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  • 101.
    Bohlin, Magnus
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Brandt, Daniel
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Elbe, Jörgen
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Spatial Concentration of Tourism: a Case of Urban Supremacy2022In: Tourism Planning & Development, ISSN 2156-8316, E-ISSN 2156-8324, Vol. 19, no 5, p. 392-412Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tourism growth on the national level in Sweden is being concentrated to the three main urban centres. The question is if the same trend is discernible within Swedish regions. If so, tourism as a tool in regional transformation and for alleviating spatial disparities has a weak basis. The strategy to strengthen the competitiveness of each region/local community based on the Tourism Led Growth Hypothesis but is questioned. Urban hierarchy and centrifugal forces are often overlooked. Data on overnight stays between 2008 and 2016 are analysed for four regions in central Sweden: Dalarna, Värmland, Gävleborg, and Jämtland. Results indicate that there is an ongoing concentration to regional urban centres and that destination competitiveness is directly linked to an urban supremacy. Thus, tourism growth is primarily a concern for urban areas and, which contradicts the traditional notions of tourism policy in Sweden, where tourism is regarded as a remedy for declining regions.

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  • 102.
    Bohlin, Magnus
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Brandt, Daniel
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Elbe, Jörgen
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    The Development of Swedish Tourism Public Policy 1930-20102014In: Offentlig Förvaltning. Scandinavian Journal of Public Administration, ISSN 2000-8058, E-ISSN 2001-3310, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 19-39Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, the development and changes in Swedish public policy relating to tourism from the 1930s to 2010 is described and interpreted from a political economy perspective. A case study, compiled from mainly secondary sources, is analyzed from a theoretical framework based on regulation theory. The purpose with this study is to increase the understanding of how the macro political economy context has influenced the policy-making in tourism in Sweden, but also to make a contribution to an area which seems to be quite neglected when it comes to research. The changes are analyzed according to the three periods denoted as pre-Fordism (mid-19th century-1930s), Fordism (1930s-1970s) and post-Fordism (1970s to present). It is observed how the general changes between these periods regarding aspects such as regulation and deregulation, and the degree of state involvement, have affected tourism policy making. The tourism policy making has changed from being insignificant, to a high degree of state involvement including planning, control and supervision, to a situation where the market rather than government regulation is considered as state of the art. 

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  • 103.
    Bohlin, Magnus
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Brandt, Daniel
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Elbe, Jörgen
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Tourism as a vehicle for regional development in peripheral areas – myth or reality?: A longitudinal case study of Swedish regions2016In: European Planning Studies, ISSN 0965-4313, E-ISSN 1469-5944, Vol. 24, no 10, p. 1788-1805Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the contemporary so-called ‘competition state era’, many rural and peripheral regions are in decline. Tourism is increasingly viewed as being able to alleviate and rejuvenate regions that are facing economic difficulties. The European Union has launched several programmes with the goal of stimulating growth and employment in peripheral areas. These programmes are often used to support tourism development projects. In this paper, a longitudinal analysis of spatial changes in Swedish tourism is conducted. The analysis is based on statistics regarding overnight stays in Swedish commercial accommodation facilities. The aim is to investigate if tourism and tourism policy contribute to the reduction in disparities between regions. Although there are exceptions, the main findings indicate that the potential for creating sustainable rural tourism growth through tourism policy seems to be much less than the popular discourse suggests. © 2016 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.

  • 104.
    Bohlin, Magnus
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Brandt, Daniel
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Elbe, Jörgen
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Tourism Destinations Competitiveness in Sweden: Who are the Winners?2019In: Tourism in the era of connectivity / [ed] Prof. Dimitrios Buhalis, Bournemouth, 2019, p. 112-113Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    The tourism sector is growing in importance for the Swedish economy. However this growth is not uniformly distributed within the country and this in turn leads to an uneven distribution of tourism activity between regions as well as between rural and urban areas. In a previous study it is concluded that the growth of bed nights between 2000 and 2010 is concentrated to the three larger urban regions in Sweden. The substantial growth of tourism in Sweden is therefore mainly a big city phenomenon, which is in sharp contrast to the picture entertained by policy makers and government officials. Tourism is regarded and promoted as a universally applicable tool when it comes to develop rural areas or regions in need for alternative job opportunities when traditional occupations are phased out. 

    This study addresses the question of redistribution within the regions. The question in focus is if the tendency of concentration of bed nights follows the same pattern within the regions as on the national level, i.e. if concentration increases over time. It is also of interest to identify those destinations, which deviate from the main pattern and to scrutinize the how they, achieve sustainable or at least long term competitiveness.

    An analysis is based on data collected by statistics Sweden and the Swedish Agency for Economic and Regional Growth. Data on overnight stays in commercial establishments were derived on local level between 2008 and 2016 for four regions in central Sweden; Dalarna, Värmland, Gävleborg and Jämtland. This data set makes it possible to make a longitudinal (annual) analysis of the redistribution of bed nights in detail. The concentration was analysed based on a calculation of the locational quotient and the corresponding locational coefficient, which relates concentration of tourism to that of the population on municipal level.

    A preliminary analysis of the data indicates a similar pattern as on the national level; i.e. there is a strong on-going concentration to regional urban centres indicating the presence of an urban supremacy. In other words, tourism growth is primarily a concern for urban areas rather than it being beneficial to rural development. This result contradicts the traditional notions in Sweden where tourism is regarded as a saviour for declining regions.

  • 105.
    Bohlin, Magnus
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Elbe, Jörgen
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Samhällets roll i besöksnäringens utveckling2011Report (Other academic)
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    Samhällets roll i besöksnäringens utveckling
  • 106.
    Bohlin, Magnus
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Elbe, Jörgen
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Utveckla turistdestinationer: Ett svenskt perspektiv2007 (ed. 1)Book (Other academic)
  • 107.
    Bohlin, Magnus
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Elbe, Jörgen
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Utveckling av turistdestinationer - en introduktion2007In: Utveckla turistdestinationer: Ett svenskt perspektiv, Uppsala: Uppsala Publishing House , 2007, 1, p. 11-27Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 108.
    Bolin, Linus
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Koc, Umut
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Relationer inom fotbollen: en uppsats om relationen mellan agent och spelare.2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Football (soccer) has developed, during the latest decades, to be very much commercially focused. Among professional players there is a lot of money to cash in.

    Long ago players had to deal with the different clubs themselves to get the best contracts. But the players were disadvantaged though the clubs were the strongest part. Later on the players got help from consultants (agents).

    1991 FIFA (Fédération Internationale de Fotball Association) acknowledged agents as a profession. The most important duty for the agent is to insure the player´s interests when signing a contract. In order to represent a player you have to get a license from FIFA. Unfortunately a lot of complaints have been sent to FIFA regarding conflicts between players and agents.

    Five agents and five professional players are interviewed (in Sweden). They all agree that trust, commitment and loyalty are important in the relationship between each other. The agents are describing how they work to develop trust, commitment and loyalty, within their relationship with the player. The players say that the other part, in their relationship, has the responsibility to develop their relationship. They seem not to understand that the players themselves are involved in the relation with their agents and are dependent on each other. There is a lack of trust/conflict between player and agent. It seems that the player is not aware of his own market-value, and his entrepreneurship, and has an important part in the relationship with the agent.

