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  • 151.
    Hultkrantz, Lars
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Nilsson, Jan-Eric
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Samhällsekonomisk analys2004Book (Other academic)
  • 152.
    Huq, Asif
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    Daunfeldt, Sven-Olov
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Hartwig, Fredrik
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management. Högskolan i Gävle.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Does voluntary audit increase small firm growth?: Evidence from a natural experiment2017In: EAA 2017 Abstracts, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many European countries have abolished mandatory audits for small firms, but we still lack knowledge on whether this affects small firm growth. A Swedish reform in 2010 made audits voluntary for small firms fulfilling certain requirements, while firms that did not meet these requirements still had mandatory audits. We argue that this regulatory change created an almost perfect natural experiment, which can be exploited to evaluate the effects of the reform on employment growth using a difference-in-difference estimator. Our results show that firms who fulfil the requirements for voluntary auditing, as compared to a control group of firms that does not, increased their employment growth rates by on average 0.39%, corresponding to 5 500 jobs being created in the three years following the reform. It thus seems that voluntary audits are reducing the regulatory burden for small firms, making resources available that can be used to increase the number of employees. The current threshold levels for mandatory audits are still significantly lower in Sweden than in most other European countries, which implies that the policymakers in Sweden could create more jobs in small and medium-sized firms if they increased the size threshold levels for mandatory audits.

  • 153.
    Huq, Asif
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    Daunfeldt, Sven-Olov
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics. HUI Research.
    Hartwig, Fredrik
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management. Högskolan i Gävle.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    HUI Research.
    Free to choose: Do voluntary audit reforms increase employment growth?2018Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many European countries have abolished mandatory audits for small firms to reduce the regulatory and administrative burden for these firms. However, we still lack knowledge on whether such legislative changes affect employment growth for those firms that become free to choose to have external audits. We investigate this question using a Swedish reform that made audits voluntary for small firms fulfilling certain requirements. The reform created an almost ideal natural experiment, which we use to evaluate the effects of voluntary audits on employment growth for small firms using a difference-in-difference estimator. We find that firms which fulfilled the requirements for voluntary auditing, compared to a control group of similar firms that did not, increased their employment growth rate by 0.39%. This corresponds to 1,830 jobs being created in the year following the reform, suggesting that mandatory audits act as a growth barrier for small firms.

  • 154.
    Huq, Asif
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    Daunfeldt, Sven-Olov
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Hartwig, Fredrik
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    The effect of audit reform on the employment growth of small Swedish limited companies: A natural experiment2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reducing the regulatory burden for firms will free resources that can be used for productive investments. In this paper, we investigate the effect of a change in regulations, in effect abolishing statutory audits for Swedish micro firms in November 2010, on employment growth in the affected micro firms. The changes in regulations created what we argue is an almost perfect natural experiment that can be exploited to evaluate the effects of the reform on employment growth using a difference-in-difference estimator. Our results show that employment growth is higher in firms which fulfil the requirements for voluntary auditing as compared to a control group of firms of similar sizes that does not, and the positive treatment effect is found for micro firms in all Swedish counties and in all types of industries. We estimate that the reform created 1276 jobs in the three years following the reform. We thus suggest that the current threshold for statutory audits should be increased in Sweden, whose threshold levels for statutory audits are significantly lower than in most other European countries even after the 2010 changes in regulations. Such a regulatory change would, in all likelihood, lead to employment growth in the affected firms. 

  • 155.
    Håkansson, Johan
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems. Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Macuchova, Zuzana
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics. HUI Research.
    Firm migration in the Swedish wholesale trade sector2013In: International Review of Retail Distribution & Consumer Research, ISSN 0959-3969, E-ISSN 1466-4402, Vol. 23, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyzes the determinants of firm migration in the Swedish wholesale trade sector using a unique dataset covering over 10,000 Swedish wholesale trade firms during the years 2000 to 2004. The results indicate that there are negative correlations between profits, firm age, and firm size and the probability of firm migration. There is a positive correlation between firm growth in the previous year and firm migration, indicating that growth opportunities that cannot be realized at the present location are an important motivation for migration.

