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  • 151.
    Ahlström Söderling, Ragnar
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    New Firms Emerging from Different Types of Organizations: a Spin-off Classification1998In: 10th Nordic Conference on Small Business Research, Växjö, Sweden, 1998Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents thoughts on different aspects to take in consideration when studying the spin-off phenomena and presents a recommendation to classify the originating firm with accordance to; Type, Size, Role played, Attitude, Knowledge and Situation and classify the spin-off firm with accordance to; Relationship of operations, Driving force, Contribution from earlier employment and Number of founders and for the founder/s, Education and personal motives together with other data that is relevant for the specific research project.

  • 152.
    Ahlström Söderling, Ragnar
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Entrepreneurship and Innovation.
    Nätverk framåt!: Att försöka integrera företagare med utländsk bakgrund i den lokala företagsgemenskapen2010In: Möjligheternas marknad / [ed] Engstrand, Åsa-Karin, Stockholm: Tillväxtverket , 2010, p. 211-229Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 153.
    Ahlström Söderling, Ragnar
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Regionala företags förutsättningar för internationell konkurrenskraft: utvärdering av en undersökningsmodell2006Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Kan man bedöma om företag med tillväxtpotential även har kompetens att ta tillvara den? Denna fundering ligger till grund för den studie som redovisas i den här avhandlingen. Syftet med studien är i första hand att utvärdera hur en ”Best Business Practice”- modell kan bidra till ökad förståelse, hos myndigheter och andra samhällsaktörer, för vilka befintliga företag i en region som kan ha förutsättningar att vara internationellt konkurrenskraftiga med avseende på de processutövanden och processresultat som föreligger i deras operativa verksamhet. Utvärderingen baseras på en kartläggning av tillverkande arbetsställen i Dalarnas län med minst 10 anställda som genomfördes 2002. Studien i Dalarna bekräftar undersökningsmodellens antagande om en relation mellan gott processutövande och bra processresultat. Analyser visar att företag med höga värden på såväl processutövande som processresultat (de Ledande företagen) har högre sannolikhet för att redovisa en hög och ökande marknadsandel, förbättrad produktivitet, ökande nettokassaflöde, god och förbättrad lönsamhet samt en högre avkastningsgrad än företag med låga värden på dessa parametrar (de Sladdande företagen). Studien indikerar även ett samband mellan tillväxt och processresultat då de flesta företagen med hög tillväxt redovisar höga värden på undersökningsmetodens indexet för processresultat samtidigt som de flesta företagen med negativ tillväxt har låga värden på detta index. De marknadsledande företagen i studien skiljer sig från övriga företag genom att oftare använda sig av benchmarking. I sina benchmarkingprocesser fokuserar de på ett bredare spann av jämförelsemått, jämför sig oftare med företag inom andra branscher såväl som andra länder samt lägger en större fokus på innovations- och verksamhetsmått. De marknadsledande företagen är även mer innovativa, både vad gäller introduktion av nya produkter som av nya processer. Utvärderingen redovisar att undersökningsmetoden har en del tveksamheter men trots det ger möjlighet att skaffa en mängd information och kunskap om näringslivets status i en region. Den visar på vilka företag som har processer på plats för att kunna expandera och vilka som behöver ”se om sitt hus” för att ha möjlighet att fortsätta sin verksamhet. Det räcker dock inte med kunskap. Kunskapen behöver omsättas i handling. En fråga som avhandlingen leder fram till är vilka som kan och vill agera på denna typ av information?

  • 154.
    Ahlström Söderling, Ragnar
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Small Fast Growing Firms Coming Out of Large Organizations: A Spin-off Situation Classification1998In: Conference on Growth and Job Creation in SMEs, Mikkeli, Finland, 1998Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Small fast growing high technology firms in Sweden often origin as spin-offs from large organizations. This paper presents a theoretical discussion about different types of spin-offs, what kind of spin-offs to expect from large organizations ("womb-firms" ) in different phases of evolution. The paper will also discuss what kind of relationship, between the "womb-firm" and the spin-off firm that is to be expected according to the actual type of spin-off and the "womb-firm" situation. The theoretical background is a model of growth in living systems. The paper examines ten different situations of the womb-firm. Every such situation is assumed to generate one or more of four different basic types of spin-offs and every type of spin-off is assumed to lead to the womb-firm adapting to the spin-off firm in one of five different ways. The conclusions are that in future research on spin-offs it will be possible to limit the view to four different womb-firm situations, namely: a) The business activities of the womb-firm are in growth b) The business activities of the womb-firm are mature or new patterns are looked for c) The business activities of the womb-firm are in a situation of degeneration or catastrophe d) The business activities of the womb-firm are oriented towards a new venture

  • 155.
    Ahlström Söderling, Ragnar
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    SME Strategic Business Network seen as Learning Organizations: Some hypotheses based on a longitudinal analysis of Business Networks in the Swedish Wood Manufacturing Industry2002In: 12th Nordic Conference on Small Business Research, Kuopio, Finland, 2002Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 156.
    Ahlström Söderling, Ragnar
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    SME strategic business networks seen as learning organizations2003In: Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, ISSN 1462-6004, E-ISSN 1758-7840, Vol. 10, no 4, p. 444-454Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 157.
    Ahlström Söderling, Ragnar
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    The Dynamics of The Firm: In Search for a General Model1998In: 43rd ICBS World Conference, Singapore, 1998Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describe a model from system theory that can be used as a base for better understanding of different situations in the firms evolution. This change model is derived from the theory of organic systems and divides the evolution of the system into higher complexity of the system structure in three distinctive phases. These phases are a formative phase, a normative phase and an integrative phase. After a summary of different types of models of the dynamics of the firm the paper makes a theoretical presentation of the model and how this model is adaptable for better understanding of the need for change in strategic orientation, organization form and leadership style over time.

  • 158.
    Ahlström Söderling, Ragnar
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    The Use of Practices As a Tool to Create Competitiveness: A study of the relation between the Best Business Practices and the managers experience on how their outcomes contribute to their firms competitiveness2005In: 50th ICSB World Conference, Washington DC, USA, 2005Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The view on strategy is conditioned by the theory of the firm used and its implication concerning value creation and sources of competitive advantage. Traditionally a common view on strategy has been conceptualized as a situational choice of generic strategies (e.g. Porter) assuming a type of contingency based view of the firm. During the last decade and still dominating is the focus on core competencies or distinctive capabilities assuming a resource based view of the firm (RBV). But where do the capabilities come from? It is generally acknowledged in research that these often intangible or tacit capabilities are developed through experiential learning or learning by practicing. This is the basis of a “practice based view of the firm” (PBV), often assumed in quality theories and methodologies, as a variant or specification of RBV. It is in PBV assumed, based on research findings, that there are practices that, in combination and when effectively linked together, can be expected to consistently improve operational performance and thus provide firms who adopt them with an advantage over those that do not. Thus good business practices, and the learning and knowledge creation developed through using them, can be thought of as the base or foundation on which distinctive capabilities and hence competitive advantage is built. The Business Practices and Performance Model (BPPS) has been developed from such a perspective and operationalised in a survey instrument. It has been used in three large scale empirical investigations in New Zealand during the 1990s and recently in five regions in Sweden. This paper reports an analysis on the use of ”Best practices” among manufacturing firms, in the county of Dalarna in Sweden, with ten and more employees. The study focus on the following question: Can use of “best practices” bee seen as a contributing factor in the creation of competitiveness and in that sense contribute to the growth of the firm?

