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  • 151.
    Håkansson, Johan
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Isacsson, Gunnar
    VTI-Borlänge.
    Wieweg, Lena
    VTI-Borlänge.
    Extended local labor markets due to high speed trains: Visualization of estimations in the Swedish national travel demand forecasting tool, SAMPERS2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Wider economic benefits resulting from extended geographical mobility is one argument for investments in high-speed rail. More specifically, the argument for high-speed trains in Sweden has been that they can help to further spatially extend labor market regions which in turn has a positive effect on growth and development. In this paper the aim is to cartographically visualize the potential size of the labor markets in areas that could be affected by possible future high-speed trains. The visualization is based on the forecasts of labor mobility with public transport made by the Swedish national mobility transport forecasting tool, SAMPERS, for two alternative high-speed rail scenarios. The analysis, not surprisingly, suggests that the largest impact of high-speed trains results in the area where the future high speed rail tracks are planned to be built. This expected effect on local labor market regions of high-speed trains could mean that possible regional economic development effects also are to be expected in this area. However, the results, in general, from the SAMPERS forecasts indicaterelatively small increases in local labor market potentials.

  • 152.
    Håkansson, Johan
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems. Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Lagin, Madelen
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Strategic alliances in a town centre: Stakeholders' perceived importance of the property owners2014In: International Review of Retail Distribution & Consumer Research, ISSN 0959-3969, E-ISSN 1466-4402Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order for town centres to manage increased competition in retailing, cooperation between stakeholders in a strategic alliance has become more important. Typical stakeholders in such a strategic alliance are retailers, local authorities, and property owners. The importance of retailers and local authorities is well researched. However, the property owners’ importance is not. The aim of this article is to uncover the perceived importance of property owners in a strategic alliance. This is a case study of a medium-sized town in which semi-structured interviews with different stakeholders were conducted. In the chosen town there is a town centre management alliance at work. The case studied shows a fragmented property owner market with no dominant property owner. Our study shows that the perception of the role of the property owner is crucial for town centre development. However, many property owners do not recognise their own significance for the town centre development. The main reasons for this opinion are that they do not consider themselves to have enough resources or the capability to influence the town development.

  • 153.
    Håkansson, Johan
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Lagin, Madelen
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Strategic alliances in a town centre: Stakeholder’s perceptions of property owner’s role2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In order for town centres to manage increased competition in retailing, co-operation between stakeholders in a strategic alliance has become more important. A typical set of stakeholders in a strategic alliance for strengthening retailingare retailers, local authorities and property owners. The roles of retailer’sand local authorities’ are well researched. However, the role of property owners is not. The aim of this paper seeks to unfold the role of property owners in a strategic alliance. This is a case study of a medium-sized town in which semi-structured interviews with different stakeholders were conducted. In the chosen town there is a TCM alliance co-operation at work. The above mentioned stakeholders are possible members in an alliance. The case studied shows a fragmented property owner market with no dominant property owner, as it is in many medium-sized towns. Our study shows that many stakeholders look at the role of property owners as crucial for town centre development. However, property owners do not see that they can significantly contribute to or benefit from the development.The main reasons for this opinion are that they consider themselves as not having enough resources or the capability to influence the town development.

  • 154.
    Håkansson, Johan
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Li, Yujiao
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    Mihaescu, Oana
    HUI Research, Stockholm.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    HUI Research, Stockholm.
    Big-box retail entry in urban and rural areas: Are there productivity spillovers to incumbent retailers?2019In: International Review of Retail Distribution & Consumer Research, ISSN 0959-3969, E-ISSN 1466-4402, Vol. 29, no 1, p. 23-45Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper empirically measures the potential spillover effects of big-box retail entry on the productivity of incumbent retailers in the entry regions, and investigates whether the effects differ depending on the size of the new establishment relative to the size of the local market. The results indicate that big-box entry increases the productivity of incumbent firms in two of three rural entry regions where the IKEA is large relative to the local retail market, while no productivity spillover effects could be found in the case of the urban IKEA entry in Gothenburg.

    The full text will be freely available from 2020-07-19 08:40
  • 155.
    Håkansson, Johan
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems. Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Macuchova, Zuzana
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics. HUI Research.
    Firm migration in the Swedish wholesale trade sector2013In: International Review of Retail Distribution & Consumer Research, ISSN 0959-3969, E-ISSN 1466-4402, Vol. 23, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyzes the determinants of firm migration in the Swedish wholesale trade sector using a unique dataset covering over 10,000 Swedish wholesale trade firms during the years 2000 to 2004. The results indicate that there are negative correlations between profits, firm age, and firm size and the probability of firm migration. There is a positive correlation between firm growth in the previous year and firm migration, indicating that growth opportunities that cannot be realized at the present location are an important motivation for migration.

  • 156.
    Håkansson, Johan
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography. Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    Macuchova, Zuzana
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics. HUI Research.
    Predicting entry of Swedish wholesale firms into local markets2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Applying microeconomic theory, we develop a forecasting model for firm entry into local markets and test this model using data from the Swedish wholesale industry. The empirical analysis is based on directly estimating the profit function of wholesale firms. As in previous entry studies, profits are assumed to depend on firm- and location-specific factors,and the profit equation is estimated using panel data econometric techniques. Using the residuals from the profit equation estimations, we identify local markets in Sweden where firm profits are abnormally high given the level of all independent variables included in the profit function. From microeconomic theory, we then know that these local markets should have higher net entry than other markets, all else being equal, and we investigate this in a second step,also using a panel data econometric model. The results of estimating the net-entry equation indicate that four of five estimated models have more net entry in high-return municipalities, but the estimated parameter is only statistically significant at conventional levels in one of our estimated models.