  • 156.
    Håkansson, Johan
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography. Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    Macuchova, Zuzana
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics. HUI Research.
    Predicting entry of Swedish wholesale firms into local markets2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Applying microeconomic theory, we develop a forecasting model for firm entry into local markets and test this model using data from the Swedish wholesale industry. The empirical analysis is based on directly estimating the profit function of wholesale firms. As in previous entry studies, profits are assumed to depend on firm- and location-specific factors,and the profit equation is estimated using panel data econometric techniques. Using the residuals from the profit equation estimations, we identify local markets in Sweden where firm profits are abnormally high given the level of all independent variables included in the profit function. From microeconomic theory, we then know that these local markets should have higher net entry than other markets, all else being equal, and we investigate this in a second step,also using a panel data econometric model. The results of estimating the net-entry equation indicate that four of five estimated models have more net entry in high-return municipalities, but the estimated parameter is only statistically significant at conventional levels in one of our estimated models.

  • 157.
    Håkansson, Johan
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems. Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Macuchova, Zuzana
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics. HUI Research.
    Predicting entry of Swedish wholesale firms into local markets2014In: International Review of Retail Distribution & Consumer Research, ISSN 0959-3969, E-ISSN 1466-4402Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Applying microeconomic theory, we develop a forecasting model for firm entry into local markets and test this model using data from the Swedish wholesale industry. The empirical analysis is based on directly estimating the profit function of wholesale firms. Profits are assumed to depend on firm- and location-specific factors, and the profit equation is estimated using panel data econometric techniques. Using the residuals from the profit equation estimations, we identify local markets in Sweden where firm profits are abnormally high given the level of all independent variables included in the profit function. From microeconomic theory, we then know that these local markets should have higher net entry than other markets, all else being equal, and we investigate this in a second step, also using a panel data econometric model. The results of estimating the net-entry equation indicate that 19 out of 30 estimated models have more net entry in high-return municipalities, but the estimated parameter is only statistically significant at conventional levels in one of our estimated models, and then with an unexpected negative sign.

  • 158.
    Isacsson, Gunnar
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Estimates of the return to schooling in Sweden from a large sample of twins1999In: Labour Economics, ISSN 0927-5371, E-ISSN 1879-1034, Vol. 6, no 4, p. 471-489Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A large sample of twins was used to examine whether conventional estimates of the return to schooling in Sweden are biased because ability is omitted from the earnings-schooling relationship. Ignoring measurement error, the results indicate that omitting ability from the earnings-schooling relationship leads to estimates that are positively biased. However, reasonable estimates of the measurement-error-adjusted returns are both above and below the unadjusted estimates, showing that the results depend crucially on a parameter not known at this time. However, an estimate of the reliability ratio was obtained using two measures on educational attainment. With this estimate of the reliability ratio the measurement-error-adjusted estimate of the return to schooling in the sample of identical twins indicates that there is at most a slight ability bias in the conventional estimates of the return to schooling. The fundamental assumption of this kind of study is that within-pair differences in educational attainment are randomly determined. This assumption was also tested, but no strong evidence to reject it was found.

  • 159.
    Isacsson, Gunnar
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Estimating the economic return to educational levels using data on twins2004In: Journal of applied econometrics (Chichester, England), ISSN 0883-7252, E-ISSN 1099-1255, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 99-119Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 160.
    Isacsson, Gunnar
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    External effects of education on earnings: Swedish evidence using matched employee-establishment data2005Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper provides an empirical investigation of externalities from education in Sweden in an earnings equation framework. The empirical models are estimated on a large sample of matched employees and establishments. External effects of education are identified from the average educational attainment of workers outside the individual’s establishment. The paper also investigates the coherence of the evidence with respect to the idea that educational externalities arise through face-to-face interaction between individuals. A set of different specifications and fixed effects models is used to investigate the robustness of the basic cross-sectional model. The cross-sectional models suggest, in general, that externalities are positive and significantly different from zero. The cross-sectional evidence is also broadly coherent with the idea that externalities are declining in spatial transaction costs, such as the Euclidean distance between establishments. However, after accounting for individual fixed effects and dummy variables for the county in which the individual works the results indicate no statistically significant external effects of education on earnings in Sweden.

