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  • 101.
    Sundkvist, Niklas
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Attraktiva egenskaper hos lägenheter: En studie om vad byggherren, projektörer och entreprenörer bör tänka på vid nybyggnation eller renovering av flerbostadshus2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Det råder idag en stor bostadsbrist i Sverige och detta på grund av urbanisering,

    dvs. en stor befolkningsökning i städerna. Det betyder att mycket bostäder

    behöver byggas och då är det viktigt att projektörerna vet vad de

    bostadssökande vill ha när det gäller lägenheter.

    Som huvudsyfte för arbetet står att samla information och få en bild av vad de

    bostadssökande söker när de letar lägenheter. Resultatet av detta kan fungera

    som ett underlag för kommande lägenhetsbyggnationer och renoveringar. Ett

    sekundärt syfte är att med hjälp av insamlad och analyserad data ta fram en

    principskiss på hur en lägenhet skulle kunna se ut och denna ska även stämma

    överens med dagens byggnormer.

    I rapporten har en lägenhet tagits fram baserat på svaren från en

    enkätundersökning, tre intervjuer med mäklare och intervju med det kommunala

    bostadsbolaget Tunabyggen i Borlänge samt gällande krav och byggregler i

    BBR.

    De viktigaste slutsatserna i rapporten är att pris och månadsavgift eller hyra är

    viktigast för de sökande. Vidare bör det finnas en balkong men att den är

    inglasad är oviktigt. Att sätta in ett badkar är inte heller något som lockar de

    bostadssökande.

  • 102.
    Svensson, Andreas
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Prefab kontra platsbyggd stomme: En fallstudie ur ett kostnadsperspektiv2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report consists a comparative analysis between a prefabricated and place-built body for which selection is the most advantageous in hall buildings, office buildings and store buildings. Investigations of the advantages and disadvantages of building methods from a perspective that have costs, environmental and external factors have been affected. However, in the pursuit of more efficient production and industrial construction, the proportion of prefabricated components for the Swedish building industry does not increase at the rate that the market wants. This necessitates an investigation of what makes the use of prefabricated bodies stagnant. Therefore, does the report examines the pros and cons of the two cases. In constructions of prefabricated concrete elements, connections that do not exist in corresponding place-built constructions are created, which affects the choice. Building and assembling with prefabricated elements increases the quality of the material as they are not exposed to cold or moisture before assembly when the manufacturing is done at the factory. The house is being built faster because the construction site becomes almost a mounting site of parts that are finished, which means that the material storage in the workplace disappears when the elements are delivered when they are assembled. If delivery times are kept

    short, the construction time will also decrease which will result in lower costs. The purpose of the report is to make the choice between these two depending on the type of project easier and it should be achieved with increased knowledge of place-built body and prefabricated body. What has been used as the basis for the report has been produced through a survey and literature study. There have also been interviews on leadership roles in the construction industry. The result shows that the design of the building affects but is not the single deciding factor for the choice between prefabricated or place-built body. If you look primarily at Sweden, the economic factor is usually the basis for the choice of body. The big difference between the stomach alternatives lies in the construction time, which can be up to 1/5 shorter in prefabricated stems than at the place -built frame.

  • 103.
    Swing Gustafsson, Moa
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology. Mälardalen University.
    Gustafsson, Marcus
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology. KTH.
    Myhren, Jonn Are
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Dotzauer, Erik
    Mälardalen University.
    Primary energy use in buildings in a Swedish perspective2016In: Energy and Buildings, ISSN 0378-7788, E-ISSN 1872-6178, Vol. 130, p. 202-209Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The building sector accounts for a large part of the energy use in Europe and is a sector where the energy efficiency needs to improve in order to reach the EU energy and climate goals. The energy efficiency goal is set in terms of primary energy even though there are different opinions on how to calculate primary energy. When determining the primary energy use in a building several assumptions are made regarding allocation and the value of different energy sources. In order to analyze the difference in primary energy when different methods are used, this study use 16 combinations of different assumptions to calculate the primary energy use for three simulated heating and ventilations systems in a building. The system with the lowest primary energy use differs depending on the method used. Comparing a system with district heating and mechanical exhaust ventilation with a system with district heating, mechanical exhaust ventilation and exhaust air heat pump, the former has a 40% higher primary energy use in one scenario while the other has a 320% higher in another scenario. This illustrates the difficulty in determining which system makes the largest contribution to fulfilling the EU energy and climate goals.