    To enable equally relationship, between player and agent, the player should undergo education to get awareness

  • 109.
    Borg Pålsson, Fridha
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Nygårds, Sonny
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Hur kan fysiska butiker undvika en butiksdöd?: En kvalitativ studie om hur fysiska butiker upplever att internet ochden digitala utvecklingen påverkar butiken samt hur nätbutiker arbetar med internetmarknadsföring2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The internet has provided an easier way to trade goods and services through online stores. As an effect of internet and e-commerce, companies restructure the trade from the physical store to online store. This affects the physical stores because most things become more easily accessible by the internet, as a result, customers buy goods online instead of going to the actual store. The purpose of the study is to find out how the physical stores experience that the internet has affected their store and how online stores work with internet marketing. A SWOT analysis of the companies has been done to see any connections between the companies' strengths, weaknesses, threats, opportunities, and the perception of the impact of the internet. This to be able to analyze these against each other and find similarities in the companies. The study is a qualitative study with empirical data collected through interviews. The study's empirical data is based on interviews with three physical stores and two online stores, all of which are active in retail. The result of the study shows that the physical stores have experienced that they have been affected by the internet to varying degrees. The SWOT analysis that was done showed that the perceived strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats revolved mostly around digitization. Furthermore, the empirical evidence also suggests that online stores have adopted social media to a large extent for their marketing.

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  • 110.
    Borgstrand Blixt, Malin
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Wiklund, Sofia
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Redovisning i ideella idrottsföreningar: Hur ser de ekonomiansvariga på sitt arbete?2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish sports movement has developed from sporting among common folks and amateurs to a more commercial and professional movement. The work of improving nonprofit accounting has been focused on since there are rising concerns about the quality of the accounting. The purpose of this study is to investigate how the bookkeepers experience working with the accounting, and on this basis, discuss possible causes as to why non-profit sports organizations’ accounting varies in quality. The study has been conducted through eight qualitative interviews. The participants were six representatives from non-profit sports organizations and two representatives of a District Federation from the Swedish Sport Confederation. Our study indicates that the bookkeepers find the accounting time consuming. This could be a sign that the scope of this kind of accounting has grown. This growth might further affect the quality of the accounting due to an increasing lack of time, which in turn could possibly lead to the accounting produced by a non-profit sports association not fulfilling the qualitative characteristics.

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  • 111.
    Boström, Jessica
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Svedlund, Beatrice
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Det nya hotet mot användarens integritet: En studie om individanpassad reklam på Facebook2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Problem:

    Accepting the term of use for cookies and Facebook, gives companies information about each user of Facebook so they can create personalized advertising.

    Purpose:

    The purpose of the paper is to analyze and describe the user´s behavior and further knowledge of personalized advertising, through cookies, on Facebook.

    Theory:

    The theoretical frame includes information about Facebook, cookies and personalized advertisements. The theory is based on how companies use Facebook, cookies and personalized advertisements to promote their products and services.

    Method:

    The study has used a deductive approach with a web questionnaire as a data collection tool. The questionnaire was sent to 3318 students at Högskolan Dalarna, with Swedish as the language of instruction.

    Results:

    The results of the study is based on collected data from the survey. The data was compiled in bar charts, histograms and a table with descriptive statistics and mean.

    Conclusion:

    The user does not have knowledge of what they accept when they approve Facebook's Terms of Service and do not feel worried about the personal information Facebook delivers for commercial purposes.

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  • 112.
    Bouwmann, Svenja
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Schnieder, Ilona
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    The relationship of internal, social and external determinants towards the green purchase intention of German Generation Y for fast moving consumer goods2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    – The purpose of this thesis is to test the relationship of internal and social determinants (environmental attitude, social/subjective norms and perceived behavioural control) as well as external determinants (green marketing tools) towards the green purchase intention of German Generation Y for fast moving consumer goods (FMCGs).

    Design/methodology/approach

    – An online questionnaire was distributed to people of the German Generation Y (aged between 21 and 37) using non-probability sampling by means of volunteer and convenient sampling. Results of 401 completed questionnaires were analysed using correlation, multiple linear regression and moderated regression analysis.

    Findings

    – Significant and positive relationships were found between environmental attitude, social/subjective norms, perceived behavioural control and eco-labelling towards the green purchase intention of German Generation Y for FMCGs. A significantly negative relationship was detected between price sensitivity and green purchase intention. Eco-labelling and price sensitivity were not moderating the relationship between environmental attitude and green purchase intention. Demographic factors had hardly any influence on the green purchase intention.

    Practical implications

    – German Generation Y depicts good potential as key market for green FMCGs. Those consumer goods especially when eco-labelled should be included in producers’ and retailers’ portfolios. Internal, social and external factors are considerable for the marketing strategy by addressing environmental concerns, social norms, responsibility towards society and emphasising customer’s own control of purchasing green while pricing green FMCGs rather not higher than 10% than conventional product prices.

    Originality/value

    – This paper contributes to the under-researched field of determining factors for the green purchase intention of Generation Y in Europe, while closing the gap for the unexplored context of Generation Y in Germany.

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  • 113.
    Bride, Linda
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Ågren Larsson, Ida
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Varför internationellt rekryterad vårdpersonal valt att stanna kvar hos arbetsgivaren: En fallstudie av Landstinget Dalarna2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In order to reduce the shortage of health professionals, many health care providers in Sweden are recruiting internationally. Therefore, it is crucial to ensure employee retention. The purpose of this study was to describe what contributes to retention of internationally recruited employees at Landstinget Dalarna. The method used for this study was a case study which consisted of interviews with health professionals who have been recruited internationally. The study showed several potential causes for retention of internationally recruited employees at Landstinget Da-larna.

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  • 114.
    Brinkmann, Sarah
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Master Thesis on Information Management: The implications of organizational interventions on the information management motivation (IMM) of information intensive workers 2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background:

    The following thesis investigates the four dimensions of a newly developed concept called information management motivation (IMM) (a person's perceived willingness to make effective use of information), to identify how organizational interventions can affect each of these dimensions. These four dimensions are information proactiveness (willingness to actively use information and learn), transparency (willingness to disclose negative information), formality (willingness to readily use official sources of information) and sharing (willingness to distribute objective information in a collaborative fashion). The focus is set on so-called information intensive workers, defined as professional knowledge workers as well as those (information) workers strongly depending on information to perform their work, since they are heavily influenced by information management, and thus, present the optimal information source for the exploration of the IMM concept.

    Aim:

    The overall research question of the thesis is "How do information intensive workers perceive different organizational interventions as affecting their information management motivation (IMM)?". This involves exploring organizational interventions which influence IMM in a supporting and hindering manner (objective 1&2) and understanding how or why these interventions are perceived as influential (objective 3).

    Methodology:

    Qualitative research via semi-structured interviews in two cases was done. Case 1 is a small German landscaping architecture company (total of 9 employees), in which 5 landscaping architects/designers were interviewed. Case 2 is made up by a large international cruise liner, with strong hierarchical structure, multinational employees and vertical communication, in which 6 employees of the Guest Service Department were interviewed.

    Findings:

    Intrinsic motivation was emphasized as of key importance for information proactiveness. For information transparency it was considered most importantly to provide a save and supportive environment to minimize the fear of (psychological) harm. Key driver of motivation for information formality depends on the availability of useful sources and employees’ capabilities to use them. Lastly, open communication culture and positive team atmosphere was considered prerequisite for motivation for all dimensions, above all information sharing.

    Conclusion:

    Information intensive workers mostly perceive organizational interventions as affecting their IMM by providing the appropriate tools to develop needed capabilities, or by providing a stimulating working environment to act out their already existing intrinsic motivation.

  • 115.
    Brusk, Madeleine
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Magnusson, Madelene
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Företags potentiella manipulation av tillväxttakt i goodwillnedskrivningstestet: En kvantitativ studie av svenska och finska börsnoterade företag2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background and problem: With the new standard IAS 36, companies have to estimate the long-term growth rate in the goodwill impairment test. This presents an opportunity to manipulate the growth rate and thereby avoid or implement goodwill impairment.

    Problem: How do the selected variables affect potential manipulation of estimated growth rate?

    Purpose: The purpose of the study is to explain what influences companies to report too high or too low growth rates in the goodwill impairment test.

    Method: This study is based on a quantitative method where the sample consists of all Swedish and Finnish listed companies with goodwill. Based on existing knowledge we have formulated four hypotheses that have been tested against empirical data.

    Results and Conclusion: The results of this study show no significant correlation between the dependent variable manipulation and the independent variables size, leverage, industry and accounting oversight. The descriptive statistics show that almost half of the companies manipulate the growth rate.

