-ISSN 1502-2269, Vol. 16, no 2, p. 130-142Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding the demand and the economic impact for a hallmark event is crucial knowledge not only for the event managers but also for the public planners of the host region, especially from the viewpoint of welfare evaluation. The purpose of this paper is twofold. Firstly to estimate the demand for a music event using two non-market valuation techniques; stated choice and travel cost method (TCM), and secondly to compare the welfare measures estimated from the two methods and discuss their relevance for event policy and management. We use survey data collected from 1005 visitors to the Peace & Love music festival held in Borlänge, Sweden, in 2012. The survey contains questions about the actual behaviour of the respondents such as expenditure patterns and travel behaviour but also a stated choice experiment (SCE). The latter asks the respondents to choose between different scenarios with varying levels of price, number of visitors and length of the festival in days. These data allow us to estimate consumer surplus for the event by applying both the TCM and SCE. The findings of our study are that the price effect, as expected, is negative and significant, more people attending the festival decreases the propensity to attend while longer duration of the festival increases the propensity to attend. This paper contributes to the literature on event impact analysis by highlighting the potential for using stated choice data on visitor preferences in combination with actual visitor data to understand current and future economic impact of an event. 

  • 129.
    Heldt, Tobias
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Nerhagen, Lena
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Turismens samhällsekonomiska betydelse2007In: Utveckla turistdestinationer – ett svenskt perspektiv / [ed] Bohlin, Magnus; Elbe, Jörgen, Uppsala: Uppsala publishing house. , 2007, p. 53-71Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 130.
    Heldt, Tobias
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Nerhagen, Lena
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Turskid- och skoteråkning i Sälenfjällen - är "På rätt led i Sälenfjällen" ur led?2001Report (Other academic)
  • 131.
    Heldt, Tobias
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics. Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Olofsson, Mattias
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Peace & Love 2011: Uppskattning av festivalens ekonomiska betydelse via segmenteringsansatsen2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna rapport är att kartlägga samt värdera och presentera ekonomiska effekterkopplade till Peace & Love festivalen 2011 genom att tillämpa segmenteringsansatsen.Utgångspunkten är en uppdelning av festivalbesökarna i olika kategorier (segment) som därefteranvänds för att skatta den direkta ekonomiska effekten av festivalen. Uppskattningen av deekonomiska effekter som presenteras är baserade på enkätsvar från 1036 festivalbesökare samt1540 intervjuer vid entréerna.

    Resultatet från studien pekar på att den traditionella metoden med uppskattning av effekter via enuppdelning av konsumtion mellan turister och icke turister överskattar den totala effekten jämförtmed uppskattning via boendesegmentering med ca 10 procent. Den totala effekten viaboendesegmentering uppskattas till dryga 185 Mkr. Besökarnas konsumtion i samband medPeace & Love festivalen kan omräknas till 61,85 helårsverken. Peace & Love festivalen beräknasskapa drygt 22 helårsverken inom restaurang och handel i Borlängeregionen utöver de 23helårsverken som festivalorganisationen skapar.

  • 132.
    Heldt, Tobias
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Olofsson, Mattias
    Svenska Skidspelen 2012: Förstudie kring ekonomisk effekt- och konsumtionsmätning inför Skid-VM i Falun 20152012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport ska ses som en förstudie kring metoder för insamling av information över besökarna vid Svenska Skidspelen samt för att uppskatta Skidspelens ekonomiska betydelse. Resultaten baseras på insamlat material via enkäter till besökare till Skidspelen 2012. Totalt 404 svar i enkätform från besökare inom området samt från bil och bussåkande besökare har använts i analysen. Därutöver intervjuades 718 besökare vid entrén om ålder, bostadsort, vistelselängd samt färdmedel till evenemanget.

     

    Rapporten innehåller uppskattningar av Skidspelens ekonomiska betydelse med hjälp av flera typer av modeller; turism-, boende- samt ålderssegmenteringsmodell. Resultat från studien visar att engångs­kostnader för boende, resor och biljett kunde uppskattas relativt bra, medan konsumtion under dagen inte fångades tillräckligt bra i någon modell. Resultaten från studien visar också att en försiktig uppskattning av Skidspelens ekonomiska betydelse mätt som direkt konsumtion kan sägas ligga mellan 14 - 18 miljoner kr för år 2012.

     

    För att få ett mer korrekt resultat vid eventuella vidare studier eller vid studier av Skid-VM 2015 i Falun så bör en samhällsekonomisk välfärds analys göras för att inkludera samtliga effekter. Beräkningen av Skidspelens ekonomiska effekt skulle kunna göras mer precis genom att tillfråga ett större urval av besökare samt utveckla insamlingen av data över besökarnas totala konsumtion kopplat till besöket vid Svenska Skidspelen. 