  • 159.
    Ahlström Söderling, Ragnar
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    The Use of Practices As Capabilities - A study of the relation between growth and the use of best practices in manufacturing SMEs in a region of Sweden2004In: 49th ICSB World Conference, Johannesburg, South Africa, 2004Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports an analysis on the use of Best practices among manufacturing firms, in the county of Dalarna in Sweden, with ten and more employees. The study focus on the following question: Can the use of best practices bee seen as a contributing factor in the creation of competitiveness and in that sense contribute to the growth of the firm? Traditionally a common view on strategy has been conceptualized as a situational choice of generic strategies (e.g. Porter) assuming a type of contingency based view of the firm. During the last decade and still dominating is the focus on core competencies or distinctive capabilities assuming a resource based view of the firm (RBV). But where do the capabilities come from? It is generally acknowledged in research that these often intangible or tacit capabilities are developed through experiential learning or learning by practicing. This is the basis of a practice based view of the firm (PBV), often assumed in quality theories and methodologies, as a variant or specification of RBV. It is in PBV assumed, based on research findings, that there are practices that, in combination and when effectively linked together, can be expected to consistently improve operational performance and thus provide firms who adopt them with an advantage over those that do not. Thus good business practices, and the learning and knowledge creation developed through using them, can be thought of as the base or foundation on which distinctive capabilities and hence competitive advantage is built. Research Methodology The basis for the analysis is a dataset (127 firms) that was collected in the beginning of 2001 through a survey (BPPS) among manufacturing sites with 10 and more employees. The survey was sent to all firms (327) meeting the criteria above and the response rate was 40 %. The Business Practices and Performance Model (BPPS) have been developed from a Practice Based View that is operationalized in a survey instrument. It has been used in three large scale empirical investigations in New Zealand during the 1990s and recently in five regions in Sweden. Possible Conclusions The responses from the participating firm in this regional sample indicate that: - Firms that hold a wide strategically focus seems to be more likely to grow. - The likelihood for growth seems to be plosive correlated with operational outcomes - Operational outcomes are correlated with the use of practices Possible Recommendations A recommendation for the firm management might be: As long as a firm´s products or services are interesting on their market will it be a good idea to hold a broad strategic focus and put energy to implement and maintain practices to ensure good operational outcomes that make it possible to meet the pull from the market in a successful way. A recommendation for policymakers and support organizations might be to support the management of growing firms to implement and maintain practices to ensure good operational outcomes.

  • 160.
    Ahlström Söderling, Ragnar
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Ager, Bengt
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Bergqvist, Mathias
    Bengtsson, Patrik
    Local development and co-operation in wood manufacturing: Case studies in Sweden1999In: Proceedings of Symposium on New Opportunities for Forest-Related Rural Development, IUFRO / [ed] Slee, Bill; Hughes, Irene, Aberdeen, Scotland, 1999, p. 231-5Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 161.
    Ahlström Söderling, Ragnar
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Bianchi, Carmine
    Bivona, Enzo
    Dyner, Isaac
    Galan, Liliana
    Strocchia, Marisela
    Winch, Graham
    Managing Small Business Growth2007Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Book is thought to be tha foundation for courses in Small business growth management - either for experienced SME Managers or for Master Students. Included is a CD with Interactive Learning Environments for simultion of different growth strategies as werll as powerpoints and ten case studies.

  • 162.
    Ahlström Söderling, Ragnar
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Land, Göran
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    The Use of Information And Communication Technology As A Tool to Create Capabilities: A study of the relation between use of ICT and the use of Best Business Practices in manufacturing SMEs in a region of Sweden2004In: 13th Nordic Conference on Small Business Research, Tromsö, 2004Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports an analysis on the use of ICT among manufacturing firms, in the county of Dalarna in Sweden, with ten and more employees. The study focus on the following question: Can the use of ICT be seen as a contributing factor in the process of the creation of competitiveness? Traditionally a common view on strategy has been conceptualized as a situational choice of generic strategies (e.g. Porter) assuming a type of contingency based view of the firm. During the last decade and still dominating is the focus on core competencies or distinctive capabilities assuming a resource based view of the firm (RBV). But where do the capabilities come from? It is generally acknowledged in research that these often intangible or tacit capabilities are developed through experiential learning or learning by practicing. This is the basis of a “practice based view of the firm” (PBV), often assumed in quality theories and methodologies, as a variant or specification of RBV. It is in PBV assumed, based on research findings, that there are practices that, in combination and when effectively linked together, can be expected to consistently improve operational performance and thus provide firms who adopt them with an advantage over those that do not. Thus good business practices, and the learning and knowledge creation developed through using them, can be thought of as the base or foundation on which distinctive capabilities and hence competitive advantage is built. There is an assumption that the use of ICT will contribute in the creation of this distinctive capabilities. Research Methodology The basis for the analysis is a dataset (127 firms) that was collected in the beginning of 2001 through a survey (BPPS) among manufacturing sites with 10 and more employees. The survey was sent to all firms (327) meeting the criteria above and the response rate was 40 %. The Business Practices and Performance Model (BPPS) have been developed from a Practice Based View that is operationalized in a survey instrument. It has been used in three large scale empirical investigations in New Zealand during the 1990s and recently in five regions in Sweden (The total Swedish dataset is 741 work sites and we might do some comparisons). Possible Conclusions The responses from the participating firm in this regional sample might indicate that: · Firms that are using ICT more seems to be more likely to be or to become market leaders. · The likelihood for high values on operational outcomes seems to be positive correlated with the use of ICT. · Operational outcomes are correlated with the use of practices and the use of practices seems to be influenced by the use of ICT.

