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  • 14251. Spännar, Jan
    et al.
    Wide, Peter
    Sohlberg, Björn
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Electrical Engineering.
    A method for measuring strip temperature in the steel industry2005In: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, ISSN  0018-9456, Vol. 51, no 6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the steel industry, there are many processes that include measuring and control of temperatures. With higher demand on quality, increased production, and effective energy consumption, the use of noncontact temperature measuring techniques has increased. After the cooling section in a continuous annealing-pickling line, the strip temperature is estimated by using the grey box technique. Temperatures are measured in the cavity between the strip and the roller using radiation thermometers. A model is made for estimating strip temperature using the measured temperatures and knowledge of the physics of the process.

  • 14252. Spännar, Jan
    et al.
    Wide, Peter
    Sohlberg, Björn
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Electrical Engineering.
    Estimation of a Non-Measurable Variable Using Grey Box Modelling2001In: IEEE Instrumentation and Measurement Technology Conference / [ed] Sohlberg, Björn, Budapest, 2001Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the steel industry, there are many processes that include measuring and control of temperatures. With higher demand on quality, increased production and effective energy consumption the use of non-contact temperature measuring techniques has increased. A model is developed for estimating strip temperature using measured temperatures and knowledge of physics of the process.

  • 14253.
    Spännar, Therese
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work.
    ”Alla barn är likadana oavsett kultur”: En studie i om hur pedagoger uppfattar och genomför sitt arbete imångkulturella barngrupper i förskolan2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Dagens förskola är under förändring. Allt fler familjer har anlänt till Sverige som flyktingar och barnen börjar i förskolor runtom i landet. Förskolans läroplan, Lpfö 98 (rev. 2016) beskriver att förskolans pedagoger ska arbeta med att synliggöra kulturella skillnader och värderingar i barngrupperna för att gynna barnens förutsättningar för att leva i ett internationaliserat samhälle. Studiens syfte är att bidra med ytterligare kunskap om hur förskolepedagoger ser på arbetet med att möjliggöra förståelse och öppenhet hos barn om kulturell mångfald. Frågeställningar som använts är: Vad är pedagogernas uppfattning om sitt uppdrag att bidra till att främja barnens möjligheter till att förstå och möta olika kulturer? Hur beskriver pedagogerna arbetet med kulturell mångfald? Metoden som använts för att genomföra studien är kvalitativ intervju och fyra stycken pedagoger intervjuades. Slutsatser av resultatet visade att pedagogerna är genuint intresserade av de nya kulturerna kommit till deras avdelningar men problem fanns med språklig kommunikation. Kulturellt arbete ansåg pedagogerna var beroende av föräldrar från andra kulturer men problematiserades utifrån att pedagogerna inte visste om föräldrarna hade negativa upplevelser från deras hemländer.Barn från andra kulturer och länders lärande lyftes inte fram av pedagogerna. Arbetet med kulturer skulle gynna svenska barns lärande vilket gör att slutsatsen kan dras att förskolans monokulturella traditioner tas för givet i verksamheten. Pedagogerna sammanförde icke önskvärda beteenden med kulturell tillhörighet vilket kan skapa uppdelningar och negativa konsekvenser för barnen. Mer kunskaper behövs hos förskolans pedagoger samt gemensamma diskussioner i arbetslagen där begreppet kultur definieras.

  • 14254.
    Spånberg, Jarl
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies.
    Sjuksköterskans upplevda svårigheter i omvårdnaden vid oväntade dödsfall: En litteraturöversikt2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Syftet med denna litteraturöversikt var att beskriva vilka svårigheter i

    omvårdnaden sjuksköterskan kunde uppleva vid oväntade dödsfall och hur

    sjuksköterskan kunde förbereda sig på det. Metod: Studien genomfördes som en

    litteraturöversikt där artiklarna söktes via CINAHL, Med Line, PubMed samt

    SUMMON via Högskolan. Resultat: Resultatet baserades på 13 artiklar.

    Resultatet delades upp i underrubriker: Sjuksköterskan upplevde situationen som

    krävande, beskriver hur sjuksköterskan upplever olika situationer som kan uppstå

    vid plötsliga dödsfall. Att bli känslomässigt berörd, beskriver hur olika situationer

    berör sjuksköterskans inre, Etiska problem, där de olika etiska dilemman som kan

    uppstå lyfts. Svårigheter i genomförande av omvårdnaden, beskriver konkreta

    omvårdnadsproblem. Spänning mellan professionella och personliga upplevelser i

    omvårdnaden samt Kommunikation och bemötande. I dessa underrubriker lyfts hur

    svårt sjuksköterskor upplever kommunikation på olika nivåer Slutsats: Resultatet

    i denna studie visar att majoriteten av sjuksköterskorna anser att det var deras

    ansvar och uppgift att ta hand om anhöriga till personer som plötsligt avlidit.

    Sjuksköterskor kände sig dåligt förberedda att axla det ansvar det innebar att stödja

    anhöriga vid oväntade dödsfall. En grundläggande utbildning på

    sjuksköterskeprogrammet gällande omvårdnad vid död och döende saknades och

    efterfrågades då resultatet påvisade att sjuksköterskan kände sig osäker och

    behövde mer kompetens inom ämnesområdet.

