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  • 101.
    Heier, Johan
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy and Environmental Technology. KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Kraft- och värmeteknologi.
    Bales, Chris
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy and Environmental Technology.
    Martin, Viktoria
    Thermal energy storage in Swedish single family houses: a case study2012In: InnoStock The 12th International Conference on Energy Storage: Book of Abstract, 2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In a Nordic climate, space heating (SH) and domestic hot water (DHW) used in buildings constitute a considerable part of the total energy use in the country. For 2010, energy used for SH and DHW amounted to almost 90 TWh in Sweden which corresponds to 60 % of the energy used in the residential and service sector, or almost 24 % of the total final energy use for the country.

    Storing heat and cold with the use of thermal energy storage (TES) can be one way of increasing the energy efficiency of a building by opening up possibilities for alternative sources of heat or cold through a reduced mismatch between supply and demand. Thermal energy storage without the use of specific control systems are said to be passive and different applications using passive TES have been shown to increase energy efficiency and/or reduce power peaks of systems supplying the heating and cooling needs of buildings, as well as having an effect on the indoor climate. Results are however not consistent between studies and focus tend to be on the reduction of cooling energy or cooling power peaks. In this paper, passive TES introduced through an increased thermal mass in the building envelope to two single family houses with different insulation standard is investigated with building energy simulations. A Nordic climate is used and the focus of this study is both on the reduction of space heating demand and space heating power, as well as on reduction of excess temperatures in residential single family houses without active cooling systems. Care is taken to keep the building envelope characteristics other than the thermal mass equal for all cases so that any observations made can be derived to the change in thermal mass.

    Results show that increasing the sensible thermal mass in a single family house can reduce the heating demand only slightly (1-4 %) and reduce excess temperatures (temperatures above 24 degrees C) by up to 20 %. Adding a layer of PCM (phase change materials) to the light building construction can give similar reduction in heating demand and excess temperatures, however the phase change temperature is important for the results.

  • 102.
    Heier, Johan
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy and Environmental Technology. KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Kraft- och värmeteknologi.
    Bales, Chris
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy and Environmental Technology.
    Sotnikov, Artem
    Ponomarova, Ganna
    Evaluation of a high temperature solar thermal seasonal borehole storage2011In: ISES Solar World Congress, Kassel, 2011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A solar thermal system with seasonal borehole storage for heating of a residential area in Anneberg, Sweden, approximately 10 km north of Stockholm, has been in operation since late 2002. Originally, the project was part of the EU THERMIE project “Large-scale Solar Heating Systems for Housing Developments” (REB/0061/97) and was the first solar heating plant in Europe with borehole storage in rock not utilizing a heat pump. Earlier evaluations of the system show lower performance than the preliminary simulation study, with residents complaining of a high use of electricity for domestic hot water (DHW) preparation and auxiliary heating. One explanation mentioned in the earlier evaluations is that the borehole storage had not yet reached “steady state” temperatures at the time of evaluation. Many years have passed since then and this paper presents results from a new evaluation. The main aim of this work is to evaluate the current performance of the system based on several key figures, as well as on system function based on available measurement data. The analysis show that though the borehole storage now has reached a quasi-steady state and operates as intended, the auxiliary electricity consumption is much higher than the original design values largely due to high losses in the distribution network, higher heat loads as well as lower solar gains.

  • 103.
    Heier, Johan
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy and Environmental Technology.
    Persson, Tomas
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy and Environmental Technology.
    Ekonomisk utvärdering av olika uppvärmningsalternativ2010In: Klimatsmart villavärme? Solvärme, nya byggregler och möjligheten att förändra / [ed] Henning, Annette, Falun: Författarna och SERC , 2010, p. 93-106Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    En ekonomisk utvärdering har genomförts baserad på första årets energi-, kapital- och under-hållskostnader. Kapitalkostnader delas upp på komponentens förväntade livslängd med annui-tetsmetoden. Framtida underhållskostnader diskonteras till ett nuvärde och delas upp med annuitetsmetoden. Dagens energipriser och en kalkylränta på 4,5 % används som utgångspunkt, men varieras för olika scenarier. Fjärrvärme tycks ge bland de lägsta kostnaderna av de studerade alternativen. I alla fall i de kommuner som ligger under medelpriset för svensk fjärrvärme. Vedeldning har inte studerats här, men ger säkerligen lägst totalkostnader om man accepterar den tid som krävs för att hantera ved och elda. Det studerade passivhuset hör också till de alternativ som har bland de lägsta kostnaderna då investering och energianvändning vägs samman. Men räntenivån har en stor inverkan på systemens totalkostnad. Låg ränta har en utjämnande effekt på totalkostnaden. Vid högre ränta ökar kostnaden mest för system med lång livslängd (avskrivningstid), vilket gör passivhusen dyrare. Pelleteldning i nybyggda hus kommer nog att utgöra en mindre del av installationerna, då det krävs FTX och investeringskostnaden blir ganska hög, men om lösningar med frånluftvärmepump och luftburen pelletkamin mot förmodan skulle komma att uppfylla kraven för ett icke elvärmt hus kan det bli ett uppsving av sådana lösningar.

  • 104.
    Henning, Annette
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy and Environmental Technology.
    Användarnas utvärdering2007In: Energibilaga till Ljusnan, Ljusdalsposten, Hudiksvallstidningen, Söderhamns-KurirenArticle in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det vanliga är att värmesystems tekniska förmåga utvärderas i en verkstad eller ett laboratorium. I ett just avslutat forskningsprojekt har några forskare på Centrum för solenergiforskning (SERC), på uppdrag av Energimyndigheten, istället låtit ett antal användare berätta sin egen historia om hur det gick till när de bestämde sig för ett nytt värmesystem och hur de upplevde tiden runt och närmast efter installationen. Se www.serc.se/publikationer/skriftserien Flexibla värmesystem.

  • 105.
    Henning, Annette
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy and Environmental Technology.
    Creating Prestige and Global Networks through Conference Rituals2008In: Business Bodies: Body and Movement in the Global Economy, Helsingfors, 2008Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    An international conference is a secular ritual which serves to create, recreate and shape global-wide translocal cultural sharings. Social anthropological theories and methods are used to show that, besides being an information flow junction, the international conference is a network crossroad and a way of socialising new members into aninternational research community. It is also capable of creating prestige and honour for the individual researcher,for the arranging research team, university and city. Rituals do not merely reflect the social relations or cosmology of a society, but are events that in themselves do important things through ritual forms and symbolic statements.