  • 104.
    Swing Gustafsson, Moa
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology. Mälardalen University.
    Myhren, Jonn Are
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Dotzauer, Erik
    Mälardalen University.
    Assessment of the potential for district heating to lower the peak electricity consumption in a medium size municipality in SwedenManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden faces several challenges when more intermittent renewable power is integrated into the energy system. One of the challenges is to have enough electrical power available in periods with low production from intermittent sources. A solution to the problem could be to reduce the electricity peak demand and at the same time produce more electricity during peak hours. One way of doing this is to convert electricity based heating in buildings to district heating (DH) based on combined heat and power (CHP).

    The study analyzes how much a medium sized Swedish municipality can contribute to lower the electricity peak demand. This is done by quantifying the potential to reduce the peak demand for six different scenarios of the future heat market volume and heat market shares regarding electricity based heating and DH in 2050.

    The main finding is that electricity consumption will be reduced by 35-70 % during the peak hour (and 20-40 % on a yearly basis) for all the six scenarios studied compared with the current situation. If the aim is to lower the electricity peak demand in the future, the choice of heating system is more important than reducing the heat demand itself. For the scenario with a large share of DH, it is possible to cover the electricity peak demand in the municipality by using CHP.

  • 105.
    Swing Gustafsson, Moa
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology. Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik.
    Myhren, Jonn Are
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Dotzauer, Erik
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik.
    Life cycle cost of heat supply to areas with detached houses: a comparison of district heating and heat pumps from an energy system perspective2018In: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 11, no 12, article id 3266Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There are different views on whether district heating (DH) or heat pumps (HPs) is or are the best heating solution in order to reach a 100% renewable energy system. This article investigates the economic perspective, by calculating and comparing the energy system life cycle cost (LCC) for the two solutions in areas with detached houses. The LCC is calculated using Monte Carlo simulation, where all input data is varied according to predefined probability distributions. In addition to the parameter variations, 16 different scenarios are evaluated regarding the main fuel for the DH, the percentage of combined heat and power (CHP), the DH temperature level, and the type of electrical backup power. Although HP is the case with the lowest LCC for most of the scenarios, there are alternatives for each scenario in which either HP or DH has the lowest LCC. In alternative scenarios with additional electricity transmission costs, and a marginal cost perspective regarding the CHP investment, DH has the lowest LCC overall, taking into account all scenarios. The study concludes that the decision based on energy system economy on whether DH should expand into areas with detached houses must take local conditions into consideration.

  • 106.
    Swing Gustafsson, Moa
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology. Mälardalen University.
    Myhren, Jonn Are
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Dotzauer, Erik
    Mälardalen University.
    Mapping of heat and electricity consumption in a medium size municipality in Sweden2017In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 105, p. 1434-1439Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Nordic electricity system faces many challenges with an increased share of intermittent power from renewable sources. One such challenge is to have enough capacity installed to cover the peak demands. In Sweden these peaks appear during the winter since a lot of electricity is used for heating. In this paper a mapping of the heat and electricity consumption in a medium size municipality in Sweden is presented. The paper analyze the potential for a larger market share of district heating (DH) and how it can affect the electrical power balance in the case study. The current heat market (HM) and electricity consumption is presented and divided into different user categories. Heating in detached houses not connected to DH covers 25 % of the HM, and 30 % of the electricity consumption during the peak hours. Converting the detached houses not connected to DH in densely populated areas to DH could reduce the annual electricity consumption by 10 %, and the electricity consumption during the peak hours by 20 %.