  • 14255.
    Spånberg, Linn
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work.
    Att skriva sig till läsning med hjälp av datorn: En systematisk litteraturstudie om för- och nackdelar med datorn som skrivverktyg vid läs- och skrivinlärning.2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna litteraturstudie är att sammanställa befintlig forskning om läs- och skrivutvecklingsmetoden ASL och dess för- och nackdelar. Syftet har konkretiserats genom frågeställningen: Vilka argument finns för och emot metoden ASL,

    att skriva sig till läsning med datorn som skrivverktyg? Frågeställningen i studien har besvarats genom en systematisk litteraturstudie där författaren har analyserat och granskat forskning om metoden. Genom sökningar i olika databaser och manuella sökningar har forskning hittats. Det finns lite forskning inom området eftersom metoden är relativt ny och därmed är det svårt att hitta forskning på svenska. Metoden har visat sig ha positiva effekter på dels den sociala interaktionen bland elever samt motivationen till läs- och skrivutvecklingen där datorn används i undervisningen. Lärarna har ej använt enbart ASL utan kombinerat den med andra traditionella metoder där pennan används som skrivverktyg.

  • 14256.
    Spånberg, Linn
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work.
    Möjligheter och svårigheter för lärare och elever med ASL i den tidiga läs- och skrivundervisningen: En intervjustudie om lågstadielärares uppfattningar om metoden ASL2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien är att undersöka lärares uppfattningar om metoden att skriva sig till läsning, ASL, i den tidiga läs- och skrivundervisningen i årskurs 1–3. Sex semistrukturerade intervjuer är genomförda med lågstadielärare som arbetar med ASL i undervisningen. Den teoretiska ansats som valts för studien är det sociokulturella perspektivet på lärande vars vanligaste tolkning är att lärande sker i ett socialt sammanhang. I det valda perspektivet är språket ett redskap. I det sociokulturella perspektivet är det viktigt att reflektera över hur artefakterna används i lärandet. Studiens resultat visar att ingen av lärarna enbart använder sig av metoden ASL i undervisningen, utan de kombinerar ASL med andra metoder. Lärarna ser flera positiva effekter i elevernas läs- oh skrivlärande genom användning av ASL. De lyfter fram ökad motivation, förmåga att skriva längre texter och bättre läsförmåga. De negativa effekterna som framkommer i undersökningen är färre. Samtliga lärare är överens om att en negativ effekt av användandet av ASL är när datorn/ipaden inte fungerar vilket leder till att lärarna inte kan genomföra sin undervisning. Samverkan mellan skola och hem är också en faktor som är negativ när eleverna glömt att ladda sin dator/ipad eller glömt den hemma.

  • 14257.
    Spångmyr, Marie
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies.
    Hur arbetar tränare inom orientering för att förebygga skador?2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 14258. Squires, Janet E
    et al.
    Estabrooks, Carole A
    Gustavsson, Petter
    Wallin, Lars
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Individual determinants of research utilization by nurses: a systematic review update2011In: Implementation science, ISSN 1748-5908, Vol. 6, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Interventions that have a better than random chance of increasing nurses' use of research are important to the delivery of quality patient care. However, few reports exist of successful research utilization in nursing interventions. Systematic identification and evaluation of individual characteristics associated with and predicting research utilization may inform the development of research utilization interventions.

    OBJECTIVE: To update the evidence published in a previous systematic review on individual characteristics influencing research utilization by nurses.

    METHODS: As part of a larger systematic review on research utilization instruments, 12 online bibliographic databases were searched. Hand searching of specialized journals and an ancestry search was also conducted. Randomized controlled trials, clinical trials, and observational study designs examining the association between individual characteristics and nurses' use of research were eligible for inclusion. Studies were limited to those published in the English, Danish, Swedish, and Norwegian languages. A vote counting approach to data synthesis was taken.

    RESULTS: A total of 42,770 titles were identified, of which 501 were retrieved. Of these 501 articles, 45 satisfied our inclusion criteria. Articles assessed research utilization in general (n = 39) or kinds of research utilization (n = 6) using self-report survey measures. Individual nurse characteristics were classified according to six categories: beliefs and attitudes, involvement in research activities, information seeking, education, professional characteristics, and socio-demographic/socio-economic characteristics. A seventh category, critical thinking, emerged in studies examining kinds of research utilization. Positive relationships, at statistically significant levels, for general research utilization were found in four categories: beliefs and attitudes, information seeking, education, and professional characteristics. The only characteristic assessed in a sufficient number of studies and with consistent findings for the kinds of research utilization was attitude towards research; this characteristic had a positive association with instrumental and overall research utilization.

    CONCLUSIONS: This review reinforced conclusions in the previous review with respect to positive relationships between general research utilization and: beliefs and attitudes, and current role. Furthermore, attending conferences/in-services, having a graduate degree in nursing, working in a specialty area, and job satisfaction were also identified as individual characteristics important to research utilization. While these findings hold promise as potential targets of future research utilization interventions, there were methodological problems inherent in many of the studies that necessitate their findings be replicated in further research using more robust study designs and multivariate assessment methods.