  • 161.
    Isacsson, Gunnar
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    The trade off between time and money: Is there a difference between real and hypothetical choices?2007Report (Other academic)
  • 162.
    Isacsson, Gunnar
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Twin Data vs. Longitudinal Data to Control for Unobserved Variables in Earnings Functions — Which Are the Differences?2007In: Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, ISSN 0305-9049, E-ISSN 1468-0084, Vol. 69, no 3, p. 339-362Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper compares two different approaches empirically to control for unobserved characteristics when estimating the effect of marriage on male and female earnings: the longitudinal and the twins approach. The estimates were obtained by exploiting the longitudinal dimension of a large sample of Swedish twins, so that longitudinal and twin-based estimates could be obtained in the same sample. The two approaches lead to different conclusions both regarding the role of unobserved characteristics in the cross-sectional earnings–marriage relationship and the effect of marriage on earnings. The paper investigates three potential explanations of this difference.

  • 163.
    Isacsson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Karlström, Anders
    Is sick absence related to commuting travel time?: Swedish evidence based on the generalized propensity score estimator2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper focuses on the effects of commuting time on sickness insurance utilization by applying a generalized propensity score estimator to a large sample of Swedish employees. We analyse the effect of commuting time both on the probability of using sickness insurance at all and on the probability that an individual on sick leave is on so-called partial sick leave rather than being completely absent from work. Insurance utilization is in both cases defined as being ill for more than 14 days. The results indicate, in general, that individuals do not use sickness insurance because of their commuting time. However, commuting time seems to increase the risk of being on sick leave among females with relatively low annual wage earnings. The results indicate, furthermore, a relatively weak and negative relationship between the probability of being on partial sick leave and commuting time in the group of individuals who have utilized sickness insurance. The latter result applies to both men and women.

  • 164.
    Isacsson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Karlström, Anders
    Swärdh, Jan-Erik
    The value of time from subjective data on life satisfaction and job satisfaction: An empirical assessment2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper compares estimates of the value of commuting time, working time and household working time from empirical models of subjective assessments of life satisfaction and job satisfaction, respectively, to the corresponding estimates obtained from an empirical search model of the labour market. The results indicate that all three variables produce rather high estimates of the value of commuting time. The results regarding the value of working time differ more between the different outcome variables and it is only significantly different from zero in the model of life satisfaction. Perhaps less surprisingly, the estimate of the value of household working time is also only significantly different from zero in the model of life satisfaction in contrast to the models of job satisfaction and job durations where it is insignificantly different from zero. This paper compares estimates of the value of commuting time, working time and household working time from empirical models of subjective assessments of life satisfaction and job satisfaction, respectively, to the corresponding estimates obtained from an empirical search model of the labour market. The results indicate that all three variables produce rather high estimates of the value of commuting time. The results regarding the value of working time differ more between the different outcome variables and it is only significantly different from zero in the model of life satisfaction. Perhaps less surprisingly, the estimate of the value of household working time is also only significantly different from zero in the model of life satisfaction in contrast to the models of job satisfaction and job durations where it is insignificantly different from zero.

  • 165.
    Isacsson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Li, Chuan-Zhong
    Valuing air quality and urban accessibility: A regional welfare analysis2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is concerned with the implicit values of urban accessibility and air quality in Sweden. Based on the hedonic wage and rent theory, we construct an econometric model to compute such values, and illustrate their implications for regional sustainability analysis. It is shown that for most Swedish cities, welfare has increased from 1986 to 1998 due to improved air quality but the positive effect is partly offset by the deteriorated accessibility in some areas. The results also indicate that the values people place on urban accessibility and air quality vary considerably across regions.

