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  • 13951.
    Sharmin, Shamina
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Siddiqua, Ayasha
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Knowledge, attitudes and perceptions in relation to Menstrual Regulation (MR) among future midwives in Bangladesh: A quantitative approach among midwifery students2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background:

    In Bangladesh, abortion is restricted except to save the life of a woman, but menstrual regulation (MR) is allowed to induce menstruation and return to non-pregnancy after a missed period. Midwives who are relatively new professionals in Bangladesh can play an important role in Comprehensive Abortion Care (CAC) and scale up their involvement in post-abortion care is an important strategy in expanding access to care. Midwifery lead interventions have shown to be associated with efficient use of resources and to have a positive impact on health outcomes. Quality of care regarding MR depends on providers attitude, perceptions, and knowledge which can be ensured by midwives.

    Objective:

    To investigate the knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions in relation to menstrual regulation among future midwives in Bangladesh.

    Methods:

    A cross-sectional design using standardized questionnaires with closed questions covering knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions in relation to MR were conducted among 150 midwifery students of third-year students from 16 institutions providing midwifery education programme at diploma level in Bangladesh. 141 completed questionnaires were entered and statistically analyzed by Excel.

    Results

    : From this study, it was found that more than half of the students would deny providing MR service if the woman does not have consent from her husband (56%) but would provide MR services to the woman if she is unmarried (56%). Regarding the MR policy in Bangladesh, 98% students have the perception that women seeking MR services need a husband’s or parental permission. 71% knows that MR is allowed up to 12 weeks from the last date of menstruation, 84% knows about the use of misoprostol as safe MR agent. Regarding the accessibly of MR services, 83% knows it is accessible in tertiary or referral facilities and only 59% knows that it is accessible in rural primary health care facilities. Still, 27% knows that only doctors are allowed to perform MR.

    Conclusion:

    Service providers’ attitude towards service recipients depends on their knowledge and practice, important are changes in attitude. Specific training, advocacy and also counseling regarding MR services can change perceptions.

  • 13952. Shen, Jingchun
    et al.
    Zhang, Xingxing
    He, Wei
    Xu, Peng
    Zhao, Xudong
    Design, Fabrication and Experimental Study of a Loop-heat-pipe based Solar Thermal Facade Water Heating System2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 13953. Shen, Jingchun
    et al.
    Zhang, Xingxing
    University of Nottingham.
    Yang, Tong
    Tang, Llewellyn
    Cheshmehzangi, Ali
    Wu, Yupeng
    Huang, Guiqin
    Zhong, Dan
    Xu, Peng
    Liu, Shengchun
    Characteristic study of a novel compact Solar Thermal Facade (STF) with internally extruded pin-fin flow channel for building integration2016In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 168, p. 48-64Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The fully building integrated Solar Thermal Facade (STF) systems can become potential solutions for aesthetics architectural design, as well as for the enhancement of energy efficiency and reduction of operational cost in the contemporary built environment. As a result, this article introduces a novel compact STF with internally extruded pin–fin flow channel that is particularly suitable for the building integration. A dedicated simulation model was developed on basis of the heat transfer and the flow mechanics. A prototype of this STF was fabricated and then it was tested under a series of controlled environmental conditions. The experimental validation illustrated a good agreement with the simulation results, indicating the established model was able to predict the STF’s thermal performance at a reasonable accuracy (i.e. mean deviation of less than 5.46%). The impacts of several operational parameters, i.e. equivalent solar radiation, air temperature, air velocity, water mass flow rate and inlet water temperature, on the STF thermal performance were then discussed respectively. Given the baseline testing condition, the collector efficiency factor F′ is almost 0.9930, leading to a relatively high nominal thermal efficiency at about 63.21%, which demonstrates such STF, with simpler structure, lower cost and higher feasibility in architectural design, can achieve an equivalent or better thermal performance than recent bionic STF or the conventional ones. It is also concluded that the thermal efficiency varies proportionally with solar radiation, air temperature, and mass flow rate of water, but oppositely to air velocity and inlet water temperature. A sharp decreasing trend of this STF’s thermal efficiency against the (Tin − Ta)/I was observed under the given operational conditions, which indicates current STF design is only suitable for pool heating, domestic hot water and radiant space heating in areas/climates with warm ambient air temperature and sufficient solar radiation. The overall research results are beneficial for further design, optimization and application of such STF in various solar driven systems, including the provision of hot water, space heating/cooling, increased ventilation, or even electricity in buildings. Such STF technology has the potential to boost the building energy efficiency and literally turn the envelope into an independent energy plant, creating the possibility of solar-thermal technologies deployment in high-rise buildings.

  • 13954. Shen, Jingchun
    et al.
    Zhang, Xingxing
    University of Nottingham.
    Yang, Tong
    Tang, Llewellyn
    Shinohara, Hiroyuki
    Wu, Yupeng
    Wang, Hong
    Pan, Song
    Wu, Jinshun
    Xu, Peng
    Experimental study of a compact unglazed Solar Thermal Facade (STF) for energy-efficient buildings2016In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 104, p. 3-8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a real-time experimental measurement of a novel compact unglazed solar thermal facade (STF) system at outdoor environment in Shanghai, China for about a whole summer week. It demonstrates the daily average solar thermal efficiency fluctuated from 40% to 45.5%. The overall result indicates the advantages of the STF with simple structure, low cost and high feasibility in architectural design for energy-efficient building application, especially at future district or city levels.

  • 13955.
    Shen, Jingchun
    et al.
    University of Nottingham, Ningbo.
    Zhang, Xingxing
    University of Nottingham.
    Yang, Tong
    Tang, Llewellyn
    Shinohara, Hiroyuki
    Wu, Yupeng
    Wang, Hong
    Pan, Song
    Wu, Jinshun
    Xu, Peng
    Optimizing the configuration of a compact thermal facade module for solar renovation concept in buildings2016In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 104, p. 9-14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Solar concepts show potentially an improved cost-performance (energy) ratio when applied as the integrated parts of building renovations. This paper reported a compact solar thermal facade (STF) module with the internally extruded flow channel suiting for solar renovation concept in buildings. A few of impact factors were considered for the parametric study in order to optimize the STF's configuration for various applications through the validated simulation model. The overall research results are expected to be useful for further improvement in the thermal performance of solar renovation measures.

  • 13956.
    Shen, Jingchun
    et al.
    University of Nottingham, Ningbo.
    Zhang, Xingxing
    University of Nottingham.
    Yang, Tong
    Tang, Llewellyn
    Wu, Yupeng
    Jin, Ruoyu
    Pan, Song
    Wu, Jinshun
    Xue, Peng
    Conceptual development of a compact unglazed Solar Thermal Facade (STF) for building integration2016In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 96, p. 42-54Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This research aims to develop an initiative modular unglazed Solar Thermal Facade (STF) concept initially for hot water generation to facilitate the integration of solar energy with buildings. The new STF concept is simple structure, low cost, and aesthetically appealing with easy installation but is expected to achieve the equivalent thermal efficiency as the conventional STFs. It delivered alternative design in terms of material, colour, texture, shape, size, architectural design, installation method, array connection, hypothetical system application, and solar coverage. Two common design variants i.e. (a) the STF cladding system and (b) the prefabricated STF wall system were described respectively for existing and new low-rise building typologies. Interaction of inclination, orientation, and insolation were discussed for the optimum STF position on the building. Four currently available methods for installation of such STF with buildings were summarized and three typical array connection methods were identified. The decentralized connection was recommended for different types of STF hot water systems. It is customary to design for a solar coverage of 50 to 60 percent for water heating in detached houses; in apartment buildings 30 to 40 percent are more commonly assumed. The concept design in this paper hereby illustrates the precedence for the hypothetical function by the creation of new ideas and also forms up the physical structure or operating principle for the investigations in near future.

