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  • 151.
    Agyeiwaa Owusu, Jacqueline
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Raul Aguirre Gonzalez, Victor
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS WHICH INFLUENCE THE INTERNATIONALIZATION OF SMEs: A Case Study from a Ghanaian SME. 2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim:

    The purpose of this research is to develop an in-depth understanding on the environmental factors that influence the internationalization of SMEs in an emerging African market environment.

    Methods:

    The study was conducted by using a qualitative research design. To fulfil the purpose of this research, the researchers adopted the use of a single case study to explain the different aspects of the topic being studied within the emerging market context. The research was supported with primary data obtained directly from the company through interviews and also with secondary data in order to support and compare the results obtained from this research. Results were analyzed using thematic analysis with the use of the NVivo software to represent data collected.

    Results:

    The main findings of this research indicate the internationalization process of financial SMEs in an African country like Ghana is heavily influenced by the socio-cultural factors in their home market environment and the technological factors in their host markets. Again, it was realized that the internal resources of the firm, particularly the competitive advantage, remained highly relevant and influential in the internationalization process on both markets. Furthermore, it was found that the internationalization process was not only influenced by the firm’s resources or the environmental factors but also by the firm’s organizational internal processes, international activities, level of foreign experiences and firm identity.

    Conclusions:

    Environmental factors have both positive and negative influence on the internationalization process of financial SMEs in an emerging economy like Ghana. Some factors have more impact on the home market than on the host market and vice versa. In addition, the internationalization process of financial SMEs in Ghana can mostly be initiated and successful when the firm has a market gap or foothold strong enough to sustain competitive advantage in the long run on both host and home markets. More importantly, this unique edge must be buttressed by ample firm resources.

  • 152.
    Ahamed, Anees
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Accelerated Aging of First-surface Enhanced Aluminum Solar Reflectors under Damp Heat Conditions2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 25 credits / 37,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Solar reflectors are one of the main components of concentrating solar power systems. With new products being developed, durability studies become a necessity for assessing the feasibility of commercial application. In this project, accelerated aging of three types of first-surface enhanced aluminum reflectors and one type of second-surface silvered thick glass mirror under damp heat conditions is studied. The project is conducted at the Plataforma Solar de Almería (PSA), in collaboration with German Aerospace Center (DLR), and Center for Energy, Environment and Technology (CIEMAT), Spain.

     

    The study is centered on analyzing the effect of soiling on degradation of reflectors. In addition to conventional methods, space resolved specular reflectometry is utilized for comparative purpose. Damp heat test conditions are simulated in a climatic test chamber. Test is conducted with reference to International Electrotechnical Commission standard IEC 62108 10.7a: damp heat test guidelines. The reflector samples are artificially soiled with natural and synthetic test sands of varying composition. Reflector performance is assessed based on the reduction in monochromatic specular reflectance.

     

    From the tests, a comparative assessment of the candidate reflectors is obtained. Aluminum samples suffered higher degradation than silvered glass mirrors. Aluminum reflectors with polymer top coat permanently retained soil residue. It is observed that presence of chlorides and organic components caused corrosion on all the types of reflectors tested. Surface roughening is the reason for performance deterioration in most of the cases. By comparing different reflectance measurement methods, the significance of total area of the measurement spot in the measurement procedures could be highlighted. It is suggested that for studies involving artificial soiling, the grain size of sand is to be factored in.

  • 153.
    Ahl, Josefin
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, English.
    "That Little Box of Light": The Presence of Photography in John Banville’s Ghosts 2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 154.
    Ahlbeck-Rehn, Jutta
    Kvinnovetenskap, Åbo Akademi.
    Underkuvade kunskaper och genealogins möjligheter2010In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 47, no 2, p. 25-48Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Subjugated knowledges and the possibilities of genealogy

    The article explores the possibilities of “voicing” marginalized subjects by analyzing letters written by female mental patients in the beginning of the twentieth century. Following Michel Foucault, genealogy is here used as a means to explore and reclaim subjugated knowledges, i.e. knowledges that have been dismissed, distorted, disqualified and put aside by more powerful and ultimately victorious knowledge claims, in this case the psychiatric discourse. Historically oriented research on madness has often explored medical and cultural discourses and representations, as these correspond to sources that can be easily found in archives. This also means that mental patients’ own narratives and texts have been more difficult to trace, partly due to the paucity of available documentation. Herein lies a challenge: how can we represent these subjects, whose stories are inevitably always already captured and filtered by authorities, without portraying them either as passive victims or reducing them to effects of power networks? The article thus ponders research ethics, the question of Otherness and the power of representations. The difficulties in representing female patients’ “own”voices are discussed, yet the article points to the necessity of taking voices that are simultaneously in the margins and in the centre of more powerful discourses, seriously as objects of knowledge. The article argues that “the insurrection of subjugated knowledges”, i.e. bringing back such knowledges as represented here by mental patients’ narratives, opens us otherpossibilities of knowledge. Hence, mental patients’ letters are seen as important “fractures” in the official and legitimized knowledge of madness, offering alternative understandings of both committed individuals and the psychiatric discourse itself.

  • 155.
    Ahlberg, Kerstin
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Art Education.
    Danielsson, Helena
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Art Education.
    Elevrespons på bloggen2013In: Meningsskapande fritidshem: Studio som arena för multimodalt lärande / [ed] Malin Rohlin, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2013, 1, p. 81-113Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    De äldre barnen på fritidshemmet är i fokus i detta kapitel, som behandlar barns lärande vid inkludering av visuella uttryck i den pedagogiska verksamheten. Vi lät elever i tolvårsåldern inspireras att samtala om bilder och multimodala texter via en digital utställningsplats. Det övergripande syftet med vår studie var att stärka barnens förmåga att återkoppla och reflektera kring egna och andras arbeten och på så sätt öka deras förståelse både för bildskapande och för de kunskapsområden som varit föremål för deras studier. Olika temaarbeten har följts under en längre tid - projekt som äger rum i skolans sammanhang men i kapitlet diskuteras som idéer för möjligt samarbete mellan lärare på fritidshem och i skolmiljön. Konkreta exempel från barnens arbete och process varvas i kapitlet med teorier och begrepp in området visuell gestaltning och estetiska lärprocesser.

  • 156.
    Ahlborg, Linus
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, History.
    Sjöbusar: En deskriptiv studie i svensk militärrätt vid Svenska Högsjöflottan under början av 1800-talet.2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här C-uppsatsen syftar till att genom en kvantitativ studie av domböcker från Karlskrona örlogsstation under representiva krigs- och fredsår undersöka ett relativt bortglömt kapitel i svensk militärrättshistoria, nämligen brottslighet och rättspraxis för krigsmakten inom den svenska högsjöflottan mellan åren 1798 och 1812.

    Rymmning det absolut vanligaste registrerade brottsligheten och de värvade volontärerna var rymningsbenägna än de indelta båtsmänen. Straffomvandlingen vid leuteration var återkommande väldigt godtycklig, även med omständigheter borträknat. Volontärerna begick i större utsträckning under rymning flera brott samtidigt och blev också i större utsträckning, efter leuteration av krigsrättens domslut, dömda till spöstraff samt fler antal gatlopp än båtsmän. Vid dubbel legas tagning var volontärer enormt överrepresenterade, speciellt under krigsår, jämfört med båtsmän. Tydligt är att båtsmäns och volontärers skilda positioner som deltids-respektive fulltid gav avtryck i straffregistret. Underofficerarna var klart överrepresenterade när det gällde fylleri i tjänst, angrepp, samt fångförsnillning. Manskapets representation av fylleri i tjänst lyser med sin frånvaro, vilket kan förklaras av extrajudiciell hantering utanför domstol.