  • 106.
    Henning, Annette
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy and Environmental Technology.
    Decisions with Impact on Energy Reduction Opportunities: Swedish manufacturers and buyers of new single-family houses2009In: the Americal Anthropological Association 108th Annual Meeting, Philadelphia, USA, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article discusses some of the complexities of human decision-making. It aims, in particular, at relating the nature of decision-making to the illusory dichotomies of change and stability, individual actions and cultural sharing. Serving as an illustration to the discussion of the article is ongoing fieldwork in contexts of buying, selling and constructing pre-fabricated detached houses in the central Sweden, and the very specific question of how decisions to install one kind of heating-system rather than another come about. A common reductionism is to narrow down the understanding of decisions about heating systems and energy consumption to conscious choices made by individual householders. I have asked myself whether, on the contrary, anyone actually makes such decisions at all. Perhaps some of these decisions are merely outcomes of interaction between different individuals with their respective responsibilities and focuses of interest.

  • 107.
    Henning, Annette
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy and Environmental Technology.
    "Det finns ingen sol i Sverige": Nätverk kring solenergin2001In: Flera fält i ett. Socialantropologer om translokala fältstudier, Carlssons Bokförlag , 2001, p. 134-162Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta är en bok om dagens värld, men framförallt är det en bok om hur antropologer studerar dagens värld - med andra ord, i rätt vid mening en bok om metod, om antaganden, tillvägagångssätt och erfarenheter i fältarbeten.

  • 108.
    Henning, Annette
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy and Environmental Technology.
    Energy efficient woodfuel stoves - Where to find information1988Report (Other academic)
  • 109.
    Henning, Annette
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy and Environmental Technology.
    Heating Swedish Houses: A discussion about decisions, change and stability2008In: Anthropological Notebooks, ISSN 1408_032X, Vol. 14, no 3, p. 53-66Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 110.
    Henning, Annette
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy and Environmental Technology.
    Heating Swedish Houses: A discussion about the nature of change, household decision-making, and the prospect of reaching a national target2008In: Anthropological Notebooks, Ljubljana, 2008, Vol. 14, p. 53-66Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    What is the prospect of reaching the Swedish national target of reducing energy for heating by 20 percent to the year 2020? This paper discusses the nature of, and link between, individual decision-making and structural change. Examples are taken from a field study focused on the buying and selling of heating systems and single-family houses.

  • 111.
    Henning, Annette
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy and Environmental Technology.
    Hem och härd: En litteraturstudie om Sverige och Skandinavien. Del 1: Hemmet2001Report (Other academic)
  • 112.
    Henning, Annette
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy and Environmental Technology.
    Husköpares val av värmesystem: Hinder och möjligheter2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med det tvärvetenskapliga projekt som denna forskning har ingått i, har varit att studera hinder och möjligheter för boende i småhus att börja utnyttja energi för uppvärmning på ett sätt som sparar resurser och minskar påverkan på klimatet. Projektet har fokuserat på två beslutssituationer i småhusägares liv. Den situation som presenteras här rör val av värmesystem i samband med köp av prefabricerade småhus. Småhusägares långsiktiga möjligheter att skaffa sig resurssnål och energieffektiv uppvärmning är intimt förknippad med både värmesystemets och byggnadens utformning, men även med andra aktörers uppfattningar om vad som är möjligt. Ett välplacerat hus med hög isolerstandard och utrymme för ackumulatortank ger till exempel stora möjligheter att dessutom skära ner på den inköpta energin med hjälp av solvärme. Ett rimligt stort solvärmesystem kan då uppnå femtio procent solvärmeandel på årsbasis utan att värmen lagras från sommar till vinter. De monteringsfärdiga husens fysiska form är dock noggrant planerad och förberedd långt innan husen byggs. Även små ändringar i hustillverkarnas ordersystem eller tillverkningsprocess kan därför få stora konsekvenser för företagen i termer av tid och pengar. Köpare och säljare bygger till stor del sina värmebeslut på antaganden och gissningar om varandra. Blivande husägare har mängder av beslut att fatta inför och under byggperioden. De tenderar därför att acceptera säljarens förslag på värmesystem. Dessa husförsäljare är anställda som egna konsulter och därmed beroende av att föreslå standardlösningar som har fungerat väl tidigare. Företagsledningarna, å sin sida, försöker uppskatta kommande trender i presumtiva husköpares smak och önskemål. Cirkeln sluts och alternativ till el och värmepump får svårt att ta sig in. De strängare energikraven i den senaste BBR-revideringen (Boverket 2008, 2009) tycks inte förändra denna situation nämnvärt. Både energitekniska beräkningar och intervjuer med småhustillverkare i Dalarna tyder på att de nya byggreglerna framförallt leder till en förbättring av värmepumpars effektivitet. Förbättrad isoleringsstandard och övergång från el till andra energibärare och energislag påverkas således marginellt av de nya direktiven. Studien ger exempel på hur kommunikation ofta fungerar sämre mellan individer från olika kulturella gemenskaper (såsom yrkesgemenskaper) än inom varje sådan gemenskap, och att det kan också vara svårt att nå fram till en lösning som alla är nöjda med när flera perspektiv möts. Vi visar hur det samtidigt ofta är just sådana möten, diskussioner och förhandlingar som pressar fram, eller inspirerar till, mindre eller större modifieringar av människors kunskap och tankesätt, företagens arbetssätt eller bostädernas utformning.

  • 113.
    Henning, Annette
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy and Environmental Technology.
    Klimatsmart villavärme?: Solvärme, nya byggregler och möjligheten att förändra2010Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Är vi på väg mot klimatsmartare, resurssnålare och flexiblare uppvärmning av nybyggda småhus? Denna fråga ställer sig fem forskare vid Centrum för solenergiforskning SERC. En socialantropolog, en statsvetare och tre energiteknikforskare beskriver här tillsammans dagsläget, samt pekar på möjligheter och svårigheter med att åstadkomma en förändring i denna riktning. Den senaste revideringen av Boverkets byggregler uppmärksammas särskilt, liksom möjligheten att utnyttja solfångare och ackumulatortank för att reducera mängden inköpt primärenergi samtidigt som man bevarar de boendes valfrihet.

  • 114.
    Henning, Annette
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy and Environmental Technology.
    Kvinnors möjlighet att välja värmesystem begränsas2007In: Husbyggaren, ISSN 0018-7968, no 5, p. 62-64Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Många nya småhus byggs idag utan pannrum. Det begränsar framförallt kvinnors trygghet och handlingsutrymme. Dessutom hindras hushållen från att minska sin förbrukning av energiresurser. Men vems är felet?

  • 115.
    Henning, Annette
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy and Environmental Technology.
    Måste vi byta livsstil?2007In: Byggnadskultur, ISSN 0348-6885, Vol. 07, no 1Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Ett tungt ansvar för klimatförändringarna läggs ofta på de boende. Människor borde "byta livsstil", sägs det. Men förändring sker sällan så abrupt, menar Annette Henning. Istället borde yrkesgrupper som sysslar med bostäder, värmesystem eller inomhusklimat medvetet stödja de vanor som kan leda oss i en energisnål riktning.

