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  • 151.
    Olsson, Carina
    Dalarna University, School of Languages and Media Studies, Spanish.
    Palabras vacías: Amor, amistad y verosimilitud en Castillos de cartón de Almudena Grandes2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [es]

    Con esta tesina se pretende poner en relieve la importancia de escribir textos narrativos de modo que el lector pueda concebir lo que está leyendo como real. Por este motivo, el objetivo es ilustrar de qué modo un texto puede faltar a las pautas de credibilidad, haciendo que el lector ponga en cuestión la verosimilitud de lo relatado.

    Como objeto de estudio se ha elegido la novela Castillos de cartón de Almudena Grandes. Se ha realizado una interpretación hermenéutica del texto centrada en la relación que mantienen los tres protagonistas. Con el apoyo de la teoría aristotélica de la amistad y de la teoría triangular del amor de Stenberg principalmente, se muestra por qué el lector no puede aceptar como creíble que dicha relación sea de amor y amistad como afirma la narradora. Asimismo, se estudia la credibilidad de la narradora a través del análisis del discurso narrativo partiendo de los conceptos de narratología de Gérard Genette.

    La conclusión a la que se llega es que no se consigue crear una realidad fictiva creíble debido, por una parte, a que los sentimientos que la narradora afirma existen (amor y amistad) no están respaldados por lo que se relata y, por otra, a que el uso lingüístico de la narradora y sus razonamientos contrastan drásticamente con las expectativas del lector.

  • 152.
    Pabon, Alexander
    Dalarna University, School of Languages and Media Studies, Spanish.
    Percepción y aceptación de contenidos del libro Caminando de Nuevo 3 para la enseñanza de español2011Student thesis
    Abstract [un]

    This work presents an investigation done on the book Caminando de nuevo 3 that is adopted in some Swedish schools for the Spanish course they offer. The hypothesis explored whether the content of the book could create wrong stereotypes based on incorrect used of didactic content. Other related worked in line with this investigation were investigated. Furthermore, twenty students that had used this book were surveyed. The data collected was analyzed. This analysis is in line with the hypothesis of this work. A great majority of the students reported not to be motivated, they were not particularly enthusiastic toward the book, and were surprised by the content of the book related to the exercises, the text itself and the pictures used in the book. In conclusion this work suggests that this type of textbooks should be revised and present a better alternative for its text, visual and grammatical content. Finally, some recommendations are given both to teachers and students in order to reach the goals that have been defined by their curriculum.

  • 153.
    Paul Delgado de Mendoza, Luis
    Dalarna University, School of Languages and Media Studies, Spanish.
    Discurso digital: Sus diferencias entre nativos e inmigrantes digitales2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Talking about society nowadays means talking about a digital society in which the influence of modern technologies and internet have changed our way of working, learning and establishing social relations. The digitalization of our lives shapes somehow the way we interact, but has it changed the way we speak? We do posses the digital tools to speak digitally, but how is our digital speech different to our oral speech?

    In this paper we have focused on three groups of digital speakers: digital natives (younger than 20 years), digital residents (between 20 and 35 years), and digital immigrants (older than 35 years). After analyzing several of their digital conversations, we have found clear distinctions in their speech.

    The digital immigrants have developed their own communicative strategies to communicate via digital chats. They seem to have a digital language of their own which differs from their oral speech. On the other hand, digital immigrants tend to imitate traditional strategies of the oral speech. But the most surprising results have been found in the group of ages between 20 and 35 years which share characteristics of both digital natives and digital immigrants, that is why we have given them the name "digital residents" and have considered them a group of their own. These digital residents have developed their own strategies, somehow similar to the ones used by natives, but at the same time, they tend to reproduce some strategies of the oral speech when speaking digitally.

  • 154.
    Perdigó, Jordi
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Spanish.
    Faulques, los ojos que no olvidan: El trastorno de estrés post-traumatico en El pintor debatallas2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 155.
    Persson, Angella
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Spanish.
    La relación entre el aprendizaje autorregulado y el rendimiento académico en estudiantes de ELE: Un estudio realizado a estudiantes de bachillerato en Suecia2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between self-regulated learning and academic achievement in Spanish as a foreign language learning. The method that was applied in this study was a questionnaire. It was conducted on 71 upper secondary school students who studied Spanish as a foreign language. The questionnaire was made in order to obtain information about the students’ school grades and about to which extend the students used self-regulated learning. The results showed that there is a positive relationship between self-regulated learning and academic achievement in students of Spanish as a foreign language. Furthermore, the results showed that students who use self-regulated learning in a great manner are those who have the best grades in Spanish as a foreign language, i.e. they have a better academic achievement.

  • 156.
    Persson, Anna
    Dalarna University, School of Languages and Media Studies, Spanish.
    Imágenes de Hispanoamérica: Un análisis crítico de material didáctico de ELE2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [un]

    This paper investigates how Latin America and its cultures are represented in textbooks on Spanish as a foreign language. The study aims at investigating how much attention and of what type is dedicated to Latin America in the investigated material, whether the textbooks contribute to giving a varied and nuanced image of the Spanish-American cultures and how this relates to the educational goal of promoting an intercultural competence. A qualitative method of analysis has been applied in order to carry out the analysis of three textbooks for intermediate levels of language studies: Caminando 3, Alegria and De acuerdo. The results of the investigation show that the investigated textbooks mostly present a simplified, ethnocentric, homogenized and sometimes postcolonial image of the Spanish-American cultures. Texts where the culture constitutes the context and not the subject can promote a process of identification and consequently an intercultural competence. The study’s main conclusions show that Spanish-American cultures are underrepresented in the investigated material and that a non-native perspective dominates in the majority of the texts. This combined with the lack of variety and profundity, may have consequences for the promotion of an intercultural competence and for teachers’ work with textbooks and cultural content.