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  • 116.
    Brännström, Linnéa
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Nygårdh, Veronica
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Avskaffandet av revisionsplikten i Sverige: Vilka faktorer ligger bakom mikroföretagens numera frivilliga val av revision?2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In November 2010, Swedish micro-enterprises were given the opportunity to either

    resign or ask for audit due to the abolishment of audit requirement for these companies.

    The Government's intention with the removal of the audit requirement for microenterprises

    was to make them more competitive and adapted to the international

    business environment (SOU 2008: 32). The fact that Sweden joined the other EU

    member states that had chosen to make a voluntary audit as late as 2010 makes this a

    highly topical subject. Against this background the purpose of the study is to provide

    explanations and thereby a better understanding of what affects the Swedish microenterprises

    demand for voluntary audit. Existing research on Swedish companies in this

    area are completely lacking or insufficient, and therefore, our study provides the

    necessary knowledge contribution in one, for the Swedish business sector, important

    issues. The method selected holds a quantitative approach, to achieve our purpose a

    comprehensive survey of all limited companies in Sweden were implemented. The

    study is based on companies' financial information that were collected from Business

    Retriever with the financial year of 2013. Based on previous research that has taken

    place in foreign markets and business economics we formulated three hypotheses which

    were tested against empirical data. Our study investigated which variables that can

    explain the choice of audit in the companies which is not required to be audited. The

    results of the study show – in accordance with the first two hypotheses – that a

    company's size as well as a company's leverage has a significant positive impact on the

    micro-enterprises demand for a voluntary audit. Further micro-enterprises operating in

    the manufacturing industry to a significantly less extent chooses voluntary audit. The

    results are contradicting with the expected result and is therefore rejected.

  • 117.
    Bröms Axelsson, Tilda
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Skottheim, Josefine
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Valet mellan K2 och K3: Vad som kan förklara fastighetsbolagens val2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 118.
    Buden, Ivana
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Connett, Louise
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Consumer reactions to different forms of CSR communication2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    Companies around the world are making sizeable investments into CSR

    initiatives, but ensuring appropriate returns on these investments remains

    challenging. Therefore, it is of value to study the communication of corporate

    CSR efforts. The purpose of this study is to investigate how consumers react to

    rational versus emotional message strategies in CSR communication. Two

    categories of consumer reactions were considered: trust and purchase intention.

    Methods

    Qualitative research with four focus groups was conducted. Participants

    discussed three texts regarding a CSR project, utilising a rational, emotional and

    a hybrid rational-emotional message strategy respectively. The conversations

    focused on trust towards the communication and purchase intention.

    Results

    Trust - All of the respondents viewed the rational text over the emotional text as

    more trustworthy, but they most positively reacted to the combined strategy.

    Rational information was viewed as more reliable by many participants, with

    emotional cues adding value by better holding their attention.

    Purchase intention – Participants more positively reacted to the rational CSR

    communication strategy, compared to an emotional strategy. For approximately

    half of respondents, the hybrid strategy targeting both rational and emotional

    cues was the most successful in terms of purchase intention. Upon further

    analysis, it was identified that this division in respondents’ opinions may reflect a

    gender difference, where men portrayed the more task oriented and women the

    socially sensitive consumers.

    Conclusions

    The findings support previous research championing the use of rational strategies

    over emotional strategies in CSR communication. A number of managerial

    implications that can be used by companies in order to better communicate their

    CSR activities and increase returns on CSR-related investments are provided.

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  • 119.
    Buic, Filip
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Österman, Fredric
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Den växande dagligvaruhandeln på internet: En fallstudie om MatHem i Sverige AB2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Customers demand in the online market for fast moving consumer goods (FMCG) has been increasing at a steady rate. The largest actors on a market are recognizing an increase in demand and are aware of the need to expand their sales channels. While, the smaller companies have created the market demand actively, they must also address the issue of customer loyalty and retention in order to not lose market shares when the market situation is changed by the larger actors. The new transformed competitive situation will force the companies to focus on the consumers through strategy and most importantly to establish customer loyalty.

    Aim

    The aim is to increase the knowledge of companies who entered a market early as well as how they keep their customers loyal when the competitive situation changes.

    Methodology

    To accomplish the aim a qualitative study of the company MatHem has been done, to reach a generalized conclusion. Literature and articles have been examined and an interview has been conducted in order to achieve a final conclusion.

    Conclusion

    The investigated company keeps their customers loyal by having a high overall quality. Which means that they have high quality products, well-functioning customer service, exceed customer expectations and a wide assortment. When the competitive situation changes, the company has no special strategies to keep their customers loyal because the company did not see the other actors as competitors. The company is the most expensive actor on the market, but differentiates itself with organic products to obtain loyal customers.

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  • 120.
    Byström, Amanda
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Uppföljning av nya flexibla arbetssättet: En kvalitativ studie om användningen av aktivitetsbaserat arbetssätt i praktiken2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines actors who work according to the work concept "activity-based working" or abbreviated "ABW". This is due to a trend of “knowledge work” that has contributed to work tasks being diverse and requiring different types of work environments. ABW is a concept based on that employees choose a workplace in an environment suitable for ongoing type of work, instead of a personal allocated workplace to perform all types of work tasks. This study has been developed from previous research that shows that ABW has a clear vision of increasing efficiency in organizations, but lacks a clear strategy on how to follow up the use of the working method. The study aims to deepen the knowledge of the follow-up process of the ABW usage and to investigate why organizations implement these concepts. The analysis in this study shows the important function of ABW as a symbolic significance for achieving a cultural change amongst knowledge workers. A model is provided to suggest an explanation on how concepts such as the working method ABW are followed up within organizations.

  • 121.
    Bäckman, Emili
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Linné, AnnaCarin
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    RBAB: En studie om hur verkligt värde påverkar ett kommunalt förvaltningsbolags redovisning2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Undersöka hur redovisningen i kommunala fastighetsförvaltningsbolag i Rättvik kommer att påverkas om fastigheterna värderas till verkligt värde enligt IAS 40. Slutsatser: Vi anser att det kommunala fastighetsförvaltningsbolaget RBAB inte kommer påverkas positivt om bolagets fastigheter värderas till verkligt värde. Detta eftersom RBAB ser sin verksamhet som en ”going concern” där verksamheten vilar på grunden för en långsiktig bostadsförsörjning för allmännyttan. I RBAB är det viktigare att se till själva verksamheten av bolaget, att underhålla och förvalta fastigheterna står i fokus. Redovisningstekniskt är verkligt värde omständigt att hålla reda på. Det är onödigt att RBAB lägger ned tid och resurser på att redovisa efter världskonjunkturerna, genom årlig värdering. Uppskrivningarna hanteras via en uppskrivningsfond som hör till eget kapital på balansräkningen. Nedskrivningar ska belasta årets resultaträkning, nästa års avskrivningar bygger på det nya nedskrivna värdet. Metod: Den metod vi valde för att uppnå vårt syfte, är att göra en fallstudie, studera ett specifikt objekt, RBAB. Vi använder oss av Eisenhardts metod ”Process of Building Theory from Case Study Research” För insamling av data använder vi oss av intervjuer, som är öppen karaktär. Respondenterna är personer som ur olika vinklar är huvudpersoner inom RBAB. VD, ekonomichef samt revisor. Vi intervjuar även en mäklare i Rättvik för att få svar på frågan om det finns ett befintligt underlag för att kunna värdera förvaltningsfastigheter till verkligt värde. Teori: I vår förstudie studerar vi årsredovisningar. Vår referensram består av kommunala fastighetsförvaltningsbolag, värdering av fastigheter, diskussion om verkligt värde, IAS 40, redovisningstermer och redovisningskriterier.