  • 116.
    Henning, Annette
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy and Environmental Technology.
    Popularisering och spridning av forskningsresultat2000Report (Other academic)
  • 117.
    Henning, Annette
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy and Environmental Technology.
    Solar Collectors for Historic Homes: Linking consumption to perceptions of space2013In: Making Sense of Consumption: Selections from the 2nd Nordic Conference on Consumer Research 2012 / [ed] Hansson, L., Holmberg, U., Brembeck, H., Göteborg: Centre for Consumer Science , 2013, p. 349-366Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reduction of household energy consumption is one of the top issues in contemporary discussions on sustainable consumption. This chapter concerns one way through which consumption of purchased energy for house heating can be reduced; by having a solar thermal system added to one's house. However, the fact that one of the components - the solar collector - usually is situated on the roof or the facade of a building, is a recurrent impediment to such installations. In certain contexts, these attributes may melt into the building, while in others, they may be perceived as problematic. The latter may particularly be the case when the appearance of the building is of major imiportance, as with houses deemed worthy of preservation for coming generations. This chapter draws upon a study carried out in Visby Town, a walled Hanseatic town and a World Heritage site on the island of Gotland, Sweden.

  • 118.
    Henning, Annette
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy and Environmental Technology.
    Solar collectors in a roof landscape: Balancing change and preservation in a world heritage site2012In: Energy Efficiency in Historic Buildings: Postprints from the conference: Visby, February 9 - 11, 2011 / [ed] Broström, Tor (Högskolan på Gotland, Institutionen för kultur, energi och miljö), Nilsen, Lisa, Visby, 2012, p. 151-163Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Social anthropological theories and methods have been used to study varying views on the appropriateness of placing solar collectors on istoric buildings. A basic purpose is to contribute to increased knowledge on how the two national interests, preservation of historic buildings and promotion of energy efficiency, could both be met. The research involved a case study with observations and qualitative interviews in Visby, Sweden. Varying ways of balancing change and preservation depend on professional training, on the history and construction of each specific house, and on perceptions of aesthetics and a convenient home. They also depend on a buildings- educational and illustrative power as well as to its function as a dwelling. The discussion links the differing opinions on solar collectors and buildings to vague or overlapping boundaries between private and public space, in terms of geography as well as ownership, responsibility and statutory power.

  • 119.
    Henning, Annette
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy and Environmental Technology.
    Tar vi två steg fram och ett steg tillbaka? En diskussion om förändring2010In: Klimatsmart villavärme? / [ed] Henning, Annette, Falun: Författarna och SERC , 2010, p. 107-119Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Kulturella externaliseringar som byggnader skapas utifrån tankar och idéer som tycks relevanta för specifika grupper av människor i de situationer och sammahang då byggnaden uppförs. Men därefter fortsätter dessa tankar och idéer i decennier eller århundraden att påverka människor på olika sätt och skapa ramar för deras beslut. Det innebär att människor som ska fatta beslut om sin energianvändning idag är påverkade av beslut som de själva eller andra har fattat tidigare, beslut som lever kvar i trögföränderliga kulturella strukturer som byggnader, organisationer eller gemensamma tankesätt. Det är kring denna problematik om förändringars natur och möjlighet som diskussionerna i detta kapitel rör sig. Fokus ligger på vår materiella miljös potential för både begränsning och förndring.

  • 120.
    Henning, Annette
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy and Environmental Technology.
    Temporal landscapes for the public good: negotiating solar collectors among ancient remains2008In: Social & cultural geography (Print), ISSN 1464-9365, E-ISSN 1470-1197, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 27-40Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article concerns the contested siting of a solar collector field in Torsång, Sweden, a designated area of national heritage. The contest is described as a 'planning drama' and a locally articulated controversy between two national policies and priorities: national heritage versus sustainable development. Two professional groups are at the centre of this drama: antiquarians at the county administrative board, and a group of employees at the municipally owned utility company. The article focuses in particular on the clash of two knowledge systems; how these are expressed, clarified and elaborated on when being confronted with one another in this specific situation. Temporal, horizontal and vertical scales a re used to analyse the material. Contrary to what has previously been assumed to be the case for modern Western societies, the contested landscapes are shown to depend for their realization or destruction, not only on temporal and horizontal dimensions, but also on a vertical dimension including artefacts above and below the surface. The struggle to find a solution that everyone could agree on was not merely a matter of making two conflicting ways of perceiving this land come to terms. It was, in fact, an attempt to force two incommensurable landscapes into the same piece of land.

  • 121.
    Henning, Annette
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy and Environmental Technology.
    The illusion of economic objectivity: linking local risks of credibility loss to global risks of climate change2008In: Journal of Risk Research, ISSN 1366-9877, E-ISSN 1466-4461, Vol. 11, no 1-2, p. 223-235Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article analyses economic thinking as a conceptual construct and discusses the link it provides between local risks of losing credibility and global risks of resource depletion and climate change. Due to the high-ranking value given to economic thinking in many Swedish contexts, economic arguments are perfect ways to win an argument or negotiation, to prevent risks of loosing credibility, or to discredit others. As illlustrated in this article, legitimacy-creating acts of communication tend to precede or follow upon a decision to install a solar heating system. An immediate and massive use of solar energy for heating purposes would mitigate the risks of global warming and depletion of energy resources. Unfortunately however, the conspicuous use of economic arguments accompanying solar heating installations tend to be interpreted by policy-makers as a preference for economic motives rather than a sign of questioned consumption. The illusion that economy is an objective entity rising above all other social issues seems to be confirmed, and political measures based on economic thinking can continue to block adequate steps towards the mitigation of climate changing emissions. The cultural representation of economic sovereignty is continuously reproduced through communication. It is a circle, a vicious circle if you like.

  • 122.
    Henning, Annette
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy and Environmental Technology.
    Variera mera: Gästkrönika2006In: Fjärrvärmetidningen, ISSN 1401-7687, no 6Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Ett sätt för fjärrvärmebranschen att skapa framförhållning och samtidigt tillmötesgå småhusägarnas önskemål om flexibilitet är att erbjuda dem olika möjligheter att docka fjärrvärmen mot mindre uppvärmningssystem. Detta borde dessutom kunna ge betydande klimat- och energiresursvinster. Framförhållning och stärkt konkurrenskraft gentemot värmepumpsbranschen innebär också att många av de småhus som fortfarande värms med olja skulle välja att övergå till biobränslebaserad fjärrvärme istället för elvärme, som nu ofta är fallet.