  • 157.
    Ahlbäck, Karin
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Holmqvist, Marianne
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Sexuell samvaro vid hjärtsjukdom2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Varje år är det cirka 38 000 personer som vårdas för hjärtsjukdom. Personer som genomgått en hjärtinfarkt kan få problem med sina sexuella relationer som en följd av sjukdomen, medicinering eller på grund av ångest. Syfte: att beskriva vanligt förekommande känslor inför sexuellt samliv hos personer med hjärtsjukdom samt beskriva hur sexualrådgivning kan erhållas av vårdpersonalen. Studien genomfördes som en litteraturöversikt. Artiklar söktes i databasen Cinahl samt genom sökmotorn Elin. Sjutton vetenskapliga artiklar, både kvantitativa och kvalitativa granskades. Resultat: personer med hjärtsjukdom känner ofta rädsla och oro inför sexuell aktivitet. Rädsla över att utlösa en hjärtinfarkt, eller till och med att dö. Även partnern till den hjärtsjuke kan känna oro och rädsla över sin maka eller make. Rådgivningen är ofta otillräcklig och bristfällig. Även där är den bristfällig till den hjärtsjukes partner. Diskussion: vården behöver bli bättre på att ta upp detta ämne till diskussion. Problemet behöver synliggöras så att personer med hjärtsjukdom och deras partner kan känna sig trygga med att återuppta sitt sexuella samliv. Slutsatsen är att sexualrådgivning till personer med hjärtsjukdom är ett eftersatt område inom sjukvården. För att förbättra vården och livskvaliteten hos personer med hjärtsjukdom behövs mer utbildning av vårdpersonalen samt utformning av riktlinjer för sexuell rådgivning.

  • 158.
    Ahlenius, Linda
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Psychology.
    Yrkesstolthetens komponenter hos anställda på Försäkringskassan Dalarna2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med föreliggande undersökning var att identifiera faktorer som bidrog till känslan av "yrkesstolthet" hos anställda vid Försäkringskassan Dalarna inkluderande personalens tillfredsställelse med yrkesrollen. Sammanlagt 163 personer, 123 kvinnor och 40 män, från 25 till 66 år (X= 49,8 år) deltog i undersökningen. Denna genomfördes med hjälp av General Nordic Questionnaire for Psychological and Social Factors at Work (QPS Nordic) inkluderande 123 frågor samt 9 frågor gällande yrkesrollen. Frågorna besvarades väsentligen med hjälp av en 5-gradig skala av Likert-typ. Huvudresultatet uträknades med hjälp av Cronbachs Alpha, Principal Component Analysis och multipel regressionsanalys. Det konstaterades att beroendevariabeln "yrkesstolthets" variation förklarades till 62,7% av oberoende-variablerna "interaktionsintelligens" "yrkesrealism", "arbetstillfredsställelse" och "arbetsengagemang". Även kön, ålder, utbildning och yrkeserfarenhet hade betydelse.

  • 159.
    Ahlenius, Linda
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Psychology.
    Törneman, Malin
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Psychology.
    Samband mellan personlighet och yrkesval2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Är poliser mer spänningssökande än andra? Det är frågan som ligger till grund för studien där syftet är att jämföra poliser med lärare i vilken utsträckning de söker spänning. Studien genomfördes med hjälp av ett frågeformulär bestående av 28 påståenden som kommer ifrån redan vedertagna skalor. Dessa är Eysenck Personality Inventory och Zuckerman’s Sensation Seeking Scale. 62 personer deltog i studien varav hälften var lärare och hälften poliser. Poliserna fick signifikant högre poäng än lärarna på de påståenden som handlade om att ta risker och fatta snabba beslut. Lärarna fick i sin tur signifikant högre poäng på de påståenden som handlar om impulsivitet gällande resor. Den slutsats man kan dra av denna studie är att poliser söker sig till arbeten som i sig innebär mer spänning medan lärare i större utsträckning söker spänning utanför arbetet.

  • 160.
    Ahlenius, Victoria
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Irarrazabal, Maria
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Sjuksköterskans upplevelse av att ge personcentrerad vård till personer med demenssjukdom: En litteraturstudie2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Dementia impairs cognitive functions, such as memory and

    speech, changing a person’s life forever. Providing person-centred care to these

    persons intend to retain their identities, dignity and autonomy. Such care demands

    time, devotion and good knowledge of the caring nurse. Dementia is expected to

    increase in the future and therefore nurses will have to face new challenges.

    Aim: To describe nurses’ experience of providing person-centred care for people

    with dementia.

    Method: A literature review of 15 articles, published between 2009-2016, that

    have been read and analysed through content-analysis.

    Results: Nurses experience a positive change in their attitudes, when providing

    person-centred care to people with dementia, as they gained better understanding

    of their patients’ dignity and integrity. Education, training and support from

    management were seen as key factors for providing up-to-date care. Time was

    viewed as a hindrance for person-centred care, and often led to nurses prioritizing

    other routines. Two common outcomes of person-centred care were increased

    satisfaction as well as emotional burnout.

    Conclusion: Since dementia is increasing and nurses find person-centred care

    time-consuming, there is a risk of such care becoming poor. To prevent this nurses

    need good leadership and education.

  • 161.
    Ahlepil, Björn
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    Jääskeleinen, Marcus
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    Shop4athletes: E-handelswebbplats och användbarhet2003Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Medvetenheten har ökat hos svenska folket om att det är viktigt att motionera och att det till viss del krävs funktionell utrustning. Situationen idag för svensk friidrott är att sporten är het med alla internationella framgångar samt att tillgången till träningsmöjligheter är stor. Trots detta är det svårt för friidrottare att hitta ett brett sortiment av friidrottsartiklar, speciellt för de som inte bor nära storstäderna. Vår affärsidé är att starta ett e-handelsföretag som ska sälja ett brett sortiment av friidrottsartiklar över Internet där marknaden är Sverige och på sikt kanske även övriga skandinaviska länder. Även om marknaden ofta är för liten i enskilda svenska städer för ett stort sortiment av friidrottsartiklar tror vi att marknaden ändå är tillräckligt stor sammantaget i Sverige. Projektet har utmynnat i en fullt funktionell e-handelswebbplats som ska kunna ligga till grund för startandet av e-handelsföretaget shop4athletes. Förutom att e-handelswebbplatsen ska vara funktionell har fokus legat på att skapa en unik, stilren och lättnavigerad webbplats som genom design och användbarhet ska kunna attrahera målgruppen.

  • 162.
    Ahlfors, Marie
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Kvinnors upplevelse av urinläckage och behov av egenvård: En kvantitativ empirisk studie2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie var att beskvirva kvinnors upplevelse, erfarenhet, behov av egenvård vid urinläckage samt om de klarade att träna bäckenbottenmuskulaturen som en del i sin egenvård. Hur kan barnmorskors och distriktssköterskors samarbete förbättras. Metod: I denna enkätstudie som gjordes i en stad i Dalarna där 51 kvinnor besökte vårdcentralernas barnmorskor och BHV- sköterskor (barnhälsovård) under fyra veckor. De kom på planerade besök till barnmorskor för efterkontroll eller cellprovtagning (30-40 år) eller till BHV-sköterskor för 18 månaders kontroll av sin baby där de besvarade enkäterna. Barnmorskorna besvarade enenkät om hur de informerade kvinnorna om bäckenbottenträning för att åtgärda eller förhindra urinläckage. Resultat: Kvinnorna hade fåttinformation om bäckenbottenträning av barnmorskorna verbalt eller skriftligt men användandet av informationen om bäckenbottenträning för att förhindra urinläckage genomfördes inte regelbundet. De flesta i denna studie ansåg att de inte hade några problem med urinläckage eller mycket sällan. De läckte urin övervägande sällan vid aktivitet och de flesta använde inte knipövningar regelbundet. Diskussion: Hur kan vården öka förståelsen för preventiv egenvård med bäckenbottenträning för att minska urinläckage. Skulle ett ökat samarbete mellan barnmorskor och distriktssköterskor underlätta för kvinnor att med egenvård lättare hantera inkontinensproblem?