  • 122.
    Bäckström, Jerker
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Söderlund, Daniel
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Kommunal marknadsföring- Competitive identity och institutionell problematik: En komparativ fallstudie om två svenska kommuner och deras marknadsföring2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In a historical point of view there are established norms in the society that declares a municipality to only secure the public welfare that includes health care, education and social care. However the globalization and urbanization has created a competition over inhabitants. This development has led municipalities to increasingly engage in marketing to attract more residents. The study is conducted in a multiple case study design with two cases (municipalities). We examined the chosen cases in there marketing behavior by focusing on two concepts, competitive identity (CI) and institutional complexity (IP). The concept of CI contains a theoretical review of components in municipal marketing and IP describe the municipalities’ complex situation with different institutional demands. By analyzing this concepts against practical cases we intend to contribute to a wider understanding of municipal marketing and its actions in Sweden. We also present our own model in connection with the concept of CI that´s gives the field a nuanced perspective.

    The study’s result identify that the cases has specific target groups much like regular companies. The target groups vary depending on the municipality’s position on the market. By creating a CI the municipalities declares a desired image, much phenomenon’s that considered not to contribute will be excluded in the municipalities marketing. This portrays in different ways which is analyzed thoroughly. At the same time the contradiction is illustrated when the respondents of the municipalities states that all inhabitants will provide to the image. The study shows that a unitary view in how the manage the institutional complexity do not exist. The cases present different methods that they find appropriate.

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  • 123.
    Böhn, Solveig
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Elbe, Jörgen
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    The Älvdalen Story: Marketing an inland destination in rural Sweden2001In: Tourism in Western Europe : a collection of case histories / [ed] Voase, Richard, Wallingford, UK: CABI Publishing, 2001, p. 149-165Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter takes the form of a narrative, because its subject matter, the development of tourism in a rural area in central Sweden, is inseparable from the entrepreneurial activity of one individual. The story is about how one man, over a period of 25 years, worked to develop tourism in A ¨ lvdalen, a small and relatively unknown area of Sweden. It begins in the 1960s and finishes when the supply-side of A ¨ lvdalen’s tourism industry was restructured at the end of the 1980s. The research undertaken to produce the chapter includes the use of written records that the man left behind after his death in the early 1990s, articles in newspapers, and interviews with people who worked closely with him, and also with other associates, one of whom is the author of this chapter.

  • 124.
    Candelmo, Amanda
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    INFLUENCER SOM MARKNADSFÖRARE: HUR TROVÄRDIGA ÄR DE?: En studie som undersöker hur influencer själva beskriver hur de kan skapa och bibehålla trovärdighet gentemot sina följare.2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The aim of the thesis is to analyze how influencer themselves describe how they do to create and maintain the credibility with their followers.

    Methodology: A qualitative study has been made with and an inductive approach. Data for the study has been collected from six semi-structured interview, literature, articles and web pages.

    Empirical foundation: The empirical data used in the thesis is the result of six interviews performed. The collected information from the interviews was used to carry out analysis and discussion with connection to the theoretical framework.

    Conclusions: The empirical data and the analysis and discussion sections have highlighted how influencers can create and maintain credibility with their followers. The analysis shows that influencers believe they can create and maintain credibility with the followers, but not control it. An interesting aspect is that influencers do not believe that paid partnerships impair their credibility, and can even to the contrary strengthen the credibility.

  • 125.
    Carlsson, Anna
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Hebert, Julia
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Digitalisering: En studie om organisationers lärande och effektivitet2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Digitalization has affected organizations and many work activities have changed as a result, there including how members of organizations share knowledge between each other. Knowledge is one of the most important resource in an organization whereof digital knowledge more easily can be accessed, utilized and spread to members of the organization. It is important to take charge of the knowledge already existing within the organization and share it between members of the organization as it can result in competitive advantages.

    The purpose of the study has been to develop an understanding of how knowledge sharing within organizations is affected by digitalization. To achieve the purpose of the study, a qualitative method was used and interviews were carried out with respondents in higher positions of a selected organization, within the construction industry. The conclusion indicates that digitalization has made knowledge more effective to share. Since knowledge is available in digital form it has contributed to better accessibility, where several members of the organization can utilize the knowledge at the same time. In addition, the knowledge can be shared more quickly and across geographical distances, which has led to that knowledge can be shared less costly and more time efficiently.

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  • 126.
    Carlsson, Hedvig
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    The Story of SSAB and the Chinese Market:  Constructing, Preserving and Persuading a Positive Corporate Image and Identity by Accounting Narratives: A critical discourse analysis of accounting narratives as constructors of positive image and identity by the case of SSAB, 1998–20182019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study has been investigating corporate annual reports as participating (and playing a role) in the social construction of corporate image and identity, by the case of reporting narratives of SSAB, 1999–2018. A chosen focus further has been a narrative of “reflected” business status and comments regarding sense making of business relations as connected to a perceived and represented “Chinese market”. The following research questions were formulated: “How are the corporate annual reports communicating, persuading and preserving a (positive) image and identity in a perspective of discourse?” further; “What are the possible (social) consequences of the reporting narratives as ideological and normative?” These research questions were specifically formulated in order to investigate how reporting narratives participate in the social construction (as persuaded and preserved) of corporate image and identity by the case of SSAB, while also “informing” of a perceived business status in increasingly richer and complex narrative content.  A further discussion of consequences were aiming at revealing reporting narratives as social constructions rather than a reflected “reality” which by ideological incentives also displays favourable “knowledge” and “truth” (the positive characteristics of the corporation) while downplaying other perspectives. In order to conduct this investigation a perspective of critical discourse were applied with a further focus of narratives as well as “Storytelling”. Findings were the way these reports indicated  representing a phenomenon of reporting narratives as “mystifying” possible perceived negative results with a refocus towards the positive corporate image and identity - thus also persuading and preserving a positive corporate image and identity (as discursively constructed). Finding were also the insight of the way “discursive resources” and discursive strategies– by the mere presence of reporting narratives as a discursive practice – expresses a need to persuade and preserve image and identity by conventions of rhetorical, aesthetical, communicative influences which represents  perceived conventions of marketing, branding, management and communication

  • 127.
    Carsting, Robin
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Einarsson, Johny
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Den lagstadgade hållbarhetsrapporten: Granskningsprocessen och dess krav ur ett revisionsperspektiv2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Title: The statutory sustainability report: The examination process and its requirements from an auditing perspective.Background & Problem: With the implementation of demands on sustainability reporting, according to Swedish law, the government intended to make the companies’ sustainability information more open and comparable. The law itself can be perceived as generic, and it leaves the interpretation to the users, which means that the examination requirements of the statutory sustainability report can be perceived as low.Purpose: The purpose of this essay is to establish an understanding for the statutory sustainability report and the examination process from an auditing perspective.Theoretical framework: The theory chapter, contains a review of our theoretical framework. The statutory sustainability report and standards are presented. Theories about the function of auditing, the examination process, standardization and institutional theory are also described.Methodology: This essay uses a qualitative method. The data collection consists of information gathered from four semi-structured interviews and constitute the empirical evidence in this essay. The empirical evidence is thematically analyzed and is evaluated against the theoretical framework.Empirical foundation: In the empirical chapter of this essay, the result from our interviews is presented, thus the respondents answers, thoughts and opinions. The result of the essay shows that the respondents for the most part have similar opinions, about the statutory sustainability report, but there are some differences.Conclusion: The essay shows there is no examination of the statutory sustainability report, but rather a control, this means that it has more of an improvement function and not an assurance function. That the comparability has had an increase, because of the legal requirements, can’t be shown in this essay. If that is going to happen, clearer guidelines need to be implemented, this also makes the examination requirements to be on a good level, even if the requirements could be perceived as insufficient.

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  • 128.
    Chapman, Sandra
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Öyen, Camilla
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Kvinnors karriärmöjligheter inom detaljhandeln: En kvalitativ studie om kvinnors upplevelser att nå ledningspositioner2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the retail sector is the gender balance of employees considered equal, but when management positions are examined, it appears that men dominate these positions. Despite legislation to support an equal labor market and the fact that a change in the gender balance has taken place over the past ten years, it still appears that an underrepresentation of women in management positions remains. It also shows that women's working conditions include gender stereotypes regarding their leadership skills and ambition level, which in the long term can obstruct their career prospects and opportunities to achieve management positions.