  • 14259. Squires, Janet E
    et al.
    Estabrooks, Carole A
    O'Rourke, Hannah M
    Gustavsson, Petter
    Newburn-Cook, Christine V
    Wallin, Lars
    Karolinska Institutet.
    A systematic review of the psychometric properties of self-report research utilization measures used in healthcare2011In: Implementation Science, ISSN 1748-5908, E-ISSN 1748-5908, Vol. 6, no 83Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: In healthcare, a gap exists between what is known from research and what is practiced. Understanding this gap depends upon our ability to robustly measure research utilization.

    OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this systematic review were: to identify self-report measures of research utilization used in healthcare, and to assess the psychometric properties (acceptability, reliability, and validity) of these measures.

    METHODS: We conducted a systematic review of literature reporting use or development of self-report research utilization measures. Our search included: multiple databases, ancestry searches, and a hand search. Acceptability was assessed by examining time to complete the measure and missing data rates. Our approach to reliability and validity assessment followed that outlined in the Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing.

    RESULTS: Of 42,770 titles screened, 97 original studies (108 articles) were included in this review. The 97 studies reported on the use or development of 60 unique self-report research utilization measures. Seven of the measures were assessed in more than one study. Study samples consisted of healthcare providers (92 studies) and healthcare decision makers (5 studies). No studies reported data on acceptability of the measures. Reliability was reported in 32 (33%) of the studies, representing 13 of the 60 measures. Internal consistency (Cronbach's Alpha) reliability was reported in 31 studies; values exceeded 0.70 in 29 studies. Test-retest reliability was reported in 3 studies with Pearson's r coefficients > 0.80. No validity information was reported for 12 of the 60 measures. The remaining 48 measures were classified into a three-level validity hierarchy according to the number of validity sources reported in 50% or more of the studies using the measure. Level one measures (n = 6) reported evidence from any three (out of four possible) Standards validity sources (which, in the case of single item measures, was all applicable validity sources). Level two measures (n = 16) had evidence from any two validity sources, and level three measures (n = 26) from only one validity source.

    CONCLUSIONS: This review reveals significant underdevelopment in the measurement of research utilization. Substantial methodological advances with respect to construct clarity, use of research utilization and related theory, use of measurement theory, and psychometric assessment are required. Also needed are improved reporting practices and the adoption of a more contemporary view of validity (i.e., the Standards) in future research utilization measurement studies.

  • 14260.
    Sreenath, Kurupati
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Material Science.
    High Accuracy Alignment Assembly Fixture with Parallel Movement2004Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
  • 14261.
    Sridhar, Gopu
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Environmental Engineering.
    Simulation Of a solar absorption cooling system for hot climate2002Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A detailed study of solar absorption cooling has been initiated at European Solar Engineering School, Högskolan Dalarna for the first time. As the initial step, in this work the various absorption technologies are reviewed. A TRNSYS model has been built to size the solar circuit and to find the optimum values for hot water temperature, cooling water temperature and chilled water set point temperatures; to get higher COP and solar faction values. A 650 m2 commercial office building (Bank) is used with TYPE 56 to estimate the cooling load. The cooling load is estimated as approximately 100 KW and Yazaki WFC-30 commercial chiller is selected and the same data is used with the TRNSYS Type 680 (Single effect hot-water fired absorption chiller) in sizing the solar circuit. The optimum value of solar collector area is found as 500 m2 flat plate collector, 6 m3 Storage volume and 80oCof hot water, 15oC Chilled water set point. Same results are achieved with a 250 m2 Evaluated tube collector under the same conditions.

  • 14262.
    Srinivas, Velaga
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Material Science.
    Electronic Setup for One-Pixel and Low Multiplex Seven Segment Liquid Crystal Displays2004Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
  • 14263.
    Srinivasan, BadriNarayanan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Unsupervised learning to cluster the disease stages in parkinson's disease2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder (after Alzheimer's disease) and directly affects upto 5 million people worldwide. The stages (Hoehn and Yaar) of disease has been predicted by many methods which will be helpful for the doctors to give the dosage according to it. So these methods were brought up based on the data set which includes about seventy patients at nine clinics in Sweden. The purpose of the work is to analyze unsupervised technique with supervised neural network techniques in order to make sure the collected data sets are reliable to make decisions. The data which is available was preprocessed before calculating the features of it. One of the complex and efficient feature called wavelets has been calculated to present the data set to the network. The dimension of the final feature set has been reduced using principle component analysis. For unsupervised learning k-means gives the closer result around 76% while comparing with supervised techniques. Back propagation and J4 has been used as supervised model to classify the stages of Parkinson's disease where back propagation gives the variance percentage of 76-82%. The results of both these models have been analyzed. This proves that the data which are collected are reliable to predict the disease stages in Parkinson's disease.

  • 14264.
    Ssemakula, Hamzah
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Materials Technology.
    Minimization of stock weight during close-die forging of a spindle2013In: Materials Sciences and Applications, ISSN 2153-117X, E-ISSN 2153-1188, Vol. 4, p. 217-224Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, Finite Element method and full-scale experiments have been used to study a hot forging method for fabri-cation of a spindle using reduced initial stock size. The forging sequence is carried out in two stages. In the first stage, the hot rolled cylindrical billet is pre-formed and pierced in a closed die using a spherical nosed punch to within 20 mm of its base. This process of piercing or impact extrusion leads to high strains within the work piece but requires high press loads. In the second stage, the resulting cylinder is placed in a die with a flange chamber and upset forged to form a flange. The stock mass is optimized for complete die filling. Process parameters such as effective strain distribution, material flow and forging load in different stages of the process are analyzed. It is concluded from the simulations that minor modifications of piercing punch geometry to reduce contact between the punch and emerging vertical walls of the cylinder appreciably reduces the piercing load. In the flange chamber, a die surfaces angle of 52° instead of 45° is pro-posed to ensure effective material flow and exert sufficient tool pressure to achieve complete cavity filling. In order to achieve better compression, it is also proposed to shorten both the length of the inserted punch and the die “tongues” by a few mm.

