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  • 151.
    Backman, Erik
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Arnegård, Johan
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH.
    Sandell, Klas
    Karlstads universitet.
    Slutsatser och framåtblick2011In: Friluftssport och äventyrsidrott - utmaningar för lärare, ledare och miljö i en föränderlig värld. / [ed] Sandell, Arnegård, Backman, Lund: Studentlitteratur , 2011, p. 203-218Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 152.
    Backman, Erik
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Barker, Dean
    Örebro Universitet.
    Re-thinking pedagogical content knowledge for physical education teachers: implications for physical education teacher education2020In: Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, ISSN 1740-8989, E-ISSN 1742-5786Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 153.
    Backman, Erik
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Engström, Lars-Magnus
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Encounters with nature, outdoor recreation and physical exercise2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the past few decades, research into the social stratification in physical activity and sport has indicated that these practices are undisputedly correlated to possession of socioeconomic and cultural capital. Although sometimes claimed as socially equal, the practice of outdoor recreation appears to display the same pattern. However, recent studies of outdoor recreation-participants with low socioeconomic and cultural capital, indicate that the proportion also engaged in general physical activity is disproportionately high. Drawing on this finding, experiences of nature appears to be particularly important when striving for a life-long physically active lifestyle. The aim of this study is to further investigate the relation between the interest for outdoor recreation and the interest for physical activity.

    This study is part of a longitudinal Swedish study of habits regarding physical activity and sport during adolescence and adulthood. The individuals included in this study were first contacted in 1968 when they were 15 years old. The sample originally consisted of 2144 individuals, divided into 91 randomly selected school classes in Year 8 in four counties in Sweden. Since then, follow-up contact and information gathering have been conducted on six additional occasions, primarily via questionnaries sent by post. At the last collection, in 2007, a total of 1518 responses were recieved. By comparing groups in the mentioned empirical material, with various interests for outdoor recreation and/or physical activity, regarding variables such as: gender; social position; leisure habits; and previous experiences of sport and outdoor recreation; the relation between the interest for outdoor recreation and the interest for physical activity will be further explored.

    Through a multipel logistic regression analysis, preliminary results indicate that practice of physical activity and practice of outdoor recreation are related. Among outdoor recreation-participants with low socioeconomic and cultural capital, the proportion also engaged in physical activity appears to be disproportionally high. This finding motivates a further analysis of factors explaining the relation between the interest for physical activity and the interest for outdoor recreation. The results will be discussed in relation to the French sociologist Pierre Bourdieu’s concepts of habitus and taste.

  • 154.
    Backman, Erik
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Frölander, Håkan
    Stockholms universitet.
    Är det centrala innehållet tydligt nog? Idrottslärares upplevelser av konkretionen i Lgr112011In: Idrott & Hälsa, ISSN 1653-1124, Vol. 138, no 6, p. 20-23Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 155.
    Backman, Erik
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Håkan, Larsson
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    A Physical Education teacher should know - what? Empirical observations of learning objectives for future Physical Education teachers in Sweden2011In: Presentation av paper vid AARE Conference, Hobart, Tasmanien, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Physical Education (PE), as well as in several other school subjects, the content knowledge has been proven to be reproduced through strong subject traditions. In PE, this reproduction has promoted children who are already privileged in school and society. In this paper, explanations to the difficulties of influencing subject traditions in PE are searched within Physical Education Teacher Education (PETE). Learning objectives stipulated in curricula documents within teacher training courses at six Swedish PETE institutions have been investigated. The preliminary results of the study indicate that the learning objectives expressed appear to reproduce the dominance of (natural) scientific and behaviouristic traditions in PETE and a dualistic approach to PE teacher knowledge. These results will be discussed in relation to theories of teacher knowledge.  Exploring learning objectives within PETE may be of significance for the construction of PE knowledge at a school level and may also offer explanations to the promotion and marginalisation of children in PE teaching.

  • 156.
    Backman, Erik
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science. Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan.
    Larsson, Håkan
    Gymnastik- och idrotthögskolan, Stockholm.
    What should a physical education teacher know?: An analysis of learning outcomes for future physical education teachers in Sweden2016In: Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, ISSN 1740-8989, E-ISSN 1742-5786, Vol. 21, no 2, p. 185-200Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research indicates that Physical Education Teacher Education (PETE) has only limited impact on how physical education (PE) is taught in schools. This paper offers possible explanations for the difficulties of influencing subject traditions in PE through analysing PETE curriculum documents. The purpose is show how knowledge is expressed through learning outcomes in local curriculum documents at six PETE institutions in Sweden. Inspired by Fenstermacher’s ideas about teacher knowledge, our ambition is to discuss the potential educational consequences of the epistemological assumptions underlying specific learning outcomes. From the total number of 224 learning outcomes described in the curriculum documents, different types of knowledge were identified and clustered together into the following themes: Teaching PE, Interpreting curriculum documents, Physical movement skills, Science, Social health, Pedagogy, Critical inquiry, and Research methods. In most of the identified themes, learning outcomes are formulated with an integrated perspective on so called performance knowledge and propositional knowledge. However, particularly in the themes Science and Physical movement skills, two very influential themes, the concept of knowledge is limited and unilateral in relation to ideas of different forms of teacher knowledge. Drawing on the work of Tinning, we offer an explanation as to how teacher knowledge in the themes Science and Physical movement skills, emanating from behaviouristic and craft knowledge orientations, is formulated.

  • 157.
    Backman, Erik
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Larsson, Håkan
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Redelius, Karin
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Lundvall, Suzanne
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Thedin Jacobsson, Britta
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Nyberg, Marie
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Bedömningsstöd i idrott och hälsa: årskurs 7-92012Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 158.
    Backman, Erik
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Nyberg, Gunn
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Larsson, Håkan
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan GIH Stockholm.
    Moving beyond rigid orthodoxies in the teaching and assessment of movement in Swedish physical education teacher education: A student perspective2020In: European Physical Education Review, ISSN 1356-336X, E-ISSN 1741-2749, Vol. 26, no 1, p. 111-127Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to analyse and discuss physical education teacher education (PETE) students’ conceptions of teaching and assessment of movement capability as a part of content knowledge in aquatics, dance and ice-skating at a university in Sweden. The theoretical perspective involves Shulman’s concept of content knowledge, the further elaboration of content knowledge into common content knowledge, and the theoretical perspective underpinning movement capability. The sample consists of two groups with a total of seven PETE students who volunteered to take part in group interviews. Semi-structured interviews with the two groups were conducted on three occasions. Findings display that the students’ conceptions of movement capability seem to be focused around performance of movements. Further, the participants felt the messages to be unclear in terms of what they are to know regarding movement capability before entering PETE. There was also a contradiction in that the PETE students felt it to be obvious that they would ‘know’ certain movements, and at the same time they requested clear and distinct criteria when it came to the performance of movements. This study shows that expectations in terms of PETEstudents’ levels of movement content knowledge need to be further investigated and discussed.

    This study also highlights the importance of conceptualising what PETE students need to learn if they are to see the need to develop their movement capability on their own. Assessments of students’ reflections on what it means to master movements are discussed as an alternative to assessment of performance of movements.