    The purpose of this bachelor thesis is to understand women's experiences of reaching management positions that is traditionally occupied by men and the factors that affect women's career opportunities. Five interviews with women at the CEO's position in five retail companies in Sweden have been conducted in a qualitative study. The empirical data shows that these women raise their personalities and attributes as the main reasons for reaching their leadership positions. The result shows a gap between the theory that highlights the importance of networking to make women's careers possible, and empirical evidence that these women do not consider it an important factor. Theory and empirical evidence correspond when it comes to the relationship between the lack of female role models and the underrepresentation of women in management positions. The conclusion of this paper is that the women interviewed have not encountered any obstacles on their way to management positions in retail, but that there is awareness that gender stereotypes and prejudices affect women's career opportunities in retail.

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  • 129.
    Chorr, Kumba
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    En studie av Högskolan Dalarnas studenters köpbeteenden och attityd till e-postreklam2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte:

    Studiens syfte är att klarlägga för om e-post är en effektiv marknadsföringskanal. I det sammanhanget vill jag se vilken roll konsumentens attityd har i avseende till konsumentens beslut till att köpa de produkter som marknadsförs.

    Referensram:

    Studiens referensram har jag illustrerat i en figur där jag har sammanställt Haq’s (2009) värdefaktorer informativ, relevant och irritation med trekomponentmodellens två komponenter kognition och affektion. Den tredje komponenten beteende har jag ersatt med komponenten upplevd kontroll över beteende från teorin om planerat beteende. Dessa ska tillsammans avgöra en individs attityd som slutligen resulterar i trekomponentmodellens sista element beteende.

    Metod:

    I min studie har jag tillämpat en kvantitativ metodologi i form av en enkätundersökning som har skickats ut till studenternas skolmejl. Frågeformuläret besvarades av totalt 189 studenter, men endast 181 stycken av dessa var analyseringsbara.l Svaren analyserades med hjälp av programvaran minitab och illustreras i form av tabeller och figurer.

    Resultat och slutsats:

    Resultaten indikerar att studenterna hade en negativ attityd till mottagande av e-postreklam och uppfattade dessa som bland annat påträngande samt irriterande. En negativ attityd till e-postreklam resulterade således varken i att studenterna kände ett behov av eller efter eget huvud valde att köpa de produkter som marknadsfördes. Studenterna visade sig istället undvika, filtrera bort eller även avregistrera sig från de reklam som inte väckte deras intresse. En del av respondenterna ansåg däremot att e-post var en bra marknadsföringskanal där de kunde ta del av erbjudanden på, men menade att detta endast gällde reklam som de själva prenumererat på eller ofta handlade hos.

  • 130.
    Cigoj, Polona
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Eco-innovations and firms’ financial performance: A study of a relationship between eco-innovations and financial performance of firms who make them.2020Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Much of the existing body of literature analyzes the relationship between eco-innovations and financial performance. Our study differentiates from this literature, by focusing on the scarcely investigated Nordic context, by providing a holistic view on eco-innovations and finally by analyzing also the effects eco-innovations have on marker performance. This research focuses on three types of eco-innovations (eco-product, eco-process, and eco-organizational), and additionally brings standard innovations into the perspective. To measure the impact eco-innovations in general and its categorized types have on financial performance, a sample of 50 Nordic listed firms, spread from the year 2003-2019, was employed. Financial performance was measured with profitability accounting measures (return on equity, return on assets, and operating margin), while market performance was measured with the change in firms’ market value. Our results indicate that eco-innovations were generally associated with lower profitability returns, except in the case of eco-process innovations. Moreover, our findings interestingly showed, that market performance is positively affected by standard innovations and eco-organizational innovations. The findings suggest, that even when these types of innovations have no significant effect on profitability, investors still believe these innovations will increase the long-term real value of firms. Overall this study extends the discussion of eco-innovations to their effects on firm performance, based from an investor/shareholder perspective.

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  • 131.
    Corda, Daniele
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Murtokangas, Ville
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Causes of teachers’ turnover intentions in Swedish schools: A qualitative research2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore the causes of teachers' turnover intentions in selected Swedish schools.

    Research methodology – This research took the form of a qualitative research. Semi-structured interviews were used to explore the causes of teachers' turnover intentions within the schools selected for this study. The sample was composed by 9 teachers that work in Säter. In order to provide a different yet meaningful perspective, a further interview with the Säter school department has been conducted.

    Results – Several of the results were coherent with the literature: elements such as motivations to teach, administrative support, workload, class size and collaboration were found to be related to teachers’ turnover intentions and therefore confirmed the previous studies. However, factors like salary, mentoring, autonomy, physical conditions and orderly environment were not found to have a connection with the respondents’ turnover intentions, hence constituting a result that did not confirm the literature.

    Originality – This thesis extended the previous research related to the causes of teachers’ turnover intentions by focusing on Sweden, which had not been investigated yet to that matter. The Swedish context appears particularly worth researching because of both the particularity of its decentralized educational system and the widespread turnover intentions of teachers.

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  • 132.
    Dahlman, Johanna
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Hur påverkas konsumentens uppfattning om ett varumärke vid en rebranding?: en studie om ICAs rebranding från Euro Shopper till ICA Basic2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Konsumentens uppfattning till det nya varumärket förbättras i en positiv riktning jämfört med det gamla varumärket vid en rebranding. Det bör inte finnas någon koppling mellan konsumentens uppfattning och försäljningen av varumärket trots en rebranding. Hur framgångsrik en rebranding är bör påverkas av vilka konsumenter som särpräglar den enskilda butiken. Beroende på konsumentens kön kommer mottagligheten för rebrandingen att ha en inverkan på dennes uppfattning till det nya varumärket.

    Syfte: Syftet med uppsatsen är att förklara vad som kan förväntas hända med konsumentens uppfattning om ett varumärke vid en rebranding.

    Metod: Uppsatsen hade en kvalitativ ansats och var subjektivt grundad. Datainsamlingsverktyget som författaren använde sig av var enkäter och de utformades efter de femton propositionerna som sammanställdes i den teoretiska referensramen. Enkäterna samlades in i den valda ICA Kvantum butiken i Borlänge.

    Slutsats: I resultatanalysen framkom det att konsumenten hade en betydligt starkare uppfattning till det nya varumärket än till det gamla. Det innebär att en rebranding kan förbättra konsumentens uppfattning positivt. Det framkom även att det inte finns någon koppling mellan konsumentens uppfattning och försäljningen av varumärket. Det framkom också att ålder, kön och vart butiken är placerad kan spela en stor roll för om en rebranding lyckas eller misslyckas

  • 133.
    Dahlman, Johanna
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Engberg, Anna
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Part-time employment within the Swedish retail business: – A study of part-time employment from a management perspective2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Research question: How has the presence of PT employees affected the role of managers in the Swedish food retail business?

    Research purpose: The purpose of this paper was to describe the change that accompanies part-time employment from a management perspective, and particularly, describe how the presence of part-time employment has influenced the role of the manager within the Swedish food retail business.

    Conceptual framework: The main focused in this chapter is directed towards the role of managers. The basis of the conceptual framework consist of the model developed by Mintzberg including the ten managerial roles and Quinn's eight leadership roles and how the presence of PT employments might affect these roles.

    Methodology: In this paper, the authors adopted a qualitative design and used narrative inquiry as a research strategy in order to gain a deep understanding of the context. Semi- structured interviews have been collected through a self-selection sampling and the total number of participants was ten.

    Conclusions: Based on the findings of this paper the presence of PT employees have not influenced and changed the role of managers. The changes that have influenced and caused the change of the role of the managers constitutes of the increased workload, the delegations of tasks and responsibilities, changed positions, the change of the organisational structure of the individual store, and the increased workforce.