  • 163.
    Ahlström Söderling, Ragnar
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Lindhult, E
    Sundqvist, J
    Wijkman, P-M
    From Recourses to Practices: A study of the use of best practices in manufacturing companies in Sweden based on a survey from New Zealand2003In: 17th Nordic Conference on Business Studies, Reykjavik, 2003Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 164.
    Ahlström Söderling, Ragnar
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    McCluskey, Denise R
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Brunåker, Svante
    Lindhult, Erik
    Doing Something Different!: Collaborative Approaches to Entrepreneurship Courses in Management Education2004In: RENT XVIII -Research in Entrepreneurship and Small Business, Copenhagen, 2004Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 165.
    Ahlström Söderling, Ragnar
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Wiik, Ewa
    Lessons from a High-tech Spin-off Case: an analysis on a spin-off failure from a multinational organization1998In: 43rd ICBS World Conference, Singapore, 1998Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper make a presentation of a high-tech spin-off firm that failed. The case is compared with some theories about spin-offs and their relationship with their womb-firm (incubator organization). The analysis cover the driving force, the womb-firm situation, the relationship between the womb-firm and the spin-off firm. The analysis is also taking the perspective from a system theory growth model.

  • 166.
    Ahlsén Gahns, Malin
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Olsson, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Current and future shopping conditions in Sälen2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Going from having bought the most essential at the small shops close to home, better communications and an increasingly consumption oriented lifestyle has created a change in shopping behavior and has led to phenomenon such as shopping centres and more. These are constantly being built in Sweden: in the cities, outside the cities and more recently even in small cities -small cities as for one reason or another have access to a larger customer base which can have businesses to flourish economically.

    During the first decade of the 21st century, shopping centres have been established along the Swedish/Norwegian border. Since the Norwegian Krone is much stronger than the Swedish Krona Norwegians save a great deal of money on going to Sweden to shop. During the shopping trips to Sweden, it is mostly alcohol, meat, tobacco and candy that are being bought. However, other products such as clothing, technology, household appliances and more are also being purchased, all to save money on the trip. Together these cross border shoppers spent 11, 6 billion in Sweden during the year of 2010. This gives an average spending of approximately 10 900 SEK per cross border shopper on annual basis.

    Nordby, Töcksfors and Charlottenberg (small cities located in southwestern Sweden) are places characterized by Norwegian cross border shopping. Together, they generate billions every year and this only seems to increase. These places are relatively small in size but have prominent attributes such as proximity to the Norwegian border. Apart from these resorts and shopping centres, there are few or none similar places near the Norwegian border in the rest of Sweden. However, a place which is geographically well located and has a relatively large Norwegian and Swedish customer base is the ski resort of Sälen in west central of Sweden.

    Sälen is a village located near the Norwegian border, although fairly sparsely populated. The destination has annually about one million official guest nights, based on the 414 000 visitors who stay an average of about 4, 5 days.  Per visit, these tourists individually spend an average of 862 SEK on shopping at the destination.

    The expenditure of the mountain tourists together with the Norwegian border shoppers makes it very interesting to explore the opportunities for shopping development in terms of a shopping centre in the region of Sälen.

  • 167.
    Ahlén, Susanne
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work.
    Värdegrundsarbete i praktiken: Avgörande faktorer för framgångsrikt värdegrundsarbete2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Stora delar av skolpolitiken har den senaste tiden bestått av ordning och reda med allt fokus på de mätbara kunskapsresultaten. Politikerna framhåller att kunskapsmålen sätts främst och pekar på vikten av att ha höga förväntningar på eleverna, men även ett tydligt pedagogiskt ledarskap och goda relationer mellan lärare och elev samt en gemensam värdegrund och tydliga regler betonas.

    Min studie belyser faktorer som kan antas vara avgörande för den studerade skolans prisbelönta framgångar mot främlingsfientlighet och kränkande behandling. Lärarnas värdegrundsarbete genomsyrande det dagliga arbetet Det finns samarbete mellan skolans olika klasser, en tydlig och drivande ledning samt en utveckling av elevhälsoteamet. Jag formulerade två forskningsfrågor som skulle hjälpa mig att få svar på mitt syfte: Vad är det i den utvalda skolans rektor, speciallärare samt några få utvalda elever anser sig ha lyckats med när det gäller skolans värdegrund samt frågan om det finns några viktiga faktorer i värdegrundsarbetet att beakta och i så fall vilka?

    För att få svar på mina forskningsfrågor intervjuade jag rektor och en speciallärare samt fem slumpvalda elever i årskurs 6. Resultatet visar bland annat att det finns en röd tråd av syften och medvetenhet i hela verksamheten. Den visar också på stor elevdelaktighet. Man identifierar snabbt konflikter och tar aktivt ställning och försöker göra något åt detta. Skolan hjälper eleverna att hantera konflikter med bl.a. DRACON, ett konflikthanteringsprogram. Skolan synliggör skolans uppdrag, värdegrund, hälsa och lärande tydligt för eleverna. Den visar även på ett stort gemensamt engagemang och kompetens hos lärarna, där alla pedagoger eftersträvar samma sak och i lika hög grad.

  • 168.
    Ahmadi Moghadam, Parham
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Steel Sheet Applications and Integrated Heat Management2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Increasing energy use has caused many environmental problems including global warming. Energy use is growing rapidly in developing countries and surprisingly a remarkable portion of it is associated with consumed energy to keep the temperature comfortable inside the buildings. Therefore, identifying renewable technologies for cooling and heating is essential. This study introduced applications of steel sheets integrated into the buildings to save energy based on existing technologies. In addition, the proposed application was found to have a considerable chance of market success.

    Also, satisfying energy needs for space heating and cooling in a single room by using one of the selected applications in different Köppen climate classes was investigated to estimate which climates have a proper potential for benefiting from the application. This study included three independent parts and the results related to each part have been used in the next part.

    The first part recognizes six different technologies through literature review including Cool Roof, Solar Chimney, Steel Cladding of Building, Night Radiative Cooling, Elastomer Metal Absorber, and Solar Distillation. The second part evaluated the application of different technologies by gathering the experts’ ideas via performing a Delphi method. The results showed that the Solar Chimney has a proper chance for the market.

    The third part simulated both a solar chimney and a solar chimney with evaporation which were connected to a single well insulated room with a considerable thermal mass. The combination was simulated as a system to estimate the possibility of satisfying cooling needs and heating needs in different climate classes. A Trombe-wall was selected as a sample design for the Solar Chimney and was simulated in different climates. The results implied that the solar chimney had the capability of reducing the cooling needs more than 25% in all of the studied locations and 100% in some locations with dry or temperate climate such as Mashhad, Madrid, and Istanbul. It was also observed that the heating needs were satisfied more than 50% in all of the studied locations, even for the continental climate such as Stockholm and 100% in most locations with a dry climate. Therefore, the Solar Chimney reduces energy use, saves environment resources, and it is a cost effective application. Furthermore, it saves the equipment costs in many locations. All the results mentioned above make the solar chimney a very practical and attractive tool for a wide range of climates.