  • 13957.
    Shen, Jingchun
    et al.
    University of Nottingham, Ningbo.
    Zhang, Xingxing
    Yang, Tong
    Tang, Llewellyn
    Wu, Yupeng
    Pan, Song
    Wu, Jinshun
    Xu, Peng
    Design strategy of a compact unglazed solar thermal facade (STF) for building integration based on BIM concept2017In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 105, p. 1-6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses the specific design strategy of a novel compact unglazed Solar Thermal Facade (STF) for building performance research in architectural practice. It identifies the basic role of such STF in the building performance simulation and analysis. A dedicated design strategy based on the BIM (building information modelling) concept for application of the proposed STF is then developed in details. This research work clarifies the necessary steps in ensuring that the environmental/economic factors and energy-efficiency strategies of the STF are integrated with the building design and analysis process at the early stage.

  • 13958.
    Shen, Jingchun
    et al.
    University of Nottingham, Ningbo.
    Zhang, Xingxing
    University of Nottingham.
    Yang, Tong
    Tang, Llewellyn
    Wu, Yupeng
    Pan, Song
    Wu, Jinshun
    Xue, Peng
    The early design stage of a novel Solar Thermal Facade (STF) for building integration: Energy performance simulation and socio-economic analysis2016In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 96, p. 55-66Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper provides a feasibility study of a new solar thermal façade (STF) concept for building integration from both technical and economic aspects in Shanghai area of China. The whole set of technical evaluation and economic analysis was investigated through simulation of a reference DOE residential building model in IES-VE software and a dedicated dynamic business model consisting of several critical financial indexes. In order to figure out the cost effectiveness of the STF concept, research work consisted of: (1) exploring the overall feasibility, i.e. energy load, energy savings, operational cost and environmental benefits, and (2) investigating the financial outputs for investment decisions within three different purchase methods. This paper presents a multidisciplinary research method that is expected to be beneficial and supportive for the strategic decision at the early design stage and it also offers a different angle to assess the economic performance of the STF application.

  • 13959.
    Shen, Xia
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    A Monte Carlo Full Likelihood Approach in Variance Component Quantitative Trait Loci Analysis2009In: 13th QTLMAS Workshop, Wageningen, The Netherlands, 2009Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The identity-by-descent (IBD) matrix is the core of the variance component QTL model. The true IBD matrix comes from a distribution of IBD matrices given the marker information, but its expectation is normally used in QTL analysis. This gives incorrect likelihood values since the extra uncertainty in estimating the IBD matrix is not included. Previous studies have concentrated on small pedigrees where the correct likelihood can be derived. For large pedigrees this approach is not feasible. We therefore developed a Monte Carlo method for calculating the likelihood in- corporating the uncertainty of the estimated IBD matrix. The aim of this study is to implement the Monte Carlo Full Likelihood (MCFL) algorithm and to compare the true likelihood with the like- lihood based on the expected IBD matrix for large pedigrees. Our simulation results show that the likelihood based on the expected IBD matrix approximates the true likelihood well and may there- fore justify the use of the expected IBD matrix in empirical QTL analysis. Our MCFL method can actually be computationally more efficient than the expectation method for large pedigrees with a small founder generation, because the rank of the true IBD matrix is much lower than the rank of the expected IBD matrix, especially when the genetic markers are highly informative. Using the IBD matrices produced in our MCFL method we may also simplify the modeling of epistasis for linked QTL.

  • 13960.
    Shen, Xia
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Novel Statistical Methods in Quantitative Genetics: Modeling Genetic Variance for Quantitative Trait Loci Mapping and Genomic Evaluation2012Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis develops and evaluates statistical methods for different types of genetic analyses, including quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis, genome-wide association study (GWAS), and genomic evaluation. The main contribution of the thesis is to provide novel insights in modeling genetic variance, especially via random effects models.

    In variance component QTL analysis, a full likelihood model accounting for uncertainty in the identity-by-descent (IBD) matrix was developed. It was found to be able to correctly adjust the bias in genetic variance component estimation and gain power in QTL mapping in terms of precision. 

    Double hierarchical generalized linear models, and a non-iterative simplified version, were implemented and applied to fit data of an entire genome. These whole genome models were shown to have good performance in both QTL mapping and genomic prediction.

    A re-analysis of a publicly available GWAS data set identified significant loci in Arabidopsis that control phenotypic variance instead of mean, which validated the idea of variance-controlling genes. 

    The works in the thesis are accompanied by R packages available online, including a general statistical tool for fitting random effects models (hglm), an efficient generalized ridge regression for high-dimensional data (bigRR), a double-layer mixed model for genomic data analysis (iQTL), a stochastic IBD matrix calculator (MCIBD), a computational interface for QTL mapping (qtl.outbred), and a GWAS analysis tool for mapping variance-controlling loci (vGWAS).

  • 13961.
    Shen, Xia
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Alam, Moudud
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Fikse, Freddy
    Department of Animal Breeding and Genetics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala.
    Rönnegård, Lars
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    A novel generalized ridge regression method for quantitative genetics2013In: Genetics, ISSN 0016-6731, E-ISSN 1943-2631, Vol. 193, no 4, p. 1255-1268Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As the molecular marker density grows, there is a strong need in both genome-wide association studies and genomic selection to fit models with a large number of parameters. Here we present a computationally efficient generalized ridge regression (RR) algorithmfor situations where the number of parameters largely exceeds the number of observations. The computationally demanding parts of the method depend mainly on the number ofobservations and not the number of parameters. The algorithm was implemented in the R package bigRR based on the previously developed package hglm. Using such an approach, a heteroscedastic effects model (HEM) was also developed, implemented and tested. Theefficiency for different data sizes were evaluated via simulation. The method was tested for a bacteria-hypersensitive trait in a publicly available Arabidopsis dataset including 84 inbred lines and 216 130 SNPs. The computation of all the SNP effects required less than10 seconds using a single 2.7 GHz core. The advantage in run-time makes permutationtest feasible for such a whole-genome model, so that a genome-wide significance threshold can be obtained. HEM was found to be more robust than ordinary RR (a.k.a. SNPBLUP) in terms of QTL mapping, because SNP specific shrinkage was applied instead of acommon shrinkage. The proposed algorithm was also assessed for genomic evaluation and was shown to give better predictions than ordinary RR.