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  • 134.
    Dalhäll, Isabelle
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Johansson, Louise
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Spelet på spelmarknaden: En undersökning om marknadsföringskostnader och dess påverkan på EBIT hos spelbolag som erhållit svensk spellicens2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The aim of the study is to investigate the impact of marketing costs on EBIT in gambling companies that have received Swedish gaming license, and the correlation between European gambling companies marketing costs against sales and EBIT in Swedish gambling companies.

    Method: The thesis is based on a quantitative method and a deductive approach. The data has been retrieved from the database Retriever Business and the gambling companies annual reports. The result is obtained through a time series analysis, cointegration test and regression.

    Conclusion: The aim of the study is to investigate the impact of marketing costs on EBIT in gambling companies that have received Swedish gaming license, and the correlation between European gambling companies marketing costs against sales and EBIT in Swedish gambling companies. The expected result was that increasing marketing costs affected sales and EBIT positively, which was confirmed by the results from the time series analysis, the cointegration test and the regression analysis.

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  • 135.
    Danielsson, Pernilla
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Johansson, Hanna
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Rex – den nya redovisningsstandarden: Ett litet steg för konsulten men ett stort steg förredovisningsprofessionen?2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Rex - the new accounting standard. Final assignment for bachelor’s degree in business administration.The purpose of the essay is to analyze the views of authorized accounting consultants on the new accounting standard Rex and if it can contribute to develop the profession towards an accounting profession.Data was collected through literature study and through a survey. Respondents to the questionnaires are authorized accounting consultants at the Srf consultants. The surveys were sent to 300 authorized accounting consultants, of which we received 45 responses. Data from the surveys has finally been processed by z-tests and hypothesis tests. We found through z-tests and hypothesis tests, that a significant part of the respondents believes that Rex develops the profession towards an accounting profession. Our results indicate that Rex contributes to the development of authorized accounting consultants into an accounting profession.Our essay contributes with knowledge of whether authorized accounting consultants can be considered a profession. Brundin Franksson and Eisersiö (2011) concluded that Reko was one step towards developing the occupational role to become a profession. The starting point was based on the previous accounting standard Reko. This study has been based on the accounting standard Rex. We came to the same conclusion as Brundin Franksson and Eisersiö. However, apart from the fact that we have examined different standards, the differences have been that we have had different respondents. The essay has contributed with knowledge that the profession may develop as a result of the new context. The essay has also contributed to filling knowledge closures about Rex, as we have previously found no research that has already dealt with the new standard. The contribution can be guaranteed even if the results are not representative of the entire population.

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  • 136.
    Dannberg, Johanna
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Stenström, Hanna
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Hållbarhetsredovisning under utveckling2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainability reporting has been developed for a long time and GRI has been an important part of this development since GRI is the most widely used framework of companies worldwide in terms of sustainability reporting. GRI's guidelines have been updated over the years and in 2013 came the updated version G4. There, a materiality analysis was introduced, which meant that the companies would obtain their essential aspects both from the company's own opinions but also from the stakeholders. In 2016, the latest update of GRI's guidelines came out, which was named GRI Standard, with the goal of becoming the global standard for sustainability reporting. With this update, materiality now gained a greater focus. The fact that companies use the same guidelines may mean that they will adapt the accounts according to what is important for their business and based on expectations and requirements from their stakeholders, this will then promote differences in the accounts. The fact that companies follow detailed guidelines can also mean the opposite, that they report similar topics in their accounts. Sustainability reports, together with GRI, are under development and there are still significant uncertainties about what sustainability reports should contain when there is no systematics which can explain the variation in the content. The development gives greater scope for stakeholders to decide together with the companies' departments for accounting and information and thus participate in the development. Both GRI and accounting practice stand for the dilemma of being essential for stakeholders and at the same time adapting to a standard. This means a dilemma for the companies that they can handle in different ways.

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the development of two industries' sustainability reports, while at the same time increasing the importance of GRI. This is to understand the direction of sustainability reporting, if it becomes more standardized or more company-specific. The study consists of a mixed method in the form of a content analysis where two sectors' sustainability reports have been studied for the years 2015, 2016 and 2017.

    The study's results show that companies are becoming more standardized in the industry, but at the same time it shows that the companies include the stakeholders' opinions in order to produce what is essential, which contributes to differences in the sustainability reports. This study shows that GRI must be developed to become a standard because it is not possible to include stakeholder dialogues and at the same time report comparable and unambiguous information without stricter guidelines from GRI.

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  • 137.
    Daunfeldt, Sven-Olov
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Elert, Niklas
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Lang, Åsa
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Does Gibrat's Law Hold for Retailing?: Evidence from Sweden2012In: Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, ISSN 0969-6989, E-ISSN 1873-1384, Vol. 19, no 5, p. 464-469Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gibrat’s Law predicts that firm growth is a purely random effect and therefore should be independent of firm size. The purpose of this paper is to test Gibrat’s law within the retail industry, using a novel data-set comprising all surviving Swedish limited liability companies active at some point between 1998 and 2004. Very few studies have previously investigated whether Gibrat’s Law seems to hold for retailing, and they are based on highly aggregated data. Our results indicate that Gibrat´s Law can be rejected for a large majority of five-digit retail industries in Sweden, since small retail firms tend to grow faster than large ones.

  • 138.
    Daunfeldt, Sven-Olov
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Grek, Åsa
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    Hartwig, Fredrik
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Betydelsen av internt genererat kapital för en långsiktigt hållbar företagstillväxt2017In: Perspektiv på kapitalförsörjning – en antologi om företagens finansiering och statens roll / [ed] Jörgen Lithander, Stockholm: Tillväxtanalys , 2017, 1, p. 31-49Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Ett företags expansion kan finansieras med internt genererat kapital eller med hjälp av extern finansiering. Vi undersöker här hur omsättningstillväxten och överlevnadssannolikheten påverkas av företagets internt uppbyggda kapital. Undersökningen baseras på data över alla Sveriges aktiebolag under perioden 1997–2010.

    Våra resultat indikerar att den initiala tillgången på internt uppbyggt kapital generellt sett inte är förknippad med en högre omsättningstillväxt eller ökade möjligheter att överleva på marknaden. Vi finner däremot att de företag som bygger upp interna medel innan de växer är mer sannolika att uppnå en långsiktigt hållbar tillväxt än de företag som växer innan de byggt upp ett internt kapital.

    Resultaten indikerar också att företag som har varit med om uppköp eller sammanslagningar har både högre tillväxt och bättre chanser att överleva på marknaden.

    Vi kan samtidigt konstatera att de skattade sambanden ofta är svaga trots det omfattande datamaterialet. Det tyder på att företagstillväxt i huvudsak är slumpmässig eller kan förklaras av variabler som är svåra att mäta och inkludera i kvantitativ analys. Detta bekräftas också av tidigare studier.

    Våra resultat implicerar att framtida studier bör fokusera mer på hur företagen växer än på vad som kan förklara hur mycket de växer vid en viss tidpunkt.

  • 139.
    Daunfeldt, Sven-Olov
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Grek, Åsa
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    Hartwig, Fredrik
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Hur kapitalstrukturen påverkar den långsiktigt hållbara företagstillväxten2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det antas ofta att det finns ett ”kapitalförsörjningsgap” i ekonomin på grund av asymmetrisk information, vilket leder till att efterfrågan på externt kapital är större än utbudet. De politiska beslutsfattarna vill därför ofta öka tillgången på externt riskkapital genom olika selektiva statliga stödinsatser för att få fler växande företag.

    Klassiska teorier om företagstillväxt implicerar dock att det snarare är uppbyggnaden av företagets interna resurser som är av betydelse för att förklara företagens tillväxt och möjligheter att överleva på marknaden. Många företagare vill dessutom behålla kontrollen över sitt företag och kan därmed välja att inte växa med externt kapital, trots att de har tillväxtambitioner. Om detta stämmer är politiska beslut som ökar tillgången till internt kapital av större betydelse för företagens utveckling än politiska beslut som avser att öka tillgången på externt kapital.