  • 14265.
    Staaf, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Graphic/Arts Technology.
    Jämförande analys mellan svenska och portugisiska reklambyråer.: Saker som är bra att veta om man ska arbeta som grafisk formgivare i Sverige eller i Portugal2005Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    If you move from Sweden to Portugal to work as an Art Director at an Ad agency, there are certain things you ought to know. Perhaps even before you decide to move. There are a lot of things that are quite different if you compare Portugal to Sweden, not only the language, but also the design, software, working hours and much more. You have for example two month with double salary, you work till six p.m. and when it comes to maternity leave, you have 100% compensation with no taxes the first four months of every pregnancy. The tasks you have to handle as an Art Director in Portugal may, as in Sweden, be various. The difference is more how you solve your task and what the design looks like. As a Swede in Portugal the solution will probably look like a mixture between the Portuguese “expressive” and the Swedish “clean” design. This degree project discusses questions that might turn up when a Swede gets employed as an Art Director in Portugal. What will the salary be? When, in the morning, is it time to show up at the office? How many weeks of vacations are entitled? There are a lot of distinctions, but also a lot of similarities. The report is mainly based upon the author’s own experiences of the Ad agency McCann-Erickson in Lisbon. The history of McCann-Erickson starts in New York, 1930 and grew rapidly into one of the leading corporation with agencies all over the world. It is still today one of the world’s largest Ad company with clients like Coca-Cola and General Motors, and the slogan “truth well told” still lights up all their agencies after almost a century, just like a leading star.

  • 14266.
    Staffan, Johanna
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Tucan Oldgren, Sofia
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Effekter av att använda musik som omvårdnadsåtgärd för personer med demenssjukdom – En litteraturöversikt2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: People are growing older and dementia is expected to become an increasing problem. There is no available cure, but symptoms can be inhibited by pharmacological treatments, often with side effects. People with dementia often develop behavioral changes that are difficult to respond to for caregivers. With the nature of the disease and the different symptoms occuring, a person-centered care is preferable to promote participation and integrity. Aim: To conclude current research on the effects of music in the nursing care of people with dementia. Method: A literature review based on (n=18) articles from ten countries. Quantitative (n=12), qualitative (n=5) and mixed method (n=1) articles were used from CINAHL, Pubmed and Web of Science. After the analysis, differences and similarities in the articles created themes and subthemes. Results: Music interventions proved to have positive effects, regarding BPSD, cognitive functions and psychopharmacological treatment. Music could contribute to increased association between caregivers and people with dementia. The caregivers and family members' perceptions of the effects of music were mixed, however, the views were consistent that music should be used as a nursing measure. Conclusion: Music has a positive impact on people with dementia and BPSD by acting as a person-centered nursing measure and should be implemented more.

  • 14267.
    Staffansson, Denise
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work.
    Pollack, Matilda
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work.
    Anknytning – de yngre barnens första tid i förskolan: En studie om fyra förskollärares resonemang om anknytning för de yngre barnen i förskolan2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie var att synliggöra hur förskollärare resonerar angående de yngre barnens första tid i förskolan. För att komma fram till detta har kvalitativa intervjuer använts som metod. Intervjuerna har spelats in med hjälp av ljudupptagning. Den teori som använts för att analysera och tolka materialet är Bowlby’s anknytningsteori.

    Förskollärarna berättar om olika metoder de använt sig av vid det yngre barnets första tid i förskolan, de lyfter tydligt fram att barnen ska vara trygga i förskolan, att alla barn är olika och har olika behov och att pedagogerna måste anpassa den första tiden i förskolan efter varje individ. Förskollärarna menar även att det är viktigt att barnen hittar en annan trygghet än sin förälder på förskolan, då pedagogen kommer att blir en vikarierande anknytningsperson till barnet.

    Samtliga förskollärare uttalar sig om hur betydelsefullt det är att vårdnadshavarna får ta del av verksamheten och att de ska känna sig trygga med att lämna sitt barn på förskolan. Är vårdnadshavarna trygga med att lämna barnet i förskolan blir barnet tryggt. Det är viktigt att fokuset inte ligger på att barnet ska bli lämnat på förskolan, utan fokus ska ligga på att barnet ska känna sig trygg av att vara på förskolan.

    Förskollärarna har lite olika syn på anknytning hos barnen den första tiden i förskolan. En metod är att utöka tiden för dagen successivt för att barnet ska skapa en trygg anknytning till pedagogerna. Barnen ska få ta del av alla rutiner i förskolan innan det börjar sina ordinarie tider för att en trygghet ska kunna skapas. En annan metod är att barnet ska vistas några timmar under förmiddagen på förskolan den första tiden för att skapa en anknytning till pedagogerna, och att rutinerna för dagen faller sig naturligt för barnet senare när det börjar sina schemalagda tider.