  • 159.
    Backman, Erik
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Nyberg, Gunn
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Tolgfors, Björn
    Örebro universitet.
    Quennerstedt, Mikael
    Örebro universitet.
    Transitions from Physical Education Teacher Education to teaching practices in Physical Education2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research display mixed results regarding the impact that teacher education have on teaching practices in schools. While some studies indicate weak influence of teacher education, others display that some content and perspectives in teacher education seem to find their expressions in school practice. Despite the lack of research about the impact of physical education teacher education (PETE), a few existing studies display the same twofold result as for teacher education in general. In this study, we have chosen a certain content, assessment of learning (AFL) in order to investigate the influence that PETE can have for newly qualified teachers (NQT) in physical education (PE). The aim of the project is twofold. Firstly, inspired by Bernstein’s theory of the pedagogic device, the aim is to investigate how AFL is constructed in university courses, re-contextualised in practicum courses, and realised in teaching practice in school PE. Secondly, and inspired by Ball’s theory of performativity, the aim is to analyse fabrications of AFL in the transitions from PETE to PE teaching practice. The design of the project is to follow a total of 10 PETE students recruited from two different PETE universities in Sweden to study how their understanding and teaching practice of AFL is transformed from PETE to PE. Empirical material will be gathered from recordings of seminars, observations for teaching, stimulated-recall-interviews, and participation in social media.

  • 160.
    Backman, Erik
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Pearson, Phil
    University of Wollongong, Australien.
    Movement skills as content knowledge and/or as pedagogic content knowledge?: Identifying gaps in Australian PETE research.2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The discussion of what constitute subject matter knowledge in Physical Education Teacher Education (PETE) has been intense and ongoing, particularly in the US and in Australia. One central part of this discussion have concerned the movement and sporting practices that students meet during their education. While most PETE scholars agree on the value for PETE students to experience movement and sport practices during their education, there are different ideas about the extent and in what form these should be taught and as to whether, and in what form, these should be assessed. In Australia, the discussion of movement and sport practices in PETE has very much been focused on various adaptations of the Sport Education model, the Game Centered Approach and Teaching Games for Understanding. However, given the limitations of time and resources, the issue of whether to prioritize movement and sport practices seen as a form of knowledge in itself or as means for teaching pupils in, through and about movement, has only been slightly dealt with in research of Australian PETE. Inspired by Shulman’s division of different forms of teacher knowledge, and in particular subject matter knowledge and pedagogical content knowledge, we want to address gaps in the Australian research on movement and sport practices in PETE. Illuminating the local construction of dominant as well as marginalized research discourses might help identify issues in need of research. 

  • 161.
    Backman, Erik
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Pearson, Phil
    University of Wollongong.
    Forrest, Greg
    University of Wollongong.
    The value of movement content knowledge in the training of Australian PE teachers: perceptions of teacher educators2019In: Curriculum Studies in Health and Physical Education, ISSN 2574-2981, Vol. 10, no 2, p. 187-203Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to describe, analyse and discuss the  statements made by Australian physical education teacher educators (PETE) in terms of how they perceive and value movement content knowledge (CK) in their assessment of  movement courses. Drawing on Shulman’s perspective of CK, this paper builds on qualitative analysis of in-depth interviews with nine teacher educators from a total of seven PETE universities in New South Wales as well as written unit outlines including  assignments from these PETE universities. The main results from the study show that among the participants, movement CK is conceptualised as physical movement performance. This conceptualisation limits the value placed on movement CK in the assessment of PETE students. Further, movement courses are  often assessed using written assignments rather than practice oriented  assignments. The findings have been analysed and  discussed in relation to Shulman-inspired concepts of CK and  pedagogical content knowledge (PCK), as well as in relation to  epistemological perspectives in PETE.

  • 162.
    Backström, Susanne
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Fagerlund, Angelica
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Patientens osagda ord Sjuksköterskans arbete med patienter som drabbats av afasi efter stroke – en litteraturöversikt2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to describe the communication barriers and opportunities arising nurse may face in the nursing work with patients with aphasia following stroke.

    Method: The study is based on 15 qualitative scientific articles that have been analyzed and examined with Dalarna University's modified version of William Stoltz and Bahtsevani (2006). Articles were selected for inclusion and exclusion criteria to meet the study objective.

    Results: The result of the literature review is based on the main categories and subcategories. The study revealed that the diagnosis of the kind of aphasic patient suffered is important for nurses to know how he should respond to the patient for the best rehabilitation and patient-centered care, which also needed education and training on aphasia and the different aphasia resorts. Training in communication strategies is essential for nurses to more easily respond to the patient and not get caught up in the communication with the patient.

    Conclusions: The study shows that it is important that patients early received the correct diagnosis which promotes rehabilitation. Even the nurses have need of and training in communication and alternative communication as it showed that the nurses' communication was facilitated by the patient. It also emerged that it is important with patient centered care based on the patient's needs.

  • 163.
    Backström, Susanne
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Imhof, Mathilda
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Skolsköterskans erfarenheter av hälsosamtal med nyanlända elever på gymnasieskola.: En kvalitativ studie2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate and disclose the experiences that school nurses encounter, in regard to health consultations, with newly arrived foreign students. The study had a qualitative design and was composed of semi structured interviews with an applied inductive approach. In total, seven interviews were performed with separate school nurses from the counties of Västernorrland and Stockholm. The interview material was processed through a content analysis. The results from the study indicated a theme of "

    being more than a school nurse" was composed of three main constituents;

    "To be challenged in one´s profession as a school nurse in health consultations"

    "To be enriched in one's profession in regard to health consultations"

    "To be inadequate in the health consultations as a school nurse"

    Based on both positive and negative factors, all school nurses affirmed that the meeting with the newly arrived foreign students, in regard to health consultations, resulted in being more than a school nurse. Health consultations with the students involved different types of challenges that consisted of inadequate guidelines, knowledge, time and resources. In spite of the challenges posed by the findings in this report, the school nurses asserted that they inched forward.

    The school nurses argued that they were enriched in their role in relation to the health consultations, which resulted in a sense of satisfaction and a commitment of wanting to help and be there for these students on a deeper level.

    The nurses reported a feeling of being inadequate during the consultations with the students, which brought forth feelings of insecurity, frustration and helplessness with the nurses. They reported that even their professional disposition had been affected.

    All participants in this study agreed that current high school health consultation guidelines were inadequate and confirmed that they lacked some knowledge in regard to cultural differences. The participants also requested guidance in their work involving newly arrived foreign students.

  • 164. Bajracharya, Kiran
    et al.
    Sapkota, Sabitri
    Erlandsson, Kerstin
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    News & events: A milestone of Midwifery in Nepal2014In: Journal of Asian Midwives (JAM), ISSN 2409-2290, Vol. 1, no 1, p. 2p. 2-4Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 165. Bakkman, L.
    et al.
    Sahlin, K.
    Holmberg, H-C.
    Tonkonogi, Michail
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Quantitative and qualitative adaptation of human skeletal muscle mitochondria to hypoxic compared to normoxic training at the same relative work rate2007In: Acta Physiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6772, E-ISSN 1365-201X, Vol. 190, no 3, p. 243-251Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: To investigate if training during hypoxia (H) improves the adaptation of muscle oxidative function compared with normoxic (N) training performed at the same relative intensity.

    Method: Eight untrained volunteers performed one-legged cycle training during 4 weeks in a low-pressure chamber. One leg was trained under N conditions and the other leg under hypobaric hypoxia (526 mmHg) at the same relative intensity as during N (65% of maximal power output, Wmax). Muscle biopsies were taken from vastus lateralis before and after the training period. Muscle samples were analysed for the activities of oxidative enzymes [citrate synthase (CS) and cytochrome c oxidase (COX)] and mitochondrial respiratory function.