  • 107.
    Swing Gustafsson, Moa
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Myhren, Jonn Are
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Dotzauer, Erik
    Potential for district heating to lower peak electricity demand in a medium-size municipality in Sweden2018In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 186, p. 1-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden faces several challenges with more intermittent power in the energy system. One challenge is to have enough power available in periods with low intermittent production. A solution could be to reduce peak demand and at the same time produce more electricity during these hours. One way of doing this is to convert electricity-based heating in buildings to district heating based on combined heat and power. The study analyzes how much a Swedish municipality can contribute to lowering peak electricity demand. This is done by quantifying the potential to reduce the peak demand for six different scenarios of the future heat demand and heat market shares regarding two different energy carriers: electricity-based heating and district heating. The main finding is that there is a huge potential to decrease peak power demand by the choice of energy carrier for the buildings’ heating system. In order to lower electricity peak demand in the future, the choice of heating system is more important than reducing the heat demand itself. For the scenario with a large share of district heating, it is possible to cover the electricity peak demand in the municipality by using combined heat and power.

  • 108.
    Swing Gustafsson, Moa
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Myhren, Jonn Are
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Dotzauer, Erik
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik.
    Primary energy reduction in buildings: Case study on a residential building in Falun, Sweden2014In: Proceedings from the 14th International Symposium on District Heating and Cooling / [ed] Anna LAND, Swedish District Heating Association, 2014, p. 543-545Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since a large share of the total European primary energy is consumed in the building sector, buildings have to become more energy efficient in order to reach the goals of the European energy efficiency directive. In Sweden, focus has been on lowering final energy consumption, not primary energy consumption. A relevant question today is whether a general understanding of the primary energy concept is needed to encourage selection of better energy efficiency measures from an environmental perspective. There are however uncertainties of how to calculate primary energy consumption since different primary energy factors (PEF) are used by different actors, especially for district heating (DH) and electricity (EL.).

    In this study total primary energy consumption was calculated for a residential building before and after several renovation measures were made. The major change after the renovation was that a large share of the DH was substituted by heat from an exhaust air heat pump and solar collectors. A range of commonly used PEFs were assessed.

    The evaluation showed that the energy efficiency measures reduced the total primary energy consumption for most combinations of PEFs. The most essential was how the DH was valued. A low PEF for DH in combination with most of the PEFs for electricity could even result in higher total primary energy consumption after the renovation.  

  • 109.
    Thorsberg, Henrik
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Dimensioneringsmall för träförband med träskruv2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Boverkets design rules, BKR, containing regulations and general advice on constructions ended in 2011. They were replaced by Eurocodes (EK), the new regulations for dimensioning constructions. Eurocode was introduced because it provides better quality in the Swedish construction market and will lead to fewer misunderstandings. The previous regulations, BKR, were not as complicated in the calculation process as compared to the European Standard, Eurocode 5. The calculation process with EK5 has become a longer process and is more time consuming. In order for a construction to function as a system, it is important that the structural parts are joined together well. It does in so called nodes, where connections transmit the working forces of the structure. The purpose of the thesis work is to make a calculation template in Microsoft Excel to Ramböll AB. This is to simplification process for the calculation of Eurocod 5 with wood screw connections. A dimensioning of the template will be performed on two types connection with woodscrew, where output and time will be compared to hand calculation, the method most commonly used by Ramböll. The work will be based on interviews and literature studies from books and reports in connection with wood screws. This is done to gain a better understanding of the subject area. A case study will then be performed between calculation methods hand calculation and dimensioning template. A dimensioning template has been developed in Microsoft Excel according to Rambölls needs. Dimensioning with the template and hand calculation has been carried out and compared to find out the time and dimensions of bearing capacity with both methods. The conclusion of this project is that a dimensioning template is possible to design in Excel. It also shortens the timeframe in the design process considerably due to the fast input you can make in the template.