  • 157.
    Persson, Carolina
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Spanish.
    Actitudes hacia el quechua: Estudio sociolingüístico de actitudes a universitarios peruanos2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Quechua, or also known as Runasimi "people´s language", was a language of the Inca empire which was abused by the Spanish colonization in the 15th century; since then, the Quechua language has gone through a process of extinction according to recent sources. Geographically, Quechua is still spoken in Bolivia, Peru, Chile, Ecuador, Colombia and Argentina having the major amount of speakers in Peru.

    The aim of this thesis is to compose a sociolinguistic investigation about attitudes towards Quechua, one of the many peruvian varieties that has been included in the language endangerment project pronounced by UNESCO (2010). In this study, we have analized Quechua´s vitality through two groups of Peruvian students who belong to two universities with different economic prestige in Peru. In the the first part of the thesis we will analyze the external setting as history, political, social and educational factors that might have had influence on the current situation of the declining of Quechua language; in the second part, the results from the empirical study carried out regarding the attitude towards Quechua will be presented. For the empirical research, a direct method was chosen that consisted of the use of Likert items and attitude scales of measurement. The dimensions measured in this thesis are solidarity and status. Finally, the results will be compared within the categories of gender and economic context.

    The results indicate that the informants seem to have a positive attitudes towards Quechua, but the attitudes might differ depending on the gender and economic context. Women at both universities show higher levels of solidarity attitudes than men. Finally, the group of informants with high economic prestige show higher levels of attitudes in the status dimension; in contrast, the other group show more positive attitudes within the solidarity dimension.

  • 158.
    Persson, Yadira
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Spanish.
    Lirios y hongos venenosos en las tripas: Metáforas de la naturaleza en El coronel no tiene quien le escriba.2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [es]

    En este estudio se analiza la función y uso de elementos o fenómenos naturales en las metáforas de la novela

    El coronel no tiene quien le escriba. Tomamos como punto de partida teorético la obra de Lakoff y Johnsson (1980) Metáforas de la vida cotidiana. Así mismo analizamos conceptos como la metáfora animal y semejanza. Para el análisis se usa el método de la hermenéutica donde se hace una interpretación analítica de algunas metáforas textuales y otras conceptuales encontradas en la obra. Como resultado se destacan dos funciones principales del uso de elementos de la naturaleza: expresión y sentido de sentimientos abstractos y semejanza. Se concluye este trabajo expresando las dificultades de esta investigación y proponiendo algunas ideas para una futura investigación en el tema.

  • 159.
    Petković, Jorge
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Spanish.
    ¡Mandaré en lo mío y en lo vuestro!: Un análisis del carácter patriarcal del personaje de Bernarda Alba en la obra La casa de Bernarda Alba. 2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 160.
    Petrovich, Ingrid
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Spanish.
    La interacción oral y las TIC en el aula de ELE: Un estudio sobre el uso de las nuevas tecnologías como herramienta didáctica2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [es]

    Las nuevas tecnologías forman hoy en día parte de la vida cotidiana de la sociedad en general. Estas herramientas utilizadas como recurso educativo nos ofrecen una multitud de posibilidades para fomentar la interacción oral de los alumnos de español como lengua extranjera.

    Los resultados presentados en este estudio indican el potencial de los entornos digitales, que acompañados de propuestas didácticas apropiadas, pueden contribuir a la motivación y el desarrollo de los alumnos en el proceso de aprendizaje.

    Algunos recursos digitales gratuitos como

    Skype o Voxopop son algunos ejemplos de plataformas que pueden utilizarse en el aula de ELE y que pueden contribuir al desarrollo de la comunicación entre estudiantes de cualquier parte del mundo y mejorar las competencias comunicativas. Otros recursos útiles y significativos pueden ser también Youtube o Kahoot discussion para crear actividades colectivas e iniciar temas de conversación en el aula.

  • 161.
    Petrovich, Ingrid
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Spanish.
    La interacción oral y las TIC en el aula de ELE: Un estudio sobre las actitudes de los profesores hacia las herramientas digitales.2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [es]

    En este estudio se ha investigado cómo noventa profesores de ELE en Suecia utilizan las TIC en su enseñanza y sus actitudes hacia las mismas a través de una encuesta digital. Los resultados presentados indican que a pesar de que no todos los docentes han recibido capacitación sobre cómo usar las TIC en el ámbito de la educación, la gran mayoría de éstos utiliza múltiples plataformas digitales de manera frecuente en el aula de español. Las plataformas más populares son YouTube, Kahoot y Power Point seguidas por Ur Quizlet, Socrates, Smartnotes, Digilär, Prezi, Blogg, Google Drive, etc. Todas estas herramientas digitales permiten mayormente desarrollar las habilidades escritas, auditivas y orales de los aprendices, pero no son utilizadas como un medio de comunicación oral que permita la auténtica comunicación de los alumnos.

    Los resultados nos muestran actitudes bastantes positivas, entre ellas que las clases se vuelven más variadas, flexibles e inspiradoras y que las TIC pueden contribuir al desarrollo de la lengua meta y mejorar las destrezas comunicativas orales, escritas y auditivas de los alumnos.