    I denna rapport vill vi studera hur betydelsefullt det internt uppbyggda kapitalet har varit för tillväxt och överlevnad hos aktiebolag i Sverige under perioden 1997–2010. Våra resultat indikerar att:

    • Tillgången till internt kapital kan inte förklara den observerade företagstillväxten bland aktiebolag i Sverige under perioden 1997–2010.

    • Det interna kapitalet är inte relaterat till överlevnadssannolikheten för aktiebolag i Sverige under perioden 1997–2010.

    • Företag som växer efter att de har byggt upp internt kapital har större möjligheter att i framtiden kombinera hög tillväxt med hög lönsamhet jämfört med de företag som växer innan de har byggt upp internt kapital.

    Resultaten är delvis motstridiga. De företag som bygger upp ett internt kapital och sedan väljer att expandera har en högre sannolikhet att nå en långsiktigt hållbar position för tillväxt än de företag som växer innan de har byggt upp internt kapital. Detta talar för att uppbyggnaden av internt kapital är av betydelse. Våra regressionsresultat indikerar dock att det inte finns något starkt positivt samband mellan internt uppbyggt kapital och företagens framtida omsättningstillväxt eller möjligheter att överlevna på marknaden.

    Det finns ett antal möjliga förklaringar till våra resultat. Den första förklaringen är helt enkelt att det interna kapitalet inte är av betydelse för företagens framtida tillväxt och överlevnad. Den troliga förklaringen till detta är att vid jämvikt kommer företagarna att värdesätta en expansion med internt eller externt kapital på liknande sätt. Detta implicerar att det snarare är den totala mängden riskkapital som påverkar företagens tillväxt och överlevnad, och inte huruvida kapitalet genereras internt eller externt.

    En annan tolkning är att företagarna fortfarande föredrar att växa med internt uppbyggt kapital eftersom resultaten visar effekten på företagstillväxten och överlevnadssannolikheten, givet den initiala uppbyggnaden av internt kapital i företagen. Den initiala nivån av internt kapital har således ingen effekt på företagsutvecklingen, men en ökning av det interna kapitalet i förhållande till tillgången på externt kapital kan fortfarande leda till att fler företag vill expandera sin verksamhet.

    Många företagare i Sverige väljer också att inte växa trots att de har relativt god lönsamhetsutveckling. Detta kan betyda att vi inte observerar några samband mellan det internt uppbyggda kapitalet och företagens utveckling eftersom många företagare inte vill växa under de rådande institutionella förutsättningarna. Det finns med andra ord utelämnande variabler, till exempel olika tillväxtbarriärer (regelkrångel, strikt anställningsskydd, matchningsproblem, etc.), som kan förklara varför det interna kapitalet inte har någon observerad betydelse för tillväxten och företagens överlevnad i vår studie.

    Slutligen kan en möjlig förklaring vara att företagens tillväxt och överlevnad i mycket hög utsträckning är slumpmässig. Detta innebär att det blir svårt att förklara vad det är som påverkar företagens utveckling, vilket också implicerar att selektiva stödåtgärder för att få fler växande företag är dömda att misslyckas.

    Sammanfattningsvis kan vi konstatera att våra resultat inte ger något stöd för hypotesen att företag med tillgång till internt kapital växer snabbare och har en högre överlevnadssannolikhet än de företag som har tillgång till mindre internt uppbyggt kapital. Resultaten bygger på de rådande institutionella förutsättningarna i Sverige under perioden 1997–2010 och är avgränsade till att studera effekten av det initialt uppbyggda kapitalet i bolagen. Vi undersöker inte företagarnas preferenser, det vill säga om de föredrar mer internt kapital framför externt kapital när de ska expandera verksamheten, eller om en ökning av det internt uppbyggda kapitalet har en större tillväxteffekt än mer externt kapital.

  • 140.
    Daunfeldt, Sven-Olov
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics. Department of Trade, Industry and Business, HUI Research.
    Hartwig, Fredrik
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management. Department of Trade, Industry and Business, HUI Research.
    What determines the use of capital budgeting methods?: Evidence from Swedish listed companies2014In: Journal of Finance and Economics, ISSN 2328-7284, Vol. 2, no 4, p. 101-112Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: This paper aims to extend and contribute to prior research on the association between company characteristics and choice of capital budgeting methods (CBMs). Design/methodology/approach: A multivariate regression analysis on questionnaire data from 2005 and 2008 is used to study which factors determine the choice of CBMs in Swedish listed companies. Findings: Our results supported hypotheses that Swedish listed companies have become more sophisticated over the years (or at least less unsophisticated) which indicates a closing of the theory-practice gap; that companies with greater leverage used payback more often; and that companies with stricter debt targets and less management ownership employed accounting rate of return more frequent. Moreover, larger companies used CBMs more often. Originality/value: The paper contributes to prior research within this field by being the first Swedish study to examine the association between use of CBMs and as many as twelve independent variables, including changes over time, by using multivariate regression analysis. The results are compared to a US and a continental European study.

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  • 141.
    Daunfeldt, Sven-Olov
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Lang, Åsa
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Macuchova, Zuzana
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Firm growth in the Swedish retail and wholesale industries2013In: Service Industries Journal, ISSN 0264-2069, E-ISSN 1743-9507, Vol. 33, no 12, p. 1193-1205Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To identify the determinants of firm growth in the Swedish retail and wholesale industries during 2000–2004, we analyse a sample of 400 limited liability companies using quantile regression techniques. Firm growth was mainly found to depend upon time-invariant firm-specific effects, supporting Penrose's [1959. The theory of the growth of the firm (4th ed.). New York: Oxford University Press] suggestion that internal resources such as firm culture, brand loyalty, entrepreneurial skills, and so on are important determinants of firm growth.

  • 142.
    De Vos, Nele
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Generations and intention to leave current job: Belgian nurses in the workplace2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This master thesis aims to identify work-related factors making Belgian nurses consider leaving their job voluntary and to compare the work-related factors across different generations. The purpose of this master thesis has a descriptive nature of research. The research approach chosen is a deductive approach and the research design chosen is a quantitative research design. Cluster sampling in combination with simple random sampling was used as sampling technique. 128 nurses were surveyed from April to May 2016. Nurses who reported to leave the organization due to retirement reasons, temporary employment contract or maternity leave were excluded from the study as this study investigates the voluntary turnover intention. A total of 68 nurses were included in the study which indicates an overall response rate of 53 %.

    Numerous of the findings in this master thesis are consistent with previous studies on turnover intention of different generations in other western-countries than Belgium. The work-related factor workload was most often reported by Belgian nurses with no intention to leave their job. Belgian nurses with an intention to leave their job indicated most often the work-related factor (non-)financial benefits. The generation-specific findings indicated both similarities and differences between the work-related factors selected. It was observed that Baby Boomers with an intention to leave their job selected most often variables related to the work-related factors (non-)financial benefits, supportive organization and workload. The variable lack of recognition appeared among Baby Boomers with an intention and no intention to leave their job. Surprisingly was the often selected variables lack of direct and/clear feedback on performances and unsupportive supervisor among Baby Boomers with professional turnover intention.

    Further, it was observed that Generation Xers with an intention to leave their job selected most often variables related to the work-related factors supportive organization, communication, (non-)financial benefits, work content and workload. The variables inadequate opportunity for advancement/professional growth and imbalance work-life appeared among Generation Xers with an intention and no intention to leave their job. Generation Yers with an intention to leave their job selected most frequently variables related to the work-related factors (non-)financial benefits, workload and commitment. The variables inadequate salary and opportunities elsewhere appeared among nurses with an intention and no intention to leave their job. Surprisingly was the often selected variable inadequate salary among Generation Yers with professional turnover intention.