  • 110.
    Viberg, Mikael
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Tilluftsradiatorns effektivitet: En jämförande studie av tre tilluftsintegrerade rumsvärmare och en konventionell radiator2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Radiators are one of the most common and proven systems for space heating. Their limited heat-emitting surface, however, has limited the temperatures the systems work for. New solutions improve efficiency opening up systems for heating by using energy of lower grades and temperatures. By bringing outside air directly through the radiator, heat transfer can be improved. The purpose of the study is to examine how the outdoor temperature 0 ° C and -15 ° C, and the constructive details, affects the effectiveness of six different solutions for space heating. The study included four test objects of which one is a new type of a so-called ventilation radiator. The other test objects were a more conventional panel radiator and two existing heating’s – and were supply air terminals. Other aims were to investigate how three different types of bottom plates of the prototype affect the efficiency and suggest solutions for the ventilation radiator. The tests were conducted in a climate chamber in which actual conditions could be created and the efficiency of the respective solution were studied. An aggregate and a water circuit supplied heat to the test objects while a pressure creating fan created enough airflow. The results show that the degree of outdoor air mixed up with room air plays a major role in the effectiveness of the ventilation radiator. If the room air mix is limited the prototype can improve their efficiency by 15 to 18%. Even the outdoor temperature plays a big role in efficiency. The prototype increases its efficiency by 19 to 26%, while the radiators with supply air increased its efficiency by 10 to 15% when the outside temperature was changed from 0 ° C to -15 ° C. The two supply air terminals are equivalent in effectiveness, one raises, however, its effectiveness somewhat more when the outdoor temperature is lowered. All solutions where the outside air was passed through the radiators are more effective than the more conventional radiator, where the outdoor air never come in direct contact with the radiator. The study shows that it is important that the outside air that comes in contact with the radiator has been preheated as little as possible for good efficiency.

  • 111.
    Vikner, Joel
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Projektledares upplevelser av startskedet ibyggprojekt: Specifikt i relation till kommunikation och samarbete2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Tidiga skeden är avgörande för huruvida ett byggprojekt blir framgångsrikt eller inte. Brister i kommunikation och samverkan har flaggats som några av de problem som förekommer inom branschen och forskningen slår fast att förhållningsregler för dessa två faktorer bör fastställas i ett tidigt skede. Trots att tidiga skeden har stor inverkan på byggprocessen är denna i mindre omfattning utforskad än senare skeden. Denna forskningslucka motiverar att undersöka även detidiga skedena. Syftet med denna studie är att undersöka projektledares upplevelser av startskedet i byggprojekt och specifikt avseende kommunikation och samarbete och även fastställa vilka metoder för möten och riskanalyser i tidigt skede som kan leda till ökad måluppfyllnad. Vidare har användametoder för samarbete och kommunikationer observerats och analyserats. Studien genomfördes på en mindre projektledningsfirma i Mellansverige där fem projektledare intervjuades enligt semistruktureradmodell. Resultatet visar att den befintliga forskning och litteratur om tidiga skeden som finns stämmer överens med den bild som speglas av intervjuerna. Projektledarna anser att brist på tid i tidiga skeden är en vanlig orsak till fel tillsammans med frånvaron av mål alternativt otydligt formulerade mål. Användandet av en kommunikatör eller facilitator ansågs kunna ha positiv inverkan på projekt men används i dagsläget sparsamt och lokalisering av intressenter i byggprojektses som en stor utmaning i stora organisationer. Vidare upplevs det föreligga frustration över svårigheten att ordentligt fastställa behovet och lokalisera alla som kan tänkas påverkas av intressenter i byggprojektet. Studien har gett en fördjupad bild av några projektledares syn på tidiga skeden. Slutsatsen av studien visar på vikten av att arbeta mer omfattande med de tidiga skeden, i synnerhet med mål, för att byggprojektet skall bli mer framgångsrikt och effektivt samt och även minimera felaktigheter. Kommunikation och samarbete spelar en viktig roll i detta arbete och i förlängningen på slutprodukten.

  • 112.
    Wik, Tina
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Sustainability and research integrated in engineering courses at Dalarna University, Sweden2015Student paper otherStudent thesis
  • 113.
    Åkerman, Hampus
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Larsson, Eric
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Lipton - Det smarta trähuset: Energieffektivisering av Dalahus lägenhetskomplex i trä2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Earth's climate is affecting all countries and Sweden is no exception. With agrowing global environmental problem everyone needs to contribute to change.The project's contribution to the environment is to show how energyconsumption of a multi-family apartment block can be reduced. By calculatingUm for the house Lipton's current building envelope and identify the parts whereimprovements could be made, and compile the elements of design which aremost promising for improving the building envelope. Technical measures witch isnot directly related to the building envelope, such as demand controlledventilation, electrically efficient fans and other energy-smart solutions will beutilized to reduce Lipton specific energy consumption.Buildings lose heat through the building envelope but by harnessing the sun'senergy, think carefully about the building's placement, increase insulationthickness and use smart ventilation solutions, the project aims to reduce thehouse Liptons specific energy consumption to at least half of Boverkets energydemands in 2014 for new buildings in climate zone 2 which is set to110 kWh/m2 year.To calculate the specific energy consumption in use phase, a simple calculationprogram, TMF-Energy 2.3, will be used. In the project, the heating system,water/sewer and use of household energy is not to be included.The original design of the house Lipton has a specific energy consumption of56.9 kWh/m2 year which is relatively low and almost half of Boverkets energyrequirementsThe energy consumption of Lipton will be decreased by:• Improving Um for Lipton's building envelope.• Using a double-shell technology.Högskolan Dalarna• Plan where the house is located for favorable outer conditions• Using demand-controlled ventilation with energy efficient fans