  • 162.
    Raduca, Mariana
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Spanish.
    La realidad alternativa: -Un análisis sobre la función del realismomágico en la obra Como agua para chocolate por Laura Esquivel.2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [es]

    Esta tesina tiene el propósito de analizar qué función tiene el realismo mágico en la novela Como agua para chocolate y observar cómo se presenta a lo largo de la novela. Hemos comprobado que los elementos o las manifestaciones del realismo mágico funcionan como medio de huida para la protagonista. La investigación se basa en un método de exégesis que consiste en una interpretación propia del texto y que tiene como objetivo descifrar los mensajes y profundizar la  comprensión del texto elegido. Como resultado de nuestra investigación podemos afirmar que el realismo mágico tiene varias funciones.  Los hechos extraños y mágicos se presentan como naturales y como parte de la vida diaria. Podemos igualmente afirmar que los elementos o las manifestaciones del realismo mágico funcionan como una técnica de narración de la historia de la protagonista. También funcionan como un código de comunicación entre Tita y Pedro. A través del realismo mágico, Tita usa su fantasía creadora que es real para ella para escapar de la realidad circundante y molesta: que nunca puede casarse ni tener hijos. Se puede igualmente afirmar que no se trata de una creación de un mundo imaginario, sino de una relación existente entre Tita y el contexto en que se encuentra. Se descubre lo maravilloso en los objetos en la vida a través del enfrentamiento con la realidad. 

  • 163.
    Ramos Mendiola, Edward Enrique
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Spanish.
    Ventajas y desventajas del bilingüismo infantil en Suecia: Un estudio sobre la percepción de los padres de niños bilingües2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this research paper was to investigate the perception that parents have in relation to the development of their children's bilingualism, and that in a given period of time could be considered as advantages or disadvantages. Appraisals can be corroborated when the people who experienced it apply that knowledge.

    With a qualitative methodology five parents who voluntarily agreed to be part of the research were interviewed. After having received the reports of the interviews, these were contrasted with the theory proposed by some authors who have deepened in the study of children's bilingualism, especially in Sweden.

    The responses of the parents were very varied and in some cases very similar, which led to the development of a final discussion and then a general conclusion.

  • 164.
    Rifi, Monia
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Spanish.
    Actitudes hacia el mojeño trinitario: Un estudio sociolingüístico entre jóvenes de Trinidad, Bolivia2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The main aim of this study was to discover and analyse the language attitudes of young Trinitarians

    between 15 – 24 years old who still live in Trinidad, the Beni area (Bolivia) towards the threatened

    minority language Moxo Trinitarian. Language attitudes are of importance because they can give

    us an idea of the present situation of a minority language. The method applied in the survey was

    direct, where the informants had to answer a written questionnaire first followed by an interview.

    We used the Likert scale as an instrument to measure the informants’ attitudes. The results of the

    study show positive attitudes towards the Moxo language.

    The main conclusions of the study were that the informants, in general, showed positive attitudes

    towards Moxo, indicating that the main use of the language is mostly in the privacy of their homes

    and with friends or to share secrets in front of them who are not

    Moxo Trinitarian speakers.

  • 165.
    Roca Ahlgren, Roca Ahlgren
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Spanish.
    La maternidad frustrada: Análisis temático de la poesía de Gabriela Mistral2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [es]

    Las obras En verso y prosa, Desolación, Tala y Lagar, de la autora Gabriela Mistral, contienenpoemas de diferente temática, como el amor, el dolor, la naturaleza, el feminismo y lamaternidad. En esta tesina demostraremos cómo se presenta el tema de la maternidad frustrada enlos poemas de la autora. Nos apoyaremos en la teoría de la autora De Beauvoir, resaltandoejemplos de poemas encontrados en las obras de Gabriela Mistral.Palabras clave: maternidad, Gabriela Mistral, maternidad frustrada, teoría feministaThe works En verso y prosa, Desolación, Tala y Lagar, by Gabriela Mistral, contain poetry fromdiferent topics, such as love, sorrow, nature, feminism and maternity. In this analysis we willshow how the frustration of maternity is presented in the author´s poems. We will base ouranalysis on the Feminist theory developed by De Beauvoir, highlighting examples from thepoems in the works of Gabriela Mistral.

  • 166.
    Rodriguez Vásquez, Simón Giancarlo
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Spanish.
    Viviendo con el enemigo: Análisis de los personajes y su evolución en la obra La ciudad y los perros de Mario Vargas Llosa2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 167.
    Rofes Vernhes, Anna
    Dalarna University, School of Languages and Media Studies, Spanish.
    Amigos 2 y Burlington Passport for ESO1: Un análisis comparativo entre materiales didácticos de lengua extranjera utilizados en Suecia y en España2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
  • 168.
    Rohlin, Kevin
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Spanish.
    El uso de los verbos copulativos ser y estar: Una comparacion entre suecos que viven en Espana y suecos queviven en Suecia.2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 169.
    Rosson, Roberto
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Spanish.
    Modernidad y antipoesía: Temática y visión en Nicanor Parra Modernity and anti-poetry2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 170.
    Ruch, Carolina
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Spanish.
    Análisis de las actitudes hacia la variedad mapudungun entre los estudiantes de la lengua en Chile. La situación actual y algunos métodos de revitalización2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this essay is to analyze the current attitudes towards the mapuche language among its students. There are different kinds of students, varieties of ages and motivations that entails the study of this ancestral language.

    To achieve our objectives, we conducted an interview and a few surveys to analyze the current state towards the variety. We have confirmed that despite the disagreements with the Chilean society, the attitudes towards the mapuche language have improved positively, additionally to this, we found there are entities dedicated to the work of revitalization, which helps to get governmental support, even if at a slow pace, they are working on the language revitalization.