    Results: W max increased with more than 30% over the training period during both N and H. CS activity increased significantly after training during N conditions (+20.8%, P < 0.05) but remained unchanged after H training (+4.5%, ns) with a significant difference between conditions (P < 0.05 H vs. N). COX activity was not significantly changed by training and was not different between exercise conditions [+14.6 (N) vs. -2.3% (H), ns]. Maximal ADP stimulated respiration (state 3) expressed per weight of muscle tended to increase after N (+31.2%, P < 0.08) but not after H training (+3.2%, ns). No changes were found in state four respiration, respiratory control index, P/O ratio, mitochondrial Ca2+ resistance and apparent Km for oxygen.

    Conclusion: The training-induced increase in muscle oxidative function observed during N was abolished during H. Altitude training may thus be disadvantageous for adaptation of muscle oxidative function.

  • 166.
    Bala, Hena Rani
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sexual Reproductive Perinatal Health.
    Chakma, Anti
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sexual Reproductive Perinatal Health.
    Khatun, Most. Zubayda Rokshanara
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sexual Reproductive Perinatal Health.
    Birth companion during labour and birth2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Having a birth companion during labour and birth to provide mental, emotional support as well as physical support is globally found to be essential for women. The process of giving birth is not only a biological event but also a process with social and emotional aspects. It is a right for every woman to receive evidence-based care during childbirth. There is also a global interest in improving the quality of maternal and newborn care. This includes a strong focus on respectful care as an essential component of quality of care. The aim of this study was to define the concept “Birth companion during labour and birth” through the synthesis of texts from literature and interview data with Bangladeshi health care providers, in an attempt to clarify its meaning, enabling comprehension and use of the concept in clinical practice and education. Methods: The design of this study is a concept analysis that comprises three phases: 1) is a theoretical phase, followed by 2) a field study phase and 3) a synthesis phase. The participants were recruited purposively and invited to the interview with an invitation letter. The interviews were based on semi-structured and open-ended questions following an interview guide. A total of nine participants were enrolled in this study, five midwifery educators, two clinical midwives, and two midwifery students who worked at antenatal care, delivery, postpartum care, menstrual regulation, post abortion care and family planning care or involved in midwifery education. Results: A birth companion supports women during childbirth provide informational support, bridge communication gaps between clinical staff and women, provide practical support and emotional support, act as an advocate for the women, help women feel in control, provide continuous physical presence. Conclusion: The concept “Birth companion during labour and birth” was redefined in the following way: The birth companion can be any person chosen by the woman to provide her with support during labour and childbirth. This support is perceived to be associated with reduced maternal anxiety, it highlights the importance of a birth companion during labour and birth and on the emotional wellbeing of women in the Bangladeshi context. Clinical implications: This paper gives a deep insight to the concept of a birth companion during labour and birth and shows what is, and preferably should be, part of the clinical settings in Bangladesh. Ensuring a birth companion during labour and birth could improve health outcomes of women and give a positive childbirth experience.

  • 167.
    Balaile, Gunnel
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Medical Science.
    Laisser, Rose
    Ransjö-Arvidson, Anna-Berit
    Höjer, Bengt
    Poverty and devastation of intimate relations: Tanzanian women's experience of living with HIV/AIDS2007In: Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care, ISSN 1055-3290, E-ISSN 1552-6917, Vol. 18, no 5, p. 6-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Tanzania, women of reproductive age constitute the largest group infected by HIV. This study aimed to explore the lived experiences related to health and sexuality of Tanzanian women who had known their positive serostatus for I year. In-depth interviews with 10 women were analyzed using a phenomeno-logical-hermeneutic approach and showed frustration and despair at not having resources to maintain daily life. The women needed regular medical treatment for themselves and for their HIV-positive children. Their sexual desires had declined or vanished, and they had come to view sexuality as a source of transmittable disease. For some women, casual sex was an option to solve urgent financial needs. Happiness was something for their children, not for them. Access to social support from the women's community would help prevent further HIV transmission and enhance survival so the children could grow up with at least one devoted parent.

  • 168. Bandak, Ghassan
    et al.
    Sang, Yingying
    Gasparini, Alessandro
    Chang, Alex R
    Ballew, Shoshana H
    Evans, Marie
    Ärnlöv, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Medical Science. Uppsala universitet.
    Lund, Lars H
    Inker, Lesley A
    Grams, Morgan E
    Hyperkalemia after initiating renin-angiotensin system blockade: The Stockholm creatinine measurements (SCREAM) project2017In: Journal of the American Heart Association: Cardiovascular and Cerebrovascular Disease, ISSN 2047-9980, E-ISSN 2047-9980, Vol. 6, no 7, article id e005428Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Concerns about hyperkalemia limit the use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE-I) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), but guidelines conflict regarding potassium-monitoring protocols. We quantified hyperkalemia monitoring and risks after ACE-I/ARB initiation and developed and validated a hyperkalemia susceptibility score.

    METHODS AND RESULTS: We evaluated 69 426 new users of ACE-I/ARB therapy in the Stockholm Creatinine Measurements (SCREAM) project with medication initiation from January 1, 2007 to December 31, 2010, and follow-up for 1 year thereafter. Three fourths (76%) of SCREAM patients had potassium checked within the first year. Potassium >5 and >5.5 mmol/L occurred in 5.6% and 1.7%, respectively. As a comparison, we propensity-matched new ACE-I/ARB users to 20 186 new β-blocker users in SCREAM: 64% had potassium checked. The occurrence of elevated potassium levels was similar between new β-blocker and ACE-I/ARB users without kidney disease; only at estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 mL/min per 1.73 m(2) were risks higher among ACE-I/ARB users. We developed a hyperkalemia susceptibility score that incorporated estimated glomerular filtration rate, baseline potassium level, sex, diabetes mellitus, heart failure, and the concomitant use of potassium-sparing diuretics in new ACE-I/ARB users; this score accurately predicted 1-year hyperkalemia risk in the SCREAM cohort (area under the curve, 0.845, 95% CI: 0.840-0.869) and in a validation cohort from the US-based Geisinger Health System (N=19 524; area under the curve, 0.818, 95% CI: 0.794-0.841), with good calibration.

    CONCLUSIONS: Hyperkalemia within the first year of ACE-I/ARB therapy was relatively uncommon among people with estimated glomerular filtration rate >60 mL/min per 1.73 m(2), but rates were much higher with lower estimated glomerular filtration rate. Use of the hyperkalemia susceptibility score may help guide laboratory monitoring and prescribing strategies.

  • 169.
    Banu, Afroza
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sexual Reproductive Perinatal Health.
    Parvin, Shahanaj
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sexual Reproductive Perinatal Health.
    "There Are Remaining Challenges in Bangladesh" A National Assessment Strategy Supports Reaching International Midwifery Standards Education: A focus group inquiry among midwifery faculty in Bangladesh2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Delivery by unskilled birth attendant is causing many maternal and neonatal deaths. Midwives can reduce maternal and neonatal deaths by providing skilled delivery care. To prepare skilled midwives a National Assessment Strategy for Midwifery Education Standards has been introduced.

    Aim: To describe midwifery faculty members’ perceptions of how to affirm quality midwifery education in Bangladesh using a national assessment strategy.

    Methods: A qualitative research design was chosen using a context-specific accreditation assessment tool, guided by the Global Standards for Midwifery Education. The participants were 33 midwifery teachers, and data were analyzed with content analysis.

    Results: The findings indicate that Bangladesh should be prepared to implement the Global Standards for Midwifery Education Accreditation Programmes. The assessment strategy has prepared the faculty for accreditation and paved the way through the development of standards in the tool, overcoming barriers, and using the possible facilitators.