  • 157.
    Håkansson, Johan
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems. Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Macuchova, Zuzana
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics. HUI Research.
    Predicting entry of Swedish wholesale firms into local markets2014In: International Review of Retail Distribution & Consumer Research, ISSN 0959-3969, E-ISSN 1466-4402Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Applying microeconomic theory, we develop a forecasting model for firm entry into local markets and test this model using data from the Swedish wholesale industry. The empirical analysis is based on directly estimating the profit function of wholesale firms. Profits are assumed to depend on firm- and location-specific factors, and the profit equation is estimated using panel data econometric techniques. Using the residuals from the profit equation estimations, we identify local markets in Sweden where firm profits are abnormally high given the level of all independent variables included in the profit function. From microeconomic theory, we then know that these local markets should have higher net entry than other markets, all else being equal, and we investigate this in a second step, also using a panel data econometric model. The results of estimating the net-entry equation indicate that 19 out of 30 estimated models have more net entry in high-return municipalities, but the estimated parameter is only statistically significant at conventional levels in one of our estimated models, and then with an unexpected negative sign.

  • 158.
    Håkansson, Johan
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Magnusson, Marie
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Skulle Storytelling kunna användas för att påverka bostadsområdens rykten?2010Report (Other academic)
  • 159.
    Håkansson, Johan
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Stjernström, Olof
    Weissglas, Gösta
    Risk- och sårbarhetsaspekter i planeringsprocessen vid järnvägsinvesteringar: -Exemplet Botniabanan2001Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I studien har planeringsprocessen vid infrastrukturinvestering analyserats. Särskild tonvikt har legat på hur Beredskapshänsyn (BIS) har tas i planeringsprocessen. Studieobjektet är Botniabanan. Att planera för och bygga en helt ny järnvägssträckning har långtgående konsekvenser för samhället; ekonomiskt, tekniskt, socialt och ekologiskt. Det är då väsentligt att risk- och sårbarhetsfrågor behandlas systematiskt i ett tidigt skede innan bansträckningar läggs fast. I studien presenteras ett analyssystem, där olika typer av risker och hot, från mikro- till makronivå, systematiseras och ställs mot varandra. Några resultat är: -I den nuvarande planeringsprocessen beaktas risk- och sårbarhetsaspekterna i huvudsak när korridorvalen redan gjorts, dvs relativt sent i planeringsprocessen. En betydande del av sårbarhetsplaneringen går därmed ut på att anpassa dessa risk- och sårbarhetsaspekterna i detaljplanering. - Ändrade prioriteringar leder till förändrad fokusering över tiden, vilket i hög grad påverkar meso- och makrofaktorer som t ex banans dragning. Tung och omfattande godstrafik istället för omfattande passagerartrafik förutsågs exempelvis inte när de ursprungliga planerna drogs upp. Detta betyder att det finns en uppenbar risk att den ekonomiska, sociala och ekologiska betydelse man förutsagt att banan ska få inte uppnås.

  • 160.
    Håkansson, Johan
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems. Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Trumberg, Anders
    Örebro Universitet.
    Stayers and movers: Understanding the sorting dynamics that cause socio-economic residential segregation2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Although many argue that residential segregation is related to selective migration, certainly in Sweden, this view has recently been somewhat challenged when a broader demographic analysis, the so-called demographic conveyer approach, has been used to study the segregation process. However, the number of studies and cases using the demographic conveyer approach to study segregation is limited. In this paper, we apply an elaborated demographic conveyer approach in a new context to describe and analyse the underlying sorting dynamics that over time cause residential segregation. To do so, we follow the individual’s socio-economic carriers, between 1990 and 2008 in three neighbourhoods that have become socio-economically weak. We compare the career outcomes of stayers, in-migrants and out-migrants, and by doing so, we draw conclusions about the underlying dynamics that cause socio-economic segregation. The analysis is conducted in a medium-sized Swedish city which has rapidly become highly segregated since the early 1990s, making it possible to basically follow the evolution of the current segregated situation. Our main conclusion is that the segregation process is due to migration, however, not to internal migration, but rather external immigration. The degree of segregation is highly related to institutional circumstances, since immigrants basically settle in dwellings owned by the public housing company. In our case, the public housing apartments are highly concentrated to the studied area. We also find a general improvement in socio-economic situations regarding both educational levels and unemployment levels for in-migrants, out-migrants and stayers. However, the relationship between the inflows and outflows changes essentially from a situation when the inflows improved the population’s socio-economic status to a situation where the reverse is true. This is accentuated when income is taken into account. The paper also shows that individuals moving away from a segregated neighbourhood, who do not end up in similar neighbourhoods in the city, have better socio-economic carriers than those who stay in one of the three neighbourhoods during the period.

  • 161.
    Jia, Tao
    et al.
    Wuhan University.
    Carling, Kenneth
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Håkansson, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Trips and their CO2 emissions induced by a shopping center2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Most previous studies have focused on entire trips in a geographic region, while a few of them addressed trips induced by a city landmark. Therefore paper explores trips and their CO2 emissions induced by a shopping center from a time-space perspective and their usage in relocation planning. This is conducted by the means of a case study in the city of Borlänge in mid-Sweden where trips to the city’s largest shopping mall in its center are examined. We use GPS tracking data of car trips that end and start at the shopping center. Thereafter, (1) we analyze the traffic emission patterns from a time-space perspective where temporal patterns reveal an hourly-based traffic emission dynamics and where spatial patterns uncover a heterogeneous distribution of traffic emissions in spatial areas and individual street segments. Further, (2) this study reports that most of the observed trips follow an optimal route in terms of CO2 emissions. In this respect, (3) we evaluate how well placed the current shopping center is through a comparison with two competing locations. We conclude that the two suggested locations, which are close to the current shopping center, do not show a significant improvement in term of CO2 emissions.