  • 171.
    Saito, Rieko
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Japanese.
    Hayakawa Thor, Masako
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Japanese.
    Mizufune, Yoko
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Japanese.
    Inose, Hiroko
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Japanese.
    López-Cordero, Mario
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Spanish.
    Pruth, Alex
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Portuguese.
    Pedagogical Methods in Web-Based Language Teaching2014In: Proceedings of the 22nd International Conference on Computers in Education / [ed] Liu, C.-C., Japan: ICCE 2014 Organizing Committee , 2014, , p. 5p. 768-772Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a research project that is being conducted at Dalarna University in Sweden. The aim is to study the following: 1) The quality of online language education compared with that of campus education, and 2) Advantages and disadvantages of online language education and how the disadvantages might be overcome. The project consists of two parts: pedagogical methods in online language education from the teachers’ point of view and from the students’ point of view. The first part was conducted in 2012 and various characteristics (benefits and difficulties) of online language education were identified. Flexibility and wider opportunities were general benefits, while lack of physical co-presence, difficulty in having lively debates/discussions, and high dropout rates were among the problems. The second part of the project (being conducted in 2014) aims to investigate how students experience online language learning. The goal is to explore alignments and misalignments between teachers’ perspectives and students’ perspectives, and to develop methods to enhance the quality of online education.

  • 172.
    Saldías, Mónica
    Dalarna University, School of Languages and Media Studies, Spanish.
    La carne recordada: un análisis de la atemporalidad mítica y la subversión religiosa en Pedro Páramo2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [un]

    The aim of the present study is to analyze the representation of the mythic timelessness and the religious subversion in the novel Pedro Páramo (1953) by the Mexican writer Juan Rulfo. The novel is analyzed from a narratological perspective based on the concept of focalization proposed by the French theoretician Gérard Genette. According to Genette it is possible to identify different levels of focalization depending on the position of the narrative voices. The key question in this investigation is if any salvation is possible in the universe of Pedro Páramo and how the mythic timelessness and the religious subversion are represented in the textual intentionality through the narrative voices. The main conclusion is that there is no possible salvation in the fictional universe of Pedro Páramo. The collective sin is so vast that the intermediation between God and the inhabitants of Comala does not work anymore. Thus, the only possible ”salvation” consists in the separation of the soul from the body the people of Comala experience after death. In Pedro Páramo the dead body is liberated from remorses, but - contrary to the Catholic concepts - becomes a conscious materia sentenced to remember eternally. Keywords: Juan Rulfo, Pedro Páramo, narratological analysis, Gérard Genette, textual intentionality, focalization, mythic timelessness, religious subversion, narrative voices.

  • 173.
    Sandgren, Elin
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Spanish.
    ¿Egoísmo o caridad?: Un análisis de tres personajes en Marianela de Benito Pérez Galdós2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [es]

    Esta tesina tiene el propósito de analizar tres personajes de la novela

    Marianela de Benito Pérez Galdós y demostrar que el egoísmo es el impulsor de las acciones de estos personajes. Hemos elegido tres personajes de clases sociales diferentes: la protagonista Marianela, Florentina y Sofía. Queremos examinar si la clase social y la situación económica desempeñan un papel importante cuando analizamos el egoísmo de estos personajes. Trabajamos con el concepto de personaje, llamada caracterización, para analizar los personajes de la novela. La teoría básica que centrará el análisis es el egoísmo psicológico, la teoría sobre la motivación que afirma que nuestros deseos últimos son autocentrados. Como resultado de nuestro análisis podemos afirmar que la teoría del egoísmo psicológico es aplicable en estos tres personajes, aunque no es tan evidente en todos los casos. Los personajes muestran consideración y caridad pero a menudo con una segunda intención de carácter egoísta, una caridad falsa para el propio beneficio. El trabajo estudia dos formas de egoísmo psicológico, el consciente y el inconsciente en los personajes.

  • 174.
    Santos Muñoz, Arantxa
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Spanish. Uppsala universitet.
    Attending multi-party videoconference meetings. The initial problem2016In: Language@Internet, ISSN 1860-2029, E-ISSN 1860-2029, Vol. 13, article id 3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In computer-mediated communication (CMC) and video-mediated communication (VMC), conveying availability at the beginning of an encounter may become an intricate interactional task to be solved jointly by participants. Based on the analysis of 18 openings in multi-party videoconference meetings in Spanish, this article addresses how participants initiate interaction without a moderator. Taking Conversation Analysis (CA) as a methodological point of departure, the study shows that being present online does not necessarily indicate being available; even so, availability is one of the first interactional issues to be addressed at the beginning of an online interaction. The analysis illustrates how participants use different resources in order to display availability progressively during the three phases of the pre-meeting, and how interaction is unfolded until the establishment of mutual availability is accomplished. The findings lead to a discussion of the necessity for expanded notions like availability in CMC and VMC settings, in which the initial interactional problem is solved gradually.

  • 175.
    Santos Muñoz, Arantxa
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Spanish. Uppsala universitet, Romanska språk.
    Conversación digital: copresencia y disponibilidad: Estudio pragmático del preámbulo de reuniones multipartitas por videoconferencia2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The present thesis explores how interaction is initiated in multi-party meetings in Adobe Connect, 7.0, with a particular focus on how co-presence and mutual availability are established through the preambles of 18 meetings held in Spanish without a moderator. Taking Conversation Analysis (CA) as a methodological point of departure, this thesis comprises four different studies, each of them analyzing a particular phenomenon within the interaction of the preambles in a multimodal environment that allows simultaneous interaction through video, voice and text-chat.