  • 14268.
    Staffas, Ulrika
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work.
    Barns naturvetenskapliga lärande i förskolans miljö: En studie om utforskandet av och förutsättningar för barns naturvetenskapliga lärande samt pedagogers användande av läroplanen2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här studien handlar om hur barns naturvetenskapliga utforskande kan ske på två förskolor, och hur pedagogerna använder läroplanen i det naturvetenskapliga lärandet. I undersökningen användes följande frågeställningar: Hur upptäcker barnen naturvetenskap i förskolans miljö? Vilka förutsättningar finns i förskolan för barnens naturvetenskapliga lärande enligt observationer och intervjuer? På vilket sätt beskriver pedagogerna att de införlivar läroplanen i det naturvetenskapliga lärandet?

    För att söka svar på frågeställningarna användes metoderna observation och intervju vid två olika förskolor i en medelstor kommun. Data från genomförda observationer, barn- samt pedagogintervjuer har analyserats för att söka efter mönster och nyckelord.

    Analyserna visade att barn utforskar naturvetenskap i förskolans miljö i sin lek samt genom sin kropp och sina sinnen. Barnen behöver vara aktiva och delaktiga i sitt lärande, förklarade de intervjuade pedagogerna. Pedagogerna bör finnas tillhands som medforskare för att ta tillvara barnens intressen och ställa frågor som väcker deras fortsatta utforskande och nyfikenhet. Det naturvetenskapliga arbetet dokumenterades genom bilder som användes för reflektion och som diskussionsunderlag för barn och vuxna.

    Pedagogernas intresse och engagemang för ämnet naturvetenskap är troligen en faktor som påverkar hur förskolorna arbetar med naturvetenskap. En annan faktor för barns utforskande är vilken miljö de erbjuds, både närmiljön och den miljö som pedagogerna kan påverka och utforma. De studerade förskolorna arbetar med läroplanen regelbundet genom att de utvärderar verksamheten mot läroplanens mål och riktlinjer. Detta ses som ett ständigt utvecklande av verksamheten för att stimulera och väcka barns naturvetenskaplig utforskande.

  • 14269.
    Stagnebo, Pernilla
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    Reklam på sociala medier – personlig eller integritetskränkande?: En studie om användares syn på individ anpassad reklam2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today many companies focus their advertising on social media. Based on the

    users behaviour they can design individual advertisement for the user. There are 2.2

    billion active users on Facebook world wide which makes it a gratefull place for

    advertisement. Facebook have the right to collect data about you and your behavior on the

    website and on other websites connecting with Facebook. As a Facebook user you have

    accepted these terms of service. You get more interesting advertisement in your

    Facebook-feed but it might also make you feel that ”big brother is watching you”.

    The purpose of this study is to describe how comfortable users in social media are with

    organisations collecting data to make individualized advertisement. A questionnaire was

    sent to 100 Facebook users including eight different scenarios on data collecting. The

    respondents answered how comfortable they were with each scenario. Results showed that

    the majority of the respondents where uncomfortable with all scenarios. The most

    uncomfortable scenario would be if a cellphone eavesdropped into a private conversation

    and then showed an ad about the product the people were talking about. Another sensitive

    subject was collecting data for individual advertisement from political parties. Some

    respondents also thought that there were too much advertisement on Facebook. However,

    the majority of the respondents said no to the idea of paying for Facebook in order to

    avoid advertisement.

    Finally, it was argued that the respondents wasn’t sure on what type of data Facebook

    were collecting. The answer can be found in the terms of service. A discussion about a

    simplification on user agreements were made.

  • 14270. Stanaway, Jeffrey D
    et al.
    Afshin, Ashkan
    Gakidou, Emmanuela
    Lim, Stephen S
    Abate, Degu
    Abate, Kalkidan Hassell
    Abbafati, Cristiana
    Abbasi, Nooshin
    Ärnlöv, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Medical Science. Karolinska institutet.
    Murray, Christopher J. L
    Global, regional, and national comparative risk assessment of 84 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of risks for 195 countries and territories, 1990-2017: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 20172018In: The Lancet, ISSN 0140-6736, E-ISSN 1474-547X, Vol. 392, no 10159, p. 1923-1994Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2017 comparative risk assessment (CRA) is a comprehensive approach to risk factor quantification that offers a useful tool for synthesising evidence on risks and risk outcome associations. With each annual GBD study, we update the GBD CRA to incorporate improved methods, new risks and risk outcome pairs, and new data on risk exposure levels and risk outcome associations. 

    Methods We used the CRA framework developed for previous iterations of GBD to estimate levels and trends in exposure, attributable deaths, and attributable disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs), by age group, sex, year, and location for 84 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or groups of risks from 1990 to 2017. This study included 476 risk outcome pairs that met the GBD study criteria for convincing or probable evidence of causation. We extracted relative risk and exposure estimates from 46 749 randomised controlled trials, cohort studies, household surveys, census data, satellite data, and other sources. We used statistical models to pool data, adjust for bias, and incorporate covariates. Using the counterfactual scenario of theoretical minimum risk exposure level (TMREL), we estimated the portion of deaths and DALYs that could be attributed to a given risk. We explored the relationship between development and risk exposure by modelling the relationship between the Socio-demographic Index (SDI) and risk-weighted exposure prevalence and estimated expected levels of exposure and risk-attributable burden by SDI. Finally, we explored temporal changes in risk-attributable DALYs by decomposing those changes into six main component drivers of change as follows: (1) population growth; (2) changes in population age structures; (3) changes in exposure to environmental and occupational risks; (4) changes in exposure to behavioural risks; (5) changes in exposure to metabolic risks; and (6) changes due to all other factors, approximated as the risk-deleted death and DALY rates, where the risk-deleted rate is the rate that would be observed had we reduced the exposure levels to the TMREL for all risk factors included in GBD 2017. 