  • 163.
    Ahlgren, Therese
    Dalarna University, School of Languages and Media Studies, Spanish.
    Un análisis sobre la comunicación oral en materiales didácticos de español como lengua extranjera2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
  • 164.
    Ahlin, Erik
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Moving Image Production.
    Redigeringsprogrammens påverkan på bilden: En jämförelse mellan Avid Media Composer och Adobe Premiere Pro2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Uppsatsen söker att svara på frågeställningen: Uppstår det skillnad i bildkvaliteten på material som komprimerats med redigeringsprogrammet Avid Media Composer till H.264, i jämförelse med material som har komprimerats till H.264 med Adobe Premiere Pro. Baserat på resultat från tidigare jämförelser och personlig erfarenhet är förförståelsen att det kommer finnas en märkbar skillnad men ingen av programmen kommer att överskugga den andra.Metoden som använts är att en undersökning i form av enkät har fyllts i av mediastudenter baserad på deras upplevelser av sex stycken bildexempel från varje redigeringsprogram utifrån fem faktorer som rör bildkvalitet: Kontrast, skärpa, brus, färg och rörelseåtergivning. Djupgående intervjuer har sedan utförts med fem av informanterna. Resultatet på undersökningen visar överlag små skillnader mellan Avid Media Composer och Adobe Premiere Pro. Informanterna upplevde i majoritet att materialet från Avid hade högre bildkvalitet.

  • 165. Ahlm, Kristin
    et al.
    Lindqvist, Per
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Medical Science. Karolinska institutet.
    Saveman, Britt-Inger
    Björnstig, Ulf
    Suicidal drowning deaths in northern Sweden 1992-2009: The role of mental disorder and intoxication2015In: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine, ISSN 1752-928X, E-ISSN 1878-7487, Vol. 34, p. 168-172Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Suicides by drowning have received limited attention by researchers. A recent finding that almost one-third of all drowning deaths in Sweden were classified as suicide instigated this study. We identified 129 cases of suicide by drowning in Northern Sweden and analyzed the circumstances and the psychiatric history prior to the suicide. Information was obtained from autopsy, police and medical records, as well as from the National Inpatient Register. One-third of the suicide victims had previously attempted suicide and half of the victims had been hospitalized due to mental health problems. One-third of these had left the hospital less than one week before the suicide. Alcohol and psychoactive drugs were present in 16% and 62% of the cases, respectively. A history of mental disorder and previous suicide attempt (s), especially by drowning, is an ominous combination necessitating efficient clinical identification, treatment and follow-up if a complete suicide is to be prevented.

  • 166.
    Ahlrik, Åsa
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Swedish as Second Language.
    Att arbeta med skönlitteratur inom SVA och SVE: En kvalitativ studie av hur arbete med skönlitteratur kan se ut inom SVA och SVE inom vuxenutbildningen.2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    The purpose of this study is to compare Swedish as a second language (SVA) and Swedish (SVE) with focus on how the teachers think about literary studies. Interviews with three teachers in each course have been made. The results of the study are indicative rather than measurable. The interviews show that the aspect of language is more important to the SVA-teachers. There are differences in the curriculums, not only connected to the aim of developing an acceptable language, but also in contents. The teachers in SVA chose modern literature and the teacher in SVE chose classic literature and this is coherent with the curriculum. The conclusions are that the aim on developing the language in SVA is necessary, since the students who are attending that course not have reached the same level in language as the SVE-students have. But earlier research in the subject indicates that the capability to read different kind of literature does not need to be connected with skills in language. There are no justifiable arguments for the differences in content in the curriculum according to literary studies. The students may have advantages in discussing literature in mixed classes but the prework need to be different with the starting point that the students in SVA need more help with the understanding of words. The difficulties with the understanding of the whole book do not necessarily have a connection with the difficulties with the language.

  • 167.
    Ahlstrand, Pernilla
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet.
    Björkholm, Eva
    Stockholms universitet, CeHum.
    Frohagen, Jenny
    Stockholms universitet.
    Nyberg, Gunn
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science. Stockholms universitet, CeHum.
    Learning Study as a way to inquire the meaning of knowing what is to be known: The meaning of knowing how to move in specific ways2013In: WALS - World Association of Lesson Studies, International conference 2013: Lesson and Learning Study as teacher research, 5-9 september: Conference Programme and Abstracts of papers, 2013, p. 82-82Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Learning Study inquires teaching and learning in relation to a specific object of learning. The meaning of knowing the specific object of learning is specified in the research process – in the planning and analysis of the pre-test as well as in designing and analysis of research lessons. In this symposium the focus will be on different aspects of the knowledge generation in a Learning Study concerning the meaning of knowing what is expected to be known. By inquiring teaching and learning of a specific content our knowledge regarding that content will be differentiated and deepened. The meaning of knowing a specific object of learning is a dynamic knowledge object – depending on the specific group of students in interaction with a specific content. Each new group of students will make it possible to discern new aspects of the learning object. By analyzing student difficulties as well as interactions in the classroom new aspects of the learning object will be discerned. In the symposium four different Learning Studies from different school subjects will be presented. The meaning of knowing will be explored and discussed from different angles – from the perspective of the learners (in the pre-tests) and  the teachers (in the teacher discussions) as well as from how it is constituted in the classroom interaction (documented in the videos from the research lessons).

    Chair: Ingrid Carlgren

    Discussant: Ference Marton

     

    Contributions:

    Pernilla AhlstrandLearning Study as a way to inquire about progress in acting and presence on stage.

    Theatre is a subject in upper secondary school in Sweden as part of the national aesthetic program. The new kind of syllabus is organized in relation to content areas as well as subject specific capabilities for the students to develop. The syllabus also includes criteria for the assessment of students’ capabilities – to be used when giving marks to the students and working with formative assessment or assessment for learning (Black & Wiliam, 1998, Gipps 1995. The criteria are expressed in general, non-subject specific terms. This is for example formulated as the difference between a simple and complex way of being able to express something in the theatre syllabus. In my research I investigate how learning study as a research approach and phenomenography as a method of analyzing pretests can be used as another and deepened way to describe different levels of knowing in relation to the national criteria.

    Theatre knowledge and the way knowledge is transferred is in previous research to a great extent described as tacit (Lagerström 2005, Järleby 2003, Johansson 2012). This gives theatre teachers even further challenges, trying to formulate what is described as tacit knowing (Polanyi 1958/1998 &1967/2009, Johannessen 1988, 1999, 2002, Janik 1995, 1996, Schön 1983).

    The capability of being present was found suitable as an object of learning, as it is something that teachers have experienced difficulties with when teaching and instructing. Presence is a core quality in acting and it is one of the criteria teachers agree on being of great importance when assessing a student but in what way can the knowing of the capability of being present be described?

    It will be discussed whether an outcome space (in relation to filmed material) can be a way to develop teachers and students understanding of the meaning of knowing as a help to work with assessment for learning.

     

    Eva Björkholm - The meaning of knowing how to construct a  linkage mechanism. Discerning aspects of the object of learning by analyzing classroom interactions

    This presentation describes a Learning Study within primary technology education focusing on the capability to construct a specific linkage mechanism. What one has to know in order to be able to construct a linkage mechanism is, however, not self-evident. The study reported here explores the meaning of this specific knowing. The study was conducted in collaboration with two primary school teachers and their two classes (children aged 6-7 years). Throughout the whole study step by step, starting with the analysis of the pre-test, followed by three cycles of planning and evaluation of research lessons, and the analysis of post-test, the meaning of the object of learning was specified (Marton & Pang, 2006; Carlgren, 2012). The presentation will focus on knowledge generated from the video recorded lessons by analyzing the classroom interactions and students’ difficulties that were made visible through these interactions. Teacher-student interactions as well as student-student interactions were analyzed. By analyzing students’ difficulties regarding the specific object of learning, critical aspects of the expected knowing were discerned and in this way the meaning of knowing what is expected to be known was made explicit.