    The first study (Artículo I) shows how participants solve jointly the issue of availability in a technological environment where being online is not necessarily understood as being available for communicating. The second study (Artículo II) focuses on the beginning of the audiovisual interaction; in particular on how participants check the right functioning of the audiovisual mode. The third study (Artículo III) explores silences within the interaction of the preamble. It shows that the length of gaps and lapses become a significant aspect the preambles and how they are connected to the issue of availability.  Finally, the four study introduces the notion of modal alignment, an interactional phenomenon that systematically appears in the beginnings of the encounters, which seems to be used and understood  as a strategy for the establishment of mutual availability and negotiation of the participation framework.

    As a whole, this research shows how participants, in order to establish mutual co-presence and availability, adapt to a particular technology in terms of participation management, deploying strategies and conveying successive actions which, as it is the case of the activation of their respective webcams, seem to be understood as predictable within the intricate process of establishing mutual availability before the meeting starts.

  • 176.
    Santos Muñoz, Arantxa
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Spanish.
    Cuestiones de pragmática cultural: Contrastes español/sueco2010In: Grado de Traducción y Comunicación Intercultural, Universidad Europea de Madrid, 2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 177.
    Santos Muñoz, Arantxa
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Spanish.
    Del aula tradicional a la modalidad «mobile», pasando por el aula virtual. La importancia de la interacción.2009In: Encuentros ELE Comillas 2009, Comillas - Santander - Spanien, 2009Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [es]

    Del aula tradicional a la modalidad « mobile », pasando por el aula virtual. La importancia de la interacción. En Suecia, desde hace algunos años, los estudios a distancia están ganando terreno a la modalidad presencial. Este hecho, sumado a las necesidades concretas del alumnado hace que las instituciones educativas se replanteen y tengan que adaptar sus cursos sin que a veces haya mucho tiempo para desarrollar actividades y utilizar nuevas herramientas tecnológicas. En Högskolan Dalarna, por ejemplo, el número de estudiantes de segundas lenguas a distancia ha venido aumentando anualmente y esto ha hecho que departamentos como el de Español se vean « obligados » a incorporar las nuevas tecnologías a las prácticas docentes. Como en muchas otras universidades y centros de estudios, la plataforma Fronter se ha convertido en el esqueleto y la base de nuestros cursos ; blogs, wikis, podcasts, y otros nuevos productos en la red se convierten en un apoyo inestimable tanto para el profesorado como para los estudiantes. Sin embargo, cabe preguntarse si la interacción en el aula no sigue siendo un elemento clave desde el punto de vista de la pedagogía y sobre todo dentro de la enseñanza-aprendizaje de lenguas extranjeras. Si trasladamos el concepto de interacción de la modalidad presencial a la enseñanza online nos encontraremos con que el aula virtual es sin duda una herramienta de gran utilidad en la enseñanza /aprendizaje de una lengua a distancia. En esta comunicación se presenta un ejemplo de actividad en un entorno que favorece la interacción y la comunicación en línea y se intenta analizar y evaluar la necesidad y las ventajas de productos de software como Adobe Connect en los cursos de español online.

  • 178.
    Santos Muñoz, Arantxa
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Spanish.
    El alinamiento modal al inicio de reuniones multipartitias por videoconferencia: una estrategia digital.2017Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 179.
    Santos Muñoz, Arantxa
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Spanish.
    El alineamiento modal al inicio de reuniones multipartitas: una herramienta digital2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [es]

    La multimodalidad constituye una propiedad inherente a la comunicación humana que se ha visto magnificada a partir de la aparición de nuevas formas de comunicación derivadas del uso de la tecnología. En los últimos años, tal propiedad se ha convertido además en un aspecto central de un gran número de estudios en los cuales se analiza la interacción que se produce en entornos de comunicación digital como la videoconferencia o el videochat, donde la interacción se lleva a cabo de forma simultánea a través del chat escrito, la imagen y el sonido (Herring, 2010; Yus, 2010; Sindoni, 2013).

    El estudio que presentamos en esta comunicación se centra en el análisis minucioso de la interacción multimodal que se produce al inicio de dieciocho reuniones por videoconferencia llevadas a cabo en español entre más de dos participantes. Tomando como punto de partida la metodología del Análisis Conversacional (AC), en esta comunicación introduciremos, en primer lugar, la noción de alineamiento modal, un fenómeno interactivo que aparece de forma sistemática en el preámbulo de las reuniones por videoconferencia analizadas. En segundo lugar, a través de ejemplos extraídos de nuestro corpus, mostraremos de qué manera el alineamiento modal contribuye a la negociación de la orientación recíproca de los participantes en línea, a la vez que sirve de estrategia para la gestión de la toma de turno al inicio de las reuniones (Santos Muñoz, 2016).

  • 180.
    Santos Muñoz, Arantxa
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Spanish.
    El alineamiento modal en el preámbulo de reuniones por videoconferencia2015In: Lingüística en la Red, ISSN 1697-0780, E-ISSN 1697-0780, no XIII, p. 1-22Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present paper aims at outlining the notion of modal alignment, a typical phenomen within the preambles of videoconference meetings, in which interaction can be held through written chat, image broadcasting and the audio-oral channel. Based on the interaction model developed by Erving Goffman and the methodology proposed by Conversation Analysis (CA), the analysis of the data, which come from eighteen meetings in Adobe Connect 7.0, shows that the selection of the channel within the analyzed interactional environment is a resource for showing alignment along the process of configuration of the participation frame. Moreover, it is shown that such selection can also be used as a strategy for managing of mutual orientation as well as turn-taking.