    Findings In 2017,34.1 million (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 33.3-35.0) deaths and 121 billion (144-1.28) DALYs were attributable to GBD risk factors. Globally, 61.0% (59.6-62.4) of deaths and 48.3% (46.3-50.2) of DALYs were attributed to the GBD 2017 risk factors. When ranked by risk-attributable DALYs, high systolic blood pressure (SBP) was the leading risk factor, accounting for 10.4 million (9.39-11.5) deaths and 218 million (198-237) DALYs, followed by smoking (7.10 million [6.83-7.37] deaths and 182 million [173-193] DALYs), high fasting plasma glucose (6.53 million [5.23-8.23] deaths and 171 million [144-201] DALYs), high body-mass index (BMI; 4.72 million [2.99-6.70] deaths and 148 million [98.6-202] DALYs), and short gestation for birthweight (1.43 million [1.36-1.51] deaths and 139 million [131-147] DALYs). In total, risk-attributable DALYs declined by 4.9% (3.3-6.5) between 2007 and 2017. In the absence of demographic changes (ie, population growth and ageing), changes in risk exposure and risk-deleted DALYs would have led to a 23.5% decline in DALYs during that period. Conversely, in the absence of changes in risk exposure and risk-deleted DALYs, demographic changes would have led to an 18.6% increase in DALYs during that period. The ratios of observed risk exposure levels to exposure levels expected based on SDI (O/E ratios) increased globally for unsafe drinking water and household air pollution between 1990 and 2017. This result suggests that development is occurring more rapidly than are changes in the underlying risk structure in a population. Conversely, nearly universal declines in O/E ratios for smoking and alcohol use indicate that, for a given SDI, exposure to these risks is declining. In 2017, the leading Level 4 risk factor for age-standardised DALY rates was high SBP in four super-regions: central Europe, eastern Europe, and central Asia; north Africa and Middle East; south Asia; and southeast Asia, east Asia, and Oceania. The leading risk factor in the high-income super-region was smoking, in Latin America and Caribbean was high BMI, and in sub-Saharan Africa was unsafe sex. O/E ratios for unsafe sex in sub-Saharan Africa were notably high, and those for alcohol use in north Africa and the Middle East were notably low. 

    Interpretation By quantifying levels and trends in exposures to risk factors and the resulting disease burden, this assessment offers insight into where past policy and programme efforts might have been successful and highlights current priorities for public health action. Decreases in behavioural, environmental, and occupational risks have largely offset the effects of population growth and ageing, in relation to trends in absolute burden. Conversely, the combination of increasing metabolic risks and population ageing will probably continue to drive the increasing trends in non-communicable diseases at the global level, which presents both a public health challenge and opportunity. We see considerable spatiotemporal heterogeneity in levels of risk exposure and risk-attributable burden. Although levels of development underlie some of this heterogeneity, O/E ratios show risks for which countries are overperforming or underperforming relative to their level of development. As such, these ratios provide a benchmarking tool to help to focus local decision making. Our findings reinforce the importance of both risk exposure monitoring and epidemiological research to assess causal connections between risks and health outcomes, and they highlight the usefulness of the GBD study in synthesising data to draw comprehensive and robust conclusions that help to inform good policy and strategic health planning.

  • 14271. Stanciu, V.
    et al.
    Wilhelmsson, O.
    Bexell, Ulf
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Material Science.
    Adell, M.
    Sadowski, J.
    Kanski, J.
    Warnicke, P.
    Svedlindh, P.
    Influence of annealing parameters on the ferromagnetic properties of optimally passivated (Ga,Mn)As epilayers2005In: Physical Review B. Condensed Matter and Materials Physics, ISSN 1098-0121, E-ISSN 1550-235X, Vol. 72, no 12, article id 125324Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of annealing parameters—temperature (Ta) and time (ta)—on the magnetic properties of As-capped (Ga,Mn)As epitaxial thin films has been investigated. The dependence of the transition temperature (TC) on ta marks out two regions. The TC peak behavior, characteristic of the first region, is more pronounced for thick samples, while for the second ("saturated") region the effect of ta is more pronounced for thin samples. A right choice of the passivation medium, growth conditions along with optimal annealing parameters routinely yield TC-values of ~150 K and above, regardless of the thickness of the epilayers

  • 14272.
    Stannard, S
    et al.
    Institute of Food, Nutrition and Human Health, Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand.
    Hawke, Emma
    Institute of Food, Nutrition and Human Health, Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand.
    Schnell, N
    Fonterra Research Centre, Palmserston North, New Zealand.
    The effect of galactose supplementation on endurance cycling performance2009In: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0954-3007, E-ISSN 1476-5640, Vol. 63, no 2, p. 209-214Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES:

    This study tested the hypothesis that supplementation with galactose before and during endurance exercise would spare carbohydrate (CHO), optimize fat utilization and improve performance compared with a typical sports drink formulation.