  • 166.
    Isacsson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Nilsson, Jan-Eric
    An Experimental Comparison of Allocation Mechanisms in the Railway Industry2003In: Journal of Transport Economics and Policy, ISSN 0022-5258, E-ISSN 1754-5951, Vol. 37, no 3, p. 353-381Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Capacity of railway tracks is a scarce commodity that by nature is more complex than many other commodities. The paper presents results from a series of economic testbed experiments on the performance of different auctioning mechanisms for allocating track capacity between competing users. relevantThe auction mechanism will not only decide a price, it also serves to define the commodities (the particular departure-arrival time slots) that are demanded and selects which of these that are sold. Four combinations of pricing and stopping rules are compared. Realised allocations are very efficient for all four and also generate approximately equal revenue. The research provides input to the process of re-regulating an industry undergoing profound institutional change.

  • 167.
    Isacsson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Nilsson, Jan-Eric
    Pyddoke, Roger
    Andersson, Mats
    Hansen, Fredrik
    Lindberg, Gunnar
    Nerhagen, Lena
    Infrastrukturpolitik på samhällsekonomisk grund2009Report (Other academic)
  • 168.
    Isacsson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Regnér, Håkan
    Changes during the 1990’s in the location of Swedish power couples: Consequences and explanations2007Report (Other academic)
  • 169.
    Isacsson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Swärdh, Jan-Erik
    An empirical on-the-job search model with preferences for relative earnings: How high is the value of commuting time?2007Report (Other academic)
  • 170. Jansson, Kjell
    et al.
    Lang, Harald
    Larsen, Odd
    Mortazavi, Reza
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Analysis of currently used models in Sweden for long-distance public transport and possible ways to improve2010In: Proceedings of the 12th World Conference on Transport Research, Lisbon 2010, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 171. Jansson, Kjell
    et al.
    Lang, Harald
    Matsson, D
    Mortazavi, Reza
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Public transport demand and benefit assessments2008In: Handbook of Transport Modelling / [ed] Hensher, D. and Button, K.J., Elsevier, 2008, 2Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 172. Jansson, Kjell
    et al.
    Lang, Harald
    Mortazavi, Reza
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Network models and/or logit models for scheduled public transport? Concerns in Sweden2005Report (Other academic)
  • 173. Jansson, Kjell
    et al.
    Mortazavi, Reza
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Models for public transport demand and benefit assessments2000In: Handbook of Transport Modelling, Amsterdam: Pergamon Press, 2000Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 174.
    Jansson, Linda
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Offentliga medel investerade i ett konkursmässigt företag: Kostnadsnyttoanalys: Vilka samhällsekonomiska effekter fick denna investering?2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    What economic effects can an investment in a company get which is about to go bankruptcy when governmental funds are a part of the investment? Is it even profitable for the government to contribute with funds for an investment in businesses? Would it be even better in a socio-economic way for bankruptcy companies to remain bankruptcy and not be given a second chance? This paper is built on a case where an investment company named Väsman Invest AB chooses to invest with governmental funds in a company named Laggen AB which is soon to go bankruptcy. The purpose of this paper is to try to figure out the economic effects this investment has in this certain case. The method that is used to answer these questions is to do an ex post cost-benefit analysis. The cost-benefit analysis indicates that it is hard to get some real answers. The economic effects which are discovered are taxes, employment, interest rate income for banks and profit for the firm, but there are a whole lot of effects which are very hard to evaluate, for example the opportunity cost. It is also possible that it would have been better from the society’s point of view to invest these money in another public project and that Laggen AB would have declared bankruptcy already in 2009, where the employees could have been more productive, for example getting a higher education or getting involved with production which would have been more beneficial for the society.