  • 13962.
    Shen, Xia
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Carlborg, Örjan
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Beware of risk for increased false positive rates in genome-wide association studies for phenotypic variability2013In: Frontiers in Genetics, ISSN 1664-8021, E-ISSN 1664-8021, no 4Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 13963. Shen, Xia
    et al.
    Li, Ying
    Rönnegård, Lars
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Uden, Peter
    Carlborg, Orjan
    Application of a genomic model for high-dimensional chemometric analysis2014In: Journal of Chemometrics, ISSN 0886-9383, E-ISSN 1099-128X, Vol. 28, no 7, p. 548-557Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The rapid development of newtechnologies for large-scale analysis of genetic variation in the genomes of individuals and populations has presented statistical geneticists with a grand challenge to develop efficient methods for identifying the small proportion of all identified genetic polymorphisms that have effects on traits of interest. To address such a "large p small n" problem, we have developed a heteroscedastic effects model (HEM) that has been shown to be powerful in high-throughput genetic analyses. Here, we describe how this whole-genome model can also be utilized in chemometric analysis. As a proof of concept, we use HEM to predict analyte concentrations in silage using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy signals. The results show that HEM often outperforms the classic methods and in addition to this presents a substantial computational advantage in the analyses of such high-dimensional data. The results thus show the value of taking an interdisciplinary approach to chemometric analysis and indicate that large-scale genomic models can be a promising new approach for chemometric analysis that deserve to be evaluated more by experts in the field. The software used for our analyses is freely available as an R package at http://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/bigRR/. Copyright (C) 2014 JohnWiley & Sons, Ltd.

  • 13964.
    Shen, Xia
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Pettersson, Mats
    Rönnegård, Lars
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Carlborg, Örjan
    Inheritance beyond plain heritability: variance-controlling genes in Arabidopsis thaliana2012In: PLOS Genetics, ISSN 1553-7390, E-ISSN 1553-7404, Vol. 8, no 8, article id e1002839Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The phenotypic effect of a gene is normally described by the mean-difference between alternative genotypes. A gene may, however, also influence the phenotype by causing a difference in variance between genotypes. Here, we reanalyze a publicly available Arabidopsis thaliana dataset [1] and show that genetic variance heterogeneity appears to be as common as normal additive effects on a genomewide scale. The study also develops theory to estimate the contributions of variance differences between genotypes to the phenotypic variance, and this is used to show that individual loci can explain more than 20% of the phenotypic variance. Two well-studied systems, cellular control of molybdenum level by the ion-transporter MOT1 and flowering-time regulation by the FRI-FLC expression network, and a novel association for Leaf serration are used to illustrate the contribution of major individual loci, expression pathways, and gene-by-environment interactions to the genetic variance heterogeneity.

  • 13965.
    Shen, Xia
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Rönnegård, Lars
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Estimation of Parameters in Random Effect Models with Incidence Matrix Uncertainty2010Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Random effect models have been widely applied in many fields of research. However, models with uncertain design matrices for random effects have been little investigated before. In some applications with such problems, an expectation method has been used for simplicity. This method does not include the extra information of uncertainty in the design matrix is not included. The closed solution for this problem is generally difficult to attain. We therefore propose an two-step algorithm for estimating the parameters, especially the variance components in the model. The implementation is based on Monte Carlo approximation and a Newton-Raphson-based EM algorithm. As an example, a simulated genetics dataset was analyzed. The results showed that the proportion of the total variance explained by the random effects was accurately estimated, which was highly underestimated by the expectation method. By introducing heuristic search and optimization methods, the algorithm can possibly be developed to infer the 'model-based' best design matrix and the corresponding best estimates.

  • 13966.
    Shen, Xia
    et al.
    SLUDivision of Computational Genetics, Department of Clinical Sciences, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala.
    Rönnegård, Lars
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics. Division of Quantitative Genetics, Department of Animal Breeding and Genetics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala.
    Issues with data transformation in genome-wide association studies for phenotypic variability2013In: F1000Research, ISSN 2046-1402, Vol. 2, no 200Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this correspondence is to discuss and clarify a few points about data transformation used in genome-wide association studies, especially for phenotypic variability. By commenting on the recent publication by Sun et al. in the American Journal of Human Genetics, we emphasize the importance of statistical power in detecting functional loci and the real meaning of the scale of the phenotype in practice.

  • 13967.
    Shen, Xia
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Rönnegård, Lars
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Carlborg, Örjan
    Hierarchical likelihood opens a new way of estimating genetic values using genome-wide dense marker maps2011In: BMC Proceedings, ISSN 1753-6561, E-ISSN 1753-6561, Proc. 14th European Workshop on QTL Mapping and Marker Assisted Selection (QTL-MAS), no 5(Suppl 3)Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Genome-wide dense markers have been used to detect genes and estimate relative genetic values. Among many methods, Bayesian techniques have been widely used and shown to be powerful in genome-wide breeding value estimation and association studies. However, computation is known to be intensive under the Bayesian framework, and specifying a prior distribution for each parameter is always required for Bayesian computation. We propose the use of hierarchical likelihood to solve such problems. Results Using double hierarchical generalized linear models, we analyzed the simulated dataset provided by the QTLMAS 2010 workshop. Marker-specific variances estimated by double hierarchical generalized linear models identified the QTL with large effects for both the quantitative and binary traits. The QTL positions were detected with very high accuracy. For young individuals without phenotypic records, the true and estimated breeding values had Pearson correlation of 0.60 for the quantitative trait and 0.72 for the binary trait, where the quantitative trait had a more complicated genetic architecture involving imprinting and epistatic QTL. Conclusions Hierarchical likelihood enables estimation of marker-specific variances under the likelihoodist framework. Double hierarchical generalized linear models are powerful in localizing major QTL and computationally fast.

  • 13968.
    Shen, Xia
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Rönnegård, Lars
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Carlborg, Örjan
    How to deal with genotype uncertainty in variance component quantitative trait loci analyses2011In: Genetics Research, ISSN 0016-6723, Vol. 93, no 5, p. 333-342Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dealing with genotype uncertainty is an ongoing issue in genetic analyses of complex traits. Here we consider genotype uncertainty in quantitative trait loci (QTL) analyses for large crosses in variance component models, where the genetic information is included in identity-by-descent (IBD) matrices. An IBD matrix is one realization from a distribution of potential IBD matrices given available marker information. In QTL analyses, its expectation is normally used resulting in potentially reduced accuracy and loss of power. Previously, IBD distributions have been included in models for small human full-sib families. We develop an Expectation–Maximization (EM) algorithm for estimating a full model based on Monte Carlo imputation for applications in large animal pedigrees. Our simulations show that the bias of variance component estimates using traditional expected IBD matrix can be adjusted by accounting for the distribution and that the calculations are computationally feasible for large pedigrees.

  • 13969.
    Shen, Yang
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Tuning Compiler Optimization Options via Simulated Annealing2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    To find a good set of options for a particular CPU and particular software is actually a difficult task. Some tool based on genetic algorithm like AcovEA exists, it will compile and run each program a lot of times, this is a obviously a huge problem if we want to use this tool with programs who have a long execution time, to try bigger problem, the classical example could be to optimize a long genetic algorithm search. The objective of this project is to develop a tool (we name it AcovSA) with the same purpose as AcovEA but based on Simulated Annealing. With bigger benchmark given – scheduling problem with some test data DAG (Directed Acyclic Graph) and finally find the good OOS (optimization options set), from more than 60 optimization options, for compiling the programs with GCC C compiler on a Linux platform. At last, comparing the benchmarks’ running time by compiling with the good OOS obtain from AcovSA and AcovEA to see both the advantages and disadvantages on two methods.