  • 162.
    Jia, Tao
    et al.
    School of Remote Sensing and Information Engineering, Wuhan University.
    Carling, Kenneth
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Håkansson, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Trips and their CO2 emissions to and from a shopping center2013In: Journal of Transport Geography, ISSN 0966-6923, E-ISSN 1873-1236, Vol. 33, p. 135-145Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies have focused on entire trips within a geographical region, while only a few have examined trips to and from a city landmark. This paper examines trips (and their CO2 emissions) to and from a shopping center from a time-space perspective, and it further considers how this information can be used in relocation planning. It is a case study in the Borlänge city in mid-Sweden where trips to the city’s largest shopping mall are scrutinized. We use GPS tracking data of car trips starting and ending at the shopping center. Firstly, we analyze the traffic emission patterns from a time-space perspective where the temporal patterns reveal hourly-based traffic emission dynamics. The spatial analysis uncovers a heterogeneous distribution of areal traffic emissions as well as of single street segments. Secondly, we find the observed trips mostly agree with an optimal route in terms of CO2 emissions. Drawing on this finding, we thirdly evaluate the location of the current shopping center by comparing it to two competing locations. We conclude that the two competing locations, being in the vicinity of the current one, would induce an insignificant improvement in terms of CO2 emissions.

  • 163.
    Jia, Tao
    et al.
    Wuhan University.
    Håkansson, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems. Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    To what extent are CO2 emissions from intra-urban shopping trips by cars affected by drivers’ travel behaviour and store location?2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Transportation is seen as one of the major sources of CO2 pollutants nowadays. The impact of increased transport in retailing should not be underestimated. Most previous studies have focused on transportation and underlying trips, in general, while very few studies have addressed the specific affects that, for instance, intra-city shopping trips generate. Furthermore, most of the existing methods used to estimate emission are based on macro-data designed to generate national or regional inventory projections. There is a lack of studies using micro-data based methods that are able to distinguish between driver behaviour and the locational effects induced by shopping trips, which is an important precondition for energy efficient urban planning. The aim of this study is to implement a micro-data method to estimate and compare CO2 emission induced by intra-urban car travelling to a retail destination of durable goods (DG), and non-durable goods (NDG). We estimate the emissions from aspects of travel behaviour and store location. The study is conducted by means of a case study in the city of Borlänge, where GPS tracking data on intra-urban car travel is collected from 250 households. We find that a behavioural change during a trip towards a CO2 optimal travelling by car has the potential to decrease emission to 36% (DG), and to 25% (NDG) of the emissions induced by car-travelling shopping trips today. There is also a potential of reducing CO2 emissions induced by intra-urban shopping trips due to poor location by 54%, and if the consumer selected the closest of 8 existing stores, the CO2 emissions would be reduced by 37% of the current emission induced by NDG shopping trips.

  • 164.
    Jia, Tao
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle.
    Jiang, Bin
    Högskolan i Gävle.
    Carling, Kenneth
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Bohlin, Magnus
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Ban, Yifang
    KTH.
    An empirical study on human mobility and its agent-based modeling2012In: Journal of Statistical Mechanics: Theory and Experiment, ISSN 1742-5468, E-ISSN 1742-5468, article id P11024Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims to analyze the GPS traces of 258 volunteers for a better understanding of both the human mobility patterns and the mechanism. We report the regular and scaling properties of human mobility from several aspects, and importantly we find its levy flight characteristic which is consistent with the previous studies. We further assume two factors that may govern the levy flight property: (1) the scaling and hierarchical properties of the purpose clusters which serve as the underlying spatial structure, and (2) the individual preferential behavior. To verify the assumptions, we implement an agent-based model with the two factors, and the simulated agents indeed reproduce the same levy flight pattern as the observed one. In order to enable the model to reproduce more mobility patterns, we add the model a third factor, the jumping factor which means the probability that one person may cancel the regular mobility schedule and visit a random place. With this factor, our model could cover a relatively wide range of human mobility patterns with exponent values from 1.55 to 2.05.

  • 165.
    Jung, Da ok
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    An analysis of the aspects attracting medical tourists: a case study in Seoul, South Korea2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Many countries recognized the potential of medicaltourism as an alternative source of economic growth. Especially after theeconomic crisis many Asian countries joined medical tourism in hopes to escapethe severe financial difficulty. However, yet only few countries have managedto become a famous medical tourism destination. With growing number ofcompetitors, newly joined countries of medical tourism, face the difficulty inintroducing them self as attractive medical tourism destination. South Koreaas a new medical tourism destination, should consider what to offer to themedical tourists to attract them. The aim of the thesis was to investigate aspects influencing the participationof medical tourists to discover how South Korea could develop anattractive medical tourism destination. After examining the casestudy and results from the text analysis, researcher reached to the conclusionthat quality, cost and accessibility to treatment are the major reasons toparticipate in medical tourism. Also in the fierce competition, it is importantto develop differentiated offers from other destinations. Therefore, Koreashould concentrate on specialized treatments and ICT system to become anattractive medical tourism destination.

  • 166. Kupiszewski, Marek
    et al.
    Borgegård, Lars-Erik
    Fransson, Urban
    Håkansson, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Durham, Helen
    Rees, Philip
    Internal migration and regional population dynamics in Europe: Sweden case study2001Report (Other academic)
  • 167. Kåks, Helena
    et al.
    Westholm, Erik
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    När långt borta blir nära: om rörlighet och lokalsamhällets framtid2006Book (Other academic)
  • 168.
    Landré, Martin
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Geoprocessing journey-to-work data: delineating commuting regions in Dalarna, Sweden2012In: ISPRS International Journal of Geo-information, ISSN 2220-9964, no 1, p. 294-314Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Delineation of commuting regions has always been based on statistical units, often municipalities or wards. However, using these units has certain disadvantages as their land areas differ considerably. Much information is lost in the larger spatial base units and distortions in self-containment values, the main criterion in rule-based delineation procedures, occur. Alternatively, one can start from relatively small standard size units such as hexagons. In this way, much greater detail in spatial patterns is obtained. In this paper, regions are built by means of intrazonal maximization (Intramax) on the basis of hexagons. The use of geoprocessing tools, specifically developed for the processing ofcommuting data, speeds up processing time considerably. The results of the Intramax analysis are evaluated with travel-to-work area constraints, and comparisons are made with commuting fields, accessibility to employment, commuting flow density and network commuting flow size. From selected steps in the regionalization process, a hierarchy of nested commuting regions emerges, revealing the complexity of commuting patterns.