  • 181.
    Santos Muñoz, Arantxa
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Spanish.
    El español hablado por videoconferencia: La secuencia de comprobación de los canales de audio y vídeo2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Videoconference interaction is one of the most popular interactive modalities of the 21st Century and this modality is also very extended within the University context. In Sweden, for example, the number of online courses  increases continously and it is a fact that online teaching still carries several challenges. In the case of online language teaching the practice of spoken language continues being considered one of these main challenges, in part due to a lack of description of the conversational patterns through videoconference (Santos Muñoz, 2016).

    In the present paper I focus on the description of the checking sequence of audio and video channels (SCH). Within videoconference, the SCH sequence appears systematically at the beginning of the conversation, presenting both similarities and notable differences with the traditional greeting sequence and summons sequence in face-to-face modalities (Schegloff, 1968; Gallardo Paúls, 1993). Based on the analysis of examples of real interactions extracted from an audovisual corpus of meetings among sutdents of Spanish, I will show, firstly, how the SCH is mainly oriented to help with the development of the subsequent oral interaction among the participants;  secondly I will show how in many occasions the SCH sequence becomes the first thematic sequence of the spoken conversation, a fact that may be relevant not only for the effective establishment of the conversation itself but also from a didactic perspective, because the way it is produced may affect the (in)adequate performance of the SCH sequence, and this in the end may have consequences affecting the (un)effectiveness of the subsequent interaction among the online students.

  • 182.
    Santos Muñoz, Arantxa
    Dalarna University, School of Languages and Media Studies, Spanish.
    En busca de nuevos patrones conversacionales: Un estudio sobre la fase de apertura en la interacción oral en línea.2012In: XXVII Congreso de la AJL. Universidad de Sevilla, 13-16 november 2012, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 183.
    Santos Muñoz, Arantxa
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Spanish.
    La comprobación de los canales al inicio de encuentros por videoconferencia2016In: Spanish in Context, ISSN 1571-0718, E-ISSN 1571-0726, Vol. 13, no 3, p. 437-455Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [es]

    Partiendo de la metodología del Análisis Conversacional, el presente estudio examina una práctica habitual durante el inicio de encuentros por videoconferencia: la comprobación de los canales de audio y vídeo. Se muestra que dicha práctica con frecuencia se lleva a cabo a través de elementos como hola acompañados de marcas prosódicas concretas en función de las cuales los participantes pueden realizar diferentes acciones: solicitar una confirmación, confirmar el correcto funcionamiento de los canales o marcar la posible existencia de problemas técnicos. Se argumenta que aunque con dichos elementos también se contribuye al establecimiento de la orientación mutua y la disponibilidad recíproca de los participantes, la función principal de la primera secuencia de la interacción audiovisual es el chequeo del funcionamiento de los canales, por lo que se concluye que en videoconferencia la secuencia inicial de comprobación podría constituir la secuencia típica con la que se inicia la interacción oral.

  • 184.
    Santos Muñoz, Arantxa
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Spanish.
    La cronémimca de reuniones multipartitas en videoconferencia: Observaciones en torno al silencio de la fase de preparación2015In: Lengua y Habla, ISSN 1316-1180, Vol. 19, p. 56-76Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims at examining vocal pauses during the preparation phase of eighteen multiparty video conference meetings. Based on Conversation Analysis (CA), data show that time length of vocal pauses in communication is reduced considerably during two moments of on-line conversation. This shows that there are three pre-meeting phases, namely, initial, transitional, and audiovisual. Vocal pauses exhibit specific features. It is also shown that written chats have intervals and lapses of time, and that the level of tolerance towards vocal pauses varies from phase to phase. This can be related with the attention level and availability. A maximum standard for time intervals at the transition phase is proposed. Oral and audio channels support levels of tolerance above three seconds. Finally, this study shows there are different chronemic tempos along a video conference preparation, in which elements such as the web camera seem to be relevant for interaction.

  • 185.
    Santos Muñoz, Arantxa
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Spanish.
    La interacción oral en los cursos de español online: análisis de una experiencia de aula2012In: La Red y sus aplicaciones en la enseñanza-aprendizaje del español como lengua extranjera / [ed] Hernández González, C. et al., Valladolid: Universidad de Valladolid , 2012, p. 487-495Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 186.
    Santos Muñoz, Arantxa
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Spanish.
    Sharing students´experiences: an activity in spoken language in an interactive electronic learning environment2009In: Bremen Symposium 2009. Autonomy and motivation in foreign language learning., Bremen, 2009Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to present a practical experience in a distance-based course of phonetics and spoken Spanish. The course is integrated in a larger program at Dalarna University (Sweden) and it is addressed to first year students of Spanish. It is aimed at making students capable of understanding and producing their own spoken texts while reflecting upon the different varieties of spoken Spanish. First of all, we will present some electronic learning environments as a good option for supporting distance learning courses. Secondly, we will point out the importance of effective self-regulated learning on foreign language distance courses and for this purpose we will present an interactive activity in which the students background, interests and the language itself become the main challenges. How can we motivate the students? How can we help create an adequate virtual classroom atmosphere on a distance learning course? Aspects such as autonomous learning, motivation, interaction as well as pragmatics and interculturalism are all involved in this workshop.

