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  • 151.
    Backman, Erik
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Pearson, Phil
    University of Wollongong, Australien.
    Movement skills as content knowledge and/or as pedagogic content knowledge?: Identifying gaps in Australian PETE research.2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The discussion of what constitute subject matter knowledge in Physical Education Teacher Education (PETE) has been intense and ongoing, particularly in the US and in Australia. One central part of this discussion have concerned the movement and sporting practices that students meet during their education. While most PETE scholars agree on the value for PETE students to experience movement and sport practices during their education, there are different ideas about the extent and in what form these should be taught and as to whether, and in what form, these should be assessed. In Australia, the discussion of movement and sport practices in PETE has very much been focused on various adaptations of the Sport Education model, the Game Centered Approach and Teaching Games for Understanding. However, given the limitations of time and resources, the issue of whether to prioritize movement and sport practices seen as a form of knowledge in itself or as means for teaching pupils in, through and about movement, has only been slightly dealt with in research of Australian PETE. Inspired by Shulman’s division of different forms of teacher knowledge, and in particular subject matter knowledge and pedagogical content knowledge, we want to address gaps in the Australian research on movement and sport practices in PETE. Illuminating the local construction of dominant as well as marginalized research discourses might help identify issues in need of research. 

  • 152.
    Backman, Erik
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Pearson, Phil
    University of Wollongong.
    Forrest, Greg
    University of Wollongong.
    The value of movement content knowledge in the training of Australian PE teachers: perceptions of teacher educators2019In: Curriculum Studies in Health and Physical Education, ISSN 2574-2981, Vol. 10, no 2, p. 187-203Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to describe, analyse and discuss the  statements made by Australian physical education teacher educators (PETE) in terms of how they perceive and value movement content knowledge (CK) in their assessment of  movement courses. Drawing on Shulman’s perspective of CK, this paper builds on qualitative analysis of in-depth interviews with nine teacher educators from a total of seven PETE universities in New South Wales as well as written unit outlines including  assignments from these PETE universities. The main results from the study show that among the participants, movement CK is conceptualised as physical movement performance. This conceptualisation limits the value placed on movement CK in the assessment of PETE students. Further, movement courses are  often assessed using written assignments rather than practice oriented  assignments. The findings have been analysed and  discussed in relation to Shulman-inspired concepts of CK and  pedagogical content knowledge (PCK), as well as in relation to  epistemological perspectives in PETE.

  • 153.
    Backström, Susanne
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Fagerlund, Angelica
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Patientens osagda ord Sjuksköterskans arbete med patienter som drabbats av afasi efter stroke – en litteraturöversikt2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to describe the communication barriers and opportunities arising nurse may face in the nursing work with patients with aphasia following stroke.

    Method: The study is based on 15 qualitative scientific articles that have been analyzed and examined with Dalarna University's modified version of William Stoltz and Bahtsevani (2006). Articles were selected for inclusion and exclusion criteria to meet the study objective.

    Results: The result of the literature review is based on the main categories and subcategories. The study revealed that the diagnosis of the kind of aphasic patient suffered is important for nurses to know how he should respond to the patient for the best rehabilitation and patient-centered care, which also needed education and training on aphasia and the different aphasia resorts. Training in communication strategies is essential for nurses to more easily respond to the patient and not get caught up in the communication with the patient.

    Conclusions: The study shows that it is important that patients early received the correct diagnosis which promotes rehabilitation. Even the nurses have need of and training in communication and alternative communication as it showed that the nurses' communication was facilitated by the patient. It also emerged that it is important with patient centered care based on the patient's needs.

  • 154.
    Backström, Susanne
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Imhof, Mathilda
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Skolsköterskans erfarenheter av hälsosamtal med nyanlända elever på gymnasieskola.: En kvalitativ studie2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate and disclose the experiences that school nurses encounter, in regard to health consultations, with newly arrived foreign students. The study had a qualitative design and was composed of semi structured interviews with an applied inductive approach. In total, seven interviews were performed with separate school nurses from the counties of Västernorrland and Stockholm. The interview material was processed through a content analysis. The results from the study indicated a theme of "

    being more than a school nurse" was composed of three main constituents;

    "To be challenged in one´s profession as a school nurse in health consultations"

    "To be enriched in one's profession in regard to health consultations"

    "To be inadequate in the health consultations as a school nurse"

    Based on both positive and negative factors, all school nurses affirmed that the meeting with the newly arrived foreign students, in regard to health consultations, resulted in being more than a school nurse. Health consultations with the students involved different types of challenges that consisted of inadequate guidelines, knowledge, time and resources. In spite of the challenges posed by the findings in this report, the school nurses asserted that they inched forward.

    The school nurses argued that they were enriched in their role in relation to the health consultations, which resulted in a sense of satisfaction and a commitment of wanting to help and be there for these students on a deeper level.

    The nurses reported a feeling of being inadequate during the consultations with the students, which brought forth feelings of insecurity, frustration and helplessness with the nurses. They reported that even their professional disposition had been affected.

    All participants in this study agreed that current high school health consultation guidelines were inadequate and confirmed that they lacked some knowledge in regard to cultural differences. The participants also requested guidance in their work involving newly arrived foreign students.

  • 155. Bajracharya, Kiran
    et al.
    Sapkota, Sabitri
    Erlandsson, Kerstin
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    News & events: A milestone of Midwifery in Nepal2014In: Journal of Asian Midwives (JAM), ISSN 2409-2290, Vol. 1, no 1, p. 2p. 2-4Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 156. Bakkman, L.
    et al.
    Sahlin, K.
    Holmberg, H-C.
    Tonkonogi, Michail
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Quantitative and qualitative adaptation of human skeletal muscle mitochondria to hypoxic compared to normoxic training at the same relative work rate2007In: Acta Physiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6772, E-ISSN 1365-201X, Vol. 190, no 3, p. 243-251Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: To investigate if training during hypoxia (H) improves the adaptation of muscle oxidative function compared with normoxic (N) training performed at the same relative intensity.