  • 169.
    Ahmadi, Sanaz
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Japanese.
    Sorry for Thanking You: Expressions of Gratitude and Apology in Favor Asking Messages of Swedish Advanced Learners of Japanese2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [ja]

    日本語を勉強する外国人の重大な問題の一つは語用論と談話に関連する難しさである。言語習得には文化的な要素が重要であるが、文化の経験がない学習者が基本的な間違いをする人が多人数である。スウェーデン人の日本語学生に支障になる事の中では相手に迷惑や失礼を回避するような方法で要求文を作成する事である。文化的な相違点を参考にし、スウェーデン人の日本語学生に要求の言語行為のDCTを使いインターネット調査を行った。調べるにあたって注目した点は依頼の場合でのポライトネス・ストラテジーという言語行為である。結果的にスウェーデン人の日本語学生の間違いは特の言語行為による事ではなく、国の社会が個人主義か集団主義かという事によるようだ。スウェーデンは日本と比較して個人主義な社会である事で個人を基本とするポライトネス・ストラテジーを用いる事が多い。

  • 170. Ahman, Birgitta
    et al.
    Svensson, Kristin
    Rönnegård, Lars
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    High female mortality resulting in herd collapse in free-ranging domesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) in Sweden2014In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, no 10, article id e111509Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reindeer herding in Sweden is a form of pastoralism practised by the indigenous Sami population. The economy is mainly based on meat production. Herd size is generally regulated by harvest in order not to overuse grazing ranges and keep a productive herd. Nonetheless, herd growth and room for harvest is currently small in many areas. Negative herd growth and low harvest rate were observed in one of two herds in a reindeer herding community in Central Sweden. The herds (A and B) used the same ranges from April until the autumn gathering in October-December, but were separated on different ranges over winter. Analyses of capture-recapture for 723 adult female reindeer over five years (2007-2012) revealed high annual losses (7.1% and 18.4%, for herd A and B respectively). A continuing decline in the total reindeer number in herd B demonstrated an inability to maintain the herd size in spite of a very small harvest. An estimated breakpoint for when herd size cannot be kept stable confirmed that the observed female mortality rate in herd B represented a state of herd collapse. Lower calving success in herd B compared to A indicated differences in winter foraging conditions. However, we found only minor differences in animal body condition between the herds in autumn. We found no evidence that a lower autumn body mass generally increased the risk for a female of dying from one autumn to the next. We conclude that the prime driver of the on-going collapse of herd B is not high animal density or poor body condition. Accidents or disease seem unlikely as major causes of mortality. Predation, primarily by lynx and wolverine, appears to be the most plausible reason for the high female mortality and state of collapse in the studied reindeer herding community.

  • 171. Ahmed, Mobyen
    et al.
    Westin, Jerker
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Nyholm, Dag
    Dougherty, Mark
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Groth, Torgny
    A fuzzy rule-based decision support system for Duodopa treatment in Parkinson2006In: 23rd annual workshop of the Swedish Artificial Intelligence Society, Umeå, 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A decision support system (DSS) was implemented based on a fuzzy logic inference system (FIS) to provide assistance in dose alteration of Duodopa infusion in patients with advanced Parkinson’s disease, using data from motor state assessments and dosage. Three-tier architecture with an object oriented approach was used. The DSS has a web enabled graphical user interface that presents alerts indicating non optimal dosage and states, new recommendations, namely typical advice with typical dose and statistical measurements. One data set was used for design and tuning of the FIS and another data set was used for evaluating performance compared with actual given dose. Overall goodness-of-fit for the new patients (design data) was 0.65 and for the ongoing patients (evaluation data) 0.98. User evaluation is now ongoing. The system could work as an assistant to clinical staff for Duodopa treatment in advanced Parkinson’s disease.

  • 172.
    Ahmed, Mohamed Kheyr
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Taylor rule and monetary policy: Does the Taylor rule describe the monetary policy in Sweden?2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In 1993, economist JB Taylor (1993) observed that the monetary policy in the USA is described by a simple rule, which today is known as the Taylor rule. Since then, many studies were conducted to determine whether Taylor rule explains the monetary policy of central banks all over the world. This study aims to investigate whether the Taylor rule can describe monetary policy in Sweden as initially specified by Taylor (1993). Monetary policy in Sweden from 1995: Q1 to 2018: Q2 is compared to the monetary policy of the USA during the Greenspan years ( 1987: Q4 to 2006: Q1). An ordinary least squares regression method (OLS) is used to estimate the reaction function of the monetary policy of both Sweden and the USA. The results of this study show that the Taylor rule does no describe Monetary policy in Sweden. In contrast, the results show that the US monetary policy during the Greenspan years can be described by the Taylor rule.

  • 173.
    Ahmed, Sadeq Mohamed
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Vaziri, Kamran
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Price elasticity of demand for cigarettes: The Case of Sweden2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Due to health problems and the negative externalities associated with cigarette consumption, many governments try to discourage cigarette consumption by increasing its price through taxation. However, cigarette, like the other addictive goods, is viewed as that it is not sensitive to demand rules and the market forces. This study analyses the effect of price increase on cigarette consumption. We used Swedish time series data from 1970 to 2010.

    Our results reveal that though cigarette is addictive substance its demand is sensitive to changes in the price. Estimates from this study indicate short-run price-elasticity of -0.29 and the long run price elasticity of -0.47.

  • 174.
    Ahmed, Salim Saif Saeed
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    Identify the driving behaviour in a parking lot in terms of distance.2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Parking a vehicle can often lead to frustration, air pollution and congestion due to limited availability of parking spaces. With increasing population density this problem can certainly increase unless addressed. Parking lots occupy large areas of scarce land resource therefore it is necessary to identify the driving behaviour in a parking lot to improve it further. This Paper tries study the driving behaviour in the parking lot and for this endeavours it conducted direct observation in three parking lots and used GPS data that was collected prior to this study by the University of Dalarna.

    To evaluate the driving behaviour in the parking lot direct observation was conducted to obtain overall indices of the parking lot vehicles movement. The parking route taken by the driver was compared with the optimal path to identify the driving behaviour in parking lot in terms of distance. The collected data was evaluated, filtered and analysed to identify the route, the distance and the time the vehicle takes to find a parking space.

    The outcome of the study shows that driving behaviour in the parking lots varies significantly among the parking user where most of the observed vehicles took unnecessary long time to complete their parking. The study shows that 56% of the 430 observed vehicles demonstrated inefficient driving behaviour as they took long driving path rather the than the optimal path. The study trace this behaviour to two factors, first, the absent of parking guidance in the parking lots and the second is the selectivity of the drivers when choosing the parking space.