  • 133.
    Heldt, Tobias
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Robertson, Kerstin
    VTI.
    Wikberg, Åsa
    VTI.
    Hållbara turistresor: En fallstudie av destinationerna Kiruna, Åre, Sälen och Vimmerby2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In conjunction with development of destinations and transport systems, tourist demands andrequirements are essential in determining measures and changes that may lead to more sustainabletravel. Different options for travel to and from destinations are of great importance, but also thegeographical accessibility to various visit points within destinations. Good accessibility within adestination without a private car may also influence the modal choice for the trip to and from thedestination.This study analysed the requirements of different categories of tourists for transport, their travelpatterns and their preferences regarding travel to, from and within four Swedish destinations: Kiruna,Åre, Sälen and Vimmerby. The aim was to develop knowledge about factors that may affect thesustainability of tourist travel. The empirical material for the analysis was collected throughquestionnaires distributed to visitors on-site in the destinations.The results show that tourism differs and has different economic potential for different destinations.Both travel patterns (such as mode choice) and economic power (measured as guest nightconsumption) are highly variable between different categories of tourists, destinations and seasons.A key conclusion from the study is that tourists want access to many different visit points withindestinations. The physical structure of destinations, i.e. the location of accommodation and visitpoints, has great significance for the accessibility and need for travel within destinations. The physicalstructure of the destination and the availability of alternative modes of transport are therefore bothimportant for increasing the sustainability of tourist travel. This means that knowledge about thegeographical accessibility for tourists is important for planning and development of sustainabledestinations and tourist travel, as is knowledge about tourists’ behaviour and preferences.

  • 134.
    Heldt, Tobias
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Thulemark, Maria
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Olofsson, Elenor
    Nätverkssamarbete och destinationsutveckling: En jämförelse av ett storskaligt och ett småskaligt turismutvecklingsprojekt2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Hållbar destinationsutveckling kräver samarbete mellan offentliga och privata aktörer. Den övergripande forskningsfrågan som genomsyrat arbetet med denna rapport handlar om hur samhällets resurser bäst kan användas för att utveckla turistdestinationer. Projekten Nordic Snowmobile Center och Projekt Entreprenörsutbildning Småland/Kronoberg, vilka har finansierats med olika mycket offentliga medel, utvärderas i denna rapport. Resultaten från utvärderingen utgör sedan grund för diskussion och analys av destinationsutveckling. Rapporten redogör också för följeforskning genomförd på Projekt Nordic Snowmobile Center (NSC) mellan åren 2004-2007. Vi konstaterar att båda projekten uppfyller sina huvudsyften. Projekt NSC kan däremot inte anses ha uppfyllt alla sina delmål. Förklaringarna till detta står att finna i faktorer som förankringen av projektets mål och delmål i projektområdet; en asymmetri i budgeterade investeringskostnader mellan projektets delområden; institutionella faktorer såsom projektadministration samt redovisningsprinciper hos EU-sekretariat och de andra offentliga finansiärerna. Följeforskningen av Projekt NSC identifierade dessutom ett antal faktorer som kan bidra till ökad förståelse för hur ett projekt av denna storlek bör organiseras och ledas samt vilka stöd som ett projekt av den här typen kräver för att åstadkomma destinationsutveckling.

  • 135.
    Heldt, Tobias
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Vail, David
    Multiple-use forest land and commercial tourism in Sweden and Maine (USA):: Networking land parcels for outdoor recreation2006In: International conference of Trends, Impacts and Policies on Tourism Development, Heraklion, Crete, GREECE, 2006Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper deals with government strategies to counteract rural economic decline and will focus on two problems that affects the possibility to promote nature tourism in general, and nature tourism relying on a trail network in specific. First, recreational land is a multiple use resource where the tourism use may not only lead to conflicts between different tourism uses but also with other land use interests, like forestry and environmental preservation, especially when certain types of uses are viewed as mutually exclusive. Second, the demand for a recreational trail network, for example a snowmobile, biking or canoeing trail, is dependent on several factors. It has for example been showed that the recreational demand for a trail network is increasing in trail length and number of scenic sites accessible. However, under conditions of public access to private land and fragmented land ownership, the production of trail networks of high quality is complicated when the trail crosses multiple landholdings. In general, the creation of an attractive trail network requires coordinated access to multiple land parcels. The paper highlights two institutional innovations that seek to align stakeholders’ incentives and manage recreational access. They are Sweden’s snowmobile trail networks, crossing multiple ownerships and biomes; and Maine’s state acquisition of large-scale conservation and recreation easements on private forestland related to the development of a back country trail “hut-to-hut” network.

  • 136. Hellström, Jörgen
    et al.
    Lundgren, Jens
    Rudholm, Niklas
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Multinational Electricity Market Integration and Electricity Price Dynamics.2008In: Proceedings of the EEM 2008, Lissabon, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper empirically explores the electricity price dynamics in the Nordic power market, Nord Pool. In particular, the focus is on determining what effect the multinational market integration, during the years 1996-2006, has had on the conditional mean electricity price, its volatility, the price jump-intensity and the price jump size. Empirically the study reveals that the conditional mean electricity price increased when Finland joined, and remained at the higher level when Denmark also joined. Turning to the price volatility, this increased when Finland joined, but decreased when Denmark also joined. However, the price jump-intensity decreased both when Finland and Denmark joined the market. This means that a larger electricity market seems to reduce the probability of sudden price jumps. That is, the multinational electricity market integration seems to have created a market that handles external shocks to supply and demand more efficient than the separate national electricity markets previously did.