  • 123.
    Henning, Annette
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy and Environmental Technology.
    Vem fattar beslut om värmesystemen i monteringsfärdiga småhus?2010In: Klimatsmart villavärme? Solvärme, nya byggregler och möjligheten att förändra / [ed] Henning, Annette, Falun: Författarna och SERC , 2010, p. 15-25Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Som forskare, politiker och handläggare av energifrågor kan det vara lätt att ställa sig undrande inför en del beslut om värmesystem och energikonsumtion. Det kan också vara lätt att reducera dessa beslut till aktiva, medvetna val fattade av enskilda husköpare. Jag vill i det här kapitlet lyfta fram något av komplexiteten i mänskligt beslutsfattande genom att istället fråga mig om det är någon som fattar de här besluten över huvud taget. Kanske en del av dessa beslut snarare sker mellan vars och ens ansvarsområde och intressefokus? Texten i det här kapitlet baseras på intervjuer och deltagande observation bland husköpare, säljare och ledningsgrupper i framförallt två småhusföretag. Artikeln sätter in beslutsfattandet i sina respektive sammanhang, så som dessa upplevs av respektive aktör, samt länkar samman de respektive beslutsmiljöerna. Syftet är att öka förståelsen för hur beslut fattas angående uppvärmning och värmesystem för nya prefabricerade småhus. Berättelsen börjar hos blivande husägare.

  • 124.
    Henning, Annette
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy and Environmental Technology.
    Värmesystemen i vardagen: Några småhusägares erfarenhet av att byta värmesystem2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med den här studien har varit att ta reda på hur energieffektiva och resurssnåla värmesystem med låg klimatpåverkan fungerar när man placerat dem mitt i människors vardag. Rapporten är en sammanställning av småhusägares egna synunkter och erfarenheter av beslutet, placeringen, installationen, hanteringen och värmekomforten. Projektet "Värmesystemen i vardagen. En samhällsvetenskaplig utvärdering av konverterade småhus" finansierades av Energimyndigheten och genomfördes under perioden juni 2006 - okt 2007. Rapporten utgör tredje delen i en populärvetenskaplig skriftserie på temat "Flexibla värmesystem". Rapporten vänder sig främst till er som utvecklar och säljer värmesystem eller arbetar med att ge råd och stöd till småhusägare i energifrågor.

  • 125.
    Henning, Annette
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy and Environmental Technology.
    Boholm, ÅsaGlobala studier, Göteborgs universitet.
    Horizons of Choice: An ethnographic approach to decision-making2013Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With this set of three interlinked papers, we wish to push for a more integrated ethnographic approach to decision-making. Each of the three contributions explicitly explores the cultural embedding of interactions and processes leading up to decisions. The introductory paper by Boholm, Henning and Krzyworzeka calls for a critical re-examination of a plethora of phenomena relating to choice and decision-making, occasionally addressed by anthropologists, but more regularly studied by economists, political scientists, psychologists, and organization scholars. The empirical foci of the following two articles by Krzyworzeka and by Sjölander-Lindquist and Sinque are on decision-making among farmers in Poland and among wild life inspectors in Sweden, respectively. As indicated by the subjects of these case studies, we aim particularly to engage in discussions about decision-making with strong societal relevance.

  • 126.
    Henning, Annette
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy and Environmental Technology.
    Boholm, Åsa
    Globala Studier, Göteborgs universitet.
    Krzyworzeka, Amanda
    Institute of Ethnology and Cultural Anthropology, University of Warsaw, Poland.
    Anthropology and decision making: an introduction2013In: Focaal. Journal of Global and Historical Anthropology, ISSN 1558-5263, no 65, p. 97-113Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This introductory article calls for a critical re-examination of a plethora of phenomena relating to choice and decision-making, occasionally addressed by anthropologists, but more regularly studied by economists, political scientists, psychologists and organization scholars. By means of a bird's eye research overview, we identify certain weak spots pertaining to a formalistic uni-central view of human rationality, and argue that ethnographic approaches casting light on cultural contexts for thought, reason and action can explain how choices are framed and constituted from horizons of perceptions and expectations. A positive account of socially and culturally embedded decision-making heralds a mode of anthropology with a broad, integrating capacity to address public policy and administration and its interactions with everyday experience and practice.

  • 127.
    Henning, Annette
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy and Environmental Technology.
    Lorenz, Klaus
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy and Environmental Technology.
    Flexibla fjärrvärmeanslutningar - en tvärvetenskaplig studie2005Report (Other academic)
  • 128.
    Henning, Annette
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy and Environmental Technology.
    Nielsen, Caroline
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy and Environmental Technology.
    A 'three-step-approach' to energy implementation: Examples from a PV hybrid grid in Tanzania2013In: Micro Perspectives for Decentralized Energy Supply: Proceedings for 2nd International Conference, Feb. 27 - Mar. 1, 2013 in Berlin / [ed] Martina Schäfer, Noara Kebir, Daniel Philipp, 2013, p. 60-63Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In an ongoing research project, a 'three-step-approach' is used to study rural electrification and the use of a small PV-diesel grid at a community centre in Ihushi, Tanzania. The paper gives some preliminary results from the current research. It also describes the three steps of investigation by which social actors are identified, cultural change studied, and long-term feasibility evaluated. As an answer to the critique of the 'drivers-and-barriers' concepts, we suggest this model as a way of capturing the dynamic and long-term aspects of implementation processes and of adding a more culturally informed stance to actor oriented research.

  • 129.
    Hernandez Velasco, Marco
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy and Environmental Technology.
    Performance Evaluation of Different PV-Array Configurations under Weak Light Conditions and Partial Shadings2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 12 credits / 18 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The paper analyses empirical performance data of five commercial PV-plants in Germany. The purpose was on one side to investigate the weak light performance of the different PV-modules used. On the other hand it was to quantify and compare the shading losses of different PV-array configurations. The importance of this study relies on the fact that even if the behavior under weak light conditions or the shading losses might seem to be a relatively small percentage of the total yearly output; in projects where a performance guarantee is given, these variation can make the difference between meeting or not the conditions.When analyzing the data, a high dispersion was found. To reduce the optical losses and spectral effects, a series of data filters were applied based on the angle of incidence and absolute Air Mass. To compensate for the temperature effects and translate the values to STC (25°C), five different methods were assessed. At the end, the Procedure 2 of IEC 60891 was selected due to its relative simplicity, usage of mostly standard parameters found in datasheets, good accuracy even with missing values, and its potential to improve the results when the complete set of inputs is available.After analyzing the data, the weak light performance of the modules did not show a clear superiority of a certain technology or technology group over the others. Moreover, the uncertainties in the measurements restrictive the conclusiveness of the results.In the partial shading analysis, the landscape mounting of mc-Si PV-modules in free-field showed a significantly better performance than the portrait one. The cross-table string using CIGS modules did not proved the benefits expected and performed actually poorer than a regular one-string-per-table layout. Parallel substrings with CdTe showed a proper functioning and relatively low losses. Among the two product generations of CdTe analyzed, none showed a significantly better performance under partial shadings.