  • 169.
    Landré, Martin
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Transport and tourism: a weak symbiosis. An introduction to the special issue2011In: European Journal of Transport and Infrastructure Research, ISSN 1567-7133, E-ISSN 1567-7141, no 3, p. 276-280Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    “Tourism’s very existence depends on transport. Still, researchers in transportation and logistics do not show much interest in tourism whereas travel and tourism researchers pay more attention to accessibility than to transport.” These were the opening sentences of the call for papers for the TTRA European Chapter Conference “Transport and Tourism: Challenges, Issues and Conflicts” held in Rotterdam and Breda, The Netherlands from 22 to 24 April 2009.

  • 170.
    Landré, Martin
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Using GIS to measure regional enlargement and strengthening in Sweden2014In: Journal of Intelligent Transportation and Urban Planning, ISSN 2373-0757, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 41-50Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to determine the size of regional enlargement and strengthening in Sweden over a period of eight years and the relationship with economic growth by analyzing changes in commuting patterns in that period using geographical information system (GIS) techniques. For this analysis, commuting regions have been delimited using the classic concept of commuting field for one-way flows from homes to employment centres functioning as central places. The delimitation procedure is supported by a geo-processing model that automates the process of building such fields. The analysis results show that substantial regional enlargement and strengthening occurred around major employment centres between 2000 and 2008. More than 40% of municipalities could enlarge their commuting field, while for more than 80% of municipalities in these fields their orientation to the core of such a field increased. A significant strong, positive correlation exists between economic growth and regional strengthening, expressed by an increased orientation to the core municipality of a commuting field of commuters living in surrounding municipalities and decreased internal commuting in the core municipality. Municipalities with enlarged commuting fields have on average more employment growth than municipalities whose fields have not changed. There is no indication that regional enlargement of an employment centre is influenced by growing numbers of employed residents in surrounding municipalities.

  • 171.
    Landré, Martin
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Håkansson, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Rule versus interaction function: evaluating regional aggregations of commuting flows in Sweden2013In: European journal of transport and infrastructure research, ISSN 1567-7133, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 1-19Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to evaluate the performance of two divergent methods for delineating commuting regions, also called labour market areas, in a situation that the base spatial units differ largely in size as a result of an irregular population distribution. Commuting patterns in Sweden have been analyzed with geographical information system technology by delineating commuting regions using two regionalization methods. One, a rule-based method, uses one-way commuting flows to delineate local labour market areas in a top-down procedure based on the selection of predefined employment centres. The other method, the interaction-based Intramax analysis, uses two-way flows in a bottom-up procedure based on numerical taxonomy principles. A comparison of these methods will expose a number of strengths and weaknesses. For both methods, the same data source has been used. The performance of both methods has been evaluated for the country as a whole using resident employed population, self-containment levels and job ratios for criteria. A more detailed evaluation has been done in the Goteborg metropolitan area by comparing regional patterns with the commuting fields of a number of urban centres in this area. It is concluded that both methods could benefit from the inclusion of additional control measures to identify improper allocations of municipalities.

  • 172.
    Li, Yujiao
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    Håkansson, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Mihaescu, Oana
    HUI Research, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    HUI Research, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Agglomeration economies in urban retailing: Are there productivity spillovers when big-box retailers enter urban markets?Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies have found that big-box retail entry does not affect the productivity of incumbent retailers when entry occurs in urban areas. In this paper, we show that there are positive spillover effects of big-box retail entry to incumbent retailers in urban areas as well, but that these are limited to relatively small retailers, making the effects difficult to detect using traditional econometric methods, such as difference-in-difference estimation on the full sample of firms. In a two-step procedure, we first use panel smooth transition regression to determine size thresholds that delimit incumbent retail firms by their possible reactions to the new big-box entry. We then use difference-in-difference estimations on these subgroups of firms to determine, within each group, the direction and magnitude of the effects of big-box entry on their productivity. For the group of small incumbent retailers, we find positive spillover effects on productivity of approximately 9%.

  • 173. Lundmark, Linda
    et al.
    Pashkevich, Albina
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Jansson, Bruno
    Wiberg, Ulf
    Effects of climate change and extreme events on forest communities in the European North2008In: Climatic Change, ISSN 0165-0009, E-ISSN 1573-1480, Vol. 87, no 1-2, p. 235-249Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The European north is increasingly affected by changes in climate and climate variability. These changes and their causes are global in scope but specific impacts vary considerably between different regions. Recent incidents and events show that forest-resource based regions have difficulties in alleviating adverse effects of these changes. Also, the future socio-economic impact is to date unexplored. Norrbotten in Sweden, Lappi in Finland and Arkhangelsk oblast in Russia are regions that differ significantly in terms of their socio-economic characteristics and capacities. A modified employment multiplier model is used to predict future changes. Scenarios of changing forest resources provide quantitative estimations of the sensitivity of regional employment. These estimates are used to assess and discuss the adaptive capacities of the regions. Results show that Arkhangelsk oblast is more vulnerable to climate variability than Norrbotten and Lappi. This is due to the continued dependency on natural resources in combination with different capacities to counteract negative effects or to take advantage of the opportunities offered by climate change in this region

  • 174.
    Lundmark, Mats
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Thulemark, Maria
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Heldt Cassel, Susanna
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    In-migration to tourism labour markets: A study on migration to Malung-Sälen and Älvdalen2012Report (Other academic)
  • 175.
    Macuchova, Zuzana
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Entry, re-location and growth in the Swedish wholesale trade industry2013Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Wholesale trade has an intermediate position between manufacturing and retail in the distributional channel. In modern economies, consumers buy few, if any, products directly from manufacture or producer. Instead, it is a wholesaler, who is in direct contact with producers, buying goods in larger quantities and selling them in smaller quantities to retailers. Traditionally, the main function of a wholesaler has been to push goods along the distributional channel from producer to retailer, or other nonend user. However, the function of wholesalers usually goes beyond the process of the physical distribution of goods. Wholesalers also arrange storage, perform market analyses, promote trade or provide technical support to consumers (Riemers 1998). The existence of wholesalers (and other intermediaries) in the distributional channel is based on the effective and efficient performance of distribution services, that are needed by producers and other members of the supply chain. Producers usually do not enjoy the economies of scale that they have in production, when it comes to providing distributional services (Rosenbloom 2007) and this creates a space for wholesalers or other intermediaries. Even though recent developments in the distributional channel indicate that traditional wholesaling activities now also compete with other supply chain organizations, wholesaling still remains an important activity in many economies (Quinn and Sparks, 2007).