    Method: Eight untrained volunteers performed one-legged cycle training during 4 weeks in a low-pressure chamber. One leg was trained under N conditions and the other leg under hypobaric hypoxia (526 mmHg) at the same relative intensity as during N (65% of maximal power output, Wmax). Muscle biopsies were taken from vastus lateralis before and after the training period. Muscle samples were analysed for the activities of oxidative enzymes [citrate synthase (CS) and cytochrome c oxidase (COX)] and mitochondrial respiratory function.

    Results: W max increased with more than 30% over the training period during both N and H. CS activity increased significantly after training during N conditions (+20.8%, P < 0.05) but remained unchanged after H training (+4.5%, ns) with a significant difference between conditions (P < 0.05 H vs. N). COX activity was not significantly changed by training and was not different between exercise conditions [+14.6 (N) vs. -2.3% (H), ns]. Maximal ADP stimulated respiration (state 3) expressed per weight of muscle tended to increase after N (+31.2%, P < 0.08) but not after H training (+3.2%, ns). No changes were found in state four respiration, respiratory control index, P/O ratio, mitochondrial Ca2+ resistance and apparent Km for oxygen.

    Conclusion: The training-induced increase in muscle oxidative function observed during N was abolished during H. Altitude training may thus be disadvantageous for adaptation of muscle oxidative function.

  • 157.
    Balaile, Gunnel
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Medical Science.
    Laisser, Rose
    Ransjö-Arvidson, Anna-Berit
    Höjer, Bengt
    Poverty and devastation of intimate relations: Tanzanian women's experience of living with HIV/AIDS2007In: Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care, ISSN 1055-3290, E-ISSN 1552-6917, Vol. 18, no 5, p. 6-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Tanzania, women of reproductive age constitute the largest group infected by HIV. This study aimed to explore the lived experiences related to health and sexuality of Tanzanian women who had known their positive serostatus for I year. In-depth interviews with 10 women were analyzed using a phenomeno-logical-hermeneutic approach and showed frustration and despair at not having resources to maintain daily life. The women needed regular medical treatment for themselves and for their HIV-positive children. Their sexual desires had declined or vanished, and they had come to view sexuality as a source of transmittable disease. For some women, casual sex was an option to solve urgent financial needs. Happiness was something for their children, not for them. Access to social support from the women's community would help prevent further HIV transmission and enhance survival so the children could grow up with at least one devoted parent.

  • 158. Bandak, Ghassan
    et al.
    Sang, Yingying
    Gasparini, Alessandro
    Chang, Alex R
    Ballew, Shoshana H
    Evans, Marie
    Ärnlöv, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Medical Science. Uppsala universitet.
    Lund, Lars H
    Inker, Lesley A
    Grams, Morgan E
    Hyperkalemia after initiating renin-angiotensin system blockade: The Stockholm creatinine measurements (SCREAM) project2017In: Journal of the American Heart Association: Cardiovascular and Cerebrovascular Disease, ISSN 2047-9980, E-ISSN 2047-9980, Vol. 6, no 7, article id e005428Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Concerns about hyperkalemia limit the use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE-I) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), but guidelines conflict regarding potassium-monitoring protocols. We quantified hyperkalemia monitoring and risks after ACE-I/ARB initiation and developed and validated a hyperkalemia susceptibility score.

    METHODS AND RESULTS: We evaluated 69 426 new users of ACE-I/ARB therapy in the Stockholm Creatinine Measurements (SCREAM) project with medication initiation from January 1, 2007 to December 31, 2010, and follow-up for 1 year thereafter. Three fourths (76%) of SCREAM patients had potassium checked within the first year. Potassium >5 and >5.5 mmol/L occurred in 5.6% and 1.7%, respectively. As a comparison, we propensity-matched new ACE-I/ARB users to 20 186 new β-blocker users in SCREAM: 64% had potassium checked. The occurrence of elevated potassium levels was similar between new β-blocker and ACE-I/ARB users without kidney disease; only at estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 mL/min per 1.73 m(2) were risks higher among ACE-I/ARB users. We developed a hyperkalemia susceptibility score that incorporated estimated glomerular filtration rate, baseline potassium level, sex, diabetes mellitus, heart failure, and the concomitant use of potassium-sparing diuretics in new ACE-I/ARB users; this score accurately predicted 1-year hyperkalemia risk in the SCREAM cohort (area under the curve, 0.845, 95% CI: 0.840-0.869) and in a validation cohort from the US-based Geisinger Health System (N=19 524; area under the curve, 0.818, 95% CI: 0.794-0.841), with good calibration.

    CONCLUSIONS: Hyperkalemia within the first year of ACE-I/ARB therapy was relatively uncommon among people with estimated glomerular filtration rate >60 mL/min per 1.73 m(2), but rates were much higher with lower estimated glomerular filtration rate. Use of the hyperkalemia susceptibility score may help guide laboratory monitoring and prescribing strategies.

  • 159.
    Banu, Afroza
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sexual Reproductive Perinatal Health.
    Parvin, Shahanaj
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sexual Reproductive Perinatal Health.
    "There Are Remaining Challenges in Bangladesh" A National Assessment Strategy Supports Reaching International Midwifery Standards Education: A focus group inquiry among midwifery faculty in Bangladesh2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Delivery by unskilled birth attendant is causing many maternal and neonatal deaths. Midwives can reduce maternal and neonatal deaths by providing skilled delivery care. To prepare skilled midwives a National Assessment Strategy for Midwifery Education Standards has been introduced.

    Aim: To describe midwifery faculty members’ perceptions of how to affirm quality midwifery education in Bangladesh using a national assessment strategy.

    Methods: A qualitative research design was chosen using a context-specific accreditation assessment tool, guided by the Global Standards for Midwifery Education. The participants were 33 midwifery teachers, and data were analyzed with content analysis.

    Results: The findings indicate that Bangladesh should be prepared to implement the Global Standards for Midwifery Education Accreditation Programmes. The assessment strategy has prepared the faculty for accreditation and paved the way through the development of standards in the tool, overcoming barriers, and using the possible facilitators.