  • 130.
    Hernandez Velasco, Marco
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy and Environmental Technology.
    Fiedler, Frank
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy and Environmental Technology.
    Timm, Dirk
    juwi Solar GmbH.
    COMPARISON OF PARTIAL SHADING LOSSES IN FREE FIELD PV-PLANTS WITH DIFFERENT ARRAY CONFIGURATIONS2013In: EU PVSEC Proceedings, 2013, p. 4171-4175Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A common problem when planning large free field PV-plants is optimizing the ground occupation ratio while maintaining low shading losses. Due to the complexity of this task, several PV-plants have been built using various configurations. In order to compare the shading losses of different PV technologies and array designs, empirical performance data of five free field PV-plants operating in Germany was analyzed. The data collected comprised 140 winter days from October 2011 until March 2012. The relative shading losses were estimated by comparing the energy output of selected arrays in the front rows (shading-free) against that of shaded arrays in the back rows of the same plant. The results showed that landscape mounting with mc-Si PV-modules yielded significantly better results than portrait one. With CIGS modules, making cross-table strings using the lower modules was not beneficial as expected and had more losses than a one-string-per-table layout. Parallel substrings with CdTe showed relatively low losses. Among the two CdTe products analyzed, none showed a significantly better performance.

  • 131.
    Hägerby, Daniel
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy and Environmental Technology.
    Avbrottsfri kraft Skid VM 20152011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    2015 kommer Skid-VM att hållas i Falun. TV-bolagen kräver redundant kraft som standard för denna typ av arrangemang. Detta sköts normalt med dieselgeneratorer och eventuellt UPS:er. För att utreda detaljerna kring, och möjligheterna med, att ersätta några eller alla dieselgeneratorer med elkraft från elfordon, har en förstudie gjorts. Förstudien skall besvara en rad frågeställningar som togs upp vid ett förmöte i maj 2011. Slutsatsen är att det finns tre olika sätt att lösa behovet av avbrottsfri kraft med elfordon. Dessa möjligheter är personbilar med låg effekt ut, personbilar med hög effekt ut och tunga fordon med hög effekt ut. Det finns för- och nackdelar med samtliga, men alla kostar betydligt mer än en konventionell lösning. Därför måste, om detta ska bli verklighet, samarbete sökas med parter som ser ett stort PR-värde i en realisering av ett smart elnät med elfordon vid Lugnet.

  • 132.
    Hägerby, Daniel
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy and Environmental Technology.
    Bikesharing i Ludvika: ett initiativ från Idéteknik, Anders Dahlberg2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Med tre stora expansioner inom näringslivet, ABB, Spendrups och gruvdrift under Väsman, står Ludvika inför omfattande förändringar. De nya arbetstillfällena väntas dra med sig ökad trafik genom inpendling. För att avlasta befintliga flaskhalsar samt för att öka attraktionsvärdet på Ludvika för inflyttande och turister har därför denna förstudie kring möjligheterna för utveckling av ett lånecykelsystem, LCS, gjorts. Det visar sig att Ludvika, med omnejd, har goda förutsättningar för att kunna utveckla ett eget LCS och exportera detta på en kraftigt växande marknad. Detta kräver dock innovation och nytänkande då det redan finns starka konkurrenter som erbjuder standardiserade system. Att endast köpa in ett LCS till Ludvika är knappast intressant då staden är i minsta laget för att det ska bli lönsamt. Däremot kan det vara intressant att stödja utvecklingen av ett dalaproducerat system då detta kan ge synergier t.ex. inom ökad användning av RFID-teknik i regionen samt en grön image till Ludvika och de aktörer som knyts till systemet.

  • 133.
    Hägerby, Daniel
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy and Environmental Technology.
    Karlsson, Mikael
    HVV.
    V2G backup Skid-VM 20152012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    2015 kommer Skid-VM att hållas i Falun. TV-bolagen kräver redundant kraft som standard för denna typ av arrangemang. Detta sköts normalt med dieselgeneratorer och eventuellt UPS:er. För att utreda detaljerna kring, och möjligheterna med, att ersätta några eller alla dieselgeneratorer med elkraft från elfordon, har en förstudie gjorts under 2011.

    Denna studie tittat djupare på några sätt att göra detta. Slutsatsen är att tekniken finns och är mogen nog att klara uppgiften, men intresset hos fordonstillverkarna är svagt.

  • 134.
    Hägerby, Daniel
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy and Environmental Technology.
    Persson, Tomas
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy and Environmental Technology.
    Vägar och irrvägar till energieffektivisering: vägvalet är politiskt2012Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Rapporten är en litteraturstudie som lyfter vikten av ett systemperspektiv på energianvändningen och diskuterar samhällets mål och medel utifrån detta perspektiv. För att väga in de olika effekter som en förändrad energianvändning innebär måste olika bedömningar göras. Vi konstaterar att det finns stora osäkerheter i detta, men att det viktigaste inte är att finna en exakt värdering av de olika energikällorna. Istället bör fokus ligga på att, ur ett systemperspektiv, fastställa och implementera en värdering av de olika energikällorna samt låta denna värdering vara konsekvent tvärs över alla sektorer. Det viktiga är alltså inte den exakta fördelningen mellan kol- och gas på marginalen i Danmark och Tyskland i framtiden, utan att vi överhuvudtaget antar ett systemperspektiv och ser till hur förändringar i vår konsumtion påverkar energisystemet som helhet. EU har valt att fokusera på primärenergi när det gäller mål för energieffektivisering, eftersom man inte vill reducera den nytta som energianvändningen skapar i användarledet, utan snarare vill minska slöseriet på väg till slutanvändning. Vi har i Sverige valt liknande mål för energieffektivisering, men ännu inte lyckats implementera några styrmedel som genomsyras av ett system- eller primärenergiperspektiv. Vi har i båda de exempel som vi tar upp lyckats identifiera spår av systemtänkande, som dock inte lyckats nå hela vägen. Det första är att Boverket ser ut att ha utgått från ett systemperspektiv vid utformningen av det ursprungliga förslaget till byggregler 2006, med en tydlig linje inom värme och kyla för både lokaler och bostäder. Det andra är i trafikskattelagstiftningen där även utsläpp uppströms från avgasröret räknats med, fast inte värderats på något enhetligt sätt. Det är viktigt att styrmedlen inte utformas så att det styr "ur askan i elden". Beroende på hur vi värderar t.ex. den el som används för att ladda elfordon finns här en uppenbar sådan risk. Oavsett befintliga styrmedel pekar rapporten på det utrymme för diskussion som finns kring värdering av olika energikällors resursavtryck samt svårigheterna i att vetenskapligt bestämma den exakt korrekta viktningsfaktorn för varje energikälla. Dock finns det gränser för vad som, på en för de flesta investeringar relevant horisont, kan anses rimligt. Inom dessa gränser är det upp till politiken att, genom styrmedlens utformning, definiera de relativa viktningar som marknaden sedan får förhålla sig till. Här ligger EU längre fram än Sverige, trots att svårigheterna att komma överens rimligen borde vara större i europaparlamentet än i svenska riksdagen. Samtidigt som det är viktigt att sträva efter styrmedel som ger önskad effekt får dessa förstås inte ändras för ofta, eftersom det leder till osäkerhet och uteblivna investeringar. När det gäller energipolitiken är dock riktlinjerna från EU tydliga och frågan är när Sverige ansluter sig till det primärenergiperspektiv som EU förespråkar, även vid utformningen av svenska energipolitiska styrmedel. Det är också viktigt att energianvändning i alla sektorer behandlas på ett likartat sätt. För att hantera detta kan det vara klokt att hänvisa till en gemensam standard eller ett gemensamt direktiv från Energimyndigheten och/eller Naturvårdsverket som definierar olika energikällors primärenergifaktor, liknande hur Tyskland gjort med sina byggregler.