  • 13970.
    Sheremet, Margarita
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Moving Image Production.
    Progressionen av bildkompositionsmetoden negative space av Hoyte Van Hoytemas filmfoto i filmen Her (2013)2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose of the essay was to find out the photographic composition negative space’s progression, in the cinematography of Her (2013), and correlation to the main character's emotional state. The result was analyzed with the help of a composition analysis, dramaturgical analysis and an emotional theory. Three photos from each dramaturgical act (nine in total) were chosen to establish and create a relation to the main character’s emotional state. The result shows that negative space functions as an important visual medium, through collaboration with other photographic composition methods, to create imbalance and unease, or symmetry and harmony for the main character in Her. When the main character is alone, sad or emotionally unstable, negative space shrinks and isolates him through vast space, whereas when he is happy and positive negative space (in collaboration with other compositions) leads the eye and focus directly to him. The progression of negative space also shows a distinctive affinity to the main character’s romantic relationship, which shows that the progression relates and depends on the romantic bond.

  • 13971.
    Shi, Min
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Road and Traffic Signs Recognition using Vector Machines2006Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) is a system that builds a safe, effective and integrated transportation environment based on advanced technologies. Road signs detection and recognition is an important part of ITS, which offer ways to collect the real time traffic data for processing at a central facility. This project is to implement a road sign recognition model based on AI and image analysis technologies, which applies a machine learning method, Support Vector Machines, to recognize road signs. We focus on recognizing seven categories of road sign shapes and five categories of speed limit signs. Two kinds of features, binary image and Zernike moments, are used for representing the data to the SVM for training and test. We compared and analyzed the performances of SVM recognition model using different features and different kernels. Moreover, the performances using different recognition models, SVM and Fuzzy ARTMAP, are observed.

  • 13972.
    Shi, Xiaomeng
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Determinants of choosing vacation accommodation: among Students at Högskolan Dalarna2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The research objective of the study is to offer a tentative survey for future, which

    could figure out determinants of choosing vacation accommodation of Students at

    Högskolan Dalarna. Under the research objective, this research focuses on two

    research questions. The first research question is to figure out the choosing of hotels

    by students at Högskolan Dalarna in their travelling. The following research question

    is to identify key factors that could influence the choosing of vacation accommodation

    of students at Högskolan Dalarna. After literature review regarding consumer decision

    making include the concepts of consumer decision making, consumer decision

    making in the hotel industry, consumer preference and consumer satisfaction, and the

    consumer decision making framework, this research carries out a questionnaire which

    could be used for further research. The questionnaire includes the investigation of

    demographic information of the participators, their consuming behaviors during their

    travelling, and items that might exert significant influences on their choosing of

    vacation accommodation during their travelling. Determinants of choosing vacation

    accommodation are identified as include four aspects: socio-economic influences,

    cultural influences, family influences, and reference group influence via the consumer

    decision making process of students at Högskolan Dalarna during their travelling. The

    study could lay a good foundation for further researches, focusing on finding out

    determinants of choosing vacation accommodation by students at Högskolan Dalarna.

  • 13973.
    Shinka Vikström, Malwa
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work.
    Fem lärares röster: En studie om hur likvärdighet tolkas i en gymnasieskola2015Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie syftar till att med hjälp av intervjuer undersöka fem lärares uppfattning av begreppet likvärdighet i en gymnasieskola.

    Detta gjordes med hjälp av den fenomenografiska ansatsen för att kunna undersöka om det råder variation i dessa fem lärares tolkningar av begreppet likvärdighet. Detta gjordes även i anslutning till det demokratiska uppdraget som är nära kopplat till likvärdighet.

    Resultatet visar att informanterna har fem olika uppfattningar av likvärdighet. Tolkningarna är:

     Likvärdighet som hänsynstagandet till elevers förutsättningar och behov,

     Likvärdighet som ett bra bemötande oavsett geografiskt läge, kön eller social bakgrund,

     Hinder för likvärdighet,

     Likvärdighet som likvärdig bedömning samt

     Likvärdighet som uppnående av mål.

    Resultatet visar även att de flesta informanter har flera tolkningar av vad likvärdighet innebär. Detta i sin tur har gjort att informanternas svar med avseende på tolkning av likvärdighet har placerats i mer än en kategori. Resultatet visar även att informanterna arbetar utifrån det kompensatoriska perspektivet, demokrati och det demokratiska deltagarperspektivet i strävan att erbjuda en likvärdig skola till alla.

  • 13974.
    Shinka Vikström, Malwa
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Swedish as Second Language.
    Kommunikativ kompetens: En studie om kommunikationsstrategier bland flerspråkiga gymnasielever i ett klassrumssammanhang2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 13975.
    Shipton, Robert
    Dalarna University, School of Languages and Media Studies, English.
    From the Protestant American Dream to a Glimpse of a Buddhist Alternative2004Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
  • 13976. Shlipak, Michael G
    et al.
    Matsushita, Kunihiro
    Ärnlöv, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Medical Science.
    Inker, Lesley A
    Katz, Ronit
    Polkinghorne, Kevan R
    Rothenbacher, Dietrich
    Sarnak, Mark J
    Astor, Brad C
    Gansevoort, Ron T
    Cystatin C versus creatinine in determining risk based on kidney function2013In: New England Journal of Medicine, ISSN 0028-4793, E-ISSN 1533-4406, Vol. 369, no 10, p. 932-943Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Adding the measurement of cystatin C to that of serum creatinine to determine the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) improves accuracy, but the effect on detection, staging, and risk classification of chronic kidney disease across diverse populations has not been determined.

    METHODS: We performed a meta-analysis of 11 general-population studies (with 90,750 participants) and 5 studies of cohorts with chronic kidney disease (2960 participants) for whom standardized measurements of serum creatinine and cystatin C were available. We compared the association of the eGFR, as calculated by the measurement of creatinine or cystatin C alone or in combination with creatinine, with the rates of death (13,202 deaths in 15 cohorts), death from cardiovascular causes (3471 in 12 cohorts), and end-stage renal disease (1654 cases in 7 cohorts) and assessed improvement in reclassification with the use of cystatin C.

    RESULTS: In the general-population cohorts, the prevalence of an eGFR of less than 60 ml per minute per 1.73 m(2) of body-surface area was higher with the cystatin C-based eGFR than with the creatinine-based eGFR (13.7% vs. 9.7%). Across all eGFR categories, the reclassification of the eGFR to a higher value with the measurement of cystatin C, as compared with creatinine, was associated with a reduced risk of all three study outcomes, and reclassification to a lower eGFR was associated with an increased risk. The net reclassification improvement with the measurement of cystatin C, as compared with creatinine, was 0.23 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.18 to 0.28) for death and 0.10 (95% CI, 0.00 to 0.21) for end-stage renal disease. Results were generally similar for the five cohorts with chronic kidney disease and when both creatinine and cystatin C were used to calculate the eGFR.

    CONCLUSIONS: The use of cystatin C alone or in combination with creatinine strengthens the association between the eGFR and the risks of death and end-stage renal disease across diverse populations. (Funded by the National Kidney Foundation and others.).