    Conclusion: There are remaining challenges in Bangladesh regarding "moving midwifery". Midwifery teachers demand for separate faculty from nursing. Promotion system for careers development can be initiated. Updating teachers knowledge, having adequate number of teachers with competencies, and maintained collaboration between teaching and clinical practice organizations are important for "moving midwifery" in Bangladesh.

    Clinical application: The present study results can be useful for midwifery education and clinical practice improvement.

  • 160. Barber, Ryan M
    et al.
    Fullman, Nancy
    Sorensen, Reed J
    Bollyky, Thomas
    McKee, Martin
    Nolte, Ellen
    Abajobir, Amanuel Alemu
    Abete, Kalkidan Hassen
    Ärnlöv, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Medical Science. Karolinska institutet.
    Murray, Christopher J L
    Healthcare Access and Quality Index based on mortality from causes amenable to personal health care in 195 countries and territories, 1990–2015: a novel analysis from the Global Burden of Disease Study 20152017In: The Lancet, ISSN 0140-6736, E-ISSN 1474-547X, Vol. 390, no 10091, p. 231-266Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 161. Barenfeld, Emmelie
    et al.
    Dahlin-Ivanoff, Synneve
    Wallin, Lars
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing. Karolinska institutet; Göteborgs universitet.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    Promoting aging migrants' capabilities: A randomized controlled trial concerning activities of daily living and self-rated health.2018In: AIMS public health, ISSN 2327-8994, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 173-188Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim was to evaluate the 6-month and 1-year effects of a person-centered group-based health-promoting intervention on independence in daily activities and self-rated health. The study was an RCT with follow-ups at 6 months and 1 year. A total of 131 independent living people (70+) who have migrated to Sweden from Finland or Western Balkan region were included. Participants were independent in activities of daily living and cognitively intact. They were randomized to an intervention group receiving four weekly group-meetings and a follow-up home visit, or a control group (no intervention). An overall chi-squared test was performed and the odds ratio calculated. A high proportion of the participants maintained independence in activities of daily living and improved or maintained self-rated health. However, no significant differences were found between the groups. The result indicates that the intervention was offered too early in the aging process to be able to detect effects. Methodological challenges were met during both the recruitment and implementation phases. In response to lessons learned, a multicenter design is recommended for future research in order to strengthen the findings. Furthermore, this study has contributed with experiences on both opportunities and challenges in terms of research with and about older people aging in the context of migration, as is discussed.

  • 162. Barenfeld, Emmelie
    et al.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    Wallin, Lars
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing. Karolinska institutet; Göteborgs universitet.
    Dahlin-Ivanoff, Synneve
    Supporting decision-making by a health promotion programme: experiences of persons ageing in the context of migration.2017In: International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being, ISSN 1748-2623, E-ISSN 1748-2631, Vol. 12, no 1, article id 1337459Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study is part of the Promoting Aging Migrants' Capabilities programme that applied person-centred group meetings and one individual home visit to prolong independence in daily activities among people ≥70 years who had migrated to Sweden from Finland or the Western Balkan region. With the purpose to understand programme outcomes, the study aimed to explore the participants' everyday experiences of using health-promoting messages exchanged during the programme. Using a grounded theory approach, 12 persons aged 70-83 years were interviewed six months to one year after their participation in the programme. The participants experienced how using health-promoting messages was a dynamic process of how to make decisions on taking action to satisfy health-related needs of oneself or others immediately or deferring action. Five sub-processes were also identified: gaining inner strength, meeting challenges in available resources, being attentive to what is worth knowing, approaching health risks, and identifying opportunities to advocate for others. The results suggest that the programme could develop personal skills to support older people who have migrated to overcome health-related challenges. They further demonstrate the importance of supporting their health literacy before personal resources hinder action, and call for research on programmes to overcome environmental barriers to health.

  • 163. Barenfeld, Emmelie
    et al.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    Wallin, Lars
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing. Karolinska institutet.
    Dahlin-Ivanoff, Synneve
    Understanding the "black box" of a health-promotion program: keys to enable health among older persons aging in the context of migration2015In: International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being, ISSN 1748-2623, E-ISSN 1748-2631, Vol. 10, article id 29013Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although the need to make health services more accessible to persons who have migrated has been identified, knowledge about health-promotion programs (HPPs) from the perspective of older persons born abroad is lacking. This study explores the design experiences and content implemented in an adapted version of a group-based HPP developed in a researcher-community partnership. Fourteen persons aged 70-83 years or older who had migrated to Sweden from Finland or the Balkan Peninsula were included. A grounded theory approach guided the data collection and analysis. The findings showed how participants and personnel jointly helped raise awareness. The participants experienced three key processes that could open doors to awareness: enabling community, providing opportunities to understand and be understood, and confirming human values and abilities. Depending on how the HPP content and design are being shaped by the group, the key processes could both inhibit or encourage opening doors to awareness. Therefore, this study provides key insights into how to enable health by deepening the understanding of how the exchange of health-promoting messages is experienced to be facilitated or hindered. This study adds to the scientific knowledge base of how the design and content of HPP may support and recognize the capabilities of persons aging in the context of migration.

  • 164. Barenfeld, Emmelie
    et al.
    Wallin, Lars
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Björk Brämberg, Elisabeth
    Moving from knowledge to action in partnership: A case study on program adaptation to support optimal aging in the context of migration2019In: Journal of Applied Gerontology, ISSN 0733-4648, E-ISSN 1552-4523, Vol. 38, no 8, p. 1096-1120Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This case study explored how a researcher-community partnership contributed to program adaptations when implementing person-centered group-based health promotion services to older people who have migrated to Sweden. The study was conducted over 3 years and various data sources were used: focus groups, individual interviews, documents, and archive material. Findings from different data sources and partners' perspectives were triangulated to an overall case description using an iterative process. Adaptations were shaped through a dynamic process, negotiating toward suitable solutions that culminated in actions taken to adapt or inhibit adaptations. The negotiations were driven by the interplay within and between three reasons to adapt. The partners' opportunities to influence the negotiation process depended on establishing common ground to shape adaptations. Practical implications are provided on how to move from knowledge to action when implementing person-centered group-based health promotion to support optimal aging in the context of migration.