  • 135.
    Jamshidi Gohari, Ebrahim
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy and Environmental Technology.
    Buried screen-printed contacts for silicon solar cells2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 12 credits / 18 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A Simple way to improve solar cell efficiency is to enhance the absorption of light and reduce the shading losses. One of the main objectives for the photovoltaic roadmap is the reduction of metalized area on the front side of solar cell by fin lines. Industrial solar cell production uses screen-printing of metal pastes with a limit in line width of 70-80 μm.

    This paper will show a combination of the technique of laser grooved buried contact (LGBC) and Screen-printing is able to improve in fine lines and higher aspect ratio. Laser grooving is a technique to bury the contact into the surface of silicon wafer. Metallization is normally done with electroless or electrolytic plating method, which a high cost. To decrease the relative cost, more complex manufacturing process was needed, therefore in this project the standard process of buried contact solar cells has been optimized in order to gain a laser grooved buried contact solar cell concept with less processing steps. The laser scribing process is set at the first step on raw mono-crystalline silicon wafer. And then the texturing etch; phosphorus diffusion and SiNx passivation process was needed once. While simultaneously optimizing the laser scribing process did to get better results on screen-printing process with fewer difficulties to fill the laser groove. This project has been done to make the whole production of buried contact solar cell with fewer steps and could present a cost effective opportunity to solar cell industries.

  • 136.
    Jordan, Ulrike
    et al.
    Kassel University.
    Vajen, Klaus
    Kassel University.
    Bales, Chris
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy and Environmental Technology.
    Cortés Forteza, Pau Joan
    SAMPOL Ingeniería y Obr.
    Frank, Elimar
    University for Applied Sciences Rapperswil.
    Furbo, Simon
    Technical University of Denmark.
    Kerskes, Henner
    Stuttgart University.
    Heinzen, Roland
    FSave Solartechnik GmbH.
    Luke, Andrea
    Kassel University.
    Martinez-Moll, Victor
    University of the Balearic Islands.
    Pietschnig, Rudolf
    Kassel University.
    Streicher, Wolfgang
    University of Innsbruck.
    Wagner, Waldemar
    AEE Intec.
    Witzig, Andreas
    Vela Solaris AG.
    SOLNET - PhD-Scholarships and courses on solar heating2014Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    SolNet, founded in 2006, is the first coordinated International PhD education program on Solar Thermal Engineering. The SolNet network is coordinated by the Institute of Thermal Engineering at Kassel University, Germany. The network offers PhD courses on solar heating and cooling, conference-accompanying Master courses, placements of internships, and PhD scholarship projects. A new scholarship project, “SHINE”, was launched in autumn 2013 in the frame work of the Marie Curie program of the European Union (Initial Training Network, ITN). 13 PhD-scholarships on solar district heating, solar heat for industrial processes, as well as sorption stores and materials started in December 2013. Additionally, the project comprises a training program with five PhD courses and several workshops on solar thermal engineering that will be open also for other PhD students working in the field. The research projects will be hosted by six different universities and five companies from all over Europe.

  • 137.
    Jordan, Ulrike
    et al.
    Kassel University.
    Vajen, Klaus
    Kassel University.
    Bales, Chris
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy and Environmental Technology.
    Forteza, Pau Joan Cortés
    SAMPOL.
    Drück, Harald
    Stuttgart University.
    Frank, Elimar
    University for Applied Sciences Rapperswil.
    Furbo, Simon
    Technical University of Denmark.
    Heinzen, Roland
    FSave Solartechnik GmbH.
    Luke, Andrea
    Kassel University.
    Martinez Moll, Victor
    Balearic Islands University.
    Pietschnig, Rudolph
    Kassel University.
    Streicher, Wolfgang
    University of Innsbruck.
    Wagner, Waldemar
    AEE Intec.
    SolNet - PhD-scholarships and courses on Solar Heating2013In: ISES SWC2013, Freiburg, 2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    SolNet, founded in 2006, is the first coordinated International PhD education program on Solar Thermal Engineering. The SolNet network is coordinated by the Institute of Thermal Engineering at Kassel University, Germany. The network offers PhD courses on solar heating and cooling, conference-accompanying Master courses, placements of internships, and PhD scholarship projects. A new scholarship project, "SHINE", will be launched in autumn 2013 in the frame work of the Marie Curie program of the European Union (Initial Training Network, ITN). 13 PhD-scholarships on solar district heating, solar heat for industrial processes, as well as sorption stores and materials will be offered, starting in December 2013. Additionally, the project comprises a training program with five PhD courses and several workshops on solar thermal engineering that will be open also for other PhD students working in the field. The research projects will be hosted by six different universities and five companies from all over Europe

  • 138.
    Joubert, Andras
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy and Environmental Technology.
    Passive solar options for reducing heating demand and maintain indoor climate in a multifamily house in Sweden2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 12 credits / 18 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This research was carried out by studying possible renovation of a two-storey detached multifamily building by using passive solar design options in a cold climate in Borlänge, Sweden where the heating Degree Days are 4451 (base 20°C). Borlänge`s housing company, Tunabyggen, plans to renovate the project house located inthe multicultural district, Jakobsgårdarna. The goal of the thesis was to suggest a redesign of the current building, decrease the heating energy use, by applying passive solar design and control strategies, in a most reasonable way. In addition ensure a better thermal comfort for the tenants in the dwellings. Literatures have been studied, from which can be inferred that passive design should be abasic design consideration for all housing constructions, because it has advantages to ensure thermal comfort, and reduce the energy use. In addition further savings can be achieved applying different types of control strategies, from which the house will be more personalized, and better adapted to the user’s needs.The proposed method is based on simulations by using TRNSYS software. First a proper building model was set up, which represents the current state of the project building. Then the thermal insulation and the windows were upgraded, based on today's building regulations. The developments of the passive solar options were accomplished in two steps. First of all the relevant basic passive design elements were considered, then those advantages were compared to the advantages of applying new conventional thermostat, and shading control strategies.The results show that there is significant potential with the different types of passive solar design; their usage depends primarily on the location of the site as well as the orientation of the project building. Applying the control strategies, such as thermostat, and shading control, along the thermal insulation upgrade, may lead to significant energy savings (around 40 %), by comparison to the reference building without any upgrade.