    The study also shows that the ability of GPS data to identify the driving behaviour in the parking lots varies based on the time interval and the type of the device that is being used. The small the time interval the more accurate the GPS data in detecting the driving behaviour in the parking lots.

  • 175.
    Ahmed, Toqeer
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Load balancing solution and evaluation of F5 content switch equipment2006Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Thesis focused on hardware based Load balancing solution of web traffic through a load balancer F5 content switch. In this project, the implemented scenario for distributing HTTPtraffic load is based on different CPU usages (processing speed) of multiple member servers. Two widely used load balancing algorithms Round Robin (RR) and Ratio model (weighted Round Robin) are implemented through F5 load balancer. For evaluating the performance of F5 content switch, some experimental tests has been taken on implemented scenarios using RR and Ratio model load balancing algorithms. The performance is examined in terms of throughput (bits/sec) and Response time of member servers in a load balancing pool. From these experiments we have observed that Ratio Model load balancing algorithm is most suitable in the environment of load balancing servers with different CPU usages as it allows assigning the weight according to CPU usage both in static and dynamic load balancing of servers.

  • 176. Ahnberg, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Lundgren, Mats
    Dalarna University, School of Education and Humanities, Education.
    Messing, Jan
    von Schantz Lundgren, Ina
    Dalarna University, School of Education and Humanities, Education.
    Följeforskning som företeelse och följeforskarrollen som konkret praktik2010In: Arbetsmarknad & Arbetsliv, ISSN 1400-9692, Vol. Nr 16, no 3, p. 55-66Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Med utgångspunkt i fyra följeforskningsprocesser, där vi själva medverkat, diskuterar vi följeforskning som företeelse och rollen som följeforskare. Vår artikel ska ses som ett empiriskt exempel i anslutning till den debatt som Göran Brulin, Karin Sjöberg och Lennart Svensson initierade genom artikeln ”Gemensam kunskapsbildning för regional tillväxt”.

  • 177.
    Ahnberg, Samuel
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work.
    Programmering i bildämnet: En fallstudie om potentialer med programmering i åk 4-62019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 178.
    Ahnberg, Samuel
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work.
    Programmering i bildämnet: En kvalitativ intervjustudie om potentialer med programmering i åk 4-62018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med den här studien är att genom en kvalitativ intervjustudie ta reda på möjligheter och svårigheter med programmering i bildämnet. De frågeställningar min studie ämnar besvara är

    Hur beskriver och förhåller sig läraren till programmering i bildämnet?, Vilka möjligheter och utmaningar ser läraren på skolan med programmering i bildundervisningen? och Hur lägger läraren upp sin undervisning? Studien behandlas utifrån dessa frågeställningar i kombination med det multimodala perspektivet och det designteoretiska perspektivet. Undersökningen visar på de intervjuade lärarnas förhållningssätt till programmering i bildämnet och exempel på hur de använder och arbetar med programmering. Resultatet visar bland annat att de intervjuade lärarna ser positivt på programmering i bildämnet men att den egna kunskapen om programmering är något som måste utvecklas för att kunna bedriva en bra undervisning.

  • 179.
    Ahnberg Åsenius, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies.
    Kostela, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies.
    Messing, Jan
    Metallindustrin i Sverige 2007-20112013Report (Other academic)
  • 180.
    Aho, Erika
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work. Karlstads universitet.
    Språkintroduktion som mellanrum: Nyanlända gymnasieelevers erfarenheter av ett introduktionsprogram2018Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här licentiatuppsatsen behandlar berättade erfarenheter av att vara elev på Språkintroduktion. Programmet är ett av fem introduktionsprogram i den svenska gymnasieskolan och tar emot nyanlända ungdomar i åldrarna 16 till 19 år. Utbildningen på Språkintroduktion har en tyngdpunkt på svenska språket samt andra ämnen som eleverna har behov av att studera. Sålunda ska undervisningen organiseras utifrån varje elevs förutsättningar och behov.

    Studien bygger på intervjuer med språkintroduktionselever. Analysen fokuserar följaktligen 22 elevers berättade erfarenheter av att vara elever på Språkintroduktion. Elevernas berättelser blir ett sätt att förstå hur deras erfarenheter av programmet flätas samman med tidigare skol- och arbetslivserfarenheter liksom med tankar om framtiden.

    I resultaten presenteras tre teman som framträder i berättelserna.  Det första temat gäller samtliga elever och behandlar erfarenheten av att inte kunna svenska. Det andra temat innefattar vissa elever och synliggör två elevidentiteter som särskilt framträder. Den första av dem handlar om att gå från att vara en högpresterande elev till att vara nybörjare och den andra om att gå från att vara en elev med kort eller ingen skolbakgrund till att äntligen vara elev. Slutligen handlar det tredje temat om hur Språkintroduktion tar form som ett mellanrum.

  • 181.
    Aho, Erika
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Institutionen för pedagogiska studier (from 2013).
    Henriksson Persson, Anna
    Karlstads universitet, Institutionen för pedagogiska studier (from 2013).
    Larsson, Maria
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work. Karlstads universitet, Institutionen för pedagogiska studier (from 2013).
    Skolnära – ett skolnära begrepp?2016In: Kapet (avslutad tryckt version), ISSN 1653-4743, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 116-134Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Skolnära kan beskrivas som ett relativt nytt begrepp inom utbildning och forskning med skolanknytning. Det förekommer ofta i sammanhang där det tycks finnas en ambition att knyta skola och forskning närmare varandra. Det kan till exempel handla om olika forskarskolor, skolforskning och skolutvecklingsprojekt. Dock finns ingen enhetlig definition av begreppet utan det används parallellt med och i vissa fall synonymt med begreppen praktiknära och praxisnära. Syftet med denna artikel är att bidra till en problematisering av begreppet skolnära med fokus på såväl innebörder som användningsområden. Utifrån studier av olika typer av texter belyses hur begreppet skolnära används inom skolforskning och i andra utbildningsvetenskapliga sammanhang idag. Begreppet skolnära ser ut att uppkomma i samband med framväxten av forskarutbildningsämnet pedagogiskt arbete men återfinns idag även inom andra forskarutbildningsämnen. Till exempel kan en ”skolnära avhandling” vara skriven inom pedagogik eller något ämnesdidaktiskt ämne. Vad det innebär att forskningen är skolnära tycks ha skiftande innebörd och avgränsning i olika sammanhang. Det kan till exempel handla om huruvida forskningen bedrivs av eller för lärare. Begreppet används också inom skolvärlden i ett vidare perspektiv.