  • 187.
    Santos Muñoz, Arantxa
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Spanish.
    The length of silence: a study on online openings in Spanish2012In: OFTI 30 Stockholms universitet 20–21 september 2012: abstractsamling, Stockholm: Institutionen för nordiska språk, Stockholms universitet , 2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 188.
    Santos Muñoz, Arantxa
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Spanish.
    Una propuesta didáctica para la enseñanza/aprendizaje de los sufijos apreciativos en español como lengua extranjera2007Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 189.
    Schröder, Elisabeth
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Spanish.
    La magia en la realidad del coronel que no tiene quien le escriba: El Coronel como símbolo y figura auténtica entre el realismo inmediato y lo maravilloso2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 190.
    Scott, Elin
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Spanish.
    ¿Neurodidáctica aplicada?: Una investigación sobre las aplicaciones de la neurodidáctica en la enseñanza de español y en concreto en el libro de texto Caminando 3. 2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis analyzes the teaching material Caminando 3 from a neurodidactic perspective. The discipline of neurodidactics is young and controversial and the aim of this investigation is to present an understanding of the use of practical applications of neurodidactics in written material of education in Spanish as a second language. The methods applied are a quantitative and objective analysis of measurable aspects in Caminando 3 and a qualitative, subjective analysis which is interpreting fundamental understandings of language learning which Caminando 3 reflects in its structure and content. The results show that there are several aspects in Caminando 3 which are supported by the evidences and advices of the neurodidactic theories and simultaneously there are details in exercises and parts of the layup containing a level of repetition and prediction which are directly harmful to the process of acquisition, according to neurodidactic theories. The conclusion is that a more dynamic teaching book can be produced with guidelines that can be created using these results. Further investigations will have to measure the knowledge and success of the pupils to decide whether neurodidactics is a successful complement to traditional didactics of second language learning.

  • 191.
    Sedendahl, Linnea
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Spanish.
    Errores gramaticales en textos de E/L2: Un estudio sobre los errores gramaticales más frecuentes en los textos de estudiantes en el nivel intermedio en el bachillerato sueco2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [es]

    Es importante para todos los estudiantes de L2 desarrollar la capacidad de expresarse según las normas gramaticales de la lengua meta. En este estudio nuestro objetivo ha sido investigar qué errores gramaticales son los más frecuentes en textos escritos por estudiantes en el curso Spanska 3 en el bachillerato en Suecia. También hemos querido entender más sobre los errores con ayuda de estudios anteriores y teorías lingüísticas. Las fuentes primarias del estudio consisten en 30 textos en forma narrativa, con el tema

    En vacaciones. El método que hemos usado para recolectar los datos tiene su origen en el Análisis de Errores.

    El análisis de los datos consiste en dos partes: un análisis cuantitativo y un análisis cualitativo. En total hemos obtenido 251 errores de los textos, en categorías gramaticales diferentes. El resultado del análisis cuantitativo muestra que las categorías de errores de verbos, concordancias y artículos son las más grandes. Las categorías de errores de preposiciones, pronombres personales y adjetivos posesivos son las categorías menores. En el análisis cualitativo hemos usado teorías de la interlengua y de las estrategias de comunicación para entender más sobre los errores de nuestro estudio. También hemos presentado nuestra actitud didáctica hacia los errores de los estudiantes.

  • 192.
    Soto del Río, Juan
    Dalarna University, School of Languages and Media Studies, Spanish.
    Entre el relato y la realidad: A sangre y fuego: la historia contada a través del relato2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [es]

    En el presente trabajo se analizará la obra del periodista y escritor Manuel Chaves Nogales A sangre y fuego (1937). El objetivo que se tendrá en cuenta es descubrir dónde está la frontera entre la literatura y el periodismo en esta obra, reflexionando igualmente sobre la teoría de ficción y no ficción, la realidad y la novela.

    A través de una visión semiótica, mediante un análisis basado en términos de comunicación, y centrándose el estudio en un concepto relacionado con la “literariedad”, se ha llegado a la conclusión de que se hace imposible en determinados géneros establecer fronteras entre literatura y periodismo. Del mismo modo, se ha hecho evidente la contribución y utilidad de lo literario a la hora de afrontar fenómenos relativos a la realidad y concretamente a la actualidad.

  • 193.
    Suchora, Marta
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Spanish.
    ¡No te hagas el sueco! : Las actitudes del profesorado hacia la incorporación de las frases hechas con nacionalidades y grupos étnicos en la enseñanza del español en el nivel avanzado2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we try to discover and analyze the teachers' attitudes towards incorporating the set phrases while teaching Spanish in the advanced level, for example phrases about nationalities and ethnic groups. In addition, we attempt to measure teachers' perspectives towards teaching ethically incorrect phrasal expressions in the classroom. In particular, we focus on the role of the socio-cultural aspect in the learning process of a foreign language.

    Based on our study, the teachers' perspectives on incorporating those set phrases while teaching Spanish in the advanced level are very positive. Our informants have recognized that the phrases are very common in the Spanish language. In addition, the cultural and historic contents reveal a lot about both the past and the reality of Spain to this day. Almost all informants (except one) have confirmed that they could work with the ethically incorrect phrases in their classes. The phrasal expressions of this type are also commonly used in the Spanish language, so the opinion of our informants is that the best option is to explain them to students and discuss the prejudices they represent in the classroom. Regarding the socio-cultural aspect, the informants agree that it is very important in the process of learning a foreign language because it helps to understand the demeanor of the people from a different culture and facilitates the use of the target language in a suitable context.

  • 194.
    Söderlund, Hanna
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Spanish.
    En la sombra del laberinto: Identidad femenina a través de la representación de "La Malinche" en El laberinto de la soledad de Octavio Paz2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [es]

    El trabajo presente es un análisis de la identidad femenina a través de la representación de "La Malinche" en

    El laberinto de la soledad de Octavio Paz. La tesina tiene como propósito analizar la identidad femenina en contraste a la identidad masculina que retrata Paz en su obra ensayística, centrándose en los dos capítulos "Hijos de la Malinche" y "Máscaras mexicanas". Investiga cómo Paz describe a la mujer mexicana y de qué manera la incluye en su análisis e indaga la importancia de La Malinche en la construcción de la identidad nacional mexicana según Paz. Las herramientas teóricas que se han utilizado provienen del campo de estudios poscolonialistas y feministas.