  • 165.
    Barkegren, Hanna
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Sunesson, Minna
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Att tävla eller inte tävla, det är frågan: En studie om varför unga längdskidåkare i Dalarna slutar tävla2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    This study aimed to investigate at what age young adolescence in Dalarna stops competing in cross-country skiing. Furthermore, to explore possible reasons to why they decide to stop competing.

    Method

    To answer the aim a mixed-method was applied. The data collection comprised a quantitative statistical study of when young adolescence from five different teams stopped competing. Additionally, 10 qualitative interviews were conducted with six young adolescence, three coaches and Dalarnas ski associations head of management training.

    Results

    The results show that most young adolescents in Dalarnas association stops competing when they reach the age of 12-13. Furthermore, the results suggest that there isn’t just one specific reason to why young adolescence in Dalarnas stops competing. Instead five reoccurring themes: performance, other sports, parents, interpersonal relationships and physical prerequisites were found.

    Conclusion

    The results show that the age where most young adolescents stops competing is 12-13 years. Additionally that here is no simple answer to why young adolescent in Dalarna stops competing. Instead the reasons why they decide to stop competing consists of many different factors. With background from the result a conclusion can be made that there is need of improvement, from the association as well as the teams, concerning how to make competition more attractive to youth in Dalarna. The two most common areas to talk about amongst the interview subjects were performance and interpersonal relationships. Therefore those two areas might be a good starting point in the process of keeping youth in competition context.

  • 166.
    Barker, Dean
    et al.
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Nyberg, Gunn
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Bergentoft, Helen
    Göteborgs universitet.
    What would physical educators know about movement education? A review of literature, 2006-20162017In: Quest (National Association for Physical Education in Higher Education), ISSN 0033-6297, E-ISSN 1543-2750, Vol. 69, no 4, p. 419-435Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This review paper identifies the conceptual underpinnings of current movement research in Physical Education. Using a hermeneutic approach, four analogies for movement education are identified: the motor program analogy, the neurobiological systems analogy, the instinctive movement analogy, and the embodied exploration analogy. Three issues related to logical consistency and its relevance for movement education are raised. The first relates to tensions between the analogies and educational policy. The second concerns differences among the four analogies. The third issue relates to the appropriateness of specific analogies for dealing with certain movement contexts. In each case, strategies for improvement are considered. The paper is concluded with a brief summary along with reflections on issues that require further attention.

  • 167. Bassil, A K
    et al.
    Häglund, Y
    Brown, J
    Rudholm Feldreich, Tobias
    Hellström, P M
    Näslund, E
    Lee, K
    Sanger, G J
    Little or no ability of obestatin to interact with ghrelin or modify motility in the rat gastrointestinal tract.2007In: British Journal of Pharmacology, ISSN 0007-1188, E-ISSN 1476-5381, Vol. 150, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Obestatin, encoded by the ghrelin gene may inhibit gastrointestinal (GI) motility. This activity was re-investigated.

    EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Rat GI motility was studied in vitro (jejunum contractility and cholinergically-mediated contractions of forestomach evoked by electrical field stimulation; EFS) and in vivo (gastric emptying and intestinal myoelectrical activity). Ghrelin receptor function was studied using a GTPgammaS assay and transfected cells.

    KEY RESULTS: Contractions of the jejunum or forestomach were unaffected by obestatin 100 nM or 0.01-1000 nM, respectively (P>0.05 each; n=4-18). Obestatin (0.1-1 nM) reduced the ability of ghrelin 1 microM to facilitate EFS-evoked contractions of the stomach (increases were 42.7+/-7.8% and 21.2+/-5.0 % in the absence and presence of obestatin 1 nM; P<0.05; n=12); higher concentrations (10-1000 nM) tended to reduce the response to ghrelin but changes were not statistically significant. Similar concentrations of obestatin did not significantly reduce a facilitation of contractions caused by the 5-HT(4) receptor agonist prucalopride, although an inhibitory trend occurred at the higher concentrations (increases were 69.3+/-14.0% and 42.6+/-8.7% in the absence and presence of 1000 nM obestatin; n=10). Obestatin (up to 10 microM) did not modulate recombinant ghrelin receptor function. Ghrelin increased gastric emptying and reduced MMC cycle time; obestatin (1000 and 30,000 pmol kg(-1) min(-1)) had no effects. Obestatin (2500 pmol kg(-1) min(-1), starting 10 min before ghrelin) did not prevent the ability of ghrelin (500 pmol kg(-1) min(-1)) to shorten MMC cycle time.

    CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Obestatin has little ability to modulate rat GI motility.

  • 168. Basu, S
    et al.
    Zethelius, B
    Helmersson, J
    Berne, C
    Larsson, A
    Ärnlöv, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Medical Science.
    Cytokine-mediated inflammation is independently associated with insulin sensitivity measured by the euglycemic insulin clamp in a community-based cohort of elderly men2011In: International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, ISSN 1940-5901, E-ISSN 1940-5901, Vol. 4, no 2, p. 164-168Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Both clinical and experimental studies suggest a close relation between an inflammatory state and insulin resistance. We investigated the association between cytokine-mediated inflammation (high sensitivity C reactive protein [hsCRP] and interleukin [IL] 6) and insulin sensitivity (insulin-mediated glucose disposal rate, assessed by the euglycemic insulin clamp) in a community-based cohort, with subgroup analyses of normal weight individuals without diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome (NCEP). hsCRP and IL- 6 were inversely associated with insulin sensitivity (multivariable-adjusted regression coefficient for 1-SD increase of hsCRP -0.12 (-0.21-(-0.03), p=0.01) and of IL-6 - 0.11 (-0.21-(-0.02), p=0.01) in models adjusting for age and components of the metabolic syndrome (systolic and diastolic blood pressure, antihypertensive drugs, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, fasting plasma glucose, waist circumference). The multivariable-adjusted association between hsCRP, IL-6 and insulin sensitivity were of a similar magnitude in normal weight individuals without diabetes and without the metabolic syndrome. Our data show that cytokine -mediated subclinical inflammation is independently associated with decreased insulin sensitivity also in apparently metabolically healthy normal weight individuals, indicating that the interplay between inflammatory processes and insulin resistance is present already in the early stages of the development of glucometabolic disease. (IJCEM1012002).