    In 2010, the Swedish wholesale trade sector consisted of approximately 46.000 firms and generated an annual turnover of 1 300 billion SEK (Företagsstatistiken, Statistics Sweden). In terms of turnover, wholesaling accounts for 20% of the gross domestic product and is thereby the third largest industry. This is behind manufacturing and a composite group of firms in other sectors of the service industry but ahead of retailing. This indicates that the wholesale trade sector is an important part of the Swedish economy. The position of wholesaling is further reinforced when measuring productivity growth. Measured in terms of value added per employee, wholesaling experienced the largest productivity growth of all industries in the Swedish economy during the years 2000 through 2010.

    The fact that wholesale trade is one of the important parts of a modern economy, and the positive development of the Swedish wholesale trade sector in recent decades, leads to several questions related to industry dynamics. The three topics that will be examined in this thesis are firm entry, firm relocation and firm growth. The main question to be answered by this thesis is what factors influence new firm formation, firm relocation and firm growth in the Swedish wholesale trade sector?

  • 176.
    Macuchova, Zuzana
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Essays on firm dynamics in the Swedish wholesale trade sector2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis consists of a summary and five self-contained papers addressing dynamics of firms in the Swedish wholesale trade sector.

    Paper [1] focuses upon determinants of new firm formation in the Swedish wholesale trade sector, using two definitions of firms’ relevant markets, markets defined as administrative areas, and markets based on a cost minimizing behavior of retailers. The paper shows that new entering firms tend to avoid regions with already high concentration of other firms in the same branch of wholesaling, while right-of-the-center local government and quality of the infrastructure have positive impacts upon entry of new firms. The signs of the estimated coefficients remain the same regardless which definition of relevant market is used, while the size of the coefficients is generally higher once relevant markets delineated on the cost-minimizing assumption of retailers are used.

    Paper [2] analyses determinant of firm relocation, distinguishing between the role of the factors in in-migration municipalities and out-migration municipalities. The results of the analysis indicate that firm-specific factors, such as profits, age and size of the firm are negatively related to the firm’s decision to relocate. Furthermore, firms seems to be avoiding municipalities with already high concentration of firms operating in the same industrial branch of wholesaling and also to be more reluctant to leave municipalities governed by right-of-the- center parties. Lastly, firms seem to avoid moving to municipalities characterized with high population density.

    Paper [3] addresses determinants of firm growth, adopting OLS and a quantile regression technique. The results of this paper indicate that very little of the firm growth can be explained by the firm-, industry- and region-specific factors, controlled for in the estimated models. Instead, the firm growth seems to be driven by internal characteristics of firms, factors difficult to capture in conventional statistics. This result supports Penrose’s (1959) suggestion that internal resources such as firm culture, brand loyalty, entrepreneurial skills, and so on, are important determinants of firm growth rates.

    Paper [4] formulates a forecasting model for firm entry into local markets and tests this model using data from the Swedish wholesale industry. The empirical analysis is based on directly estimating the profit function of wholesale firms and identification of low- and high-return local markets. The results indicate that 19 of 30 estimated models have more net entry in high-return municipalities, but the estimated parameters is only statistically significant at conventional level in one of our estimated models, and then with unexpected negative sign.

    Paper [5] studies effects of firm relocation on firm profits of relocating firms, employing a difference-in-difference propensity score matching. Using propensity score matching, the pre-relocalization differences between relocating and non-relocating firms are balanced, while the difference-in-difference estimator controls for all time-invariant unobserved heterogeneity among firms. The results suggest that firms that relocate increase their profits significantly, in comparison to what the profits would be had the firms not relocated. This effect is estimated to vary between 3 to 11 percentage points, depending on the length of the analyzed period. 

  • 177.
    Macuchova, Zuzana
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Firm relocation and firm profits: Evidence from the Swedish wholesale trade sector2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study analyses the effects of firm relocation on firm profits, using longitudinal data on Swedish limtied liability firms and employing a difference-in-differnce propensity score method in the empirical analysis. Using propensity score matching, the pre-relocalization differneces between relocating and non-relocating firms are balanced. In addition to that, a difference-in-difference estimator is employed in order to control for all time-invariant unobserved heterogeneity among firms. For matching, nearest neighbour matching, using the one-, two- and three nearest neighbours is employed. The balanacing results indicate that matching achieves a good balance, and that similar relocating and non-relocating firms are being compared. The estimated average treatment on the treatment effects indicate thats relocations has a significant effect on the profits of the relocating firms. In other words, firms taht relocate increase their profits significantly, in comparison to what the profits would be had the firms not relocated. This effect is estimated to vary between 3 to 11 percentage points, depending on the lenght of the analysed period after relocation. 

  • 178.
    Macuchova, Zuzana
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    Brandt, Daniel
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Vinterturismens utveckling 2012-2017: En kartläggning av gästnätternas fördelning och utveckling på kommunnivå i Dalarnas län2017Report (Other academic)
  • 179.
    Macuchova, Zuzana
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics. HUI Research.
    Tang, Aili
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Firm growth in the Swedish energy sector: Will large firms become even more dominant?2014In: International Journal of Energy and Statistics, ISSN 2335-6812, Vol. 2, no 4, p. 247-267Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 180.
    Malmberg, Gunnar
    et al.
    Kulturgeografiska institutionen.
    Håkansson, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Pendling och flyttning över sundet? Konsekvenser av Öresundsbron: Bilagsband til SBI-rapport 3151999In: Boligmarkedet i Öresundsregionen, Köpenhamn: Statens Byggeforskningsinstitut (SBI) , 1999Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 181.
    Meng, Xiangli
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Carling, Kenneth
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Håkansson, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems. Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Rebreyend, Pascal
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    On administrative borders and accessibility to public services:: The case of hospitals in Sweden.2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    An administrative border might hinder the optimal allocation of a given set of resources by restricting the flow of goods, services, and people. In this paper we address the question: Do administrative borders lead to poor accessibility to public service such as hospitals? In answering the question, we have examined the case of Sweden and its regional borders. We have used detailed data on the Swedish road network, its hospitals, and its geo-coded population. We have assessed the population’s spatial accessibility to Swedish hospitals by computing the inhabitants’ distance to the nearest hospital. We have also elaborated several scenarios ranging from strongly confining regional borders to no confinements of borders and recomputed the accessibility. Our findings imply that administrative borders are only marginally worsening the accessibility.