  • 175.
    Johansson, Dan
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Bornhäll, Anders
    Palmberg, Johanna
    Riskkapitalförsörjning i små och medelstora företag – utbud eller efterfrågan: rapport till projektet Företagsamt ägande2012Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 176.
    Johansson, Dan
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Daunfeldt, Sven-Olov
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Bjuggren, Carl Magnus
    High-Growth Firms and Family Ownership2013In: Journal of Small Business and Entrepreneurship, ISSN 0827-6331, E-ISSN 2169-2610, Vol. 26, no 4, p. 365-385Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Empirical studies demonstrate that most net job-growth originates from a small number of high-growth firms (HGFs). The purpose of this paper is to analyze whether family ownership matters for being an HGF, using data on all private firms in Sweden during 1993–2006. Our study is possible due to a tax reform that required tax authorities to identify family relations among ultimate owners of every Swedish firm. We find that family ownership at first sight decreases the probability of exhibiting high growth, but further analysis indicates a more complex relationship. The negative effect of family ownership seems to be driven primarily by small firms, and sometimes even becomes positive when firm growth is analyzed over longer time periods. In addition, the negative effect of family ownership is no longer present when we analyze firms that transferred ownership and control for unobserved time-invariant firm-specific heterogeneity.

  • 177.
    Johansson, Dan
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Falkenhall, Björn
    Regelbörda och växande företag – Sverige i internationell jämförelse2012Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 178. Johansson, H
    et al.
    Nerhagen, Lena
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Andelius, C
    Marginalkostnadsberäkning av luftburna föroreningar från fordon: problem med differentiering, interdependens och variabilitet2003Report (Other academic)
  • 179. Johansson, Jerry
    et al.
    Mortazavi, Reza
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Transport av skogsenergisortiment: Företags- och samhällsekonomiska kostnader2011Report (Other academic)
  • 180. Johansson, Per
    et al.
    Mortazavi, Reza
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    The Value of Travel Time: An Empirical Study Using Repeated Samples of Non-Business Trips1996In: Tourism Economics, ISSN 1354-8166, E-ISSN 2044-0375, Vol. 2, no 4, p. 353-368Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 181.
    John, Paul
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Modelling Recreation Demand Using Choice Experiments: Using Swedish Snowmobilers Demand for Groomed trails2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is concerned with the use of the choice experiment method for modeling the demand for snowmobiling . The Choice Experiment includes five attributes, standard, composition, length, price day card and experience along trail. The paper estimates the snowmobile owners’ preferences and the most preferred attributes, including their will-ingness to pay for a daytrip on groomed snowmobile trail. The data consists of the an-swers from 479 registered snowmobile owners, who answered two hypothetical choice questions each. Estimating using the multinominal logit model, it is found that snow-mobilers on average are willing to pay 22.5 SEK for one day of snowmobiling on a trail with quality described as skidded every 14th day. Furthermore, it is found that the WTP increases with the quality of trail grooming. The result of this paper can be used as a yardstick for snowmobile clubs wanting to develop their trail net worth, organizations and companies developing snowmobiling as a recreational activities and marketers in-terested in marketing snowmobiling as recreational activities.

  • 182. Kjell, Jansson
    et al.
    Mortazavi, Reza
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Li, Chuan-Zhong
    Is the Logit model appropriate for public transport assignment and consumer surplus calculations? A problem formulation1999Report (Other academic)
  • 183.
    Klerby, Anna
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Percentages for culture: Private co-funding of arts and culture2012In: The 21st Nordic Symposium in Tourism and Hospitality Research. Theme: Developing Tourism - Sustaining Regions. Umeå, Sweden, 7-11 November 2012., 2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    For a few decades during the 20th century the public financing of arts and culture may have had it’s glory days in Sweden as well as in other European countries. In the 21st century one trend is obvious; the call for private funding gets louder. Different systems are under development. Public-private partnerships is focusing on marketing and tourism. Private sponsors has turned out to be a short-sighted solution sensitive to business cycles. Social entrepreneurs are so far mainly focusing on social and environmental causes. What will then be next to finance local arts and culture? This article presents a theoretical model of a system where local businesses are co-financing local arts and attractions. The core of the model is the reinvestment of the revenues local companies are reaping from visitors to a destination. The modelling and analysis are based on existing financial systems, especially with inspiration from the Kulturprozent in Switzerland, together with interviews with key-persons in four case municipalities in the regions of Dalarna and Gävleborg. The success of such a system lies among others in mutual respect and the visible-making of the power positions of the funders and the funded respectively.