  • 169.
    Batz, Tommy
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies.
    Sexual activity as a recovery method for optimizing skeletal muscle hypertrophy. A Review: "When I get that feeling, I want sexual healing"2014Student paper second term, 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 170.
    Bayer, Johanna
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Bohlin, Tore
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Faktorer som kan påverka sjuksköterskestudentersupplevelse av stress samt förekommande copingstrategierbland sjuksköterskestudenter: En litteraturöversikt2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Syftet med litteraturöversikten var att belysa de faktorer som kan påverkasjuk-sköterskestudenters upplevelse av stress samt att undersöka vilkacopingstrategier som kan förekomma hos sjuksköterskestudenter vidstresshantering. Metod: Studien genomfördes som en litteraturöversikt.Litteratursökning utfördes i CINAHL with Full Text samt PubMed vilketresulterade i 16 artiklar som representerade sjuksköterskestudenter från 15 länder.Resultat: Utifrån de faktorer som orsakade stress hos sjuk-sköterskestudenteridentifierades tre huvudteman vilka var stressorer relaterade till teoretiskutbildning, stressorer under verksamhetsförlagd utbildning samt personligastressorer. Stressorer under verksamhetsförlagd utbildning var vanligastförekommande. Emotionsfokuserad coping var vanligast förekommande därcopingstrategier som att tala med vänner och familj, positivt tänkande och att ägnasig åt andra aktiviteter användes. Slutsats: Sjuksköterskestudenter upplever stressfrämst från teoretiska utbildningen i form av examinationer och denverksamhetsförlagda utbildningen där relationen till handledaren, vårda patienteroch dödsfall var de vanligast förekommande stressorerna. Sjusköterskestudenternaanvände sig av copingstrategier som kan ha positiv och negativ effektpå hälsan. Emotionsfokuserade och problemfokuserade copingstrategier användesmest frekvent. Undvikande copingstrategier var mer sällan förekommande.

  • 171.
    Begum, Mamotaz
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Khatum, Fazila
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Begum, Shamsunnaher
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Perceived beneficences of and compliance to the content in a mentorship program: A questionnaire baseline survey among nursing and midwifery educators in Bangladesh prior the development of a mentorship program2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background:

    Building midwifery educators’ capacity has been identified as an important component to ensure quality midwifery education and a midwifery workforce that can provide quality midwifery and newborn care. With the background of midwifery being recently introduced in colleges/institutions in Bangladesh, the midwifery educators would benefit from a mentorship program. In an attempt to provide recommendations for development of a mentorship program to midwifery faculty this study was conducted.

    Objective:

    To describe perceived beneficences of and compliance to the content in a mentorship program; pedagogic styles, students learning and nursing and midwifery educators’ opinions about their own working situation as midwifery educators in Bangladesh.

    Methods:

    The total number of participants were 59 (n= 59). Data were collected through a structured questionnaire with both open and closed response options, analyzed statistically and through content analysis.

    Result

    : The midwifery faculty finds it beneficial to participate in a mentorship programs because they perceive they can improve their own situation for the best of the country, moving midwifery forward. The most important skill/ability for faculty to teach the midwifery students was critical thinking and an ability to transfer theoretical knowledge into clinical practice, preferably by useing a variety of pedagogic styles. There is complicance among the midwifery faculty to use information technology to impact students’ learning experiences during clinical placement.

    Conclusion:

    Mentorship stands out to be a beneficial method of improving teaching and assessment of students’ performances particularly in clinical settings. Communication technology could be an option for providing support and mentorship to midwifery faculty. Information technology could be one important part of a mentorship program.

    Clinical applicability and suggestions for further research:

    The clinical applicability of this thesis is the provision of up-dated evidence-based information on complicance to modern technology to support the implementation of theoretical knowledge into clinical practice. Continuity of a mentorship program requires attention for sustainable outcome.

  • 172.
    Begum, Momtaj
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sexual Reproductive Perinatal Health.
    Sultana, Nazma
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sexual Reproductive Perinatal Health.
    Women’s and health care provider perceptions and experiences of bottlenecks in midwifery care: A qualitative meta-synthesis2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background:

    Women die from preventable causes during pregnancy and childbirth and often in relation to delays in midwifery care. Professional hierarchies might hamper the rights and desires of midwives in provision of normal birth in terms of the provision of quality care to all women and newborns. In health systems where decision making in normal births are influence by doctors this is particularly relevant, with women themselves subordinate to all health care professionals. Aim: The aim of this meta-synthesis was to examine women’s and health care provider’s perceptions and experiences of bottlenecks in midwifery care related to availability, accessibility, acceptability and quality of midwifery care. Method: This study was a qualitative meta-synthesis with a deductive approach, 15 article were selected for this qualitative meta-synthesis. A framework for the evaluation of quality of care and coverage of health services was used for the deductive approach. Results: Four categories emerged based on availability, accessibility, acceptability and quality of care. The delays were due to less awareness of danger signs of severe complications in the community, and delays in decision making by male family members and less empowerment of women, and lack of collaboration between health care professionals. We also identified how to overcome this situation. Conclusion: Midwifes may provide quality maternal care to all women and children and earn trust from community people to promote normal pregnancy and birth and prevent delays when complications arise. Clinical implications: Midwives can provide continuity care and through collaboration with other health care professionals advocate for women empowerment.