    SUBJECTS:

    Nine well-trained cyclists undertook three trials, each consisting of 120 min at 65 VO(2max) followed immediately by a set work, self-paced time trial (TT). Three treatments, allocated as a randomized balanced design, consisted of the following: (a) 8% (w/w) solution of galactose (Gal); (b) 8% solution of 50% galactose/50% glucose (Gluc/Gal); and (c) 8% solution of 80% glucose/20% fructose (Gluc/Fru). These were consumed as 0.67 g CHO per kg body wt 45-min pre-exercise; 1.0 g CHO per kg body wt per h for the first 120 min of exercise; 0.33 g CHO per kg body wt during the TT. Blood samples were collected before and during exercise; respiratory gas samples were collected only during fixed workload exercise.

    RESULTS:

    Mean TT power output was significantly less in Gal compared with Gluc/Gal (P=0.030). Blood glucose and insulin concentrations were lower, and free fatty acids higher in Gal compared with Gluc/Gal and Gluc/Fru. Respiratory exchange ratio was not significantly different between trials.

    CONCLUSIONS:

    Ingestion of an 8% galactose-only solution (12.5 ml per kg body wt per h) is detrimental to endurance performance compared with equivalent volumes of iso-osmotic solutions containing 50% galactose/50% glucose or 80% glucose/20% fructose. This may reflect the inability of the liver to convert galactose into glucose at a rate required to support strenuous exercise intensity.

  • 14273.
    Starck, Jessica
    Dalarna University, School of Languages and Media Studies, Italian.
    Nuovo cinema paradiso e maléna: la sicilia in due film di Giuseppe Tornatore2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
  • 14274.
    Stark, Agneta
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Don´t disturb the men: a viable gender-equality strategy2008In: Global perspectives on gender equality: reversing the gaze / [ed] Stark, Agneta; Kabeer, Naila; Magnus, Edda, London: Routledge , 2008, p. 229-243Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 14275.
    Stark, Agneta
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Warm hands in cold age: gender and aging2007Book (Other academic)
  • 14276.
    Stark, Agneta
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Warm hands in cold age: on the need of a new world order of care2005In: Feminist Economics, ISSN 1354-5701, E-ISSN 1466-4372, Vol. 11, no 2, p. 7-36Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The world is aging as fertility and mortality are both decreasing. This article focuses on practical care work for the elderly. Such work is done primarily by women even though a larger portion than previously is paid rather than unpaid. All over the world, most elderly care work is organized within the family, most often unpaid. Men receive more care from partners than women, while women receive more care from female relatives. When care work is paid, the payment is generally low. A comparison between Germany, Spain, and Sweden demonstrates similar gender patterns, even though the role of the state in supporting care differs considerably as do care workers' conditions. The sustainability of today's distribution and organization of care work is questioned as the need for care increases, and the possibility of more equal sharing of care work between women and men is explored.

  • 14277.
    Stark, Anna
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Psychology.
    Arbetstillfredsställelse inom äldrevården hos enhetschefer och övrig vårdpersonal2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien var att studera skillnader mellan enhetschefers och övrig personals upplevelse av sin nuvarande arbetsmiljö inom äldrevården. Totalt 692 personer ingick i undersökningen. Upplevelsen mättes i 10 dimensioner och inom varje dimension räknades t-test. Det fanns signifikanta skillnader i dimensionerna Stimulans, Tankearbete, och Praktiskt arbete (p=0,000). Tankearbete och Stimulans värderades högre av enhetschefer i motsats till övrig personal vilken värderade Praktiskt arbete högre. Behovet av vårdpersonal inom äldreomsorgen ökar, dels på grund av befolkningens ökande livslängd och dels på grund av att yngre personer inte är intresserade av att stanna inom äldrevården. Detta leder till ökade kostnader och en sämre vård. Resultatet diskuterades utifrån gruppsykologiskt perspektiv, anknytningsmönster och personlighetstyp. Resultatet kan ge vägledning i utarbetandet av en attraktiv arbetsplats inom äldrevården.

  • 14278.
    Starkenberg, Frida
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work.
    Digitala anpassningar i svenskundervisning: En studie om mellanstadielärares anpassningar, med fokus på digitala verktyg för att stimulera elevernas läs- och skrivförmåga i svenskundervisningen2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattningsvis handlar denna studie om att undersöka hur mellanstadielärare i svenska arbetar med anpassningar i sitt klassrum, med fokus på hur de använder sig av digitala verktyg i sin undervisning för att ge alla elever möjligheten att utveckla sin läs- och skrivförmåga. Studiens övergripande syfte mynnar ut i två specifika frågeställningar. Den första berör hur svensklärare på mellanstadiet anpassar sin undervisning för att ge eleverna i klassrummet möjligheten att utveckla sin läs- och skrivförmåga genom digitala verktyg. Den andra handlar om vilka kunskaper svensklärare har i att göra anpassningar för att stötta elevernas utveckling i att läsa och skriva. Studien utgår från det sociokulturella perspektivet och har en kvalitativ metodansats där data kommer att samlas in genom observationer och intervjuer med verksamma svensklärare på mellanstadiet.