    The results are presented in the form of critical aspects of what it means to know how to construct a linkage mechanism for this group of students. The critical aspects identified in the pre-test were further elaborated in the research lessons and by analyzing the classroom interactions in terms of student difficulties, additional aspects that were critical for students’ learning were identified. By gradually identifying the critical aspects, the collective understanding of the meaning of the object of learning was developed and specified.

     

    Jenny Frohagen – The meaning of knowing how to make expressions in artifacts: generating knowledge through designing lesson tasks   

    The school subject sloyd derives from a practical knowledge tradition which covers knowing in craft and art (Mäkelä, 2011; Hasselskog, 2010; Borg, 2001). However, sloyd teachers express difficulties when trying to explain and deal with aesthetic aspects when teaching sloyd (Fransson, 2010; Borg, 2007). There has been a tendency of trivializing the subject content into a shallow form of craft knowledge understood as ‘merely’ working with traditional craft techniques (Borg, 2008; Skolverket, 2005). There is a need to articulate the aesthetical features of knowing in sloyd. In my contribution I will present results from a Learning Study in sloyd focusing on the knowing of interpreting symbolic expressions in sloyd artefacts.

    In my presentation I will focus on how the iterative process of designing (short) lesson tasks given to the students during the research lessons and also in pre- and post-tests in each cycle, can be a way of understanding the object of learning. Since explicit tests of the students knowing are rarely found in sloyd education, conducting Learning Studies in sloyd can be a meaningful way of developing subject specific tasks. In this Learning Study different designs of tasks has been explored during the process as a way to inquire the knowing of interpreting symbolic expressions in sloyd artefacts. The results from this study show how the articulation of an object of learning in sloyd can be specified and validated throughout the process of designing and carrying out subject specific tests and lesson tasks. Depending on how the object of learning was articulated, the tasks/tests changed focus and the meaning of the knowing differed. By analyzing the students learning outcomes and redesigning the pre- and post-test in a Learning study as well as the given lesson tasks, new aspects of the learning object can be discerned.

     

    Gunn NybergThe meaning of knowing how to move in specific ways: embodied understanding as somatic grasping

    The subject physical education has a tradition of being a ‘practical’ subject. However, practical forms of knowing such as for example bodily awareness and capability to move (e.g. jumping, running or dancing) do not, neither for teachers nor pupils, seem to be a main issue of learning in PE (Tinning, 2010; Redelius et al, 2009,). The knowing involved in moving is not easily articulated and may, according to Polanyi (1954), “often result in explaining away quite genuine practices or experiences” (p. 385). The aim of this study is to explore and articulate the meaning of knowing how to move in a specific way exemplified through a movement called ‘house hop’.

    The study takes as it’s starting point an epistemological perspective on capability to move corresponding with Ryle’s (1949) “knowing how”, not separating mental and physical skills. Accordingly, a phenomenographic analysis of students’ experiencing of the learning object (‘house hop’) have been used.

     

    The paper draws mainly on data from video recordings of the pre-test and transcripts of two video recorded lessons from a Learning Study in upper secondary school. The findings show the meaning of knowing house hop as different ways of knowing the movement as well as several aspects to discern in order to know the movement in a powerful way.

    This presentation will focus on how students’ experiencing of a movement are expressed in their way of moving. Taking this as a starting point when teaching and learning movements can contribute to an approach to capability to move as comprising mental and physical processes as one process. Conceiving the knowing involved in ‘house hopping’ (as well as other ways of moving) this way could also contribute to a discussion concerning subject specific knowledge in PE and particularly it’s ‘practical’ dimension.

     

     

     

  • 168.
    Ahlstrand, Pernilla
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet.
    Carlgren, Ingrid
    Stockholms universitet.
    Nyberg, Gunn
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science. Stockholms universitet.
    Learning Study as a way to inquire the meaning of knowing what is to be known: The meaning of knowing how to move in specific ways2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Learning Study inquires teaching and learning in relation to a specific object of learning. The meaning of knowing the specific object of learning is specified in the research process – in the planning and analysis of the pre-test as well as in designing and analysis of research lessons. In this symposium the focus will be on different aspects of the knowledge generation in a Learning Study concerning the meaning of knowing what is expected to be known. By inquiring teaching and learning of a specific content our knowledge regarding that content will be differentiated and deepened. The meaning of knowing a specific object of learning is a dynamic knowledge object – depending on the specific group of students in interaction with a specific content. Each new group of students will make it possible to discern new aspects of the learning object. By analyzing student difficulties as well as interactions in the classroom new aspects of the learning object will be discerned. In the symposium four different Learning Studies from different school subjects will be presented. The meaning of knowing will be explored and discussed from different angles – from the perspective of the learners (in the pre-tests) and  the teachers (in the teacher discussions) as well as from how it is constituted in the classroom interaction (documented in the videos from the research lessons).

    Pernilla AhlstrandLearning Study as a way to inquire about progress in acting and presence on stage.

    Theatre is a subject in upper secondary school in Sweden as part of the national aesthetic program. The new kind of syllabus is organized in relation to content areas as well as subject specific capabilities for the students to develop. The syllabus also includes criteria for the assessment of students’ capabilities – to be used when giving marks to the students and working with formative assessment or assessment for learning (Black & Wiliam, 1998, Gipps 1995. The criteria are expressed in general, non-subject specific terms. This is for example formulated as the difference between a simple and complex way of being able to express something in the theatre syllabus. In my research I investigate how learning study as a research approach and phenomenography as a method of analyzing pretests can be used as another and deepened way to describe different levels of knowing in relation to the national criteria.

    Theatre knowledge and the way knowledge is transferred is in previous research to a great extent described as tacit (Lagerström 2005, Järleby 2003, Johansson 2012). This gives theatre teachers even further challenges, trying to formulate what is described as tacit knowing (Polanyi 1958/1998 &1967/2009, Johannessen 1988, 1999, 2002, Janik 1995, 1996, Schön 1983).

    The capability of being present was found suitable as an object of learning, as it is something that teachers have experienced difficulties with when teaching and instructing. Presence is a core quality in acting and it is one of the criteria teachers agree on being of great importance when assessing a student but in what way can the knowing of the capability of being present be described?

    It will be discussed whether an outcome space (in relation to filmed material) can be a way to develop teachers and students understanding of the meaning of knowing as a help to work with assessment for learning.

    Gunn NybergThe meaning of knowing how to move in specific ways: embodied understanding as somatic grasping

    The subject physical education has a tradition of being a ‘practical’ subject. However, practical forms of knowing such as for example bodily awareness and capability to move (e.g. jumping, running or dancing) do not, neither for teachers nor pupils, seem to be a main issue of learning in PE (Tinning, 2010; Redelius et al, 2009,). The knowing involved in moving is not easily articulated and may, according to Polanyi (1954), “often result in explaining away quite genuine practices or experiences” (p. 385). The aim of this study is to explore and articulate the meaning of knowing how to move in a specific way exemplified through a movement called ‘house hop’.

    The study takes as it’s starting point an epistemological perspective on capability to move corresponding with Ryle’s (1949) “knowing how”, not separating mental and physical skills. Accordingly, a phenomenographic analysis of students’ experiencing of the learning object (‘house hop’) have been used.

     

    The paper draws mainly on data from video recordings of the pre-test and transcripts of two video recorded lessons from a Learning Study in upper secondary school. The findings show the meaning of knowing house hop as different ways of knowing the movement as well as several aspects to discern in order to know the movement in a powerful way.

    This presentation will focus on how students’ experiencing of a movement are expressed in their way of moving. Taking this as a starting point when teaching and learning movements can contribute to an approach to capability to move as comprising mental and physical processes as one process. Conceiving the knowing involved in ‘house hopping’ (as well as other ways of moving) this way could also contribute to a discussion concerning subject specific knowledge in PE and particularly it’s ‘practical’ dimension.