  • 182.
    Mihaescu, Oana
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography. HUI Research.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Defining relevant markets for pharmacuticals2017In: Bulletin of Economic Research, ISSN 0307-3378, E-ISSN 1467-8586, Vol. 69, no 4, p. E126-E149Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To identify the relevant product markets for Swedish pharmaceuticals, a spatial econometrics approach is employed. First, we calculate Moran’s Is for different market definitions and then we use a spatial Durbin model to determine the effect of price changes on quantity sold of own and competing products. As expected, the results show that competition is strongest between close substitutes; however, the relevant product markets for Swedish pharmaceuticals extend beyond close substitutes down to products included in the same class on the four-digit level of the Anatomic Therapeutic Chemical system as defined by the World Health Organization. The spatial regression model further indicates that increases in the price of a product significantly lower quantity sold of that product and in the same time increase the quantity sold of competing products. For close substitutes (products belonging to the same class on the seven-digit level of the Anatomic Therapeutic Chemical system), as well as for products that, without being close substitutes, belong to the same therapeutic/pharmacological/chemical subgroup (the same class on the five-digit level of the Anatomic Therapeutic Chemical system), increased competition is also visible after 1 July 2009 when the latest policy changes with regards to pharmaceuticals have been implemented in Sweden.

  • 183.
    Mihaescu, Oana
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography. HUI Research.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics. HUI Research.
    Defining Relevant Product Markets for Pharmaceuticals2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    To identify the relevant product markets for Swedish pharmaceuticals, a spatial econometrics approach is employed. First, we calculate Moran’s Is for different market definitions and then we use a spatial Durbin model to determine the effect of price changes on quantity sold off own and competing products. As expected, the results show that competition is strongest between close substitutes; however, the relevant product markets for Swedish pharmaceuticals extend beyond close substitutes down to products included in the same class on the four-digit level of the Anatomic Therapeutic Chemical system as defined by the World Health Organization. The spatial regression model further indicates that increases in the price of a product significantly lower the quantity sold of that product and in the same time increase the quantity sold of competing products. For close substitutes (products belonging to the same class on the seven-digit level of the Anatomic Therapeutic Chemical system), as well as for products that, without being close substitutes, belong to the same therapeutic/pharmacological/chemical subgroup (the same class on the five-digit level of the Anatomic Therapeutic Chemical system), a significant change towards increased competition is also visible after 1 July 2009 when the latest policy changes with regards to pharmaceuticals have been implemented in Sweden.

  • 184.
    Mihaescu, Oana
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    vom Hofe, Rainer
    University of Cincinnati, School of Planning.
    Using Spatial Regression to Estimate Property Tax Discounts from Proximity to Brownfields: A Tool for Local Policy-Making2013In: Journal of Environmental Assessment Policy and Management, ISSN 1464-3332, E-ISSN 1757-5605, Vol. 15, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper assesses the discount in property values due to proximity to brownfields using a spatial hedonic price model. Using two Bayesian hedonic pricing models, namely the spatial lag of X (SLX) model and the spatial Durbin error model (SDEM), this study identifies a significant decrease in property values for properties located within 2,000 feet of a brownfield. The loss in property value and the subsequent decrease in tax revenue for the City of Cincinnati, Ohio, are then calculated based on these results. Using logarithmic transformations of the property value and the distance to the nearest brownfield variables, we calculate that a 1% increase in the average distance to the closest brownfield leads to a 0.0893% increase in market value. This translates into a $2,262,569 total annual revenue loss for the City of Cincinnati that could presumably be recovered following brownfield cleanup. In addition to accounting for the phenomenon of spatial dependence, this study contributes to the urban planning and environmental policy literature by providing a method for local policy-makers to identify and estimate the negative effects of brownfield sites on local tax revenue.

  • 185.
    Mårald, Erland
    et al.
    Umeå universitet.
    Westholm, Erik
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Changing approaches to the future in Swedish forestry, 1850-20102016In: Nature and Culture, ISSN 1558-6073, E-ISSN 1558-5468, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 1-21Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article explores the changing construction of the future in Swedish forestry since 1850. The framework is based on three concepts: (1) knowability, addressing changing views of knowledge; (2) governability, addressing changing views of the ability to steer the future; and (3) temporality, referring to varying ways of relating to time. The results reveal that until the 1980s, trust in science-based forestry triggered other knowledge-based activities, such as education, surveys, and field trials. The future was seen as predictable and forecasts were expected to support increased forest production. In the 1970s, the environmental debate about the forest incorporated a pluralistic futures agenda. High-production forestry using intensive management methods was questioned. Futures studies shifted focus from predictions to scenarios, highlighting a less predictable future open to human agency. Paradoxically, with increased knowledge of forest ecology and forest markets with improved modeling techniques, the future horizon shifted to one of risks and uncertainties. 