  • 182.
    Aho, Mikaela
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Resource Management.
    Vad är attraktivt arbete för personalen på ett vård-, och omsorgsföretag?2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A common problem in the geriatric care is that it is difficult to recruit staff with the right

    qualifications. The number of unqualified increases in the industry despite a striving to have

    more people who are qualified. Research shows that the need for qualified people in the

    industry is increasing and the number of people studying to be nurses decreases. To attract

    employees requires that the company is considered to be attractive from the employees' point

    of view and also from a prospective employee's point of view. To study the problem, this

    survey has been made on one of the leading companies in the industry and the intention was

    to study whether the employees' view of attractive work was consistent with what their

    managers thought that their employees considered as attractive work.

    The survey was made on four different units through a questionnaire that employees have

    responded and the unit’s managers have been interviewed. The results of the survey showed

    that the manager’s view of attractive work was consistent with the employees' view of

    attractive work to a certain extent. Regional manager and assistant regional manager had a

    deeper understanding of what parts fail to appear as attractive employers

  • 183.
    Aho, Petra
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work.
    Cultural Deficit Perspective in the EFL Classroom: Teachers’ choice of Perspective in Swedish grades 4-6 Multilingual Classrooms2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 184.
    Ahola, Malin
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Social Work.
    Sundell, Annika
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Social Work.
    "Vi jobbar inte med själva barnen": En kvalitativ intervjustudie av socialsekreterares beaktande av barnperspektivet i ekonomiskt bistånd2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the essay is to investigate how the child perspective is taken into consideration in the social services' management of financial assistance. The method used is a qualitative interview study. Six social workers within financial assistance have been interviewed. The study is based on the theory of discretion, and is of relevance to social work since children in families who receive financial assistance constitute a vulnerable group who is at risk of ending socially vulnerable even in adulthood.

    The results of the study show that most of the social workers perceive the child perspective as unclear. The study also shows that children tend to be invisible in financial assistance, and that the social workers perceive that they do not have sufficient conditions to work from a child perspective. The study further shows that most of the social workers have a request to work more from a child perspective.

  • 185.
    Ahonen, Ann- charlotte
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Hellstöm, Maria
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Varför lämnar medlemmarna a-kassan?: En undersökning bland två yrkesgrupper inom den kommunala sektorn i Borlänge2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna uppsats är att ta reda på hur många som har lämnat a-kassorna, inom ett par utvalda yrkesgrupper, inom den kommunala sektorn i Borlänge och vad orsaken/orsakerna till utträdet är, samt att ta reda på hur många som har funderat på att lämna a-kassan och orsaken/orsakerna till det För att kunna ta reda på det, har en enkätundersökning gjorts. Enkäten skickades ut till två yrkesgrupper inom den kommunala sektorn i Borlänge, barnskötare och lärare för årskurs 1-3. Resultatet av denna undersökning, redovisas i diagram och till viss del skriftligen. Resultaten visar på att det, procentuellt, sett var fler lärare än barnskötare som lämnat a-kassan, samt att det var fler barnskötare än lärare som funderat på att lämna a-kassan. De främsta orsakerna till att medlemmarna lämnat, eller funderar på att lämna, a-kassan är närmande till pension och den förhöjda avgiften.

  • 186.
    Ahonen, Esa
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Trnavac, Dino
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    The influence of employee empowering on service interface and on employee performance in service organizations 2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 187.
    Ahrman, Gudrun
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work.
    Variera mera- om Learning study i grundsärskolans matematikundervisning2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Det här arbetet syftade till att undersöka om det är fruktbart att använda Learning study som undervisningsmetod i grundsärskolans matematikundervisning. Learning study bygger på va-riationsteorin som betyder att lärares undervisning ska varieras för att eleven ska kunna ur-skilja det läraren vill visa. Det är en kvalitativ fallstudie där jag genomfört lektioner varav några videofilmats. Elever i grundsärskolan har en medfödd eller förvärvad utvecklingsstör-ning och kan därför behöva längre tid eller fler upprepningar för att lära. Det är därmed inte är sagt att undervisningen behöver vara enformig eller utan variation. Jag har genom litteratur-studier och analyser av lektionerna funnit att Learning study är en metod som kan fungera.

  • 188. Ahrne, Malin
    et al.
    Adan, Aisha
    Schytt, Erica
    Andersson, Ewa
    Small, Rhonda
    Flacking, Renée
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Byrskog, Ulrika
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Antenatal care for Somali born women in Sweden – perspectives from mothers, fathers and midwives2018In: European Journal of Public Health, Volume 28, Issue suppl_1, May 2018, 2018, Vol. 28Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 189. Ahrne, Malin
    et al.
    Schytt, Erica
    Andersson, Ewa
    Small, Rhonda
    Adan, Aisha
    Essén, Birgitta
    Byrskog, Ulrika
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Antenatal care for Somali-born women in Sweden: Perspectives from mothers, fathers and midwives2019In: Midwifery, ISSN 0266-6138, E-ISSN 1532-3099, Vol. 74, p. 107-115Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To explore Somali-born parents' experiences of antenatal care in Sweden, antenatal care midwives´ experiences of caring for Somali-born parents, and their respective ideas about group antenatal care for Somali-born parents.

    DESIGN: Eight focus group discussions with 2-8 participants in each were conducted, three with Somali-born mothers, two with fathers and three with antenatal care midwives. The transcribed text was analysed using Attride-Stirling´s tool "Thematic networks".

    SETTING: Two towns in mid-Sweden and a suburb of the capital city of Sweden.

    PARTICIPANTS: Mothers (n = 16), fathers (n = 13) and midwives (n = 7) were recruited using purposeful sampling.

    FINDINGS: Somali-born mothers and fathers in Sweden were content with many aspects of antenatal care, but they also faced barriers. Challenges in the midwife-parent encounter related to tailoring of care to individual needs, dealing with stereotypes, addressing varied levels of health literacy, overcoming communication barriers and enabling partner involvement. Health system challenges related to accessibility of care, limited resources, and the need for clear, but flexible routines and supportive structures for parent education. Midwives confirmed these challenges and tried to address them but sometimes lacked the support, resources and tools to do so. Mothers, fathers and midwives thought that language-supported group antenatal care might help to improve communication, provide mutual support and enable better dialogue, but they were concerned that group care should still allow privacy when needed and not stereotype families according to their country of birth.

    KEY CONCLUSIONS: ANC interventions targeting inequalities between migrants and non-migrants may benefit from embracing a person-centred approach, as a means to counteract stereotypes, misunderstandings and prejudice. Group antenatal care has the potential to provide a platform for person-centred care and has other potential benefits in providing high-quality antenatal care for sub-groups that tend to receive less or poor quality care. Further research on how to address stereotypes and implicit bias in maternity care in the Swedish context is needed.