  • 14279.
    Stattin, Eva
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Wood Technology.
    Falsk akacia bör långnattbehandlas2000Report (Other academic)
  • 14280.
    Stattin, Eva
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Wood Technology.
    Gentekniken tar steget in i plantskolorna2001Report (Other academic)
  • 14281.
    Stattin, Eva
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Wood Technology.
    Germination test of spruce seeds glued to the growing medium2005Report (Other academic)
  • 14282.
    Stattin, Eva
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Wood Technology.
    Härdighetsbedömning av Salixkloner: Projekt ingående i "Lokal produktion och konsumtion. EKOKRAFT - Hedemora"1999Report (Other academic)
  • 14283.
    Stattin, Eva
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Wood Technology.
    Root freezing tolerance and storability of Scots pine and Norway spruce seedlings1999Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    http://epsilon.slu.se/avh/1999/91-576-5639-8.pdf

  • 14284.
    Stattin, Eva
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Wood Technology.
    Test of germination in different types of mixtures of Preforma substrates for growing mini seedlings2005Report (Other academic)
  • 14285.
    Stattin, Eva
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Wood Technology.
    The application of cDNA microarray technology for unravelling molecular events underlying dormancy and cold hardiness in forest tree seedlings: A first step towards the development of molecular diagnostic test for cost efficient reforestation and nursery logistics2005Report (Other academic)
  • 14286.
    Stattin, Eva
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Wood Technology.
    The application of cDNA microarray technology for unravelling molecular events underlying dormancy and cold hardiness in forest tree seedlings.: A first step towards the development of molecular diagnostic test for cost efficient reforestation and nursery logistics2002Report (Other academic)
  • 14287.
    Stattin, Eva
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Wood Technology.
    The application of cDNA microarray technology for unravelling molecular events underlying dormancy and cold hardiness in forest tree seedlings: A first step towards the development of molecular diagnostic test for cost efficient reforestation and nursery logistics2003Report (Other academic)
  • 14288.
    Stattin, Eva
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Wood Technology.
    The application of cDNA microarray technology for unravelling molecular events underlying dormancy and cold hardiness in forest tree seedlings: A first step towards the development of molecular diagnostic test for cost efficient reforestation and nursery logistics2004Report (Other academic)
  • 14289.
    Stattin, Eva
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Wood Technology.
    Hellqvist, Claes
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Wood Technology.
    Lindström, Anders
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Wood Technology.
    Storability and root freezing tolerance of Norway spruce seedlings2000In: Canadian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0045-5067, E-ISSN 1208-6037, Vol. 30, p. 964-970Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 14290.
    Stattin, Eva
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Forest and Wood Technology.
    Lindström, Anders
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Forest and Wood Technology.
    Användarvänligt och snabbt vitalitetstest2008Report (Other academic)
  • 14291.
    Stattin, Eva
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Forest and Wood Technology.
    Lindström, Anders
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Forest and Wood Technology.
    Elektrolytiskt läckage visar plantornas vitalitet2008In: Plantaktuellt, ISSN 1403-3321, no 4Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 14292.
    Stattin, Eva
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Wood Technology.
    Lindström, Anders
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Wood Technology.
    Influence of soil temperature on root freezing tolerance of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.)1999In: Plant and Soil, ISSN 0032-079X, E-ISSN 1573-5036, Vol. 217, p. 173-181Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 14293.
    Stattin, Eva
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Wood Technology.
    Lindström, Anders
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Wood Technology.
    Metodutveckling för tidig upptagning och säker fryslagring av täckrotsplantor av tall2004Report (Other academic)
  • 14294.
    Stattin, Eva
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Forest and Wood Technology.
    Lindström, Anders
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Forest and Wood Technology.
    Rejält hett i kartongen!2008In: Plantaktuellt, ISSN 1403-3321, no 3Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 14295.
    Stattin, Eva
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Forest and Wood Technology.
    Lindström, Anders
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Forest and Wood Technology.
    Resultat från torktest av plantor - Delrapport 5: Långtidsuppföljning av plantor efter värmebehandling2007Report (Other academic)
  • 14296.
    Stattin, Eva
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Wood Technology.
    Lindström, Anders
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Wood Technology.
    Resultat från torktest av plantor: Delrapport 12006Report (Other academic)
  • 14297.
    Stattin, Eva
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Wood Technology.
    Lindström, Anders
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Wood Technology.
    Resultat från torktest av plantor: Delrapport 2 - plantor i tillväxt2006Report (Other academic)
  • 14298.
    Stattin, Eva
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Wood Technology.
    Lindström, Anders
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Wood Technology.
    Resultat från torktest av plantor: Delrapport 3 - plantor under invintring2006Report (Other academic)
  • 14299.
    Stattin, Eva
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Wood Technology.
    Lindström, Anders
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Wood Technology.
    Resultat från torktest av plantor: Delrapport 4 - Plantor från fryslager2007Report (Other academic)
  • 14300.
    Stattin, Eva
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Wood Technology.
    Lindström, Anders
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Wood Technology.
    Sammanfattning av erfarenheter från torktester av plantor2007Report (Other academic)
283284285286287288289 14251 - 14300 of 17449
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