  • 184.
    Klerby, Anna
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Bo, Larsson
    Stockholm University.
    Edward, Palmer
    Uppsala University.
    To Share or Not to Share: That is the Question2012In: Nonfinancial Defined Contribution Pension Schemes in a Changing Pension World: Volume 2: Gender, Politics, and Financial Stability / [ed] Robert Holzmann, Edward Palmer and David Robalino, Washington: World Bank, 2012, 1, p. 39-65Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 185.
    Kurdi, Heba
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    The impact of visitors satisfaction in explaining expenditure behaviour: A structural equation modelling approach2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Visitor expenditure can be affected by different economic, socio-demographic and psychological variables. Previous literature have focused on the use of observed tourists and destination characteristics as explanatory variables to explain visitor expenditure, whereas the use of psychological factors has been underresearched. The present study aims to fill in the gap in the existing literature through the exploration of more extensive use of psychological variables. This is accomplished by the use of structural equation modelling (SEM), a methodological approach which seems not to have been applied before in tourism expenditure econometric models.

    In econometrics expenditure research, Mortazavi (2018) found satisfaction to be an endogenous regressor of expenditure. Hence, the contribution of our model is that it allows for the relationship between visitor satisfaction and visitor expenditure, and vice versa, to be tested simultaneously. Consequently, under this context we may identify the magnitude of one variable impact on another while at the same time accounting for simultaneous relationship between the two paths. The findings of this study go in hand with previous literature and economic theory which have found a positive relationship between visitor satisfaction and visitor expenditure.

  • 186.
    Lampinen, Joel
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Overall visitor satisfaction in Venice, Italy2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This research paper investigates overall satisfaction of visitors in Venice, Italy. More specifically, which factors have a significant influence on the overall satisfaction of visitors in Venice. The secondary, cross-sectional data is used. Furthermore, a ten-point Likert scale was utilized in the survey questions. Two sets of regressions were run with both models. The first set of regressions with the ordered probit model and the ordinary least squares model investigates how different visitor characteristics, such as gender, age and country of origin influence the overall satisfaction of visitors in Venice. The second set of regressions with the ordered probit model and the ordinary least squares model, there are added some additional attributes such as kindness, arts and package holiday. The findings of the first set of regressions show that visitor characteristics, for example, age and male have a significant influence on the overall satisfaction of visitors in Venice. The findings of the second set of regressions reveal that attributes such as kindness, arts and package holiday have significant affect on the overall satisfaction of visitors in Venice. Having a knowledge of which factors influence the overall satisfaction of visitors can be used for policy making in order to increase the demand of Venice as a destination and therefore, to generate more revenues.

  • 187.
    Landström, Mats
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Central bank independence and the price-output-variability trade-offManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Data on central bank independence (CBI) and implementation dates of CBI-reforms were used to investigate the relationship between CBI and a possible trade-off between inflation variability and output variability. No such trade-off was found, but there might still be stabilization gains from CBI-reform.

  • 188.
    Landström, Mats
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Central bank independence and the price-output-variability trade-off2014In: International Journal of Monetary Economics and Finance, ISSN 1752-0487, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 122-134Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 189.
    Landström, Mats
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Determinants and effects of central bank independence reforms2013Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis consists of four empirically oriented papers on central bank independence (CBI) reforms.   

    Paper [1] is an investigation of why politicians around the world have chosen to give up power to independent central banks, thereby reducing their ability to control the economy. A new data-set, including the possible occurrence of CBI-reforms in 132 countries during 1980-2005, was collected. Politicians in non-OECD countries were more likely to delegate power to independent central banks if their country had been characterized by high variability in inflation and if they faced a high probability of being replaced. No such effects were found for OECD countries.   