  • 13977.
    Shokouhi, Faranak
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Sjuksköterskors upplevelser av palliativ vård för äldre personer på särskilda boenden: En kvalitativ studie2012Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Syftet med denna studie var att beskriva sjuksköterskornas upplevelser av palliativvård i livets slutskede på särskilda boenden i kommunal vård. Metod: Studien hade kvalitativdeskriptiv design och data samlades in med hjälp av enskilda intervjuer med niosjuksköterskor och analyserades enligt Graneheim och Lundmans kvalitativa innehållsanalys.Resultatet: Studien visade fyra teman: Att ha fungerande rutiner i arbete, Att teamarbetetfungerar är viktigt, Att ha en ömsesidig relation och Att ha kompetens i palliativ vård.Slutsats: Att ha fungerande rutiner för palliativ vård medförde att all vårdpersonal kundearbeta mot samma mål och att kontinuitet skapades. Andlig vård kunde utvecklas genom attdet ska finnas rutin för utvärdering och diskussion om detta. Ett gott teamarbete förhindradesav tidsbrist och underbemanning men underlättades av stöd från kollegor. Möjlighet att byggaupp tillit i relationen, respektera den äldres värdighet och närståendes behov var viktigt för engod vårdkvalitet. Utbildning och kompetens till all vårdpersonal behövs för att höja kvaliteteninom palliativ vård.

  • 13978.
    Shresta, Shyam Sundar
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Environmental Engineering.
    Performance Evaluation od a Concentrator Photovoltaic/Thermal Hybrid Prototype2004Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Concentrator photovoltaic/Thermal (PV/T) hybrid systems produce both electricity and thermal energy; this increases the overall efficiency of the system and reduces the cost of solar electricity. These systems use concentrators which are optical devices that concentrate sunlight onto solar cells and reduce expensive solar cell area.This work deals with the performance evaluation of a concentrator PV/T hybrid system prototype with a single-axis tracking single-mirror two-stage (SMTS) concentrator and a mono-crystalline solar cell string bonded to a thermal receiver. The concentration ratio of system is between 11 and 5.6, and was measured by a customized circuit added to a micrologger instrument. The optical efficiency of the concentrator is 33% and was measured using short-circuit current method. This value is less compared to a SMTS system which has a theoretical maximum optical efficiency of 90%. The average thermal efficiency is 15% and the electrical efficiency is 4.6% under corrected solar concentration ratio of 17.1. The overall energy efficiency of the system is 19.6%. The low efficiency is mainly explained by improper reflector geometry. The prototype’s concentrator was built using geometrical ray tracing which is generally used for drawing conic sections. However, for surfaces other than conic, like SMTS, the surface interaction of the incident rays at two or more points make ray tracing a computationally intensive process and often the surfaces are far away from ideal surface. This work includes a review of current concentrator PV/T hybrid activities which shows that a variety of systems are in use and the combined thermal and electrical efficiency one such system has approached up to 70%. A wide range of concentrator reflector material are available for solar energy use, but long term performance and durability of low cost materials for application in high concentration systems which operates at high temperature need to be studied thoroughly.

  • 13979. Shukur, Ghazi
    et al.
    Rönnegård, Lars
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Framtida utmaningar för forskarutbildningen i statistik2013In: Qvintensen, ISSN 2000-1819, no 4, p. 21-21Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 13980. Shungin, Dmitry
    et al.
    Winkler, Thomas W
    Croteau-Chonka, Damien C
    Ferreira, Teresa
    Locke, Adam E
    Mägi, Reedik
    Strawbridge, Rona J
    Pers, Tune H
    Ärnlöv, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Medical Science. Uppasla universitet.
    Mohlke, Karen L
    New genetic loci link adipose and insulin biology to body fat distribution2015In: Nature, ISSN 0028-0836, E-ISSN 1476-4687, Vol. 518, no 7538, p. 187-196Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Body fat distribution is a heritable trait and a well-established predictor of adverse metabolic outcomes, independent of overall adiposity. To increase our understanding of the genetic basis of body fat distribution and its molecular links to cardiometabolic traits, here we conduct genome-wide association meta-analyses of traits related to waist and hip circumferences in up to 224,459 individuals. We identify 49 loci (33 new) associated with waist-to-hip ratio adjusted for body mass index (BMI), and an additional 19 loci newly associated with related waist and hip circumference measures (P < 5 x 10(-8)). In total, 20 of the 49 waist-to-hip ratio adjusted for BMI loci show significant sexual dimorphism, 19 of which display a stronger effect in women. The identified loci were enriched for genes expressed in adipose tissue and for putative regulatory elements in adipocytes. Pathway analyses implicated adipogenesis, angiogenesis, transcriptional regulation and insulin resistance as processes affecting fat distribution, providing insight into potential pathophysiological mechanisms.

  • 13981.
    Si, Wei
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Education and Earnings for Poverty Reduction: Short-Term Evidence of Pro-Poor Growth from the Mexican Oportunidades Program2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Education, as an indispensable component of human capital, has been acknowledged to play a critical role in economic growth, which is theoretically elaborated by human capital theory and empirically confirmed by evidence from different parts of the world. The educational impact on growth is especially valuable and meaningful when it is for the sake of poverty reduction and pro-poorness of growth. The paper re-explores the precious link between human capital development and poverty reduction by investigating the causal effect of education accumulation on earnings enhancement for anti-poverty and pro-poor growth. The analysis takes the evidence from a well-known conditional cash transfer (CCT) program — Oportunidades in Mexico. Aiming at alleviating poverty and promoting a better future by investing in human capital for children and youth in poverty, this CCT program has been recognized producing significant outcomes. The study investigates a short-term impact of education on earnings of the economically disadvantaged youth, taking the data of both the program’s treated and untreated youth from urban areas in Mexico from 2002 to 2004. Two econometric techniques, i.e. difference-in-differences and difference-in-differences propensity score matching approach are applied for estimation. The empirical analysis first identifies that youth who under the program’s schooling intervention possess an advantage in educational attainment over their non-intervention peers; with this identification of education discrepancy as a prerequisite, further results then present that earnings of the education advantaged youth increase at a higher rate about 20 percent than earnings of their education disadvantaged peers over the two years. This result indicates a confirmation that education accumulation for the economically disadvantaged young has a positive impact on their earnings enhancement and thus inferring a contribution to poverty reduction and pro-poorness of growth.

  • 13982.
    Sidenvall, Johan
    et al.
    Linköping University.
    Jäder, Jonas
    Linköping University.
    Sumpter, Lovisa
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Mathematics Education.
    Mathematical reasoning and beliefs in non-routine task solving2015In: Current State of Research on Mathematical Beliefs XX: Proceedings of the MAVI-20 Conference September 29 - October 1, 2014, Falun, Sweden / [ed] Lovisa Sumpter, Falun: Högskolan Dalarna, 2015, p. 115-125Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores low performing upper secondary school students’ mathematical reasoning when solving non-routine tasks in pairs. Their solutions were analysed using a theoretical framework about mathematical reasoning and a model to study beliefs as arguments for choices. The results confirm previous research and three themes of beliefs are used by the student. These themes are safety, expectations, and motivation. The results also show a connection between beliefs and imitative reasoning as a way to solve non-routine tasks. 

  • 13983.
    Sidenvall, Johan
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier.
    Lithner, Johan
    Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre, Umeå University, Sweden.
    Jäder, Jonas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier.
    Students’ reasoning in mathematics textbook task-solving2015In: International journal of mathematical education in science and technology, ISSN 0020-739X, E-ISSN 1464-5211, Vol. 46, no 4, p. 533-552Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study reports on an analysis of students’ textbook task-solving in Swedish upper secondary school. The relation between types of mathematical reasoning required, used, and the rate of correct task solutions were studied. Rote learning and superficial reasoning were common, and 80% of all attempted tasks were correctly solved using such imitative strategies. In the few cases where mathematically founded reasoning was used, all tasks were correctly solved. The study suggests that student collaboration and dialogue does not automatically lead to mathematically founded reasoning and deeper learning. In particular, in the often common case where the student simply copies a solution from another student without receiving or asking for mathematical justification, it may even be a disadvantage for learning to collaborate. The results also show that textbooks’ worked examples and theory sections are not used as an aid by the student in task-solving.