     

     

  • 169.
    Ahlstrand, Roland
    et al.
    Malmö Högskola.
    Rydell, Alexis
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Occupational science.
    Corporate Social Responsibility in Connection with Business Closures and Downsizing: A Literature Review2017In: Contemporary Management Research, ISSN 1813-5498, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 53-78Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper was to review the research on corporate social responsibility (CSR) in connection with business closures and downsizing to identify gaps in our knowledge. The study consisted of a systematic review of 24 refereed articles. The review identified four themes in the literature on CSR in connection with business closure and downsizing, namely CSR, transition programs and the local community; CSR and business strategy; CSR, power and reputation; and lastly, other articles on CSR in connection with business closures and downsizing. The review revealed a lack of understanding of the reasons, outcomes and methodology of CSR development in connection with business closures and downsizing.

  • 170.
    Ahlström, Sara
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Motion för frisk pension: En kvalitativ fallstudie om implementering av träning på arbetstid2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The purpose of this study is to investigate the implementation of training during working hours, and to describe the leaders and employees own experiences of success factors and difficulties that exist.

    Method: This essay is designed as a qualitative case study at Kalmar Vatten where semi-structured interviews were conducted. The research study, which is based on the interpretive qualitative approach with a focus on a hermeneutic perspective. The empirical material has been analyzed by an abductive method of analysis.

    Result and conclusion: The study concludes that the implementation of training during working hours is about creating a behavioral change and that management must create these conditions and follow up employees experiences.

    Suggestions for future research: For future research, it may be of interest to examine how exercise affects the employees physical and mental condition to measure productivity and sick leave. It may also be interesting to study additional companies that have introduced training during working hours.

  • 171.
    Ahlström Söderling, Ragnar
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Difficulties in the Start-up Process of Strategic SME Business Networks: Some Observations in the Swedish Wood Manufacturing Industry2001In: SEEANZ Conference, Wellington, New Zealand, 2001Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 172.
    Ahlström Söderling, Ragnar
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Does Benchmarking Support Innovation That Leads To Competitive Advantages?: Some observations in a study of manufacturing companies' use of best practices2003In: The Symposium on the Entreprenurship-Innovation-Marketing Interface, Karlsruhe, Germany, 2003Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 173.
    Ahlström Söderling, Ragnar
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Does Benchmarking Support Innovation that Leads to Competitive advantages?: Some observations in a study of manufacturing companies' use of best practices2005In: The Entreprenership - Innovation - Marketing Interface / [ed] Würt, Reinhold; Gaul, Wolfgang; Jung, Viktor, Künzelsau: Swiridoff Verlag , 2005Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describe a search for evidence that use of benchmarking is one driving factor supporting innovation and further if it is possible to see some relationship between the use of innovation as a practice and a created competitive advantage. The basis for the analysis is a dataset that was collected in beginning of 2001 through a survey (BPPS) among manufacturing sites with 10 and more employees in the region of Dalarna in Sweden. The Business Practices and Performance Model (BPPS) have been developed from a Practice Based View that is operationalized in a survey instrument. It has been used in three large scale empirical investigations in New Zealand during the 1990s and recently in five regions in Sweden. Traditionally a common view on strategy has been conceptualized as a situational choice of generic strategies (e.g. Porter) assuming a type of contingency based view of the firm. During the last decade and still dominating is the focus on core competencies or distinctive capabilities assuming a resource based view of the firm (RBV). But where do the capabilities come from? It is generally acknowledged in research that these often intangible or tacit capabilities are developed through experiential learning or learning by practicing. This is the basis of a “practice based view of the firm” (PBV), often assumed in quality theories and methodologies, as a variant or specification of RBV. It is in PBV assumed, based on research findings, that there are practices that, in combination and when effectively linked together, can be expected to consistently improve operational performance and thus provide firms who adopt them with an advantage over those that do not. Thus good business practices, and the learning and knowledge creation developed through using them, can be thought of as the base or foundation on which distinctive capabilities and hence competitive advantage is built.

  • 174.
    Ahlström Söderling, Ragnar
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Entrepreneurial Spin-offs: do we understand them?1999In: 44th ICSB World Conference, Naples, Italy, 1999Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses different aspects of entrepreneurial spin-offs in the private sector, a definition as well as a theoretical discussion on the driving forces, the pre spin-off process, key actors in the spin-off process and their roles played in the process. The chosen definition of entrepreneurial spin-offs is: When one or more individual/s is/are leaving an organization (quitting his/her/their employment) with the intention to start a new firm that is based on elements from the firm he/she/they is/are leaving, and where the originating organization (the employer) does neither have a dominant influence in the new firm according to ownership or power. The discussed spin-off pre-process is divided in the following steps: One or more individuals becomes aware of a possible business venture The idea to try to exploit this business venture arises The desire to do it in an own firm arises Investigation of possibilities to start a new firm The decision to start a new firm The actual start of the new firm (the time of the spin-off) The spin-off entrepreneur/s is/are leaving the employment of the originating firm with the intention to run their own business The key actors in the spin-off process that is discussed are: The spin-off entrepreneur/s The management of the originating (incubator) firm The initial customers of the spin-off firm The initial suppliers and other supporters of the spin-off firm. The paper ends with some hypotheses of the differences between genuine, new, start-ups and establishment of new firms through entrepreneurial spin-offs.

  • 175.
    Ahlström Söderling, Ragnar
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Entreprenörskap i destinationsutvecklingen2007In: Utveckla turistdestinationer / [ed] Bohlin, Magnus; Elbe, Jörgen, Uppsala: Uppsala Publishing House , 2007Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 176.
    Ahlström Söderling, Ragnar
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Factors Limiting Growth in Different Phases of Firm Development: a Systems Theory Approach1998In: 10th Nordic Conference on Small Business Research, Växjö, Sweden, 1998Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes some thoughts on local economic development through the focus on existing firms growth potential. It also copes with the need to identify growth limiting factors in these firms in order to enforce growth. Further a number of different firm situations and a number of limiting factors to growth, grouped in categories are described. This presentation is followed by a theoretical discussion of which limiting factors that are to be expected in each of the possible firm situations.

  • 177.
    Ahlström Söderling, Ragnar
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Giving Regional and Local Policy Makers a View of the Regions Firms foundation for Sustainable Competitiveness2006In: Innovations and Entrepreneurship in Functional Regions / [ed] Johansson, Iréne, Trollhättan: University West , 2006, p. 73-99Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The basic assumption in this paper is that policy makers intervene to help regional businesses because they believe they need to correct for market failures. And the sources for these imperfections in the context of regional development might be: • The individual firms do not understand the need to be innovative • The individual firms do not exploit the potential in collaboration and cooperation • Firms do not exploit their full market potential • Firm managers do not choose to grow their business • Etc. This paper deals with the following question: “Can Best Business Practice Studies support regional policy makers with knowledge about imperfections that might need policy interventions?” The basis for this discussion is a regional study in the county of Dalarna in Sweden.

  • 178.
    Ahlström Söderling, Ragnar
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Giving Regional and Local Policy Makers a View of the Regions Firms Foundation for Sustainable Competitiveness: Some Reflections after a Best Business Practice Study in a County of Sweden2005In: 8th Uddevalla Symposium, Udevalla, Sweden, 2005Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper deals with the following question: “Can Best Business Practice Studies support regional policy makers with knowledge about imperfections that might need policy interventions?” The basic assumption behind this question is that policy makers intervene to help regional businesses because they believe they need to correct for market failures. The initial part of this paper discusses a ‘Practice Based View’ (PBV) as an alternative or complement to the ‘Resource Based View’ (RBV). The later part show some imperfections or unbalances that can be unfold through a Best Business Practice Study. The basis for this discussion is a Best Business Practice Study in the county of Dalarna in Sweden.