  • 186.
    Möller, Peter
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Folkbildningen och lokalsamhället: En kunskapsöversikt om folkbildningens betydelse för lokal och regional utveckling2004Report (Other academic)
  • 187.
    Möller, Peter
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Forskning och utveckling i kommuner, landsting och regioner2005Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien är att identifiera, kartlägga och analysera offentlig forskning och utveckling (FoU) som helt eller delvis finansieras av kommuner, landsting eller regioner. Fokus ligger på de lokala och regionala FoU-enheter som finns i samtliga län, Gotland undantaget. I studien konstateras att antalet FoU-enheter har blivit fler sedan Dalarnas forskningsråd 2000 gjorde en kartläggning av antalet FoU-enheter i rapporten Det dolda universitetet. Men huruvida FoU inom det offentliga har ökat i omfattning är omöjligt att säga något om utifrån materialet i denna studie. Det framkommer nämligen att FoU inte bara bedrivs inom de lokala och regionala FoU-enheter som belysts i denna studie utan även i kommunernas, landstingens och regionernas övriga verksamheter. Att då endast titta på antalet FoU-enheter skulle vara att kraftigt underskatta de resurser som avsätts till FoU i dessa organisationer. Det är framförallt två frågor som återkommit så ofta i studien att de får anses vara de dominerande inom lokal och regional FoU: • dels den kortsiktiga finansieringen, och • dels den bristande kommunikationen mellan utförare av FoU och kommun- och landstingspolitiker. Dessa två frågor har ett tydligt samband. Med en bättre kommunikation där båda parter vet vad politikerna vill få ut av anslagen till FoU blir diskussionen om anslag just en diskussion och inte bara en förfrågan om pengar. Det är också tydligt att statens agerande har stor påverkan på hur kommuner och landsting ställer sig till finansiering av FoU.

  • 188.
    Möller, Peter
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Kunskap som verktyg för förändring2011In: Vem bygger landet? Om unga och vuxna i den regionala utvecklingen / [ed] Möller, Peter, Möklinta: Gidlunds förlag , 2011Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 189.
    Möller, Peter
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Migration patterns among young adults in areas with a dominant tourism industry2009Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 190.
    Möller, Peter
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Turism i rurala områden: en möjlighet att attrahera unga invånare?2011In: Vem bygger landet? Om unga och vuxna i den regionala utvecklingen / [ed] Möller, Peter, Möklinta: Gidlunds förlag , 2011Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 191.
    Möller, Peter
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Unga vuxna i Sälen2012In: På gränsen: Interaktion, attraktivitet och globalisering i Inre Skandinavien, Karlstad: Karlstad University Press, 2012, p. 215-228Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 192.
    Möller, Peter
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Vem bygger landet?: Om unga och vuxna i den regionala utvecklingen2011Book (Other academic)
  • 193.
    Möller, Peter
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Young Adult Transition in a Tourism Dominated Rural Area2012In: Tourism Planning & Development, ISSN 2156-8316, Vol. 9, no 4, p. 429-440Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rural peripheral areas generally have an ageing and declining population, few possibilities for education, limited labour market opportunities, and a net loss of young adults. However, some peripheral rural areas hosting large-scale tourism industry has faced a different development. But despite the fact that the loss of young adults is important for the development of these areas, the adult transition in a tourism context has not been so well addressed. In this paper the adult transition in Sälen, a large-scale winter tourism destination, is explored. The analysis is based on life history interviews with focus on how young adults experience the ability to make a living (year-round) in the tourism-dominated area. The way in which they perceive their current and possible future life in Sälen is important when they make decisions about how and where to shape their futures. The findings imply that the flows of people passing through Sälen, as tourists and young seasonal workers, are important both socially and economically for the young adult inhabitants, which in turn contributes to a more secure adult transition and to Sälen's attractiveness among young adults.

  • 194.
    Möller, Peter
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography. Örebro universitet.
    Young adults in rural tourism areas2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis examines how tourism affects conditions for young adults in rural areas. Such a study lies at the intersection of research about tourism impacts, adult transition, and rural areas. The aim is to examine how largescale tourism affects the opportunities for young adults living in rural areas; their perception of place and the perceived opportunities and obstacles that tourism provides.

    The thesis utilizes a mixed method approach. A quantitative study based on micro-data on individuals identifies the patterns and magnitudes of the mechanisms by which tourism affects population change among young adults. Interview methods are used in the case study area, Sälen, to investigate these mechanisms in depth. Finally, the rural–urban dichotomy is explored in a conceptual study that asks how tourism affects the perception of a local village as either rural or urban. Young inhabitants in rural areas are rarely considered in tourism research; therefore, the main contribution of this thesis is that it illuminates how tourism affects conditions for young adults in rural areas.

    The thesis reveals a substantial impact on the adult transition, mainly due to easier access to the labor market and a good supply of jobs during the high season. Further, the large number of people passing through creates flows of opportunities to make friends, get a job, or just meet people. All of these factors contribute to high mobility in these places, and to the perception of them as places where things happen. The high mobility in Sälen implies that fixed migrant categories (such as stayers and leavers) are largely insufficient. The tourism environment creates a space that is always under construction and continually producing new social relations mainly perceived as opportunities. Conceptualizing this as a modern rurality is a way to move beyond the often implicit notions of urban as modern and rural as traditional.

  • 195.
    Möller, Peter
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Young adults’ perceptions of and affective bonds to a rural tourism community2016In: Fennia, ISSN 0015-0010, Vol. 194, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many rural areas, in Sweden and worldwide, experience population decline where the young leave for education and work in urban areas. Employment has declined in several rural industries, such as agriculture, forestry, and fishing, while growing in other industries are often located in urban areas. Politicians and organizations have put much hope in tourism as a tool of rural development, but can tourism help reverse the rural out-migration trend among young adults? This paper explores how tourism affects young inhabitants’ perceptions of and affective bonds to a rural area in Sweden, the ski resort of Sälen. Students from the 1993–1995 elementary school graduating classes were interviewed about their migration history, childhood, and view of and ties to Sälen. The respondents experience that tourism contributes to a more vital community incorporating influences from elsewhere, but without eliminating the positive aspects of rural life. The regular flow of people – tourists, seasonal workers, and entrepreneurs – passing through Sälen presents opportunities to extend one’s social network that are widely appreciated by respondents. The high in and out mobility constitutes a key part of Sälen’s character. Contributions from tourism – such as employment, entertainment, leisure, and opportunities to forge new social relationships – are available during the adult transition, the life phase when rural areas are often perceived as least attractive. Even though out-migration occurs in Sälen, and some respondents still find Sälen too small, tourism has clearly increased the available opportunities and contributed significantly to making Sälen more attractive to young adults.