  • 13984.
    Sidén, Anna
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Söderberg, Therese
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Föräldrars upplevelse av stöd då barnet har diagnosen ADHD: En intervjustudie mixad design2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The aim of the study was to examine parents' experiences of support when the child has been diagnosed with ADHD, and to investigate the relevance of statements in an instrument intended to measure parental support .

    Method: The study was conducted with mixed method. Through interviews with narrative- and think- aloud technique qualitative data was obtained and analyzed by content analysis. Quantitative data from the survey responses were reported with descriptive statistics. Think- aloud technique yielded qualitative data that was used to test the relevance of the allegations contained in the instrument. Both the qualitative and quantitative analysis was done in parallel.

    Results: Content analysis resulted in four categories and twelve subcategories where both positive and negative experiences of support emerged . The results showed that parents feel supported when they are confirmed, BUP is there, thechild is confirmed and by BUP as supportive organisation.  As for the relevance of the statements there emerged logical problems, timing problems, vocabulary problems and inklusions-/exklusionsproblem.

    Conclusion: Positive and negative experiences of parent support emerged from the interviews and survey responses. The parents requested more availible support , practical advice and alternative therapies and were positive to be confirmed, be informed and staff expertise .The instrument was shown to be relevant in the context of child and adolescent psychiatry . Addition of timeframe and further interrogation area would improve the instrument.

  • 13985.
    Sigfridsson, Aleks
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work.
    Lärares användning av NTA:s digitala "Kroppen": En studie baserad på intervjuer med lärare och elever för att undersöka om NTA:s digitala läromedel "Kroppen" kan främja elevers intresse och lärande i årskurs 4-6.2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie är att undersöka hur lärare beskriveratt NTA:s digitala läromedel "Kroppen" kan användas för att stödja elevers lärande i naturvetenskap samt vilka upplevelser elever beskriver i samband med arbete med NTA:s digitala läromedel "Kroppen"?

    Studiens metod utgörs av kvalitativa intervjuer med fyra lärare och fyra fokusgrupper med tre elever i vardera fokusgrupp samt en femte fokusgrupp med fyra elever. Det teoretiska ramverk studien utgått ifrån är det sociokulturella perspektivet.

    Resultatet från lärarintervjuerna visar att NTA:s digitala läromedel "Kroppen" har en för hög nivå på faktatexterna samtidigt som de tredimensionella (3D) modellerna skapar förståelse för hur kroppen fungerar. Resultatet visar även att lärarna kan behöva stödja eleverna i att se samband mellan de digitala kunskaperna de skaffar sig och det verkliga livet. Resultatet visat att om NTA:s digitala läromedel gällande människokroppen ska fungera mer optimalt behöver lärare arbeta med de naturvetenskapliga begreppen för att skapa en förförståelse innan eleverna börjar arbeta med läromedlet "Kroppen"

    . Resultatet från lärar- och elevintervjuerna visar också att berättelsen i NTA:s digitala läromedel "Kroppen" skapar engagemang och motivation hos eleverna för att genomföra alla uppdrag och laborationer, men att texterna lämpar sig för de högre årskurserna. Eleverna i studien uttrycker även att de upplever att 3D-modellerna hjälper dem att förstå svåra naturvetenskapliga begrepp. Det eleverna dock saknar är fler fysiska laborationer, vilka lärare som tänker använda sig av NTA:s digitala läromedel "Kroppen" kan tänka på i sin framtida undervisning.

  • 13986.
    Sigvardsson, Beatrice
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work.
    Film i historieundervisning: En litteraturstudie om filmens didaktiska betydelse för elever i historieundervisning i grundskolan2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie har varit att, utifrån aktuell forskning, urskilja vilken didaktisk betydelse film kan ha i undervisning i ämnet historia i grundskolan. För att besvara studiens frågeställningar har en systematisk litteraturstudie genomförts i vilken vetenskaplig forskning inom området har sökts, granskats och analyserats. Resultaten visar att filmens betydelse som pedagogiskt verktyg i historie-undervisning kan delas in i tre kategorier; film som betydelse för elevers motivation, film som betydelse för elevers ökade förståelse för ämnet, samt film som betydelse för elevers kritiska tänkande. Vidare har möjligheter och svårigheter med film som pedagogiskt verktyg utifrån de tre kategorierna urskilts. Resultatet visar på olika aspekter av möjligheter och svårigheter med film, där fokus ligger på förförståelse och elevers meningsskapande.

  • 13987.
    Sigvardsson, Dan
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Psychology.
    Pendlingens påverkan på KASAM2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Många hushåll och individer har i dagens samhälle tvingats börja pendla till sina arbeten bl.a. på grund av en förändrad arbetsmarknad. Syftet med föreliggande studie var att se om individer som pendlar regelbundet har ett lägre KASAM. Utgångspunkten var att individer med en mer extern kontrollokus ofta har lägre KASAM och att pendling hypotetiskt sett bör påverka individen lokus i en extern riktning. Sammanlagt 27 försökspersoner i åldrarna 22 – 50 år undersöktes med hjälp av KASAM test och I-E test. Deltagarna togs med bekvämlighetsurval från ett nordiskt flygbolag i Sverige, där 13 personer pendlande till arbetet och 14 var bosatta på arbetsorten, vilket visade att KASAM var signifikant lägre på 5 % nivå för de pendlande individerna, samt att kontrollokus var signifikant mer externt, också på 5 % nivå. Vidare forskning bör fokusera på individer från andra branscher för att se om resultaten är allmänna.

  • 13988. Silander, Daniel
    et al.
    Öhlén, MatsDalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Political Science.
    Svensk politik och EU: Hur svensk politik har förändrats av medlemskapet i2016Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 13989.
    Silfverling, Andreas
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    Shaker, Salam
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    MVC och Redux effektivitet vid webbutveckling: En jämförelse mellan arkitekturstrukturerna MVC och Redux2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Over the last decade, web development has seen a tremendously high increase in its evolution. To assist with the high performance applications these days, developers are using architectural patterns. These architectural patterns focus on separating data, so that data management does not have consequences due to changes. Two of these architecture patterns are Model-View-Controller (MVC) and Redux. These two architectural patterns tackle the same problem in two different ways, MVC with its bi-directional flow and Redux with its unidirectional flow. The aim of this thesis has been to investigate and compare the two architectural patterns MVC and Redux, to find out which of these is the most effective. To gain knowledge of the subject a theoretical study of web-based sources and documentation has been made. The practical investigation has consisted of performing an experiment with a predetermined hypothesis with two prototypes against each other. One prototype is structured according to MVC guidelines and the other according to Redux guidelines. Two operations were performed to measure which prototype was the most efficient in terms of deleting and adding data in the prototypes, this was then iterated ten times to obtain the desired data flow in both prototypes. The result of the experiment was consistent with our predetermined hypothesis. The result of the experiment showed that the Redux prototype executed faster than the MVC prototype.