  • 179.
    Ahlström Söderling, Ragnar
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    How to Succeed with the Creation of a Strategic Business Network?: - Some thoughts based on a longitudinal analysis of Business Networks in the Swedish Wood Manufacturing Industry.2002In: 47th ICSB World Conference, San Juan, Puerto Rico, 2002Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 180.
    Ahlström Söderling, Ragnar
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Innovation Entrepreneurship in Manufacturing Firms2005In: 2nd Symposium on the Entrepreneurship-Innovation-Marketing Interface, Karlsruhe, Germany, 2005Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Entrepreneurial activities are often defined as the creation of new organizations (Gartner, 1988) but according to Schumpeter (1934); the entrepreneur is the innovator who implements change within markets through the carrying out of new combinations. These new combinations can take several forms; 1) the introduction of a new good or quality thereof, 2) the introduction of a new method of production, 3) the opening of a new market, 4) the conquest of a new source of supply of new materi-als or parts, 5) the carrying out of the new organization of any industry. Tang and Linghui (2004) make a distinction between two types of entrepreneurship activities. Venture Entrepreneurship (VE), which deals with new venture creation and Innovation Entrepreneurship (IE), which involves innovations within existing enterprises. This paper examines the existence of Innovation Entrepreneurship within existing firms in manufac-turing industries as well as to what degree the innovation are in the area of; • introduction onto the market of any new or significantly improved goods or services • implementation of any new or significantly improved operational processes • implementation of any new or significantly improved organizational / managerial processes • implementation of any new or significantly improved sales or marketing methods which were intended to increase the appeal of goods or services for specific market segments and/or enter new markets The basis for the analysis is a dataset that was collected in beginning of 2005 through a survey (BPPS) among all manufacturing sites with 5 and more employees in one region in Sweden. The Business Practices and Performance Survey (BPPS) used have been developed from a Practice Based View that is adapted to a survey instrument. It has been used in three large scale empirical in-vestigations in New Zealand during the 1990s and in five regions in Sweden during 2001-2003. The number of firms analyzed is 145 based on a response rate of 36.6 percent. The analysis shows that almost half of the firms have introduced new products or services during the two last years and that one third of them have introduced a product or service that was new for the world market.

  • 181.
    Ahlström Söderling, Ragnar
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Innovation Manufacturing in Manufacturing Firms2007In: The Entrepreneurship - Innovation - Marketing Interface / [ed] Würth, Reinhold; Gaul, Reinhold, Künzelsau: Swiridoff Verlag , 2007, Vol. IEP Volume 12aChapter in book (Other academic)
  • 182.
    Ahlström Söderling, Ragnar
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    New Firms Emerging from Different Types of Organizations: a Spin-off Classification1998In: 10th Nordic Conference on Small Business Research, Växjö, Sweden, 1998Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents thoughts on different aspects to take in consideration when studying the spin-off phenomena and presents a recommendation to classify the originating firm with accordance to; Type, Size, Role played, Attitude, Knowledge and Situation and classify the spin-off firm with accordance to; Relationship of operations, Driving force, Contribution from earlier employment and Number of founders and for the founder/s, Education and personal motives together with other data that is relevant for the specific research project.

  • 183.
    Ahlström Söderling, Ragnar
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Entrepreneurship and Innovation.
    Nätverk framåt!: Att försöka integrera företagare med utländsk bakgrund i den lokala företagsgemenskapen2010In: Möjligheternas marknad / [ed] Engstrand, Åsa-Karin, Stockholm: Tillväxtverket , 2010, p. 211-229Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 184.
    Ahlström Söderling, Ragnar
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Regionala företags förutsättningar för internationell konkurrenskraft: utvärdering av en undersökningsmodell2006Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Kan man bedöma om företag med tillväxtpotential även har kompetens att ta tillvara den? Denna fundering ligger till grund för den studie som redovisas i den här avhandlingen. Syftet med studien är i första hand att utvärdera hur en ”Best Business Practice”- modell kan bidra till ökad förståelse, hos myndigheter och andra samhällsaktörer, för vilka befintliga företag i en region som kan ha förutsättningar att vara internationellt konkurrenskraftiga med avseende på de processutövanden och processresultat som föreligger i deras operativa verksamhet. Utvärderingen baseras på en kartläggning av tillverkande arbetsställen i Dalarnas län med minst 10 anställda som genomfördes 2002. Studien i Dalarna bekräftar undersökningsmodellens antagande om en relation mellan gott processutövande och bra processresultat. Analyser visar att företag med höga värden på såväl processutövande som processresultat (de Ledande företagen) har högre sannolikhet för att redovisa en hög och ökande marknadsandel, förbättrad produktivitet, ökande nettokassaflöde, god och förbättrad lönsamhet samt en högre avkastningsgrad än företag med låga värden på dessa parametrar (de Sladdande företagen). Studien indikerar även ett samband mellan tillväxt och processresultat då de flesta företagen med hög tillväxt redovisar höga värden på undersökningsmetodens indexet för processresultat samtidigt som de flesta företagen med negativ tillväxt har låga värden på detta index. De marknadsledande företagen i studien skiljer sig från övriga företag genom att oftare använda sig av benchmarking. I sina benchmarkingprocesser fokuserar de på ett bredare spann av jämförelsemått, jämför sig oftare med företag inom andra branscher såväl som andra länder samt lägger en större fokus på innovations- och verksamhetsmått. De marknadsledande företagen är även mer innovativa, både vad gäller introduktion av nya produkter som av nya processer. Utvärderingen redovisar att undersökningsmetoden har en del tveksamheter men trots det ger möjlighet att skaffa en mängd information och kunskap om näringslivets status i en region. Den visar på vilka företag som har processer på plats för att kunna expandera och vilka som behöver ”se om sitt hus” för att ha möjlighet att fortsätta sin verksamhet. Det räcker dock inte med kunskap. Kunskapen behöver omsättas i handling. En fråga som avhandlingen leder fram till är vilka som kan och vill agera på denna typ av information?

  • 185.
    Ahlström Söderling, Ragnar
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Small Fast Growing Firms Coming Out of Large Organizations: A Spin-off Situation Classification1998In: Conference on Growth and Job Creation in SMEs, Mikkeli, Finland, 1998Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Small fast growing high technology firms in Sweden often origin as spin-offs from large organizations. This paper presents a theoretical discussion about different types of spin-offs, what kind of spin-offs to expect from large organizations ("womb-firms" ) in different phases of evolution. The paper will also discuss what kind of relationship, between the "womb-firm" and the spin-off firm that is to be expected according to the actual type of spin-off and the "womb-firm" situation. The theoretical background is a model of growth in living systems. The paper examines ten different situations of the womb-firm. Every such situation is assumed to generate one or more of four different basic types of spin-offs and every type of spin-off is assumed to lead to the womb-firm adapting to the spin-off firm in one of five different ways. The conclusions are that in future research on spin-offs it will be possible to limit the view to four different womb-firm situations, namely: a) The business activities of the womb-firm are in growth b) The business activities of the womb-firm are mature or new patterns are looked for c) The business activities of the womb-firm are in a situation of degeneration or catastrophe d) The business activities of the womb-firm are oriented towards a new venture

  • 186.
    Ahlström Söderling, Ragnar
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    SME Strategic Business Network seen as Learning Organizations: Some hypotheses based on a longitudinal analysis of Business Networks in the Swedish Wood Manufacturing Industry2002In: 12th Nordic Conference on Small Business Research, Kuopio, Finland, 2002Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 187.
    Ahlström Söderling, Ragnar
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    SME strategic business networks seen as learning organizations2003In: Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, ISSN 1462-6004, E-ISSN 1758-7840, Vol. 10, no 4, p. 444-454Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 188.
    Ahlström Söderling, Ragnar
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    The Dynamics of The Firm: In Search for a General Model1998In: 43rd ICBS World Conference, Singapore, 1998Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describe a model from system theory that can be used as a base for better understanding of different situations in the firms evolution. This change model is derived from the theory of organic systems and divides the evolution of the system into higher complexity of the system structure in three distinctive phases. These phases are a formative phase, a normative phase and an integrative phase. After a summary of different types of models of the dynamics of the firm the paper makes a theoretical presentation of the model and how this model is adaptable for better understanding of the need for change in strategic orientation, organization form and leadership style over time.