  • 196.
    Möller, Peter
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Young adult’s relation to places with a dominating tourism industry2010In: Nordic Rural Futures: pressures and possibilities, Tammsvik, Uppsala, 2010Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Rural areas in Sweden have during the past decades experienced a decline in both job opportunities and population. This decline is mainly a consequence of the restructuring in nature based industries that during the 20th century dominated the economy in rural Sweden. For many rural areas tourism has been seen as possible solution to create new jobs and a more positive development. In this paper the focus will be on local communities with a dominating tourism industry and more specifically how the tourism industry in these areas affects young people’s relation to the place. There are several reasons to study young people in these areas. They are the largest group that moves out from rural areas. They also represent a large proportion of the workforce in the tourism industry. Many areas with a dominating tourism industry can, at least during peak season, offer a higher level of service provision and supply of entertainment than other rural areas without a dominating tourism industry. In some aspects these rural tourism areas includes young lifestyles, which previous youth research has revealed is otherwise strongly connected to urban places. The aim of this paper is to examine how tourism influences the relation to the place for young people. The focus will be on a number of themes including how young people experience the connections to young lifestyles in these kinds of places, the importance and effects of seasonality in these places’ identity and how young inhabitants, workers and tourists experience the place’s attractiveness. Interviews will be conducted with young inhabitants, seasonal workers and tourists that return in a regular basis in the community of Sälen, which is one of the biggest ski resorts in Sweden. An individual can belong to more than one of these categories at once. The study will contribute to a broader understanding of how young people’s relation to the place in rural areas is affected by a dominating tourism industry. This knowledge is important to further understand the development of these places not only as tourism destinations but also as places to live.

  • 197.
    Möller, Peter
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Amcoff, J.
    Tourism’s localised population effect in the rural areas of Sweden2018In: Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, ISSN 1502-2250, E-ISSN 1502-2269, no 1, p. 39-55Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines how population change among young adults in rural areas is affected when tourism is the dominant industry. The relation between tourism and population change is often implicitly assumed but has not been well examined on a broader societal level. Existing studies have indicated that the effect of tourism on population change is limited in geographical range, and therefore a fine geographical resolution is useful. This analysis is based on yearly information on each individual who resided in Sweden in any year between 1990 and 2010, with 100-metre grid cells as the finest geographical resolution. Since young adults constitute a large part of all migration that takes place, they are the focus of this study. The findings show that the net population change among young adults is clearly more positive in tourism-dominated areas (TDAs) than in non-TDAs, and this becomes more significant the more remote the areas. Further, there is a better gender balance and a younger population in TDAs. Stayers and return migrants can partly explain the positive population change in TDAs, but as shown in previous research, there is a higher turnover of population in TDAs, and in-migration seems to be the key to positive population change.

  • 198.
    Möller, Peter
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Amcoff, Jan
    Westholm, Erik
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    The (un)importance of the closure of village shops to rural migration patterns2011In: International Review of Retail Distribution & Consumer Research, ISSN 0959-3969, E-ISSN 1466-4402, Vol. 21, no 2, p. 129-143Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the importance of local service provision for the survival of rural areas. EU Rural Development Policy includes support to village shops as a means to sustain population. Shop closing is assumed to negatively affect migration to and from the area served. We analyse quantitative data on all Swedish village shops and the migration patterns in their market areas before and after shop closure. No significant effect of shop closure on either in- or out-migration can be established, regardless of whether larger or smaller market areas are employed or whether migrants with more urban shopping habits (i.e. commuters and families with children) are excluded. Complementary interviews in three villages where the last shop has closed verify the results.

  • 199.
    Möller, Peter
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Lind, Marcus
    Stålgren Lind, Mia
    Kåks, Helena
    Unga vuxna i Dalarna 2008: En regional kartläggning av unga vuxnas livsvillkor2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Unga vuxna är en mycket viktig men också sårbar grupp. Unga representerar på ett mycket påtagligt sätt framtiden, samtidigt som det faktum att de ännu inte hunnit etablera sig fullt ut i samhället gör dem särskilt utsatta. Flera nationella undersökningar visar att åldersgruppen 19-25 år upplevt försämringar under senare tid, bland annat i form av ökad psykisk ohälsa och försämrad ekonomi. Mest utsatta vad gäller ökad psykisk ohälsa och stress är unga kvinnor. Unga kvinnor uttrycker också i högre grad än unga män en känsla av otrygghet i offentliga miljöer, och då i synnerhet kvällstid. Kön är dock inte den enda faktor som bidrar till att skapa skillnader mellan olika kategorier av unga. Social bakgrund, etnicitet, personliga förutsättningar och tidigare erfarenheter bidrar på olika sätt till att forma unga människors möte med arbetsmarknaden och steget in i vuxenlivet. Den fysiska plats där man bor påverkar också i stor utsträckning hur ens sociala parametrar kommer att samspela med samhället. Vi vet att gruppen unga vuxna lever under andra villkor än för bara ett par decennier sedan. Kunskap har dock saknats om hur det ser ut i Dalarna. För att kunna stärka unga vuxnas position och ta vara på dem som den resurs de är för regionens utveckling behöver vi veta mera. Under 2006 tog Dalarnas forskningsråd initiativ till att samla en rad organisationer med särskilt intresse för gruppen unga vuxna. En arbetsgrupp bildades och ett samtal om unga vuxnas förändrade livsvillkor inleddes. Diskussionerna mynnade ut i ett beslut att låta göra en postenkät för att kartlägga unga vuxnas livsvillkor i Dalarna. Under hösten 2007 skickades enkäter ut till 3000 slumpmässigt utvalda 19–25-åringar i Dalarna; omkring 200 i var och en av Dalarnas 15 kommuner. Det är resultatet av den kartläggningen som presenteras i den här rapporten.

  • 200.
    Möller, Peter
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Thulemark, Maria
    Vivid city or sleepy village?: Young people in an urban tourism destination in rural Sweden2011Conference paper (Other academic)
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