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  • 143.
    Dehlbom, Frida
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Sundström, Emelie
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Ekonomistyrningens formella styrmedel: Användandet av formella styrmedel i små och medelstora företag2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose The purpose of this study is to create a deeper understanding of management accounting in small and medium-sized enterprises by examining how and why they use the formal control systems of management accounting.

    Method The study has its base in theory and uses a qualitive method where data is collected through semi-structured interviews. A strategic selection was used when choosing the informants for the study. All steps are explained and presented to clarify how the study was conducted.

    Conclusion The study shows that formal control systems are used by SME, but how they are applied can variegate. The kind of business has a big impact on how the formal control systems are being used. Control and follow-up are presented as the main reasons for management accounting.

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  • 144.
    Di Padova, Anna
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Johansson, Pontus
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    En studie om varumärkens betydelse i den svenska träindustrin: Fallet AB Karl Hedin2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 145.
    Dimkpa, Princewill
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Dimkpa, Collins
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Obstacles and Opportunities Foreign Graduates Meet In Dalarna Labour Market, Sweden2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Foreign graduates have been part of the success stories of many developed countries. This is as a result of their immeasurable deposit of ideas, knowledge, and innovation in the host country. Though the process of these foreign graduates penetrating and integrating into the labour market of the host country could be slow and rough as they encounter some obstacles on the way; they still strive to break through and be part of the country’s workforce because they foresee some opportunities therein. This research study is about the obstacles and opportunities foreign graduates meet in Dalarna labour market. The study investigated and identified the obstacles and opportunities foreign graduates meet in Dalarna labour market. For a thorough execution of this research, we collected primary data by handing questionnaires to 65 foreign graduates searching for jobs in Dalarna region and interviewed eight people, among which seven were foreign graduates and one of them was a staff at Arbestförmedlingen (Employment Agency) to give us a general view of the Dalarna labour market. We read previous research works and related articles to understand the topic in order to get an overview of the terminologies and concept to apply. This study concluded that language is a major obstacle foreign graduates meet in the Dalarna labour market. Other possible obstacles include culture, poor integration policies, lack of a placement bureau, lack of trust, limited opportunities, favoritism, lack of jobs, lack of references and experience. On the other hand factors like job availability, outgoing labour force and unskilled labour are possible opportunities foreign graduates meet in the Dalarna labour market. Furthermore flexible work time, good working atmosphere, experience, social security/welfare, good standard of living, family friendly region, higher wages, job security and cheap cost of living are also possible benefits that foreign graduates get in Dalarna.

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  • 146.
    Dong, Anqi
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Jiang, Xuewei
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Investigating the factors that affect consumer loyalty among online shoppers in China: A survey of T-mall2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to find out which aspects of consumer loyalty factors derived

    from the existing literature are regarded as important by loyal Chinese online consumers, by

    using T-mall’s consumers as an example. In doing so, this thesis intends to generate a better

    understanding of consumer loyalty with regard to online shopping in the Chinese market.

    This research is a qualitative study that was conducted using a survey. The data that formed

    the basis of our analysis were gathered from responses to a questionnaire which was designed

    according to the theoretical framework. The questionnaires were posted on the Chinese

    website BaiduPostbar.

    Based on the results of our analysis, the most important aspects according to the loyal

    Chinese online consumers are “low prices”, “accuracy of the product’s description”,

    “consumer-written reviews”, “proper delivery” and the possibility to use a “third-party

    payment system”. The possibility to chat online with representatives from the retailer is

    regarded as the least important aspect affecting consumer loyalty of Chinese online shoppers.

  • 147.
    Dudokh, Dana
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    What factors affect the destination choice of Jordanian tourists? A panel data analysis2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates what factors affect the destination choice for Jordanian to 8 countries (Oman, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Tunisia, Yemen, Egypt, Lebanon and Bahrain) using panel data analysis. Number of outbound tourists is represented as dependent variable, which is regressed over five explanatory variables using fixed effect model. The finding of this paper is that tourists from Jordan have weak demand for outbound tourism; Jordanian decision of traveling abroad is determined by the cost of traveling to different places and choosing the cheapest alternative.

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  • 148.
    Duncan, Tara
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Gudmundsson Hillman, Perols Anna
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Occupational science.
    Elbe, Jörgen
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Sustainable Tourism Employment, the Concept of Decent Work, and Sweden2020In: Tourism Employment in Nordic Countries: Trends, Practices, and Opportunities / [ed] Walmsley, A., Åberg, K., Blinnikka, P., Jóhannesson, G.T., Palgrave Macmillan, 2020, p. 327-348Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 149.
    Dupáková, Barbora
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    The Impact of User Generated Content on Consumer Decision Making: Differences for decision making styles, age, and gender2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The aim of this thesis is to identify the influence of user generated content (UGC) on consumer decision making depending on age, gender and the decision making style of the consumer.

    Methods: This thesis is based on primary data using quantitative research design. In order to collect data an Internet-mediated questionnaire based survey was conducted with the descripto-explanatory nature of research.

    Results: The sample of 250 consumers offered an insight how UGC affects consumer decision making. UGC was found as more influential source for consumers than official corporate information. Moreover, the findings show that UGC influences the majority of consumers and their decision making. Consumers can find and be interested in new goods and services in UGC; search for negative and/or positive information in UGC based on which consumers can radically decide whether to purchase or not to purchase. Negative UGC influences consumers six times more often not to purchase goods and services in contrast to positive UGC which influences consumers to purchase goods and services two times more often. UGC was found to affect consumers after their purchase. They tend to return to UGC to search for more information. Consumer decision making also varies due to consumers´ age, gender and only one consumer decision making style which was possible to test. Younger consumers trust two times more UGC than older consumers. Older consumers prefer not to purchase goods and services almost tree time less often than younger consumers. Differences were found also in gender. Male consumers incline not to purchase four times more than female consumers after finding negative UGC. According to the findings perfectionists as a consumer decision making style identified in the sample search for UGC information more often than consumers who do not have characteristics of perfectionists.

    Conclusion: This thesis proved that UGC has an influence on consumer decision making and also the existence of differences based on gender, age and partly on one consumer decision making style. Thereby, the results of this thesis confirm findings of prior studies and underline the importance of awareness of UGC in the corporate world as well as the academic one. The relationship between consumer decision making should be also more researched from the consumer decision making perspective.

  • 150.
    Duvefelt, Hampus
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Rosén, Martin
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    I Stormens Öga: En kvalitativ studie inspirerad av grundad teori, om väntade förändringar inom elitidrottsföreningar2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Adapt or die.

    With the world around them constantly evolving, organizations are facing more pressure than ever before to develop the way they look at the process of change. This has led to the phenomena "organizational change" becoming popular amongst organizational researchers. Within this research, the perspective of the employee affected by the change is often referred to as important. One type of change that has remained relatively untouched by this research is expected change, meaning change where the employee is aware that change is coming but without knowledge of when or how these changes will occur.

    Within the realm of sports a type of organization can be found, the elite sporting association, that is forced to deal with expected change from time to time. This occurs when the sporting associations are relocated within the standardized divisional system found in Sweden, resulting in significant changes to the associations economic conditions. To manage this, these organizations are in a constant state of readiness; ready to, at a moments notice, conduct sweeping changes to its structure solely in response to the associations success within the division.

    The purpose of this essay is to create an understanding of how employees react to situations of divisional relocation and expected change. To achieve this purpose, the essay used the lack of previous research as a starting point and sought to, by use of the qualitative method Grounded Theory, produce a set of relevant questions on the matter, supported by the data. These questions were produced through four semi-structured interviews on two different elite sporting associations.

    The results indicated a widespread acceptance of expected change among the elite sporting associations employees. Findings of the study were grounded in the data extracted from participants of the study and was presented in a results model containing a core category and four sub-categories.

    Through its choice of method this essay provides a fresh take on a situation that could affect many organizations, both within the realm of sports and outside it.

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