  • 114.
    Åkerström, Johan
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Blomqvist, Andreas
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Tillbyggnad av miljonprogramsvilla: Olika tillbyggnader anpassade för miljonprogramsvillor2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Many villas built under the "miljonprogram" is in need of extension due to being too narrow in addition of being worn out. For this reason, many families chose to move out of these villas in favor of buying a bigger and more modern house. This means that the "miljonprogram" villas are in need of refurbishment to not lose too much value and popularity. Refurbishment of these villas can be done in many ways. One being a extension of the house, changing the truss or just a flat overall refurbishment. The method varies depending on the build of the house, as most if not all houses are constucted in different ways. A purpose of this report is to present a variety of how these villas can be rebuilt in favor of higher standards and a bigger living area. Various proposals will be presented where each development is made in different ways. Another purpose of the report is to compile the material costs for the various additions.

    This is done in order to gain an economic perception of the various additions and which add-on option is most economically sustainable

    The test object used in the report is stationed in Falun. The building is a typical miljonprograms villa with a pitched roof. The façade material for the villa consists of non-bearing façade pointers. The various additions to the project are based on the test object's original drawings. The new blueprints for the villa is drawn in the architectureprogram Revit.

    In the results section, various supplementary proposals are presented and finally an economic comparison is made.

    This is made to get an economic view of the various additions proposed in this report. Where the prices are compared in SEK per square meter.

    The discussion section discusses, among other things, the various additions suggested earlier.

    How the surfaces of the test object are trying to be preserved and the though process behind the new additions.

    Finally, economic aspects are discussed in the results part of the report. Four different conclusions are included in the report.

    One conclusion is that a mansard chair creates many new surfaces upstairs, and that it is also economically advantageous from a material cost perspective.

  • 115.
    Öhrèn, Rasmus
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Tekniskt samråd: Studie av likvärdighet i utförandet2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A new planning- and building act was applied the 2nd may 2011. The intention was to simplify the planning- and building process as the control of constructing where tightened. In the new act there has been introduced a deadline for the building permits of ten weeks. To be allowed to begin the constructing you will need a starting clearance. The clearance is preceded by a technical consultation.

    The purpose of this study was to survey if the technical consultation is performed equivalent between different municipalities in the county of Dalarna. Other purposes was:

     To create a basis for improvement regarding the technical consultation.

     Examine how to facilitate or improve the consultation.

     Illustrate why the technical consultation is so important in the building process.

     Clarify the differences in the new and the old act regarding the consultation.

    To understand what a technical consultation is and how it should be performed the work began with a literature study. A literature study was also performed to pick a method for the work. These studies resulted in a method based on the semi-structured interview form. A number of interviews were conducted in five building committees in Dalarnas County. To study the technical consultation in practice a visit during a consultation were conducted at Mora – Orsa and Falun municipalities.

    This thesis was delimited to examining how technical consultation is performed and works in various building committees in Dalarnas county. The work was delimited to only process opinions from building inspectors and a control manager.

    The results have been compiled and are reported in the results chapter. All respondents in this thesis have the opinion that complete documentation is essential to carry out a technical consultation. The developer should be well-informed and familiar with the project and an experienced developer could simplify the building process. A technical consultation is of great importance to ensure that the society’s conditions upholds. It is particularly important to hold a consultation when the developer is inexperienced.

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