  • 139.
    Joudi, Ali
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy and Environmental Technology.
    Rönnelid, Mats
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy and Environmental Technology.
    Svedung, Harald
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy and Environmental Technology.
    Wäckelgård, Ewa
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy and Environmental Technology.
    Energy Efficient Buildings with Functional Steel Cladding2011In: World Renewable Energy Congress, Linköping, Sweden, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study is to develop a model for the energy balance of buildings that includes the effect from the radiation properties of interior and exterior surfaces of the building envelope. As a first step we have used ice arenas as case study objects to investigate the importance of interior low emissivity surfaces. Measurements have been done in two ice arenas in the north part of Sweden, one with lower and one with higher ceiling emissivity. The results show that the low emissivity ceiling gives a much lower radiation temperature interacting with the ice under similar conditions. The dynamic modelling of the roof in ice arenas shows a similar dependence of the roof-to-ice heat flux and the ceiling emissivity. A second part of the study focus on how to realise paints with very low thermal emissivity to be used on interior building surfaces.

  • 140.
    Joudi, Ali
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy and Environmental Technology.
    Svedung, Harald
    Building Surface Radiation Properties and Heat Flux: poster2010In: ENERGY FORUM on Solar Building Skins, Bressanone, Italien, 2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 141.
    Joudi, Ali
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy and Environmental Technology.
    Svedung, Harald
    Energy savings in buildings through optimized surface heat radiation properties2009In: Ökosan'09 - The International Symposium on High-Quality Thermal Retrofit of Large-Volume Buildings, Weiz, Austria, 2009Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 142.
    Joudi, Ali
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy and Environmental Technology.
    Svedung, Harald
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy and Environmental Technology.
    Bales, Chris
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy and Environmental Technology.
    Rönnelid, Mats
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy and Environmental Technology.
    Highly reflective coatings for interior and exterior steel cladding and the energy efficiency of buildings2011In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 88, no 12, p. 4655-4666Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of surface heat-radiation properties of coil-coated steel cladding material on the energy efficiency of buildings in Nordic climate is addressed by parallel temperature and energy usage measurements in a series of test cabins with different exterior solar reflectivity and interior thermal reflectivity. During one year, a number of one- or two-week experiments with air conditioner cooling and electrical floor heating were made while logging air-, radiation- and surface temperatures, energy consumption and weather conditions. Measurements show significant energy savings in the test cabins by the use of high thermal reflectivity interior surfaces both during heating and cooling and a strongly reduced cooling demand by the use of high solar reflectivity exterior surfaces. Results are interpreted within the context of a steady-state energy flux model, to illuminate the importance of surface resistance properties (radiation and convective heat dissipation).

  • 143.
    Joudi, Ali
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy and Environmental Technology.
    Svedung, Harald
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy and Environmental Technology. SSAB EMEA.
    Cehlin, Mathias
    Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, University of Gävle.
    Rönnelid, Mats
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy and Environmental Technology.
    Reflective coatings for interior and exterior of buildings and improving thermal performance2013In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 103, p. 562-570Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The importance of reducing building energy usage and thriving for more energy efficient architectures, has nurtured creative solutions and smart choices of materials in the last few decades. Among those are optimizing surface optical properties for both interior and exterior claddings of the building. Development in the coil-coating steel industries has now made it possible to allocate correct optical properties for steel clad buildings with improved thermal performance. Although the importance of the exterior coating and solar gain are thoroughly studied in many literatures, the effect of interior cladding are less tackled, especially when considering a combination of both interior and exterior reflective coatings. This paper contemplates the thermal behavior of small cabins with reflective coatings on both interior and exterior cladding, under different conditions and climates with the aim to clarify and point out to the potential energy saving by smart choices of clad coatings.

  • 144.
    Joudi, Ali
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy and Environmental Technology.
    Svedung, Harald
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy and Environmental Technology.
    Rönnelid, Mats
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy and Environmental Technology.
    Energy efficient surfaces on building sandwich panels: a dynamic simulation model2011In: Energy and Buildings, ISSN 0378-7788, E-ISSN 1872-6178, Vol. 43, no 12, p. 3736-3736Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The choice of building envelope is critical for the energy performance of buildings. The major part of the energy used by a building during its lifetime is used for maintaining a suitable interior thermal climate under varying exterior conditions. Although exterior heat radiation properties (i.e. total solar reflectivity and long wave thermal emissivity) have been well accepted to have a large impact on the need for active cooling in warmer climate, the effect of a reduced thermal emissivity on interior surfaces on the building thermal energy flux is rarely studied. This paper addresses the sensitivity of the thermal energy flux through a sandwich panel, by systematically varying the surface thermal emissivity (both interior and exterior) and total solar reflectance of exterior surface, for three geographical locations: southern, middle and northern Europe. A model is introduced for calculating the effect of both interior and exterior optical properties of a horizontal roof panel in terms of net energy flux per unit area. The results indicate potential energy saving by the smart choice of optical properties of interior and exterior surfaces.

  • 145.
    Joudi, Mohammad Ali
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy and Environmental Technology.
    Full Scale Evaluation of Thermal Coatings2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Widespread application of steel metal sheets in buildings, besides increasing architectural interests in the use of non-white colors, raised the idea to design the best coating for the steel sheets and evaluate both energy saving and thermal comfort in four test model buildings.. Experiments have been carried out in Swedish climate over Latitude 60°N with four steel sheet model buildings to evaluate the performance of low emittance coating for interior surface and high near infrared reflectance and high thermal emittance for exterior coatings in order to evaluate the possibilities to save energy for cooling during hot seasons and heating during cold seasons. Project has been initiated by SSAB Tunnplåt AB – and takes place in Borlänge, Sweden. Observation and results over different radiation and surface temperatures, indoor climate, energy demand and usage are included in this report. Conclusion includes thermal savings due to optical properties of interior/exterior surfaces, increase in mean radiation temperature inside building, energy consumption, demand peak shaving and comfort study. The result shows clearly that it is possible to save cooling energy by using roof and wall materials with high near infrared reflectance. During one week with warm and sunny weather, the electricity savings for cooling was 12% lower in the building with high near infrared reflectance for exterior coatings compares to normal exterior coating with the same visible color but with normal (low) near infrared reflectance. In applications with other cooling equipment (no fans running during periods with no cooling demand), the energy saving should be approx. 25%. The test equipments installed are prepared for measurements during cold season, but due to the period of this work (April-August 2007) no such test was performed.

  • 146. Ju, Zhenhe
    et al.
    Li, Shi
    Fiedler, Frank
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy and Environmental Technology.
    Financial and technical Evaluation of Solar Streetlight System2009In: Symposium Small PV-Applications, Ulm, 2009Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    According to the financial evaluation principle of technology, the authors analyze the investment of solar streetlight systems, calculate the net present value in life time and dynamic payback period of investment of solar streetlight system by the method of energy substitute which compares the solar streetlight with common electric power streetlight. The study provides a feasible financial evaluation way for application of solar streetlights.