  • 195.
    Tapia Tapia, Marcela
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Spanish.
    El sentimiento trágico en San Manuel Bueno, mártir: Una lucha contra la razón en búsqueda de la fe2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [es]

    Este trabajo de investigación tiene como fin analizar el pensamiento del autor Miguel de Unamuno para poder relacionarlo con los pensamientos del personaje del cura de la novela San Manuel Bueno, mártir. El objetivo es buscar la relación que existe entre el autor y el cura en lo que se refiere a los temas relacionados con la religión. Para este estudio se utilizará la metodología hermenéutica donde se analizará el pensamiento del autor en relación con el personaje San Manuel, basándose principalmente en el libro Del sentimiento trágico de la vida, uno de los libros más destacados sobre el pensamiento filosófico del autor. Al final, como una pequeña aportación a la tesis, se hablará de la posible misión profética que tuvo Unamuno en sus últimos años de vida que a través de sus obras quiso despertar la conciencia de sus lectores para que se unieran a la búsqueda de la verdadera fe.

  • 196.
    Tey Rueda, Patricia
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Spanish.
    Aprendizaje de vocabulario en clase de lengua extranjera: Un estudio sobre las estrategias que utilizan los alumnos de bachillerato para aprender vocabulario2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [es]

    Una revisión de literatura que realizamos anteriormente nos mostraba que los alumnos de bachillerato estudiaban vocabulario usando estrategias tradicionales como la repetición de la palabra y la traducción. El propósito de este estudio es hacer nuestra propia investigación sobre las estrategias de aprendizaje que utilizan los alumnos para aprender palabras en la asignatura de lengua extranjera. Los resultados obtenidos mostraron que los alumnos usaban una gran variedad de estrategias de aprendizaje, en la que destacaban no solo estrategias tradicionales que trabajan con la palabra de forma aislada, sino también estrategias que estudian la palabra en su contexto.

  • 197.
    Tey Rueda, Patricia
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Spanish.
    Aprendizaje de vocabulario en clase de lengua extranjera: Una revisión de literatura2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Vocabulary is an essential part of learning a foreign language. Even though vocabulary studies are complex, there are learning strategies that can ease the process. The aim of this study is to make a literature review of research concerning the learning strategies used by students to learn vocabulary in a foreign language. The results obtained through a comparison of two empirical studies, one made in Sweden and the other one in Spain, showed that both Swedish and Spanish students mostly used classic learning strategies that consist of repeating the words, in writing or reading form, together with its translation. The authors reached the conclusion that the teachers should encourage the students to vary their use of learning strategies.

  • 198.
    Tingsvall, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Languages and Media Studies, Spanish.
    Actitudes hacia el castellano y el catalán: Un estudio sociolingüístico entre veinteañeros y sus padres en el ámbito2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study focuses on the attitudes toward Catalan and Spanish, the two main languages spoken in Barcelona, on the East coast of Spain, in Southwestern Europe. The aim of this study was to compare those attitudes between two generations of informants. The informants of one generation were born 1984-93 and were thus in their twenties at the time of the investigation, in 2013. The aforementioned generation was labelled with the name "Children", whereas their parents were labelled with the name "Parents". The method applied was direct, where the informants had to answer an online survey, and the number of informants that were studied was 15 for each generation, or 30 in total. The conclusion of the study, derived from the results to the aforementioned survey, is that the generation of the Children have a more positive attitude toward Catalan and more negative toward Spanish than the generation of the Parents.

  • 199.
    Touriño Aguilera, Lucía
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Spanish.
    Contra todo pronóstico: Una interpretación de Las tres bodas de Manolita de Almudena Grandes desde la teoría de la resiliencia2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [es]

    Este trabajo analizará a la protagonista de la novela Las tres bodas de Manolita, de laescritora española Almudena Grandes, desde el punto de vista de la teoría psicológica de laresiliencia. Pretendemos comprender qué tipo de mecanismos y factores hacen que se puedaconsiderar a Manolita un personaje resiliente. Al tratarse de una interpretación del texto deGrandes se abordará el estudio siguiendo el método hermenéutico. Se basará el análisisindividual del personaje en los estudios, principalmente de observación, llevados a cabo por elpsicólogo británico Michael Rutter; y el análisis desde el punto de vista social o colectivo enlos estudios realizados por el psicólogo español Juan de Dios Uriarte. Las conclusiones denuestra investigación nos llevarán a confirmar que, siguiendo la teoría que se expone,Manolita presenta las características y actitudes individuales necesarias, además de una redsocial de apoyo, para superar los reveses tan graves que le acontecen durante la novela.

  • 200.
    Tåqvist, Johanna
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Spanish.
    Actitudes hacia el cambio de código en hispanohablantes en Suecia2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The present study investigates the use of and the attitudes towards codeswitching in Spanish speakers in Sweden. The aim of the study is to provide a picture of how frequent the use of codeswitching is among Hispanics in Sweden. The study also investigates variation in attitudes towards codeswitching and tries to find out whether and if so in what way the use and attitudes change according to different social variables such as age, gender, education levels and language preference. The study was carried out amongst 56 Hispanics living in Sweden and data were collected through an online questionnaire. We found that the use of codeswitching is bigger amongst women and amongst the youngest group of informants. We also found that the attitudes towards codeswitching are linked to some social variables: female participants and those who see themselves as bilinguals and do not prefer one single language appreciated CS the most, and participants in their teens and the ones older than 50 appreciated CS less than the middle-aged participants. Our results do not show any differences in attitude between levels of education.

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