    Conclusion: There are remaining challenges in Bangladesh regarding "moving midwifery". Midwifery teachers demand for separate faculty from nursing. Promotion system for careers development can be initiated. Updating teachers knowledge, having adequate number of teachers with competencies, and maintained collaboration between teaching and clinical practice organizations are important for "moving midwifery" in Bangladesh.

    Clinical application: The present study results can be useful for midwifery education and clinical practice improvement.

  • 170. Barber, Ryan M
    et al.
    Fullman, Nancy
    Sorensen, Reed J
    Bollyky, Thomas
    McKee, Martin
    Nolte, Ellen
    Abajobir, Amanuel Alemu
    Abete, Kalkidan Hassen
    Ärnlöv, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Medical Science. Karolinska institutet.
    Murray, Christopher J L
    Healthcare Access and Quality Index based on mortality from causes amenable to personal health care in 195 countries and territories, 1990–2015: a novel analysis from the Global Burden of Disease Study 20152017In: The Lancet, ISSN 0140-6736, E-ISSN 1474-547X, Vol. 390, no 10091, p. 231-266Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 171. Barenfeld, Emmelie
    et al.
    Dahlin-Ivanoff, Synneve
    Wallin, Lars
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing. Karolinska institutet; Göteborgs universitet.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    Promoting aging migrants' capabilities: A randomized controlled trial concerning activities of daily living and self-rated health.2018In: AIMS public health, ISSN 2327-8994, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 173-188Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim was to evaluate the 6-month and 1-year effects of a person-centered group-based health-promoting intervention on independence in daily activities and self-rated health. The study was an RCT with follow-ups at 6 months and 1 year. A total of 131 independent living people (70+) who have migrated to Sweden from Finland or Western Balkan region were included. Participants were independent in activities of daily living and cognitively intact. They were randomized to an intervention group receiving four weekly group-meetings and a follow-up home visit, or a control group (no intervention). An overall chi-squared test was performed and the odds ratio calculated. A high proportion of the participants maintained independence in activities of daily living and improved or maintained self-rated health. However, no significant differences were found between the groups. The result indicates that the intervention was offered too early in the aging process to be able to detect effects. Methodological challenges were met during both the recruitment and implementation phases. In response to lessons learned, a multicenter design is recommended for future research in order to strengthen the findings. Furthermore, this study has contributed with experiences on both opportunities and challenges in terms of research with and about older people aging in the context of migration, as is discussed.

  • 172. Barenfeld, Emmelie
    et al.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    Wallin, Lars
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing. Karolinska institutet; Göteborgs universitet.
    Dahlin-Ivanoff, Synneve
    Supporting decision-making by a health promotion programme: experiences of persons ageing in the context of migration.2017In: International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being, ISSN 1748-2623, E-ISSN 1748-2631, Vol. 12, no 1, article id 1337459Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study is part of the Promoting Aging Migrants' Capabilities programme that applied person-centred group meetings and one individual home visit to prolong independence in daily activities among people ≥70 years who had migrated to Sweden from Finland or the Western Balkan region. With the purpose to understand programme outcomes, the study aimed to explore the participants' everyday experiences of using health-promoting messages exchanged during the programme. Using a grounded theory approach, 12 persons aged 70-83 years were interviewed six months to one year after their participation in the programme. The participants experienced how using health-promoting messages was a dynamic process of how to make decisions on taking action to satisfy health-related needs of oneself or others immediately or deferring action. Five sub-processes were also identified: gaining inner strength, meeting challenges in available resources, being attentive to what is worth knowing, approaching health risks, and identifying opportunities to advocate for others. The results suggest that the programme could develop personal skills to support older people who have migrated to overcome health-related challenges. They further demonstrate the importance of supporting their health literacy before personal resources hinder action, and call for research on programmes to overcome environmental barriers to health.

  • 173. Barenfeld, Emmelie
    et al.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    Wallin, Lars
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing. Karolinska institutet.
    Dahlin-Ivanoff, Synneve
    Understanding the "black box" of a health-promotion program: keys to enable health among older persons aging in the context of migration2015In: International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being, ISSN 1748-2623, E-ISSN 1748-2631, Vol. 10, article id 29013Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although the need to make health services more accessible to persons who have migrated has been identified, knowledge about health-promotion programs (HPPs) from the perspective of older persons born abroad is lacking. This study explores the design experiences and content implemented in an adapted version of a group-based HPP developed in a researcher-community partnership. Fourteen persons aged 70-83 years or older who had migrated to Sweden from Finland or the Balkan Peninsula were included. A grounded theory approach guided the data collection and analysis. The findings showed how participants and personnel jointly helped raise awareness. The participants experienced three key processes that could open doors to awareness: enabling community, providing opportunities to understand and be understood, and confirming human values and abilities. Depending on how the HPP content and design are being shaped by the group, the key processes could both inhibit or encourage opening doors to awareness. Therefore, this study provides key insights into how to enable health by deepening the understanding of how the exchange of health-promoting messages is experienced to be facilitated or hindered. This study adds to the scientific knowledge base of how the design and content of HPP may support and recognize the capabilities of persons aging in the context of migration.

  • 174. Barenfeld, Emmelie
    et al.
    Wallin, Lars
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Björk Brämberg, Elisabeth
    Moving from knowledge to action in partnership: A case study on program adaptation to support optimal aging in the context of migration2019In: Journal of Applied Gerontology, ISSN 0733-4648, E-ISSN 1552-4523, Vol. 38, no 8, p. 1096-1120Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This case study explored how a researcher-community partnership contributed to program adaptations when implementing person-centered group-based health promotion services to older people who have migrated to Sweden. The study was conducted over 3 years and various data sources were used: focus groups, individual interviews, documents, and archive material. Findings from different data sources and partners' perspectives were triangulated to an overall case description using an iterative process. Adaptations were shaped through a dynamic process, negotiating toward suitable solutions that culminated in actions taken to adapt or inhibit adaptations. The negotiations were driven by the interplay within and between three reasons to adapt. The partners' opportunities to influence the negotiation process depended on establishing common ground to shape adaptations. Practical implications are provided on how to move from knowledge to action when implementing person-centered group-based health promotion to support optimal aging in the context of migration.

  • 175.
    Barkegren, Hanna
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Sunesson, Minna
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Att tävla eller inte tävla, det är frågan: En studie om varför unga längdskidåkare i Dalarna slutar tävla2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    This study aimed to investigate at what age young adolescence in Dalarna stops competing in cross-country skiing. Furthermore, to explore possible reasons to why they decide to stop competing.

    Method

    To answer the aim a mixed-method was applied. The data collection comprised a quantitative statistical study of when young adolescence from five different teams stopped competing. Additionally, 10 qualitative interviews were conducted with six young adolescence, three coaches and Dalarnas ski associations head of management training.

    Results

    The results show that most young adolescents in Dalarnas association stops competing when they reach the age of 12-13. Furthermore, the results suggest that there isn’t just one specific reason to why young adolescence in Dalarnas stops competing. Instead five reoccurring themes: performance, other sports, parents, interpersonal relationships and physical prerequisites were found.

    Conclusion

    The results show that the age where most young adolescents stops competing is 12-13 years. Additionally that here is no simple answer to why young adolescent in Dalarna stops competing. Instead the reasons why they decide to stop competing consists of many different factors. With background from the result a conclusion can be made that there is need of improvement, from the association as well as the teams, concerning how to make competition more attractive to youth in Dalarna. The two most common areas to talk about amongst the interview subjects were performance and interpersonal relationships. Therefore those two areas might be a good starting point in the process of keeping youth in competition context.