  • 147. Jähnig, D.
    et al.
    Thür, A.
    Breidler, J.
    Kuhness, G.
    Letz, T.
    Papillon, P.
    Bales, Chris
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy and Environmental Technology.
    Fiedler, Frank
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy and Environmental Technology.
    D5.1b : Standard Procedure describing how to evaluate solar combisystems2009Report (Other academic)
  • 148.
    Khan, Saifallah
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy and Environmental Technology.
    Anwar, Zubair
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy and Environmental Technology.
    Design of Solar water pumping System and its comparison with diesel & grid connected pumping System in Gujrat (Pakistan)2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    There is significant potential for solar water pumping in countries like Pakistan which receive abundant amounts of solar radiation. Apart from the fact that Pakistan has an extensive irrigation canal system, the country is suffering from water shortages for irrigation. To overcome the water shortage, approximately 1.1 million tube wells have been installed out of which 75% are diesel based and 25% work with grid electricity. In the present scenario, when the electricity is insufficient for domestic use and fuel prices are increasing exponentially, the use of solar water pumps can prove to be a viable solution for irrigation. The present work aims to design a solar water pumping system for irrigation in the province of Punjab which is also known as the bread basket of the country. We used PVSYST 4.36 software for designing the solar water pumping system at the proposed site. Its comparison was also done with the existing diesel based and grid connected water pumping systems. The life cycle cost method was implemented which shows that the cost of the proposed photovoltaic pumping system is less expensive than the existing conventional diesel and grid connected pumping systems.

  • 149.
    Kießling, Ralf
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy and Environmental Technology.
    Adiabatic Precooling for CoolingTowers – Measurements andAnalysis of Impact on SolarDriven Chiller2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today most of cooling demand is satisfied with electrically driven compressor chillers. Due to global warming, cooling demand will increase worldwide. Therefore alternative refrigeration methods need to be improved to preserve limited energy resources. One opportunity is thermally driven chillers, which perform absorption cycle process. In this principle main energy input is done by heat and only a little electricity. This heat can be either produced conventionally by combustion or sustainably with solar thermal collectors. Like any other electrical driven chiller, all heat brought into the process need to get rejected by a recooler. In case of thermally driven chiller, heat rejection amount is much higher. This causes higher system cost compared to electrical driven chiller and blocks larger market diffusion of thermally driven chiller. Therefore improved heat rejection concepts are necessary also to maximise solar utilisation.In this thesis measurements were performed on a dry cooling tower extended with an adiabatic precooling system to increase recooling capabilities. This system has a simple and cheap design and needs less maintenance to remain hygienic quality. During measurements a correlation between evaporation water flow and fan speed to heat rejection was found and with normalisation it was possible to predict heat rejection dependent on these two operation factors for given ambient air conditions. At the start, measurements were performed and the test rig was evaluated to ensure high accuracy. The sensor alignment in the test rig was insufficient; therefore evaporation, which causes precooling effect, was calculated instead measured by relative humidity sensors.The measurements attest that the system has high precooling effectiveness up to 10 K below ambient temperature for appropriate conditions. Under such conditions almost doubled heat rejection was measured.To quantify the impact to a thermally driven chiller supplied by solar heat on a theoretical basis, a model including solar thermal collector and cooling tower was developed. Extended with meteorological data for a chosen location, supplied cold of the chiller and consumed electricity for the cooling tower fan was calculated for a single day and for period of one year. Using adiabatic precooling enables two optimisation methods; first increased chillers cold output and second reduced electrical fan consumption. Here simulation has shown huge electrical energy saving potential of sixty-nine percent on the one hand, or nine percent more supplied cold on the other hand compared to ordinary dry recooling. However while analysing results for increasing supplied cold, it was found a high dependency to available heat produced by solar thermal collectors.In future work, the adiabatic precooling system should prove its advantages in a field study to achieve knowledge about its long term behaviour

  • 150.
    Kovács, Kornél
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy and Environmental Technology.
    Performance enhencement of a solar driven boat2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A solar driven boat was constructed by the ESES, European Solar Engineering School, for the Frisian Solar challenge 2008 competition. All the parts of the electrical system were given by different sponsors. Of course the rules and specifications have to be kept. In my thesis some test is presented about system optimization and getting information about the missing data of the electrical components. The general aim of my work is improving the performance of the boat by testing the system parts and evaluating the results. In details –as sub-aims – we want to know the I-U curve of the panels, calculate the MPP losses of the panels and the charge controller losses. Finally the optimization of cable sizing is shown. For the I-U curve investigation a movable stand was built. In this way the panels had been hold and moved easily into or out from the radiation. Then the panels were connected to series connected adjustable loads while the values of the panel current and voltage were continuously measured. The experiment was done two times on different level of solar radiation (850W/m2 and 315 W/m2). Hereby we got the curve with all the important values. On the higher radiation level Isc= 8.3 A, Uoc= 34.9 V, MPP=210.2 W at Imp= 7.7 A and Ump= 27.3 V; on the lower one Isc= 2.9 A, Uoc= 34.5 V, MPP= 76 W at Imp= 2.5 A and Ump= 29.6 V. One of the basic ideas is reducing the losses. For this we have to measure the energy input and output of the controller; a data logger and a voltage divider are used for recording current and voltage values of the panels, load and battery. We can avoid the controller and the battery by bypass ways to get all mount of the energy to the motor from the panel. The mount of controller loss is between 0.67 W and 1.96 W, most of the time, but there is some huge peak in the graph. This can be possible because of the too high radiation and the too less load. This test was made with two PV panels in Borlänge, in the middle of March. Because of the short time and the late of the components test could not be repeated with higher load and higher radiation. Loss reduction is the reason why the motor is wanted to be connected directly to the panels. For this we have to know if the motor operates on the voltage and current level of the MPP of the panels. With other words the optimum operating point of the motor/panel combination should be explored. The experiment of the motor characteristic showed that in the view of energy generation keeping the minimal allowed speed is not a problem for the system. Getting 8 km/h average speed around 350 W is needed. If all the five panels are used in the same time around 300-315 W/m2 is enough for providing 350 watts. The last topic of the electrical circuit improvement is optimizing the cable sizes. For this not enough only to measure the distances between the components but we have to calculate some extra for the cable shoes and so on. Beside the correct length we have to find the perfect wire diameters, as well. Calculations are done by Microsoft Excel software, applying the standards of National Electric Code (NEC). During the tests the solar boat designed by the ESES team reached the 13km/h sailing speed. Power of the panels was presented in the first test. Around 1200 watts solar energy could be applied in case of 1000 W/m2 radiation. The mount of controller loss is between 0.67 W and 1.96 W, most of the time and for getting 8 km/h average speed around 350 W is needed.

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