  • 190.
    Aida Niendorf, Mariya
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Japanese.
    Bastu i vått och torrt2017Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 191.
    Aida Niendorf, Mariya
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Japanese.
    Cross-cultural analysis of Finnish vs. Japanese politeness strategies2018Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 192.
    Aida Niendorf, Mariya
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Japanese.
    Cross-Cultural Analysis of Swedish vs. Japanese Politeness Strategies2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Japanese politeness discourse varies in complexity according to social distance, relative power between speakers, and social situations. However, the attitude surveys I conducted over the past eight years indicate that Swedish learners of Japanese often do not see the necessity of learning polite discourse and often view such forms negatively. Intentionally or unintentionally, Swedish students often fail to use appropriate politeness strategies as Sweden is one of the most egalitarian societies in the world, with the elimination of the second person plural form ni to indicate a higher level of politeness reflecting this change. However, it is important to point out to foreign language learners that cultural and social norms are not cross-culturally interchangeable and that speakers must often adapt to the language they are learning and the culture they find themselves in.

    Cross-cultural data on polite discourse shows that the politeness strategies differ considerably across cultures. While politeness, respect, and formality are closely associated in Japanese (e.g., Ide 1989, 2006; Matsumoto 1988, 1989, 1993) Swedish speakers perceive respect and politeness as separate matters (Björk 2014; Brumark 2006; Utrzén 2011; Norrbom 2006). Studies have also found that while Japanese speakers are inclined to use verbal politeness strategies, Swedish speakers tend to express respect through non-verbal actions or behaviors (Norrbom 2006; Pizziconi 2008; Utrzén 2011).

    Language and identity are closely related, and language use is based on culture and society. Understanding both one’s own politeness strategies as well as foreign norms can help learners realize how culture, language, and their own identity are intertwined. Learners of Japanese should therefore consider polite discourse as part of the rules of the language rather than as something that can be modified based on one’s opinion.

    Based on an analysis of cross-cultural differences in politeness strategies between Japanese and Swedish seen from both cultural and linguistic viewpoints, this study investigates politeness strategies used by Swedish and Japanese speakers by conducting attitude surveys and by analyzing the types of pragmatic errors made by Swedish learners of Japanese along with possible reasons for such errors.

    Teaching communicative competence is extremely important in language instruction. Speakers can avoid embarrassing situations and conflicts caused by misunderstandings if they are aware of differences in inter-cultural pragmatics. Studies have shown that pragmatics can be taught effectively by using appropriate methods and tools (Cohen & Ishihara 2005, Bardovi-Harlig & Mahan-Taylor 2003). By demonstrating the use of the Japanese honorific system more systematically and contrasting it with Swedish politeness strategies, I aim to motivate students to learn honorific expressions, thus enabling them to communicate more successfully in Japanese.

    In this presentation, I will first offer various definitions and views of politeness in Japan and Sweden suggested by previous studies and discuss the reasons why these came to be viewed as they are today. Second, Swedish speakers’ attitudes toward the use of Japanese polite forms will be examined using data from the surveys and error analyses I conducted. Finally, various methods for overcoming cross-cultural miscommunication caused by differences in politeness strategies will be discussed.

     

  • 193.
    Aida Niendorf, Mariya
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Japanese.
    Cross-cultural pragmatics: Challenges and implications of teaching Japanese politeness strategies to learners of L2 Japanese2019Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Japanese politeness discourse varies in complexity according to social distance, relative power between speakers, and social situations. Yet Swedish learners of Japanese often do not see the necessity of learning polite discourse and often view such forms negatively. Intentionally or otherwise, Swedish learners often fail to use appropriate politeness strategies in large part because Sweden is one of the most egalitarian societies in the world. However, it is important to point out to foreign language learners that cultural and social norms are not cross-culturally interchangeable and that speakers must often adapt to the language they are learning and to the culture they find themselves in.

    In this presentation, I will first offer various definitions and views of politeness in Japan, Sweden, and the US as well as other English-speaking countries as suggested by previous studies, and I will discuss the reasons why these came to be viewed as they are today. Second, Swedish learners’ attitudes toward the use of Japanese polite forms will be examined using data from surveys and error analyses. Finally, various methods for overcoming cross-cultural miscommunication caused by differences in politeness strategies will be proposed, which may be applied to learners of other languages.

  • 194.
    Aida Niendorf, Mariya
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Japanese.
    Finland and Japan: A peek into shared histories through tango's migration, transformation, and assimilation2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 195.
    Aida Niendorf, Mariya
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Japanese.
    Finrando to nihon no tango būmu kara kaimamiru ryōkoku kyōtsū no rekishiteki, shakaiteki haikei2019In: Nihon to finrando no deai to tsunagari: / [ed] Juha Saunavaara, Ojiro Suzuki, Okayama: Daigaku Kyoiku Shuppan , 2019, p. 197-209Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 196.
    Aida Niendorf, Mariya
    Dalarna University, School of Languages and Media Studies, Japanese.
    From Buenos Aires to Finland and Japan: The tango's unusual migration2014In: List of Abstracts for Conference Transcultural Identity Constructions in a Changing World, Dalarna University, Sweden, April 2-4, 2014, 2014, p. 19-20Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Finland, thousands of miles away from Buenos Aires, people crowd the dance floors of restaurants and dance halls nightly to dance to tango music, while the tango has also caught the heart of the people on the other side of the world in Japan. The popularity of the tango in both Finland and Japan, however, is not very well known to the outside world.

    Though some scholars have stated that the tango reflects the personality, mentality and identity of the Finnish and Japanese people, this may only be partially true. Moreover, it is difficult to generalize what the Finnish or Japanese personality is. I argue that the tango's success in these two countries also has significant connections to historical and social factors. As being a dancer myself, I also believe that the 'liminality' (originally a term borrowed from Arnold van Gennep's formulation of rites de passage) of tango dancing plays an important role in these two nations that went through difficult struggles to recover from the damage caused by the war. “The liminal phase is considered sacred, anomalous, abnormal and dangerous, while the  pre- and post-liminal phases are normal and a profane state of being (Selänniemi 1996) and “the regular occurrence of sacred-profane alternations mark important periods of social life or even provide the measure of the passage of time itself”(Leach 1961).

    In this paper, I will discuss motives and paths of how a culture travels, settles and shapes into a new form, using the tango as an example.