  • 189.
    Ahlström Söderling, Ragnar
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    The Use of Practices As a Tool to Create Competitiveness: A study of the relation between the Best Business Practices and the managers experience on how their outcomes contribute to their firms competitiveness2005In: 50th ICSB World Conference, Washington DC, USA, 2005Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The view on strategy is conditioned by the theory of the firm used and its implication concerning value creation and sources of competitive advantage. Traditionally a common view on strategy has been conceptualized as a situational choice of generic strategies (e.g. Porter) assuming a type of contingency based view of the firm. During the last decade and still dominating is the focus on core competencies or distinctive capabilities assuming a resource based view of the firm (RBV). But where do the capabilities come from? It is generally acknowledged in research that these often intangible or tacit capabilities are developed through experiential learning or learning by practicing. This is the basis of a “practice based view of the firm” (PBV), often assumed in quality theories and methodologies, as a variant or specification of RBV. It is in PBV assumed, based on research findings, that there are practices that, in combination and when effectively linked together, can be expected to consistently improve operational performance and thus provide firms who adopt them with an advantage over those that do not. Thus good business practices, and the learning and knowledge creation developed through using them, can be thought of as the base or foundation on which distinctive capabilities and hence competitive advantage is built. The Business Practices and Performance Model (BPPS) has been developed from such a perspective and operationalised in a survey instrument. It has been used in three large scale empirical investigations in New Zealand during the 1990s and recently in five regions in Sweden. This paper reports an analysis on the use of ”Best practices” among manufacturing firms, in the county of Dalarna in Sweden, with ten and more employees. The study focus on the following question: Can use of “best practices” bee seen as a contributing factor in the creation of competitiveness and in that sense contribute to the growth of the firm?

  • 190.
    Ahlström Söderling, Ragnar
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    The Use of Practices As Capabilities - A study of the relation between growth and the use of best practices in manufacturing SMEs in a region of Sweden2004In: 49th ICSB World Conference, Johannesburg, South Africa, 2004Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports an analysis on the use of Best practices among manufacturing firms, in the county of Dalarna in Sweden, with ten and more employees. The study focus on the following question: Can the use of best practices bee seen as a contributing factor in the creation of competitiveness and in that sense contribute to the growth of the firm? Traditionally a common view on strategy has been conceptualized as a situational choice of generic strategies (e.g. Porter) assuming a type of contingency based view of the firm. During the last decade and still dominating is the focus on core competencies or distinctive capabilities assuming a resource based view of the firm (RBV). But where do the capabilities come from? It is generally acknowledged in research that these often intangible or tacit capabilities are developed through experiential learning or learning by practicing. This is the basis of a practice based view of the firm (PBV), often assumed in quality theories and methodologies, as a variant or specification of RBV. It is in PBV assumed, based on research findings, that there are practices that, in combination and when effectively linked together, can be expected to consistently improve operational performance and thus provide firms who adopt them with an advantage over those that do not. Thus good business practices, and the learning and knowledge creation developed through using them, can be thought of as the base or foundation on which distinctive capabilities and hence competitive advantage is built. Research Methodology The basis for the analysis is a dataset (127 firms) that was collected in the beginning of 2001 through a survey (BPPS) among manufacturing sites with 10 and more employees. The survey was sent to all firms (327) meeting the criteria above and the response rate was 40 %. The Business Practices and Performance Model (BPPS) have been developed from a Practice Based View that is operationalized in a survey instrument. It has been used in three large scale empirical investigations in New Zealand during the 1990s and recently in five regions in Sweden. Possible Conclusions The responses from the participating firm in this regional sample indicate that: - Firms that hold a wide strategically focus seems to be more likely to grow. - The likelihood for growth seems to be plosive correlated with operational outcomes - Operational outcomes are correlated with the use of practices Possible Recommendations A recommendation for the firm management might be: As long as a firm´s products or services are interesting on their market will it be a good idea to hold a broad strategic focus and put energy to implement and maintain practices to ensure good operational outcomes that make it possible to meet the pull from the market in a successful way. A recommendation for policymakers and support organizations might be to support the management of growing firms to implement and maintain practices to ensure good operational outcomes.

  • 191.
    Ahlström Söderling, Ragnar
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Ager, Bengt
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Bergqvist, Mathias
    Bengtsson, Patrik
    Local development and co-operation in wood manufacturing: Case studies in Sweden1999In: Proceedings of Symposium on New Opportunities for Forest-Related Rural Development, IUFRO / [ed] Slee, Bill; Hughes, Irene, Aberdeen, Scotland, 1999, p. 231-5Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 192.
    Ahlström Söderling, Ragnar
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Bianchi, Carmine
    Bivona, Enzo
    Dyner, Isaac
    Galan, Liliana
    Strocchia, Marisela
    Winch, Graham
    Managing Small Business Growth2007Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Book is thought to be tha foundation for courses in Small business growth management - either for experienced SME Managers or for Master Students. Included is a CD with Interactive Learning Environments for simultion of different growth strategies as werll as powerpoints and ten case studies.

  • 193.
    Ahlström Söderling, Ragnar
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Land, Göran
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    The Use of Information And Communication Technology As A Tool to Create Capabilities: A study of the relation between use of ICT and the use of Best Business Practices in manufacturing SMEs in a region of Sweden2004In: 13th Nordic Conference on Small Business Research, Tromsö, 2004Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports an analysis on the use of ICT among manufacturing firms, in the county of Dalarna in Sweden, with ten and more employees. The study focus on the following question: Can the use of ICT be seen as a contributing factor in the process of the creation of competitiveness? Traditionally a common view on strategy has been conceptualized as a situational choice of generic strategies (e.g. Porter) assuming a type of contingency based view of the firm. During the last decade and still dominating is the focus on core competencies or distinctive capabilities assuming a resource based view of the firm (RBV). But where do the capabilities come from? It is generally acknowledged in research that these often intangible or tacit capabilities are developed through experiential learning or learning by practicing. This is the basis of a “practice based view of the firm” (PBV), often assumed in quality theories and methodologies, as a variant or specification of RBV. It is in PBV assumed, based on research findings, that there are practices that, in combination and when effectively linked together, can be expected to consistently improve operational performance and thus provide firms who adopt them with an advantage over those that do not. Thus good business practices, and the learning and knowledge creation developed through using them, can be thought of as the base or foundation on which distinctive capabilities and hence competitive advantage is built. There is an assumption that the use of ICT will contribute in the creation of this distinctive capabilities. Research Methodology The basis for the analysis is a dataset (127 firms) that was collected in the beginning of 2001 through a survey (BPPS) among manufacturing sites with 10 and more employees. The survey was sent to all firms (327) meeting the criteria above and the response rate was 40 %. The Business Practices and Performance Model (BPPS) have been developed from a Practice Based View that is operationalized in a survey instrument. It has been used in three large scale empirical investigations in New Zealand during the 1990s and recently in five regions in Sweden (The total Swedish dataset is 741 work sites and we might do some comparisons). Possible Conclusions The responses from the participating firm in this regional sample might indicate that: · Firms that are using ICT more seems to be more likely to be or to become market leaders. · The likelihood for high values on operational outcomes seems to be positive correlated with the use of ICT. · Operational outcomes are correlated with the use of practices and the use of practices seems to be influenced by the use of ICT.