  • 173.
    Begum, Mst. Marium
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sexual Reproductive Perinatal Health.
    Nahar., Most. Nargis
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sexual Reproductive Perinatal Health.
    Parents’ and health care providers’ perceptions and experiences of supportive care in neonatal wards: A qualitative metasynthesis2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background:

    Four million infants die with in the first month of life and 27% of these deaths are directly related to low birth weight (LBW) or preterm birth. The main causes of infant death in premature and LBW infants is neonatal infections. It is thus crucial that the infant is taken care of in an appropriate way regarding caring and feeding and that care is provided to improve the child’s chances of survival and to lay the foundation for a healthy life. Aim: The aim of this meta-synthesiswas to examine parent`s and health care providers perceptions and experiences of supportive care in neonatal wards. Method: A qualitative meta-synthesis based on peer-reviewed scientific literature, and meta-ethnographic analysis method. In this meta-synthesis 16 articles were included. Result: The results comprised of two categories, Parents’ perspective of supportive strategies with eight corresponding preliminary patterns and Health care providers’ perspective of supportive strategies with six corresponding preliminary patterns. In the result section, each categories are presented with its corresponding preliminary patterns. The mothers experienced that the baby was unstable and therefore they wanted to be close to the baby at all times if something happened. Important was closeness to the infant is important, parental support according to needs, adequate communication and information with parents, genuine caring and continuous support to get close to the child. It also meant less light and less noise and privacy for the infant and the parent in the NICU ward.

    Conclusion

    Parents wanted to be able to be with his infant as rapidly after birth be reunited in case something happened. The importance of receiving information about their infant’s condition underpinned all communications that the parents undertook with NICU staff both in co-care when together with the child and part-care, when separated. Information for the parents was an important requirement of accepting their situation and immediately affected their anxiety. Clinical implications: The organizers of care must take in account that parents and infants will not be befitted by being cared for apart from each other. When planning for co-care enabling infants to be close to the parents, the mother-baby dyad should be prioritized. Context specific interview studies are suggested on co-care and part-care, parents and care providers perspectives.

  • 174.
    Begum, Mst. Marium
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sexual Reproductive Perinatal Health.
    Nahar, Most. Nargis
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sexual Reproductive Perinatal Health.
    Parents’ and health care providers’ perceptions and experiences of supportive care in neonatal wards: A qualitative metasynthesis2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Four million infants die with in the first month of life and 27% of these deaths are directly related to low birth weight (LBW) or preterm birth. The main causes of infant death in premature and LBW infants is neonatal infections. It is thus crucial that the infant is taken care of in an appropriate way regarding caring and feeding and that care is provided to improve the child’s chances of survival and to lay the foundation for a healthy life. Aim: The aim of this meta-synthesiswas to examine parent`s and health care providers perceptions and experiences of supportive care in neonatal wards. Method: A qualitative meta-synthesis based on peer-reviewed scientific literature, and meta-ethnographic analysis method. In this meta-synthesis 16 articles were included. Result: The results comprised of two categories, Parents’ perspective of supportive strategies with eight corresponding preliminary patterns and Health care providers’ perspective of supportive strategies with six corresponding preliminary patterns. In the result section, each categories are presented with its corresponding preliminary patterns. The mothers experienced that the baby was unstable and therefore they wanted to be close to the baby at all times if something happened. Important was closeness to the infant is important, parental support according to needs, adequate communication and information with parents, genuine caring and continuous support to get close to the child. It also meant less light and less noise and privacy for the infant and the parent in the NICU ward.Conclusion Parents wanted to be able to be with his infant as rapidly after birth be reunited in case something happened. The importance of receiving information about their infant’s condition underpinned all communications that the parents undertook with NICU staff both in co-care when together with the child and part-care, when separated. Information for the parents was an important requirement of accepting their situation and immediately affected their anxiety. Clinical implications: The organizers of care must take in account that parents and infants will not be befitted by being cared for apart from each other. When planning for co-care enabling infants to be close to the parents, the mother-baby dyad should be prioritized. Context specific interview studies are suggested on co-care and part-care, parents and care providers perspectives.

  • 175.
    Begum, Sufia
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Akter, Rehena
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Mapping and Nursing Instructors Suggestions of Acceptable and Feasible Requirements for an accreditation Toolkit for Midwifery Educations in Bangladesh: A Questionnaire Study at Five Institutes/Colleges in Rangpur and Rajshahi Divisions2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background:

    To build the midwifery workforce and maintain quality in midwifery educations, the development of an accreditation system has been initiated in Bangladesh.

    Objective:

    The objectives of this thesis are 1) to map five midwifery education sites in Rangpur and Rajshahi divisions, Bangladesh. The mapping describe the situation at the institutes/colleges and clinical sites in which the midwifery students and teachers are aimed to reach the learning outcomes of the courses in the 3 years diploma midwifery curricula, 2) to provide information to Bangladesh Nursing and Midwifery Council with acceptable and feasible requirements that could feed into an accreditation toolkit for nursing institutes with midwifery education from nursing instructors perspective.

    Methods:

    This questionnaire study includes a mapping of the situation at 5 institutes or colleges in the Rangpur and Rajshahi divisions, and 20 nursing instructors’ perceptions of acceptable and feasible requirements to be included in an accreditation tool for midwifery educations. Data were collected through a semi-structured questionnaire with closed and open response alternatives analyzed descriptive statistics and answers on open questions in text were categorized.

    Results

    : Eighty percent of the collages/institutions accepted the proportion theory 40% in relation to practice 60%. The need for adequately qualified midwifery teachers, clinical preceptors/mentors, skills lab facilities and simulation became obvious. Teacher’s and clinical supervisors’ continuous in-service training and available resources were crucial to deliver the midwifery curriculum. Continuous in-service training could cover skills in antenatal care, maintenance of pantographs, care of the newborn and brief knowledge about breast feeding was suggested. Conclusion: This study illuminates gaps in quality education in Rajshahi and Rangpur divisions that could be solved with continuous in-service trainings of the nursing instructors and midwives supervising midwifery students. The government initiated the initiative to support the development of an accreditation system and toolkit closing the gap between the participants outlined in the curricula and the implementation in clinical practice in Rajshahi and Rangpur division.