  • 137. Hellström, Jörgen
    et al.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Advertising as a signaling device: simulated maximum likelihood estimation of a multiple random effects count data model2008In: Economics Letters, ISSN 0165-1765, E-ISSN 1873-7374, Vol. 101, no 3, p. 227-229Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper empirically studies whether pharmaceutical firms uses advertising as a signal for high quality drugs. A multiple random effects count data hurdle model is specified and a simulated maximum likelihood estimation approach is developed and utilized in the empirical analysis.

  • 138. Hellström, Jörgen
    et al.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Uncertainty in the generic versus brand name prescription decision2010In: Empirical Economics, ISSN 0377-7332, E-ISSN 1435-8921, Vol. 38, no 3, p. 503-521Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyzes the impact of uncertainty concerning product quality of generic drugs on the substitution behavior of prescribing physicians. It is shown that uncertainty about the generic drug quality gives the physician a value of waiting for more information before switching to the generic version. In addition, it is shown that reducing the approval requirements for generic drugs, thereby increasing uncertainty about quality, may discourage physicians from prescribing such drugs. An empirical study testing the theoretical predictions is presented at the end of the paper.

  • 139.
    Henrekson, Magnus
    et al.
    IFN, Stockholm.
    Johansson, Dan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Stenkula, Mikael
    Linköpings universitet.
    Den svenska företagsstrukturen – utvecklingen i de medelstora företagen efter 1990-talskrisen2012In: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 40, no 2, p. 27-38Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Nya koncernkorrigerade data från SCB visar att andelen anställda i medelstora företag (här definierade som företag med mellan 10 och 199 anställda) har stigit i det privata näringslivet mellan 1993 och 2009. Mer än en tredjedel av de anställda arbetar i dag i medelstora företag och andelen i Sverige är jämförbar med övriga Europa. Förutom outsourcing och konsolidering torde det ändrade institutionella ramverket, t ex förändringar av arbetsmarknadens reglering och i skattesystemet, utgöra en förklaring till det mönster vi kan se i statistiken. Det är i dag betydligt mer förmånligt att starta och expandera företag än för 20 år sedan.

  • 140.
    Hultkrantz, Lars
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Approaches to assessment of the full social cost of trucking2003In: Seminar on Economic Valuation of Externalities and Transport Policies, Institute of International Economics, Valencia University, 2003Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 141.
    Hultkrantz, Lars
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Telecommunications liberalisation in Sweden regulation viable?: Is "intermediate"2003In: Swedish Economic Policy Review, ISSN 1400-1829, Vol. 9, no 2, p. 133-162Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 142.
    Hultkrantz, Lars
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Vägtullar - Något för Stockholm?: Inledning vid Nationalekonomiska föreningens förhandling 2003-04-222003In: Ekonomisk debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 31, p. 60-80Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 143.
    Hultkrantz, Lars
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Johansson, Elly-Ann
    Hemarbetet och BNP2003In: Ekonomisk debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 31, no 6, p. 55-57Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 144.
    Hultkrantz, Lars
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Li, Chuan-Zhong
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Nerhagen, Lena
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Fart eller miljö En analys att användas för samhällsekonomiska bedömningar av väginvesteringar: är avvägningarna rimliga?2003Report (Other academic)
  • 145.
    Hultkrantz, Lars
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Lindberg, Gunnar
    Intelligent Economic Speed Adaptation2003In: 10th International Conference on Travel Behaviour Research, Lucerne, Switzerland, 2003Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 146.
    Hultkrantz, Lars
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Lindström, Eva
    Släpp dataseten fria. Replik2003In: Ekonomisk debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 31, no 1, p. 52-53Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 147. Hultkrantz, Lars
    et al.
    Mortazavi, Reza
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Landowner Participation in the Regulation of Outdoor Recreation: Some Problems in Snowmobiling Regulation.1998In: Tourism Economics, ISSN 1354-8166, E-ISSN 2044-0375, Vol. 4, no 1, p. 33-49Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 148. Hultkrantz, Lars
    et al.
    Mortazavi, Reza
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Optimal institutions for regulation of public access to private property: Some problems in snowmobiling regulation1995Report (Other academic)
  • 149. Hultkrantz, Lars
    et al.
    Mortazavi, Reza
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    The Value of Travel Time Changes in a Random Nonlinear Utility Model1997Report (Other academic)
  • 150. Hultkrantz, Lars
    et al.
    Mortazavi, Reza
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Värdet av restidsbesparing för färdmedlen fjärrtåg, regional buss, långfärdsbuss och flyg1999Report (Other academic)
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