  • 176.
    Barker, Dean
    et al.
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Nyberg, Gunn
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Bergentoft, Helen
    Göteborgs universitet.
    What would physical educators know about movement education? A review of literature, 2006-20162017In: Quest (National Association for Physical Education in Higher Education), ISSN 0033-6297, E-ISSN 1543-2750, Vol. 69, no 4, p. 419-435Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This review paper identifies the conceptual underpinnings of current movement research in Physical Education. Using a hermeneutic approach, four analogies for movement education are identified: the motor program analogy, the neurobiological systems analogy, the instinctive movement analogy, and the embodied exploration analogy. Three issues related to logical consistency and its relevance for movement education are raised. The first relates to tensions between the analogies and educational policy. The second concerns differences among the four analogies. The third issue relates to the appropriateness of specific analogies for dealing with certain movement contexts. In each case, strategies for improvement are considered. The paper is concluded with a brief summary along with reflections on issues that require further attention.

  • 177.
    Barker, Dean
    et al.
    Örebro universitet.
    Nyberg, Gunn
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Larsson, Håkan
    Gymnastik och idrottshögskolan.
    Exploring movement learning in physical education using a threshold approach2020In: Journal of teaching in physical education, ISSN 0273-5024, E-ISSN 1543-2769Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The aim of this investigation was to describe student learning when physical education teacher and students attempted to develop movement capability.

    Method: The paper reports on the implementation of a 10-lesson pedagogical sequence. Data were generated using observations, interviews and student diaries with one grade nine class (26 students aged approximately 15 years) as they developed juggling capabilities. Data were analyzed using the notion of corporeal thresholds.

    Results: Results show that: (a) a ‘throw-throw-catch-catch’ pattern emerged as a corporeal threshold for juggling within the sequence; (b) most learners had crossed the threshold at the outset and were able to experiment with different forms of juggling during the sequence; (c) some students crossed the threshold during the sequence. These students experienced liminal phases, characterized by frustration and an initial feeling that they were juggling in the ‘wrong’ way; and (d) some learners became stuck, pretended to know what to do, and did not cross the threshold during the 10 lessons.

    Discussion/conclusion: Three issues related to the threshold approach are discussed, student identity and group membership, the process of learning, and the emotional dimensions of movement learning. The paper is concluded with reflections on the implications of the results for scholarship.

  • 178.
    Barker, Dean
    et al.
    Örebro Universitet / Göteborgs Universitet.
    Nyberg, Gunn
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Larsson, Håkan
    GIH.
    Joy, fear and resignation: investigating emotions in physical education using a symbolic interactionist approach2019In: Sport, Education and Society, ISSN 1357-3322, E-ISSN 1470-1243Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Emotional dimensions of physical education have garnered attention from scholars in the last two decades. Many scholars claim that emotions significantly affect learning and that positive emotions such as joy and pleasure are necessary for continued participation in movement activities beyond the classroom. Much of the existing literature, however, is based on the idea that emotions comprise internal mental states that are retrospectively oriented. In the current paper, we work with alternative principles that can create new understandings of the affective dimensions of PE and specifically, movement learning. We draw on symbolic interactionist principles, framing emotions as multimodal communicative resources that are performed in social contexts. From this perspective, we demonstrate how emotions: (1) can be investigated as part of the production of broader sequences of pedagogical action and (2) relate to issues of knowledge, identity and authority. We present observational material generated with PE teacher education students as they develop movement capability. We focus on three interactional episodes in which fear, joy and resignation are performed by students interacting with either peers or an observing researcher. In each case, we demonstrate how emotions: affiliate or dis-affiliate the actor with the movement knowledge in focus, index an institutionally recognizable identity and influence the subsequent actions of the participants in the interactional sequence. The key thesis developed in the paper is that as symbolic resources, emotions have important consequences for actors within movement learning environments. The paper is concluded with reflections on the implications of the approach for practitioners along with a consideration of questions in need of further scientific attention.

  • 179.
    Barker, Dean
    et al.
    Örebro universitet.
    Nyberg, Gunn
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Larsson, Håkan
    Gymnastik och idrottshögskolan.
    Joy, fear and resignation: investigating emotions inphysical education using a symbolic interactionist approach2019Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 180.
    Bartholdsson, Åsa
    et al.
    Barn- och ungdomsvetenskapliga institutionen, Stockholms Universitet.
    Vixner, Linda
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Medical Science.
    När kvinnor lyfter: Flickors och kvinnors föreställningar om, och erfarenheter av att utöva styrkeidrott2019Report (Other academic)
  • 181. Bassil, A K
    et al.
    Häglund, Y
    Brown, J
    Rudholm Feldreich, Tobias
    Hellström, P M
    Näslund, E
    Lee, K
    Sanger, G J
    Little or no ability of obestatin to interact with ghrelin or modify motility in the rat gastrointestinal tract.2007In: British Journal of Pharmacology, ISSN 0007-1188, E-ISSN 1476-5381, Vol. 150, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Obestatin, encoded by the ghrelin gene may inhibit gastrointestinal (GI) motility. This activity was re-investigated.

    EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Rat GI motility was studied in vitro (jejunum contractility and cholinergically-mediated contractions of forestomach evoked by electrical field stimulation; EFS) and in vivo (gastric emptying and intestinal myoelectrical activity). Ghrelin receptor function was studied using a GTPgammaS assay and transfected cells.

    KEY RESULTS: Contractions of the jejunum or forestomach were unaffected by obestatin 100 nM or 0.01-1000 nM, respectively (P>0.05 each; n=4-18). Obestatin (0.1-1 nM) reduced the ability of ghrelin 1 microM to facilitate EFS-evoked contractions of the stomach (increases were 42.7+/-7.8% and 21.2+/-5.0 % in the absence and presence of obestatin 1 nM; P<0.05; n=12); higher concentrations (10-1000 nM) tended to reduce the response to ghrelin but changes were not statistically significant. Similar concentrations of obestatin did not significantly reduce a facilitation of contractions caused by the 5-HT(4) receptor agonist prucalopride, although an inhibitory trend occurred at the higher concentrations (increases were 69.3+/-14.0% and 42.6+/-8.7% in the absence and presence of 1000 nM obestatin; n=10). Obestatin (up to 10 microM) did not modulate recombinant ghrelin receptor function. Ghrelin increased gastric emptying and reduced MMC cycle time; obestatin (1000 and 30,000 pmol kg(-1) min(-1)) had no effects. Obestatin (2500 pmol kg(-1) min(-1), starting 10 min before ghrelin) did not prevent the ability of ghrelin (500 pmol kg(-1) min(-1)) to shorten MMC cycle time.

    CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Obestatin has little ability to modulate rat GI motility.

  • 182. Basu, S
    et al.
    Zethelius, B
    Helmersson, J
    Berne, C
    Larsson, A
    Ärnlöv, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Medical Science.
    Cytokine-mediated inflammation is independently associated with insulin sensitivity measured by the euglycemic insulin clamp in a community-based cohort of elderly men2011In: International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, ISSN 1940-5901, E-ISSN 1940-5901, Vol. 4, no 2, p. 164-168Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Both clinical and experimental studies suggest a close relation between an inflammatory state and insulin resistance. We investigated the association between cytokine-mediated inflammation (high sensitivity C reactive protein [hsCRP] and interleukin [IL] 6) and insulin sensitivity (insulin-mediated glucose disposal rate, assessed by the euglycemic insulin clamp) in a community-based cohort, with subgroup analyses of normal weight individuals without diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome (NCEP). hsCRP and IL- 6 were inversely associated with insulin sensitivity (multivariable-adjusted regression coefficient for 1-SD increase of hsCRP -0.12 (-0.21-(-0.03), p=0.01) and of IL-6 - 0.11 (-0.21-(-0.02), p=0.01) in models adjusting for age and components of the metabolic syndrome (systolic and diastolic blood pressure, antihypertensive drugs, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, fasting plasma glucose, waist circumference). The multivariable-adjusted association between hsCRP, IL-6 and insulin sensitivity were of a similar magnitude in normal weight individuals without diabetes and without the metabolic syndrome. Our data show that cytokine -mediated subclinical inflammation is independently associated with decreased insulin sensitivity also in apparently metabolically healthy normal weight individuals, indicating that the interplay between inflammatory processes and insulin resistance is present already in the early stages of the development of glucometabolic disease. (IJCEM1012002).