  • 197.
    Aida Niendorf, Mariya
    Dalarna University, School of Languages and Media Studies, Japanese.
    Improving Intercultural Competence for the Distance Students in Sweden through Online Joint-Seminars in Japanese with University Students from the United States2014In: Next Generation Learning Conference, March 19–20 2014, Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden: Book of abstracts, Falun: Högskolan Dalarna, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There have been quite a few studies (Helm 2009, Chun 2011, Schenker 2012, Kitade 2012, etc.) regarding the development of intercultural competence through online exchanges. Most of these exchanges, however, are between native speakers and learners of that language. The benefit of such exchanges can be maximized if both parties are learning each other’s language and they both have the opportunity to utilize the languages they are learning during the exchange, but often times, this is not the case.  Byram (1997) suggests that intercultural competence can be assessed using the following components: knowledge, skills, attitudes, and critical awareness.  If ‘intercultural competence’ means not just learning about the target culture, but also about becoming aware of one’s own culture (Liaw 2006), connecting students from different countries who are studying the same target language and culture would be an ideal setting in order for the students to evaluate both their own and target cultures critically. Having learners of a target language from different countries in a virtual classroom also helps create an environment which mimics the language classroom in the target country enabling them to experience studying abroad without leaving their home countries.

    It is often said to be difficult or almost impossible for students in distance courses to develop intercultural competence because of the lack of opportunity to study abroad or the lack of an international atmosphere in the classroom (Tyberg 2009). Thus, the goal of this study is to provide opportunities for all students, regardless of their circumstances, to develop intercultural competence.  In this study, a group of intermediate/advanced level Japanese students from a university in Sweden (all distance students) and a group from a university in the U.S. were brought together in a virtual classroom using an online video conferencing system.  Through their interactions and post-seminar reflections, I examined how students develop intercultural competence.

     

    The results from this study show that through interactions with university students from other countries who study Japanese at the same level, the students can gain not only Japanese skills, but expand their horizons and deepen their understanding of another culture as well as of the topics discussed during the meetings thus satisfying each of the criteria in Byram's model. Not everyone has the opportunity to study abroad, but today's technology allows every student to be a part of the internationalization process, develop his/her cultural-literacy and reflect on his/her identity.

  • 198.
    Aida Niendorf, Mariya
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Japanese.
    Intercultural communicative competence: the challenges and implications of teaching Japanese politeness strategies to Swedish learners of Japanese2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Teaching communicative competence is extremely important in language instruction. One can avoid embarrassing situations and conflicts caused by misunderstandings if she/he understands the differences in intercultural pragmatics. Politeness discourse varies in complexity according to social distance, relative power between the speakers, and situations. The data I have collected during the past 6 years indicates that Swedish learners of Japanese often do not see the necessity of learning the polite/honorific discourse and often view these negatively as Swedish society is one of the most egalitarian in the world. As a consequence, Swedish students often fail to utilize appropriate politeness strategies when speaking in Japanese. However, it is important to point out to foreign language learners that cultural and social norms are not interchangeable and that one must adapt to the language one is using and the culture one is in. Thus Swedish Learners of Japanese should consider politeness discourse as a part of the rules of the language rather than something that can be modified based on one’s opinion.

    The current study investigates the differences in politeness strategies between Swedish and Japanese discourse. Student surveys and analysis of students’ errors have revealed clear differences in the use of politeness strategies in Swedish and in Japanese context. While the politeness, respect, and formality are closely intertwined in Japanese; the Swedes perceive respect and politeness as separate matters. It is also found that while the Japanese are inclined to using verbal politeness strategies, the Swedes express their respect more through non-verbal actions or behaviors. Various Japanese and Swedish utterances have also been examined to determine the Discourse Politeness Default suggested by Usami (2006) in order to systematize the politeness strategies in ways similar to grammatical rules.

                                                                                                                                                                          

                                                                          

                                                                                                                                                                          

  • 199.
    Aida Niendorf, Mariya
    Dalarna University, School of Languages and Media Studies, Japanese.
    Internationalization at home: Effectiveneess of online joint-seminars with overseas university students: Results from a pilot study2013In: INTED2013 Proceedings: 7th International Technology, Education and Development Conference, Valencia, Spain. 4-5 March, 2013 / [ed] International Association of Technology, Education and Development, IATED , 2013, p. 5242-5247Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the recent years, both the Swedish National Agency for Higher Education or Högskoleverket (HSV) and individual universities in Sweden have been promoting “internationalization at home.” In an attempt to make it possible for all the students to be part of internationalization regardless of their financial, family and other situations that prevent them from studying abroad, I have brought a virtual international classroom to the students studying Japanese. The initial pilot study was conducted to examine the interactions during online joint-seminars with overseas students. In order to eventually create an ideal virtual classroom environment in an international setting, I focused on finding answers to the following three questions: (1) How do the students from different countries interact during on-line video conferencing seminars? (2) What can teachers do to make the students feel comfortable in such seminars and maximize learning? (3) Do functions such as ‘Chat’ that are available in the video-conferencing system Adobe® Connect™ help improve communication between students from both countries? In the study conducted during the spring 2012 term, I examined the students’ interactions during the joint-seminars using a video conferencing system. I analyzed not only the conversation during the online-seminars but also the chat during the seminars and blog entries as well as comments outside the class to see how they compliment the verbal communication. The positive feedback from the participating students indicates that, through interactions with university students from other countries who study Japanese at the same level, the students can gain not only Japanese skills, but also expand their horizons and deepen their understanding of another culture as well as the topics discussed during the meetings. The success of the initial pilot study implies a great potential in internet-based university education contributing to ‘internationalization at home’.

  • 200.
    Aida Niendorf, Mariya
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Japanese.
    Internationalization at home: effectiveness of online joint-seminars with overseas university students - results from a pilot study2013In: 7th International technology, education and development conference (INTED2013), 2013, p. 5242-5247Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the recent years, both the Swedish National Agency for Higher Education or Hogskoleverket (HSV) and individual universities in Sweden have been promoting "internationalization at home." In an attempt to make it possible for all the students to be part of internationalization regardless of their financial, family and other situations that prevent them from studying abroad, I have brought a virtual international classroom to the students studying Japanese. The initial pilot study was conducted to examine the interactions during online joint-seminars with overseas students. In order to eventually create an ideal virtual classroom environment in an international setting, I focused on finding answers to the following three questions: (1) How do the students from different countries interact during online video conferencing seminars? (2) What can teachers do to make the students feel comfortable in such seminars and maximize learning? (3) Do functions such as 'Chat' that are available in the video-conferencing system Adobe (R) Connect (TM) help improve communication between students from both countries? In the study conducted during the spring 2012 term, I examined the students' interactions during the joint-seminars using a video conferencing system. I analyzed not only the conversation during the online-seminars but also the chat during the seminars and blog entries as well as comments outside the class to see how they compliment the verbal communication. The positive feedback from the participating students indicates that, through interactions with university students from other countries who study Japanese at the same level, the students can gain not only Japanese skills, but also expand their horizons and deepen their understanding of another culture as well as the topics discussed during the meetings. The success of the initial pilot study implies a great potential in internet-based university education contributing to 'internationalization at home'.

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