    The clinical applicability

    of this thesis is to inform Bangladesh Nursing and Midwifery Council with support from Directorate General of Nursing and Midwifery and supervision of Ministry of Health and Welfare on feasible and acceptable requirements that could be included in an accreditation toolkit for midwifery education in Bangladesh. The thesis findings could be used to inform NGOs and other donor organizations, national and international, on subjects and content when developing in-service trainings.

  • 176.
    Bel Mekki, Veronica
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Fernström, Pia
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Sjuksköterskans uppfattning om omvårdnadsinsatser som främjar livskvalitet vid bipolär sjukdom: En kvalitativ intervjustudie2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Several studies have shown that persons with bipolar disorder have

    a poorer quality of life compared to the rest of the population. As a nurse in

    psychiatric care it is important to have knowledge about the disease in order to

    provide the best possible treatment with the goal to stabilize symptoms, prevent

    relapse and promote quality of life.

    Objective: Based on the nurse's perception, describe the nursing interventions

    promoting quality of life in bipolar disorder.

    Method: A qualitative content analysis based on eight semi-structured interviews.

    Results: The results showed three main themes: Knowledge about the disease: the

    importance of that both the patient and family members gain knowledge about the

    disease; Safety and continuity of care: knowing where and who to contact in care

    was of great importance and Person-centered care: be seen and treated as a unique

    person.

    Conclusion: Patient education which highlights the importance of regular habits,

    to avoid stress and to become aware of early signs can help stabilize symptoms

    and prevent relapse.

  • 177.
    Bellardini, Helena
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Henriksson, Anders
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Tonkonogi, Michail
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Medical Science.
    Bra och enkla fystester2013Book (Other academic)
  • 178.
    Bellardini, Helena
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Tonkonogi, Michail
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Medical Science.
    Senior Power - Styrketräning för äldre2013 (ed. 1)Book (Other academic)
  • 179.
    Bellardini, Helena
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Tonkonogi, Michail
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Senior power: styrketrening for eldre2014 (ed. 1)Book (Other academic)
  • 180.
    Bellardini, Helena
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Tonkonogi, Michail
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Mckee, Kevin
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Social Work.
    The effect of gender on strength training in older people: a Swedish population study2012In: Psychology and Health, ISSN 0887-0446, E-ISSN 1476-8321, Vol. 27, no s1, p. 155-156Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Physical exercise contributes to healthy ageing, and strength training has beenshown to improve independence in older people.

    Method: Six hundred older people wererandomly selected from the Swedish population, and sent a self-completion questionnaire(57% response rate, n¼343) examining exercise history, current strength training, andperceived benefits and barriers to strength training.

    Results: Gender was associated with aperceived positive effect of strength training on quality of life (Women 42% vs. Men 27%).The most commonly reported benefits of strength training were better mobility (71%), energy(70%), and muscle strength (69%), with most benefits endorsed more commonly by womenthan men. The most commonly reported barriers to strength training were believing otherforms of exercise more suitable (49%) and cost (20%; Women 31% vs. Men 13%).

    Discussion:To better promote healthy ageing, interventions should be embedded in an understanding ofthe effect of gender on exercise behaviour.

  • 181. Bentham, James
    et al.
    Ezzati, Majid
    A century of trends in adult human height2016In: eLIFE, E-ISSN 2050-084X, ISSN 2050-084X, Vol. 5, p. 1-29, article id e13410Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Being taller is associated with enhanced longevity, and higher education and earnings. We reanalysed 1472 population-based studies, with measurement of height on more than 18.6 million participants to estimate mean height for people born between 1896 and 1996 in 200 countries. The largest gain in adult height over the past century has occurred in South Korean women and Iranian men, who became 20.2 cm (95% credible interval 17.5–22.7) and 16.5 cm (13.3– 19.7) taller, respectively. In contrast, there was little change in adult height in some sub-Saharan African countries and in South Asia over the century of analysis. The tallest people over these 100 years are men born in the Netherlands in the last quarter of 20th century, whose average heights surpassed 182.5 cm, and the shortest were women born in Guatemala in 1896 (140.3 cm; 135.8– 144.8). The height differential between the tallest and shortest populations was 19-20 cm a century ago, and has remained the same for women and increased for men a century later despite substantial changes in the ranking of countries.

  • 182.
    Berg, Karolin
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Gunnarsdottir, Moeidur
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Sjuksköterskans copingstrategier vid stress: - En litteraturöversikt2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Coping is the individual's ability to adapt to and handle different

    conditions. In order to handle stress in the nursing profession today, knowledge

    about different coping strategies may be needed. The nursing role and the

    responsibility of nurses has grown and more is required of the nurse. Unhealthy

    working environment can contribute to increased risk of stress at work. A part of

    SOC, a sense of coherence, is manageability, which can mean that a person has the

    resources to meet the demands and stress that she or he or she faces.

    Aim

    The aim of this review of literature was to compile the coping

    strategies nurses use to cope with stress

    Method

    The Literature review is based on 15 articles published between

    2008 and 2018. Databases used were Cinahl, PubMed and Psycinfo.

    Result

    The different coping strategies that were found showed that nurses

    could use

    Asking for help and social support, Positive thinking, Self-control,

    Problem solving, Acceptance, Escape and avoidance, Exercising religion

    and

    Recovery.

    Coping strategies were divided into two categories, Emotion-focused

    coping

    and Problem-focused coping.

    Conclusion

    The result in the literature review shows that nurses use several

    different coping strategies to handle stress. The most common coping strategy was

    to ask for help and social support.

  • 183.
    Berg, L
    et al.
    Department of Medicine Solna, Karolinska Institutet, Solna, Sweden ; Department of Emergency Medicine, Karolinska University Hospital, Solna, Sweden.
    Källberg, Ann-Sofie
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing. Karolinska Institutet; Department of Emergency Medicine, Falun Hospital.
    Göransson, K
    Department of Medicine Solna, Karolinska Institutet, Solna, Sweden ; Department of Emergency Medicine, Karolinska University Hospital, Solna, Sweden.
    Östergren, J
    Department of Medicine Solna, Karolinska Institutet, Solna, Sweden ; Department of Emergency Medicine, Karolinska University Hospital, Solna, Sweden.
    Florin, Jan
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Ehrenberg, Anna
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Interruptions in emergency department work: an observational and interview study2013In: BMJ Quality and Safety, ISSN 2044-5415, E-ISSN 2044-5423, Vol. 22, no 8, p. 656-663Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectiv.e Frequent interruptions are assumed to have a negative effect on healthcare clinicians’ working memory that could result in risk for errors and hence threatening patient safety. The aim of this study was to explore interruptions occurring during common activities of clinicians working in emergency departments.