  • 183.
    Batz, Tommy
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies.
    Sexual activity as a recovery method for optimizing skeletal muscle hypertrophy. A Review: "When I get that feeling, I want sexual healing"2014Student paper second term, 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 184.
    Bayer, Johanna
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Bohlin, Tore
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Faktorer som kan påverka sjuksköterskestudentersupplevelse av stress samt förekommande copingstrategierbland sjuksköterskestudenter: En litteraturöversikt2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Syftet med litteraturöversikten var att belysa de faktorer som kan påverkasjuk-sköterskestudenters upplevelse av stress samt att undersöka vilkacopingstrategier som kan förekomma hos sjuksköterskestudenter vidstresshantering. Metod: Studien genomfördes som en litteraturöversikt.Litteratursökning utfördes i CINAHL with Full Text samt PubMed vilketresulterade i 16 artiklar som representerade sjuksköterskestudenter från 15 länder.Resultat: Utifrån de faktorer som orsakade stress hos sjuk-sköterskestudenteridentifierades tre huvudteman vilka var stressorer relaterade till teoretiskutbildning, stressorer under verksamhetsförlagd utbildning samt personligastressorer. Stressorer under verksamhetsförlagd utbildning var vanligastförekommande. Emotionsfokuserad coping var vanligast förekommande därcopingstrategier som att tala med vänner och familj, positivt tänkande och att ägnasig åt andra aktiviteter användes. Slutsats: Sjuksköterskestudenter upplever stressfrämst från teoretiska utbildningen i form av examinationer och denverksamhetsförlagda utbildningen där relationen till handledaren, vårda patienteroch dödsfall var de vanligast förekommande stressorerna. Sjusköterskestudenternaanvände sig av copingstrategier som kan ha positiv och negativ effektpå hälsan. Emotionsfokuserade och problemfokuserade copingstrategier användesmest frekvent. Undvikande copingstrategier var mer sällan förekommande.

  • 185.
    Beck Hansson, Helena
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sexual Reproductive Perinatal Health.
    Ljungquist, Mathilda
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sexual Reproductive Perinatal Health.
    Förlossningsrädsla – Beskrivning av förlossningsrädda gravida kvinnors upplevelser och rädslor: En kvalitativ metasyntes2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Fear of childbirth can be classified as low fear or worry, moderate fear and severe fear of childbirth. The prevalence of severe fear of childbirth among pregnant women is estimated to be 14 percent globally. Consequences of fear of childbirth is not wanting to have another child, involuntarily long time between pregnancies and more pain during labour.

    Method: Qualitative meta- synthesis with meta-ethnographic analysis method. Databases that was used to find the articles were PubMed, Cinahl, Web of Science and PsycINFO. Totally 15 articles are included in the meta-synthesis after a quality review.

    Results: Four main themes were identified Description of fear of childbirth, Fear of their own health and the uncontrollable, Fear associated with meetings with healthcare and Fear of the health of the child. Also six subtopics were identified, The unpredictable, Not having control, The physical health, Pain, Encounters with midwives and other healthcare professionals and interventions.

    Conclusion: The results showed that the most common fear among pregnant women with fear of childbirth were fear of tearing, pain and the health of the baby. The women with fear of childbirth is also afraid of encounter a midwife who would give inadequate support.

    Clinical implications: This meta-synthesis shows it is of huge importance to identify fear of childbirth in early pregnancy to promote health and reduce fear of childbirth. To help these women, the midwife may propose parental education for women who feel anxious or afraid of childbirth. This training could include study visits to a maternity ward as well as information on the most common fears and measures taken if complications should occur.

  • 186.
    Begum, Mamotaz
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Khatum, Fazila
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Begum, Shamsunnaher
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Perceived beneficences of and compliance to the content in a mentorship program: A questionnaire baseline survey among nursing and midwifery educators in Bangladesh prior the development of a mentorship program2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background:

    Building midwifery educators’ capacity has been identified as an important component to ensure quality midwifery education and a midwifery workforce that can provide quality midwifery and newborn care. With the background of midwifery being recently introduced in colleges/institutions in Bangladesh, the midwifery educators would benefit from a mentorship program. In an attempt to provide recommendations for development of a mentorship program to midwifery faculty this study was conducted.

    Objective:

    To describe perceived beneficences of and compliance to the content in a mentorship program; pedagogic styles, students learning and nursing and midwifery educators’ opinions about their own working situation as midwifery educators in Bangladesh.

    Methods:

    The total number of participants were 59 (n= 59). Data were collected through a structured questionnaire with both open and closed response options, analyzed statistically and through content analysis.

    Result

    : The midwifery faculty finds it beneficial to participate in a mentorship programs because they perceive they can improve their own situation for the best of the country, moving midwifery forward. The most important skill/ability for faculty to teach the midwifery students was critical thinking and an ability to transfer theoretical knowledge into clinical practice, preferably by useing a variety of pedagogic styles. There is complicance among the midwifery faculty to use information technology to impact students’ learning experiences during clinical placement.

    Conclusion:

    Mentorship stands out to be a beneficial method of improving teaching and assessment of students’ performances particularly in clinical settings. Communication technology could be an option for providing support and mentorship to midwifery faculty. Information technology could be one important part of a mentorship program.

    Clinical applicability and suggestions for further research:

    The clinical applicability of this thesis is the provision of up-dated evidence-based information on complicance to modern technology to support the implementation of theoretical knowledge into clinical practice. Continuity of a mentorship program requires attention for sustainable outcome.

  • 187.
    Begum, Momtaj
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sexual Reproductive Perinatal Health.
    Sultana, Nazma
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sexual Reproductive Perinatal Health.
    Women’s and health care provider perceptions and experiences of bottlenecks in midwifery care: A qualitative meta-synthesis2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background:

    Women die from preventable causes during pregnancy and childbirth and often in relation to delays in midwifery care. Professional hierarchies might hamper the rights and desires of midwives in provision of normal birth in terms of the provision of quality care to all women and newborns. In health systems where decision making in normal births are influence by doctors this is particularly relevant, with women themselves subordinate to all health care professionals. Aim: The aim of this meta-synthesis was to examine women’s and health care provider’s perceptions and experiences of bottlenecks in midwifery care related to availability, accessibility, acceptability and quality of midwifery care. Method: This study was a qualitative meta-synthesis with a deductive approach, 15 article were selected for this qualitative meta-synthesis. A framework for the evaluation of quality of care and coverage of health services was used for the deductive approach. Results: Four categories emerged based on availability, accessibility, acceptability and quality of care. The delays were due to less awareness of danger signs of severe complications in the community, and delays in decision making by male family members and less empowerment of women, and lack of collaboration between health care professionals. We also identified how to overcome this situation. Conclusion: Midwifes may provide quality maternal care to all women and children and earn trust from community people to promote normal pregnancy and birth and prevent delays when complications arise. Clinical implications: Midwives can provide continuity care and through collaboration with other health care professionals advocate for women empowerment.