  • 13990.
    Sillanpää, Mika
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Klockarmats, Julia
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Sjuksköterskans omvårdnadsåtgärder för att förebygga fall hos patienter med demenssjukdom på somatiska vårdavdelningar Litteraturöversikt2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: På somatiska vårdavdelningar är fallrisken hög då det gäller patienter

    med demenssjukdom. Olika faktorer leder till att denna patientgrupp riskerar att

    inneha hög fallfrekvens på sjukhus.

    Syftet är att beskriva hur sjuksköterskan med hjälp av omvårdnadsåtgärder kan

    förebygga fall hos patienter med demenssjukdom på somatiska vårdavdelningar.

    Metod som valts är en litteratur översikt som är baserad på 15 vetenskapliga

    artiklar av både kvalitativ- och kvantitativansats.

    Resultat: Att identifiera vilka faktorer som leder till ökad fallrisk är ett viktigt

    arbete för sjuksköterskan för att kunna sätta in rätt omvårdnadsåtgärder.

    Upprättandet av individanpassat fallpreventionsprogram kan förebygga fall genom

    att patientens styrkor och svagheter identifieras. Vårdmiljön har en stor betydelse

    för patienter med demenssjukdom för att motverka risken för fallolyckor. Genom

    att samverka med andra professioner kan sjuksköterskan få ett större urval av

    omvårdnadsåtgärder i det fallförebyggande arbetet. Olika sorters hjälpmedel kan

    användas i omvårdnaden och därmed förebygga fall och framförallt fallskador.

    Slutsats: Fallolyckor innebär svåra skador hos äldre patienter med demens med

    en lång vårdtid och ökat lidande som följd. Det bör därför ligga i sjuksköterskans

    intresse att mer systematiskt använda sig av någon av tidigare nämnda

    omvårdnadsåtgärder då de hjälper till att förhindra fallolyckor i hög grad.

  • 13991. Silva, C. N. S
    et al.
    McFarlane, S. E
    Hagen, I. J
    Rönnegård, Lars
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics. Department of Animal Breeding and Genetics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala.
    Billing, A. M
    Kvalnes, T
    Kemppainen, P
    Rønning, B
    Ringsby, T. H
    Husby, A
    Insights into the genetic architecture of morphological traits in two passerine bird species2017In: Heredity, ISSN 0018-067X, E-ISSN 1365-2540, Vol. 119, no 3, p. 197-205Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge about the underlying genetic architecture of phenotypic traits is needed to understand and predict evolutionary dynamics. The number of causal loci, magnitude of the effects and location in the genome are, however, still largely unknown. Here, we use genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data from two large-scale data sets on house sparrows and collared flycatchers to examine the genetic architecture of different morphological traits (tarsus length, wing length, body mass, bill depth, bill length, total and visible badge size and white wing patches). Genomic heritabilities were estimated using relatedness calculated from SNPs. The proportion of variance captured by the SNPs (SNP-based heritability) was lower in house sparrows compared with collared flycatchers, as expected given marker density (6348 SNPs in house sparrows versus 38 689 SNPs in collared flycatchers). Indeed, after downsampling to similar SNP density and sample size, this estimate was no longer markedly different between species. Chromosome-partitioning analyses demonstrated that the proportion of variance explained by each chromosome was significantly positively related to the chromosome size for some traits and, generally, that larger chromosomes tended to explain proportionally more variation than smaller chromosomes. Finally, we found two genome-wide significant associations with very small-effect sizes. One SNP on chromosome 20 was associated with bill length in house sparrows and explained 1.2% of phenotypic variation (VP), and one SNP on chromosome 4 was associated with tarsus length in collared flycatchers (3% of VP). Although we cannot exclude the possibility of undetected large-effect loci, our results indicate a polygenic basis for morphological traits.

  • 13992.
    Simberg, Erik
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Political Science.
    DEN NYA SOCIALDEMOKRATISKA VÄLJARKÅREN: En statistisk klassanalys av den socialdemokratiska väljarkåren under 46 år2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay sets out to describe the changes of social class distribution and the meaning of class in the electorate of the Swedish social democrats from the start of the second half of the 20th century until today. The purpose is to see if a traditional political left/right perspective is still a relevant way of seeing and describing the electorate of the Swedish social democrats.

    The method chosen to answer this question is a statistical class analysis which is applied on Swedish election studies from 1964-2010. This essay differentiates between objective class and subjective class. Objective class is based on a division of occupation while subjective class is based the individual class experience.

    The essay concludes that changes have indeed occurred in both class distribution and in the meaning of class for the electorate of the Swedish social democrats. The traditional left/right perspective is still valid and class has still a part to play in explaining the voting behaviour of the Swedish social democrats electorate. But its validity of the traditional left/right perspective and the explanatory power has weakened during the last 50 years, which suggests that other political perspectives is needed today to more fully understand both the electorate of the Swedish social democrats and the Swedish electorate as a whole.

  • 13993. Simmel, Georg
    Främlingen2011In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 48, no 2, p. 65-69Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 13994.
    Simpson, Tina
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sociology.
    Kärlek, till ett annorlunda barn: En litteraturstudie av bemötande och attityder gentemot familjer med diagnosbärande barn.2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The issue of diagnosed children has been heavily debated in the media over the

    past decade. This study deals with the issue of diagnosis from a family perspective

    and utilizes a method of thematic analysis trough a literature review of four

    autobiographies that describes the parents experience of the diagnosis issue

    regarding attitudes and responses towards their children and family. The purpose is

    to create a greater understanding of the family situation and to explore new

    approaches and strategies to counter psychological affliction and exclusion in

    society. The results show a widespread exclusion based on the main themes,

    internal and external influences. These themes represent exclusion factors like for

    example inexperience in dealing with power bearing institutions such as schools

    and health facilities and creates few opportunities for socialization processes due

    to the child's disability, stigma. Both of these themes can be seen as a result of

    sensory deprivation. The attitudes and responses of society towards the stigma

    bearing child has a great negative impact on the families with diagnosed children.

  • 13995.
    Sinal, Bou Aram
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Sound and Music Production.
    Filmarbetare reflekterar över sina arbetssituationer: En kvalitativ studie om problem och svårigheter i början av fyra filmarbetares karriärer2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I den här uppsatsen undersöks yrkesgrupperna filmarbetare och skådespelare, detta är för att ge en bild av de första åren i yrkena. Den grundläggande frågeställningen är: Vilka svårigheter eller problem förekommer ofta tidigt i en filmarbetares yrkeskarriär? Studien är kvalitativ och använder djupintervjuer som metod för att samla information ifrån tre filmarbetare och en skådespelare som berättar om deras erfarenheter. Intervjuerna är utförda utifrån ett hermeneutistiskt förhållningssätt för att djupare förstå och tolka sociala aspekter av arbetsprocesserna som respondenterna beskriver. Resultatet visar att många av problemen bottnar i materialistiska faktorer så som bristande resurser och lång övertid utan ersättning. Även problem som brister i erfarenhet och kompetens hos arbetsledningen och medarbetare, vilket ibland kan ge problematiska konsekvenser för produktionen. En annan aspekt är hur det sociala förhållningsättet under en filminspelning ibland kan problematisera en filmarbetares kommunikation med andra medarbetare. Genom att applicera bland annat Pierre Bourdieus teorier om kapital och habitus har resultatet analyserats utifrån ett sociologiskt perspektiv, för att vidare förstå sociala relationer mellan filmarbetare.