    Paper [2], using a difference-in-difference approach, studies whether CBI reform matters for inflation performance. The analysis is based on a dataset including the possible occurrence of CBI-reforms in 132 countries during the period of 1980-2005. CBI reform is found to have contributed to bringing down inflation in high-inflation countries, but it seems unrelated to inflation performance in low-inflation countries.   

    Paper [3] investigates whether CBI-reforms are important in reducing inflation and maintaining price stability, using a random-effects random-coefficients model to account for heterogeneity in the effects of CBI-reforms on inflation. CBI-reforms are found to have reduced inflation on average by 3.31 percent, but the effect is only present when countries with historically high inflation rates are included in the sample. Countries with more modest inflation rates have achieved low inflation without institutional reforms that grant central banks more independence, thus undermining the time-inconsistency theory case for CBI. There is furthermore no evidence that CBI-reforms have contributed to lower inflation variability   

    Paper [4] studies the relationship between CBI and a suggested trade-off between price variability and output variability using data on CBI-levels, and data the on implementation dates of CBI-reforms. The results question the existence of such a trade-off, but indicate that there may still be potential gains in stabilization policy from CBI-reforms.

  • 190. Lars, Hultkrantz
    et al.
    Mortazavi, Reza
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Anomalies in travel time changes2001In: Journal of Transport Economics and Policy, ISSN 0022-5258, E-ISSN 1754-5951, Vol. 35Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 191.
    Larsson, Bo
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Banking and optimal capital ratio in an equilibrium model2010In: International Journal of Banking, Accounting and Finance, ISSN 1755-3830, E-ISSN 1755-3849, Vol. 2, no 4, p. 309-331Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The author address the question of optimal capital ratio in banking, particularly the fact that banks' risk-weighted capital is substantially larger than the stipulated reserve requirements by the Bank of International Settlements. With a factor model for the value of entrepreneurs' projects and costly state verification as asymmetric information structure, the author shows that banks choose to hold capital reserves that are almost large enough to eliminate the risk for their depositors. The reason is that the cost of lowering the risk for the bank, up to a point, is lower than their gain from cheaper deposits. Banking risk stems from borrowers being correlated. This has been an important lesson during the ongoing financial crisis where several banks underestimated the correlation in their loan portfolios and suffered severe credit losses. This could also explain why small regional banks in Sweden often have more than twice the capital ratio of their nationwide competitors.

  • 192.
    Larsson, Bo
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Palmer, Edward
    The Swedish annuity market: where it is and where it’s headed2011In: Securing lifelong retirement income: Global annuity markets and policy / [ed] Mitchell, Olivia S.; Piggott, John; Takayama, Noriyuki, Oxford: Oxford University Press , 2011, p. 13-31Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 193.
    Laryea, Rueben
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    Carling, Kenneth
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    Cialani, Catia
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    A Food Price Volatility Model for Country Risk Classification2018In: International Journal of Risk Assessment and Management, ISSN 1466-8297, E-ISSN 1741-5241Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Decision makers require risk models which satisfies their preferences in decision making processes. A methodological approach to presenting a decision model that satisfies the preferences of the decision maker and aids the decision maker to classify countries into crisis groups based on the price volatility of food staple criteria is discussed in this paper. The price volatility of food staples is obtained from time series plots and a Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis method, the UTilitdditives DIScriminantes (UTADIS) classification methodological framework is applied on the price volatility data to develop a food price volatility classification model which suits the decision maker’s preferences. The methodological framework is better applied in this paper by aiding the decision maker to make informed judgements on the price volatility of food staples in predefining their risk classes. This introduces efficiency in the application of the methodological classification framework, by reducing to the barest minimum level, the misclassification errors between the decision makers preferred classification and the UTADIS method’s classification which estimates the utility function or classification model and the utility threshold or cut-off points which would classify the country alternatives into their authentic or original classes with the execution of the methodological framework just once. The resulting utility function or classification model is thus accurate enough to satisfy the preferences of the decision maker in classifying future datasets.