  • 188.
    Begum, Mst. Marium
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sexual Reproductive Perinatal Health.
    Nahar., Most. Nargis
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sexual Reproductive Perinatal Health.
    Parents’ and health care providers’ perceptions and experiences of supportive care in neonatal wards: A qualitative metasynthesis2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background:

    Four million infants die with in the first month of life and 27% of these deaths are directly related to low birth weight (LBW) or preterm birth. The main causes of infant death in premature and LBW infants is neonatal infections. It is thus crucial that the infant is taken care of in an appropriate way regarding caring and feeding and that care is provided to improve the child’s chances of survival and to lay the foundation for a healthy life. Aim: The aim of this meta-synthesiswas to examine parent`s and health care providers perceptions and experiences of supportive care in neonatal wards. Method: A qualitative meta-synthesis based on peer-reviewed scientific literature, and meta-ethnographic analysis method. In this meta-synthesis 16 articles were included. Result: The results comprised of two categories, Parents’ perspective of supportive strategies with eight corresponding preliminary patterns and Health care providers’ perspective of supportive strategies with six corresponding preliminary patterns. In the result section, each categories are presented with its corresponding preliminary patterns. The mothers experienced that the baby was unstable and therefore they wanted to be close to the baby at all times if something happened. Important was closeness to the infant is important, parental support according to needs, adequate communication and information with parents, genuine caring and continuous support to get close to the child. It also meant less light and less noise and privacy for the infant and the parent in the NICU ward.

    Conclusion

    Parents wanted to be able to be with his infant as rapidly after birth be reunited in case something happened. The importance of receiving information about their infant’s condition underpinned all communications that the parents undertook with NICU staff both in co-care when together with the child and part-care, when separated. Information for the parents was an important requirement of accepting their situation and immediately affected their anxiety. Clinical implications: The organizers of care must take in account that parents and infants will not be befitted by being cared for apart from each other. When planning for co-care enabling infants to be close to the parents, the mother-baby dyad should be prioritized. Context specific interview studies are suggested on co-care and part-care, parents and care providers perspectives.

  • 189.
    Begum, Mst. Marium
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sexual Reproductive Perinatal Health.
    Nahar, Most. Nargis
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sexual Reproductive Perinatal Health.
    Parents’ and health care providers’ perceptions and experiences of supportive care in neonatal wards: A qualitative metasynthesis2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Four million infants die with in the first month of life and 27% of these deaths are directly related to low birth weight (LBW) or preterm birth. The main causes of infant death in premature and LBW infants is neonatal infections. It is thus crucial that the infant is taken care of in an appropriate way regarding caring and feeding and that care is provided to improve the child’s chances of survival and to lay the foundation for a healthy life. Aim: The aim of this meta-synthesiswas to examine parent`s and health care providers perceptions and experiences of supportive care in neonatal wards. Method: A qualitative meta-synthesis based on peer-reviewed scientific literature, and meta-ethnographic analysis method. In this meta-synthesis 16 articles were included. Result: The results comprised of two categories, Parents’ perspective of supportive strategies with eight corresponding preliminary patterns and Health care providers’ perspective of supportive strategies with six corresponding preliminary patterns. In the result section, each categories are presented with its corresponding preliminary patterns. The mothers experienced that the baby was unstable and therefore they wanted to be close to the baby at all times if something happened. Important was closeness to the infant is important, parental support according to needs, adequate communication and information with parents, genuine caring and continuous support to get close to the child. It also meant less light and less noise and privacy for the infant and the parent in the NICU ward.Conclusion Parents wanted to be able to be with his infant as rapidly after birth be reunited in case something happened. The importance of receiving information about their infant’s condition underpinned all communications that the parents undertook with NICU staff both in co-care when together with the child and part-care, when separated. Information for the parents was an important requirement of accepting their situation and immediately affected their anxiety. Clinical implications: The organizers of care must take in account that parents and infants will not be befitted by being cared for apart from each other. When planning for co-care enabling infants to be close to the parents, the mother-baby dyad should be prioritized. Context specific interview studies are suggested on co-care and part-care, parents and care providers perspectives.

  • 190. Begum, Nurjahan
    et al.
    Mitu, Jannatul Ferdoues
    Nandy, Purnima
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sexual Reproductive Perinatal Health.
    Respectful care during labour and birth: A concept analysis2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Along with the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) 3 and 5, the global effort is highly focused on evidence-based practice and respectful maternity care to reduce maternal and newborn mortality and morbidity. In Bangladesh disrespect and abuse against mothers during intrapartum period is common and the midwifery profession was introduced in 2013. The aim of this study is to define the concept “Respectful Care during labour and birth” through the synthesis of text from literature and interview with Bangladeshi health care providers. Methods: The study was done through a concept analysis from the literature and 10 semi-structured interviews with third-year midwifery students, clinical midwives and midwifery faculty. Results: The study found that in low-income countries women are more vulnerable to disrespectful care in various ways like physical and verbal abuse. Midwives provide only non-harmful care, due to poor salary, and lack of quality higher education. Private hospitals and midwife led-care centers provide better service than government hospitals. Conclusion: Midwives play a vital role to ensure respectful care for a mother during labour and childbirth. Clinical implications: The findings could be helpful to develop the profession for countries where the midwifery profession is new, like in Bangladesh

  • 191.
    Begum, Sufia
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Akter, Rehena
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Mapping and Nursing Instructors Suggestions of Acceptable and Feasible Requirements for an accreditation Toolkit for Midwifery Educations in Bangladesh: A Questionnaire Study at Five Institutes/Colleges in Rangpur and Rajshahi Divisions2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background:

    To build the midwifery workforce and maintain quality in midwifery educations, the development of an accreditation system has been initiated in Bangladesh.

    Objective:

    The objectives of this thesis are 1) to map five midwifery education sites in Rangpur and Rajshahi divisions, Bangladesh. The mapping describe the situation at the institutes/colleges and clinical sites in which the midwifery students and teachers are aimed to reach the learning outcomes of the courses in the 3 years diploma midwifery curricula, 2) to provide information to Bangladesh Nursing and Midwifery Council with acceptable and feasible requirements that could feed into an accreditation toolkit for nursing institutes with midwifery education from nursing instructors perspective.

    Methods:

    This questionnaire study includes a mapping of the situation at 5 institutes or colleges in the Rangpur and Rajshahi divisions, and 20 nursing instructors’ perceptions of acceptable and feasible requirements to be included in an accreditation tool for midwifery educations. Data were collected through a semi-structured questionnaire with closed and open response alternatives analyzed descriptive statistics and answers on open questions in text were categorized.

    Results

    : Eighty percent of the collages/institutions accepted the proportion theory 40% in relation to practice 60%. The need for adequately qualified midwifery teachers, clinical preceptors/mentors, skills lab facilities and simulation became obvious. Teacher’s and clinical supervisors’ continuous in-service training and available resources were crucial to deliver the midwifery curriculum. Continuous in-service training could cover skills in antenatal care, maintenance of pantographs, care of the newborn and brief knowledge about breast feeding was suggested. Conclusion: This study illuminates gaps in quality education in Rajshahi and Rangpur divisions that could be solved with continuous in-service trainings of the nursing instructors and midwives supervising midwifery students. The government initiated the initiative to support the development of an accreditation system and toolkit closing the gap between the participants outlined in the curricula and the implementation in clinical practice in Rajshahi and Rangpur division.