  • 13996.
    Sinander, Daniel
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Huber, Patrik
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Företagisering av ideella elitfotbollsföreningar: En kvalitativ studie på individnivå i två Allsvenska fotbollsföreningar2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I och med en ökad kommersialisering och professionalisering har föreningar inom svensk elitfotboll börjat efterlikna affärsmässiga verksamheter. Detta kallas företagisering och gränsen mellan den ideella och privata sektorn blir alltmer otydlig. I och med företagiseringen kan föreningarna ta vara på möjligheter från båda sektorerna men samtidigt kan problem uppstå då krav från både ideella och privata sektorn ställs. I denna studie undersöks fenomenet företagisering i två Allsvenska elitfotbollsföreningar. Genom intervjuer med ideella och avlönade arbetare i föreningarna ger studien en ökad förståelse av personalens uppfattningar om företagisering och identifierar problem och möjligheter som kan uppstå. Det krävs professionella anställda, med en hög kompetens och expertis, som sköter den löpande verksamheten. Både ideella och avlönade arbetare ser utvecklingen som positiv och nödvändig för föreningar på elitnivå. Utifrån studiens resultat kan fler möjligheter än problem identifieras i en företagiserad förening vilket tyder på att detta är en positiv utveckling för svenska elitfotbollsföreningar

  • 13997.
    Sinanovic, Haris
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Larsson, Ludvig
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Undersökning om fotbollsutövande gymnasieelevers uppfattningar av skaderisk på konstgräs respektive naturgräs: En kvantitativ enkätundersökning2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    The aim with this study is investigate football practicing high school students’ perceptions of risk of injury on artificial turf and natural grass.

    Methods

    A quantitative questionnaire survey including 46 participating football practicing high school students. The Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test was used to calculate the mean and to distinguish statistically significant differences between the different groups, match and training on artificial turf and natural grass. The Chi-Square crosstab post-hoc test was used to distinguish statistically significant differences between the different types of injury on the respective game grounds

    Results

    The results in this study showed that the participating football practicing high school students’ perceived that the injury risk of acute- and overload injuries was higher on artificial turf than on natural grass, both during training and match. The difference between the different groups, acute and overload injuries during training and match on articial turf and natural grass was statistically significant as the level of significancewas less than p <0.05. The injury types that the participating football practicing high school students perceived to be the most common on artificial turf was abrasion/ laceration. The injury types that the participating football practicing high school students perceived to be the most common on natural grass were musclesprain/ strain. The difference between the different groups, musclesprain/ strain as well as abrasion/ laceration on artificial turf and natural grass was statistically significant as the level of significance was less than p <0.05.

    Conclusions

    This study confirms that the participating football practicing high school students’ perceptions concur with what previous studies have shown about elite football players' perceptions of injury risk on artificial turf in comparison with natural grass. The risk of acute and overload injuries is perceived to increase when playing on artificial turf in comparison to natural grass. Qualitative research methods could contribute to deeper understanding of the subject itself, as well as experiences of perceptions of injuries and types of injury on respective turfs. In order to draw further conclusions, should future studies include more participants.

  • 13998.
    Sindahebura, Jonathan
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, French.
    La traduction des pronoms relatifs du français au suédoisdans les documents du Parlement Européen2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study on the translation of the documents of the European Parliament observes and

    examines the difficulty that is in the translation of relatives clauses from French to

    Swedish. Particular interest is given to the translation of relative pronouns that will be

    shown to have different linguistic values in the two languages.

    Guided by previous studies of a similar nature in this field, this essay uses a mainly

    quantitative method that seeks to calculate the number of relative clauses that either keep

    or lose their relative pronouns when they are translated into Swedish. Then comes a

    qualitative commentary of the results that are found in the quantification of these small but

    very important words.

    The issue of translating the style of a text is one that is intrinsic to and omnipresent in the

    work of translators in the European Union. Thus, this essay attempts to find whether the

    removal or avoidance of relative pronouns, in Swedish texts that have as a source

    language French, extenuates this task and makes the text more accessible to the Swedish

    audience at large

  • 13999. Singh, Gitanjali M
    et al.
    Danaei, Goodarz
    Farzadfar, Farshad
    Stevens, Gretchen A
    Woodward, Mark
    Wormser, David
    Kaptoge, Stephen
    Whitlock, Gary
    Qiao, Qing
    Ezzati, Majid
    The age-specific quantitative effects of metabolic risk factors on cardiovascular diseases and diabetes: a pooled analysis2013In: PloS one, ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, no 7, p. e65174-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The effects of systolic blood pressure (SBP), serum total cholesterol (TC), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), and body mass index (BMI) on the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) have been established in epidemiological studies, but consistent estimates of effect sizes by age and sex are not available.

    METHODS: We reviewed large cohort pooling projects, evaluating effects of baseline or usual exposure to metabolic risks on ischemic heart disease (IHD), hypertensive heart disease (HHD), stroke, diabetes, and, as relevant selected other CVDs, after adjusting for important confounders. We pooled all data to estimate relative risks (RRs) for each risk factor and examined effect modification by age or other factors, using random effects models.

    RESULTS: Across all risk factors, an average of 123 cohorts provided data on 1.4 million individuals and 52,000 CVD events. Each metabolic risk factor was robustly related to CVD. At the baseline age of 55-64 years, the RR for 10 mmHg higher SBP was largest for HHD (2.16; 95% CI 2.09-2.24), followed by effects on both stroke subtypes (1.66; 1.39-1.98 for hemorrhagic stroke and 1.63; 1.57-1.69 for ischemic stroke). In the same age group, RRs for 1 mmol/L higher TC were 1.44 (1.29-1.61) for IHD and 1.20 (1.15-1.25) for ischemic stroke. The RRs for 5 kg/m(2) higher BMI for ages 55-64 ranged from 2.32 (2.04-2.63) for diabetes, to 1.44 (1.40-1.48) for IHD. For 1 mmol/L higher FPG, RRs in this age group were 1.18 (1.08-1.29) for IHD and 1.14 (1.01-1.29) for total stroke. For all risk factors, proportional effects declined with age, were generally consistent by sex, and differed by region in only a few age groups for certain risk factor-disease pairs.

    CONCLUSION: Our results provide robust, comparable and precise estimates of the effects of major metabolic risk factors on CVD and diabetes by age group.

  • 14000. Singtoroj, T.
    et al.
    Tärning, J.
    Annerberg, A.
    Ashton, M.
    Bergqvist, Yngve
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Chemical Engineering.
    White, N.
    Lindegårdh, N.
    Day, N.A.
    A new approach to evaluate regression models during validation of bioanalytical assays2006In: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis, ISSN 0731-7085, E-ISSN 1873-264X, Vol. 41, no 1, p. 219-227Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The quality of bioanalytical data is highly dependent on using an appropriate regression model for calibration curves. Non-weighted linear regression has traditionally been used but is not necessarily the optimal model. Bioanalytical assays generally benefit from using either data transformation and/or weighting since variance normally increases with concentration. A data set with calibrators ranging from 9 to 10 000 ng/mL was used to compare a new approach with the traditional approach for selecting an optimal regression model. The new approach used a combination of relative residuals at each calibration level together with precision and accuracy of independent quality control samples over 4 days to select and justify the best regression model. The results showed that log–log transformation without weighting was the simplest model to fit the calibration data and ensure good predictability for this data set.

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