  • 194.
    Laryea, Rueben
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    Carling, Kenneth
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    Cialani, Catia
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Nyberg, Roger G.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    Sensitivity analysis of a risk classification model for food price volatility2018In: International Journal of Risk Assessment and Management, ISSN 1466-8297, E-ISSN 1741-5241, Vol. 21, no 4, p. 374-382Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A sensitivity analysis to vary the weights of an accurate predictive classification model to produce a mixed model for ranking countries on the risk of food price volatility is carried out in this paper. The classification model is a marginal utility function consisting of multiple criteria. The aim of the sensitivity analysis is to derive a mixed model to be used in ranking of country alternatives to aid in policy formulation. Since in real-life situations the data that goes into decision making could be subjected to possibilities of alterations over time, it is essential to aid decision makers to vary the weights of the criteria using both subjective and objective information to introduce imprecision and to generate relative values of the criteria with a scale to form a mixed model. The mixed model can be used to rank future relative alternative value data sets for policy formulation.

  • 195.
    Lawal, Fadekemi
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Impact of Corruption on Economic Growth: A panel data study of selected African countries2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    African countries have over the last few decades, experienced a thorny path towards sustained economic growth. Quite a number of researchers have opined that a major factor responsible for their stunted growth path is the prevalence of corruption in the governments of many African countries. However, a group of scholars, called revisionists, have suggested that corruption actually acts as grease in the wheel that ensures the smooth running of an economy, by providing a mechanism to evade inefficient bureaucratic procedures and allow more equitable representation of minority members of the society. With the increasing exposure of African economies to the international community, there is a need to examine the obtainable evidence in relation to corruption and economic growth in African countries. This thesis, therefore, aims to establish the nature of the relationship between corruption and economic growth in the selected African countries. The growth rate of gross domestic product per capita is used to represent the variable, economic growth. The study employs the use of panel data fixed effects and random effect estimation techniques, across 18 countries, over the period of 1997 – 2016. The results show that corruption has a positive relationship with economic growth in the selected African countries. This is in line with the grease in the wheel argument for corruption proposed by revisionists. The results also indicate that corruption has a moderately significant impact on economic growth at 10% level of significance. The literature review suggests that corruption affects economic growth directly and indirectly through mechanisms such as investment (private and public), human capital, openness, and institutional mechanisms, among others.

  • 196. Lehtonen, E
    et al.
    Kuuluvainen, J
    Pouta, E
    Rekola, M
    Li, Chuan-Zhong
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Non-market benefits of forest conservation in southern Finland2003In: Environmental Science and Policy, ISSN 1462-9011, E-ISSN 1873-6416, Vol. 6, no 3, p. 195-204Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 197.
    Li, Chuan-Zhong
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Economic Growth, Environmental Quality and Hyperbolic Discounting2000In: EAERE 2000 Conference, Rethymnon, Greece, 2000Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 198.
    Li, Chuan-Zhong
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Environmental Economics and Sustainable Development1999In: Thule - Kungliga Skytteanska Samfundets Årsbok, ISSN 0280-8692, Vol. 11, p. 35-43Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 199.
    Li, Chuan-Zhong
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Fisher, Lindahl, and Hicks on Income: A Modern Analysis2006In: The Theory and Practice of Environmental and Resource Economics – Essays in Honour of Karl-Gustaf Löfgren, Cheltenham, UK and Northampton, MA, USA: Edward Elgar , 2006Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The increased concern for sustainable development in recent years has spurred renewed interest in the concept of economic income. In this paper, we attempt to provide a modern version of the concept defined by Fisher, Lindahl and Hicks based on a multi-sector optimal growth model. In paricular, we show that the the linearized Hamiltonian as a comprehensive net national product measure is indeed the return to capital when the linearization is conducted with respected to the right variables. This is in line with the conjecture by Solow in his keynote speech at the 40th anniversary of the Resources for the Future.

  • 200.
    Li, Chuan-Zhong
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Renewable resources and economic sustainability: a dynamic analysis with heterogeneous time preferences2000In: Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, ISSN 0095-0696, E-ISSN 1096-0449, Vol. 40, p. 236-250Article in journal (Refereed)
123456 151 - 200 of 285
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