    The clinical applicability

    of this thesis is to inform Bangladesh Nursing and Midwifery Council with support from Directorate General of Nursing and Midwifery and supervision of Ministry of Health and Welfare on feasible and acceptable requirements that could be included in an accreditation toolkit for midwifery education in Bangladesh. The thesis findings could be used to inform NGOs and other donor organizations, national and international, on subjects and content when developing in-service trainings.

  • 192.
    Begun, Najma
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sexual Reproductive Perinatal Health.
    Upright position during labour and birth: A concept analysis2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The best birthing position for women to adopt during labour and birth is to vary the positions freely depending on the stages of labour. The aim of this study was to define the concept ‘upright position during labour and birth’ through the synthesis of texts from literature and interview data with Bangladeshi health care providers, in an attempt to clarify its meaning, enabling comprehension and use of the concept in clinical practice and education.Methods: This study design was concept analysis. The setting was three different nursing institutes/colleges and nearby hospitals. Nine participants were invited to participate in an individual in-depth interview (IDI) with semi-structured open-ended questions. A concept analysis was undertaken according to the hybrid model which consists of the theoretical, fieldwork and analytical phases. After a literature review, the concept was empirically clarified in the fieldwork phase in the midwifery context of Bangladesh, described with the Quality Maternal and Newborn Care (QMNC) framework components.Results: The concept of upright position during labour and birth in the midwifery context was redefined. Altering between positions widening the pelvic relief labour pain for the woman, potentially resulting in a normal birth with a healthy mother and baby. Women do not expect upright positions in facility-based births but at homebirths.Conclusion: The women’s rights to spontaneously and freely move while in labour, altering between different vertical positions are associated with the midwives’ work “with women” supporting the women.Clinical implications: It is a simple intervention to apply in clinical setting and simple to teach to nurses, midwives and physicians and in graduate and postgraduate education.

  • 193. Beijer, K.
    et al.
    Nowak, C.
    Sundström, J.
    Ärnlöv, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Medical Science. Karolinska Institutet.
    Fall, T.
    Lind, L.
    In search of causal pathways in diabetes: a study using proteomics and genotyping data from a cross-sectional study2019In: Diabetologia, ISSN 0012-186X, E-ISSN 1432-0428, Vol. 62, no 11, p. 1998-2006Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 194.
    Bel Mekki, Veronica
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Fernström, Pia
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Sjuksköterskans uppfattning om omvårdnadsinsatser som främjar livskvalitet vid bipolär sjukdom: En kvalitativ intervjustudie2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Several studies have shown that persons with bipolar disorder have

    a poorer quality of life compared to the rest of the population. As a nurse in

    psychiatric care it is important to have knowledge about the disease in order to

    provide the best possible treatment with the goal to stabilize symptoms, prevent

    relapse and promote quality of life.

    Objective: Based on the nurse's perception, describe the nursing interventions

    promoting quality of life in bipolar disorder.

    Method: A qualitative content analysis based on eight semi-structured interviews.

    Results: The results showed three main themes: Knowledge about the disease: the

    importance of that both the patient and family members gain knowledge about the

    disease; Safety and continuity of care: knowing where and who to contact in care

    was of great importance and Person-centered care: be seen and treated as a unique

    person.

    Conclusion: Patient education which highlights the importance of regular habits,

    to avoid stress and to become aware of early signs can help stabilize symptoms

    and prevent relapse.

  • 195.
    Bellardini, Helena
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Henriksson, Anders
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Tonkonogi, Michail
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Medical Science.
    Bra och enkla fystester2013Book (Other academic)
  • 196.
    Bellardini, Helena
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Tonkonogi, Michail
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Medical Science.
    Senior Power - Styrketräning för äldre2013 (ed. 1)Book (Other academic)
  • 197.
    Bellardini, Helena
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Tonkonogi, Michail
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Senior power: styrketrening for eldre2014 (ed. 1)Book (Other academic)
  • 198.
    Bellardini, Helena
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Tonkonogi, Michail
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Mckee, Kevin
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Social Work.
    The effect of gender on strength training in older people: a Swedish population study2012In: Psychology and Health, ISSN 0887-0446, E-ISSN 1476-8321, Vol. 27, no s1, p. 155-156Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Physical exercise contributes to healthy ageing, and strength training has beenshown to improve independence in older people.

    Method: Six hundred older people wererandomly selected from the Swedish population, and sent a self-completion questionnaire(57% response rate, n¼343) examining exercise history, current strength training, andperceived benefits and barriers to strength training.

    Results: Gender was associated with aperceived positive effect of strength training on quality of life (Women 42% vs. Men 27%).The most commonly reported benefits of strength training were better mobility (71%), energy(70%), and muscle strength (69%), with most benefits endorsed more commonly by womenthan men. The most commonly reported barriers to strength training were believing otherforms of exercise more suitable (49%) and cost (20%; Women 31% vs. Men 13%).

    Discussion:To better promote healthy ageing, interventions should be embedded in an understanding ofthe effect of gender on exercise behaviour.

  • 199.
    Benjamin Benjamin, Jolyana
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Munther, Rebecca
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Mindfulness som metod vid arbetsrelaterad stress hos hälso- och sjukvårdspersonal: En litteraturöversikt2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Health care professionals have a profession with a high workload that risks leading to work-related stress, which in turn can lead to patient care being affected. It also results in high sick leave, extra financial expenses and high staff turnover. The consequence of this is that society and the organization lose both competence and financial resources. In recent years, the use of mindfulness has gained attention in Swedish health care. The research conducted so far suggests that mindfulness can have beneficial effects such as stress reduction, relaxation, and improving the quality of life.

    Aim: The purpose of the literature review was to compile current research on mindfulness as an intervention to manage work-related stress among health care professionals.

    Method: The study was conducted as a literature review which included 15 scientific articles with a quantitative, qualitative and mixed-method. The searches were made through the databases PubMed, CINAHL and PsycINFO. R

    esults: In the result, two categories emerged: Mindfulness-based interventions that can be used to deal with work-related stress and mindfulness impact on work-related stress. The results showed that mindfulness training has a reducing effect on stress, burnout, depression and anxiety, as well as an increase in compassion and conscious presence.

    Conclusion: Mindfulness has a variety of interventions that can be beneficial in reducing the stress of health care professionals. Mindfulness as an intervention has the potential to reduce work-related stress among healthcare professionals effectively. The results of the literature review are relevant to reducing the stress level of health care professionals, which results in reduced healthcare costs and increased conditions for providing good and safe care to the patient.

  • 200. Bentham, James
    et al.
    Ezzati, Majid
    A century of trends in adult human height2016In: eLIFE, E-ISSN 2050-084X, ISSN 2050-084X, Vol. 5, p. 1-29, article id e13410Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Being taller is associated with enhanced longevity, and higher education and earnings. We reanalysed 1472 population-based studies, with measurement of height on more than 18.6 million participants to estimate mean height for people born between 1896 and 1996 in 200 countries. The largest gain in adult height over the past century has occurred in South Korean women and Iranian men, who became 20.2 cm (95% credible interval 17.5–22.7) and 16.5 cm (13.3– 19.7) taller, respectively. In contrast, there was little change in adult height in some sub-Saharan African countries and in South Asia over the century of analysis. The tallest people over these 100 years are men born in the Netherlands in the last quarter of 20th century, whose average heights surpassed 182.5 cm, and the shortest were women born in Guatemala in 1896 (140.3 cm; 135.8– 144.8). The height differential between the tallest and shortest populations was 19-20 cm a century ago, and has remained the same for women and increased for men a century later despite substantial changes in the ranking of countries.

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