  • 194.
    Ahlström Söderling, Ragnar
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Lindhult, E
    Sundqvist, J
    Wijkman, P-M
    From Recourses to Practices: A study of the use of best practices in manufacturing companies in Sweden based on a survey from New Zealand2003In: 17th Nordic Conference on Business Studies, Reykjavik, 2003Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 195.
    Ahlström Söderling, Ragnar
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    McCluskey, Denise R
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Brunåker, Svante
    Lindhult, Erik
    Doing Something Different!: Collaborative Approaches to Entrepreneurship Courses in Management Education2004In: RENT XVIII -Research in Entrepreneurship and Small Business, Copenhagen, 2004Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 196.
    Ahlström Söderling, Ragnar
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Wiik, Ewa
    Lessons from a High-tech Spin-off Case: an analysis on a spin-off failure from a multinational organization1998In: 43rd ICBS World Conference, Singapore, 1998Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper make a presentation of a high-tech spin-off firm that failed. The case is compared with some theories about spin-offs and their relationship with their womb-firm (incubator organization). The analysis cover the driving force, the womb-firm situation, the relationship between the womb-firm and the spin-off firm. The analysis is also taking the perspective from a system theory growth model.

  • 197.
    Ahlsén Gahns, Malin
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Olsson, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Current and future shopping conditions in Sälen2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Going from having bought the most essential at the small shops close to home, better communications and an increasingly consumption oriented lifestyle has created a change in shopping behavior and has led to phenomenon such as shopping centres and more. These are constantly being built in Sweden: in the cities, outside the cities and more recently even in small cities -small cities as for one reason or another have access to a larger customer base which can have businesses to flourish economically.

    During the first decade of the 21st century, shopping centres have been established along the Swedish/Norwegian border. Since the Norwegian Krone is much stronger than the Swedish Krona Norwegians save a great deal of money on going to Sweden to shop. During the shopping trips to Sweden, it is mostly alcohol, meat, tobacco and candy that are being bought. However, other products such as clothing, technology, household appliances and more are also being purchased, all to save money on the trip. Together these cross border shoppers spent 11, 6 billion in Sweden during the year of 2010. This gives an average spending of approximately 10 900 SEK per cross border shopper on annual basis.

    Nordby, Töcksfors and Charlottenberg (small cities located in southwestern Sweden) are places characterized by Norwegian cross border shopping. Together, they generate billions every year and this only seems to increase. These places are relatively small in size but have prominent attributes such as proximity to the Norwegian border. Apart from these resorts and shopping centres, there are few or none similar places near the Norwegian border in the rest of Sweden. However, a place which is geographically well located and has a relatively large Norwegian and Swedish customer base is the ski resort of Sälen in west central of Sweden.

    Sälen is a village located near the Norwegian border, although fairly sparsely populated. The destination has annually about one million official guest nights, based on the 414 000 visitors who stay an average of about 4, 5 days.  Per visit, these tourists individually spend an average of 862 SEK on shopping at the destination.

    The expenditure of the mountain tourists together with the Norwegian border shoppers makes it very interesting to explore the opportunities for shopping development in terms of a shopping centre in the region of Sälen.

  • 198.
    Ahlén, Susanne
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work.
    Värdegrundsarbete i praktiken: Avgörande faktorer för framgångsrikt värdegrundsarbete2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Stora delar av skolpolitiken har den senaste tiden bestått av ordning och reda med allt fokus på de mätbara kunskapsresultaten. Politikerna framhåller att kunskapsmålen sätts främst och pekar på vikten av att ha höga förväntningar på eleverna, men även ett tydligt pedagogiskt ledarskap och goda relationer mellan lärare och elev samt en gemensam värdegrund och tydliga regler betonas.

    Min studie belyser faktorer som kan antas vara avgörande för den studerade skolans prisbelönta framgångar mot främlingsfientlighet och kränkande behandling. Lärarnas värdegrundsarbete genomsyrande det dagliga arbetet Det finns samarbete mellan skolans olika klasser, en tydlig och drivande ledning samt en utveckling av elevhälsoteamet. Jag formulerade två forskningsfrågor som skulle hjälpa mig att få svar på mitt syfte: Vad är det i den utvalda skolans rektor, speciallärare samt några få utvalda elever anser sig ha lyckats med när det gäller skolans värdegrund samt frågan om det finns några viktiga faktorer i värdegrundsarbetet att beakta och i så fall vilka?

    För att få svar på mina forskningsfrågor intervjuade jag rektor och en speciallärare samt fem slumpvalda elever i årskurs 6. Resultatet visar bland annat att det finns en röd tråd av syften och medvetenhet i hela verksamheten. Den visar också på stor elevdelaktighet. Man identifierar snabbt konflikter och tar aktivt ställning och försöker göra något åt detta. Skolan hjälper eleverna att hantera konflikter med bl.a. DRACON, ett konflikthanteringsprogram. Skolan synliggör skolans uppdrag, värdegrund, hälsa och lärande tydligt för eleverna. Den visar även på ett stort gemensamt engagemang och kompetens hos lärarna, där alla pedagoger eftersträvar samma sak och i lika hög grad.

  • 199.
    Ahmadi Moghadam, Parham
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Steel Sheet Applications and Integrated Heat Management2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Increasing energy use has caused many environmental problems including global warming. Energy use is growing rapidly in developing countries and surprisingly a remarkable portion of it is associated with consumed energy to keep the temperature comfortable inside the buildings. Therefore, identifying renewable technologies for cooling and heating is essential. This study introduced applications of steel sheets integrated into the buildings to save energy based on existing technologies. In addition, the proposed application was found to have a considerable chance of market success.

    Also, satisfying energy needs for space heating and cooling in a single room by using one of the selected applications in different Köppen climate classes was investigated to estimate which climates have a proper potential for benefiting from the application. This study included three independent parts and the results related to each part have been used in the next part.

    The first part recognizes six different technologies through literature review including Cool Roof, Solar Chimney, Steel Cladding of Building, Night Radiative Cooling, Elastomer Metal Absorber, and Solar Distillation. The second part evaluated the application of different technologies by gathering the experts’ ideas via performing a Delphi method. The results showed that the Solar Chimney has a proper chance for the market.

    The third part simulated both a solar chimney and a solar chimney with evaporation which were connected to a single well insulated room with a considerable thermal mass. The combination was simulated as a system to estimate the possibility of satisfying cooling needs and heating needs in different climate classes. A Trombe-wall was selected as a sample design for the Solar Chimney and was simulated in different climates. The results implied that the solar chimney had the capability of reducing the cooling needs more than 25% in all of the studied locations and 100% in some locations with dry or temperate climate such as Mashhad, Madrid, and Istanbul. It was also observed that the heating needs were satisfied more than 50% in all of the studied locations, even for the continental climate such as Stockholm and 100% in most locations with a dry climate. Therefore, the Solar Chimney reduces energy use, saves environment resources, and it is a cost effective application. Furthermore, it saves the equipment costs in many locations. All the results mentioned above make the solar chimney a very practical and attractive tool for a wide range of climates.

  • 200.
    Ahmadi, Sanaz
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Japanese.
    Sorry for Thanking You: Expressions of Gratitude and Apology in Favor Asking Messages of Swedish Advanced Learners of Japanese2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [ja]

    日本語を勉強する外国人の重大な問題の一つは語用論と談話に関連する難しさである。言語習得には文化的な要素が重要であるが、文化の経験がない学習者が基本的な間違いをする人が多人数である。スウェーデン人の日本語学生に支障になる事の中では相手に迷惑や失礼を回避するような方法で要求文を作成する事である。文化的な相違点を参考にし、スウェーデン人の日本語学生に要求の言語行為のDCTを使いインターネット調査を行った。調べるにあたって注目した点は依頼の場合でのポライトネス・ストラテジーという言語行為である。結果的にスウェーデン人の日本語学生の間違いは特の言語行為による事ではなく、国の社会が個人主義か集団主義かという事によるようだ。スウェーデンは日本と比較して個人主義な社会である事で個人を基本とするポライトネス・ストラテジーを用いる事が多い。

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