    Method. Totally 18 clinicians, licensed practical nurses, registered nurses and medical doctors, at two Swedish emergency departments were observed during clinical work for 2 h each. A semistructured interview was conducted directly after the observation to explore their perceptions of interruptions. Data were analysed using non-parametric statistics, and by quantitative and qualitative content analysis.

    Results. The interruption rate was 5.1 interruptions per hour. Most often the clinicians were exposed to interruptions during activities involving information exchange. Calculated as percentages of categorised performed activities, preparation of medication was the most interrupted activity (28.6%). Face-to-face interaction with a colleague was the most common way to be interrupted (51%). Most common places for interruptions to occur were the nurses’ and doctors’ stations (68%). Medical doctors were the profession interrupted most often and were more often recipients of interruptions induced by others than causing self-interruptions. Most (87%) of the interrupted activities were resumed. Clinicians often did not regard interruptions negatively. Negative perceptions were more likely when the interruptions were considered unnecessary or when they disturbed the work processes.

    Conclusions. Clinicians were exposed to interruptions most often during information exchange. Relative to its occurrence, preparation of medication was the most common activity to be interrupted, which might increase risk for errors. Interruptions seemed to be perceived as something negative when related to disturbed work processes.

  • 184. Berg, Lena
    et al.
    Ehrenberg, Anna
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Florin, Jan
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Östergren, Jan
    Göransson, Katarina
    An observational study of activities and multitasking performed by clinicians in two Swedish emergency departments2012In: European journal of emergency medicine, ISSN 0969-9546, E-ISSN 1473-5695, Vol. 19, no 4, p. 246-251Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To explore the type and frequency of activities and multitasking performed by emergency department clinicians.

    Methods: Eighteen clinicians (licensed practical nurses, registered nurses and medical doctors), six from each occupational group, at two Swedish emergency departments were followed in their clinical work for 2 h each to observe all their activities and multitasking practices. Data were analysed using qualitative and quantitative content analysis.

    Results: Fifteen categories of activities could be identified based on 1882 observed activities during the 36 h of observation. The most common activity was information exchange, which was most often performed face-to-face. This activity represented 42.1% of the total number of observed activities. Information exchange was also the most common activity to be multitasked. Registered nurses performed most activities and their activities were multitasked more than the other clinicians. The nurses’ and doctors’ offices were the most common locations for multitasking in the emergency department.

    Conclusion: This study provides new knowledge regarding the activities conducted by clinicians in the emergency department. The most frequent activity was information exchange, which was the activity most often performed by the clinicians when multitasking occurred. Differences between clinicians were found for activities performed and multitasked, with registered nurses showing the highest frequencies for both.

  • 185. Berg, Lena
    et al.
    Ehrenberg, Anna
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Florin, Jan
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Östergren, Jan
    Göransson, Katarina
    The presence of emergency department crowding at a Swedish University hospital.: A longitudinal study using two crowding indicators as measures.2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 186.
    Berg, Lena
    et al.
    Akutkliniken Karolinska Universitetssjukhuset Solna ; Institutionen för Medicin Solna, Karolinska Institutet.
    Källberg, Ann-Sofie
    kutkliniken, Falu Lasarett ; Institutionen för Medicin Solna, Karolinska Institutet.
    Ehrenberg, Anna
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Florin, Jan
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Östergren, Jan
    Karolinska institutet.
    Göransson, Katarina
    Karolinska institutet.
    Avbrott och störning i arbetet för akutmottagningspersonal - är det någon skillnad?2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 187.
    Berg, Lena
    et al.
    Karolinska institutet.
    Källberg, Ann-Sofie
    Karolinska institutet.
    Ehrenberg, Anna
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Florin, Jan
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Östergren, Jan
    Karolinska institutet.
    Göransson, Katarina
    Karolinska institutet.
    Interruptions and disturbances in emergency department work assignments2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 188. Berg, Lena M
    et al.
    Ehrenberg, Anna
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Florin, Jan
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing. Karonlinska institutet.
    Östergren, Jan
    Discacciati, Andrea
    Göransson, Katarina E
    Associations between crowding and ten-day mortality among patients allocated lower triage acuity levels without need of acute hospital care on departure from the emergency department2019In: Annals of Emergency Medicine, ISSN 0196-0644, E-ISSN 1097-6760Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: We describe the association between emergency department (ED) crowding and 10-day mortality for patients triaged to lower acuity levels at ED arrival and without need of acute hospital care on ED departure.

    METHODS: This was a registry study based on ED visits with all patients aged 18 years or older, with triage acuity levels 3 to 5, and without need of acute hospital care on ED departure during 2009 to 2016 (n=705,699). The sample was divided into patients surviving (n=705,076) or dying (n=623) within 10 days. Variables concerning patient characteristics and measures of ED crowding (mean length of stay and ED occupancy ratio) were extracted from the hospital's electronic health records. ED length of stay per ED visit was estimated by the average length of stay for all patients who presented to the ED during the same day and shift and with the same acuity level. The 10-day mortality after ED discharge was used as the outcome measure. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted.

    RESULTS: The 10-day mortality rate was 0.09% (n=623). The event group had larger proportions of patients aged 80 years or older (51.4% versus 7.7%) and triaged with acuity level 3 (63.3% versus 35.6%), and greater comorbidity (age-combined Charlson comorbidity index median interquartile range 6 versus 0). We observed an increased 10-day mortality for patients with a mean ED length of stay greater than or equal to 8 hours versus less than 2 hours (adjusted odds ratio 5.86; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.15 to 15.94) and for elevated ED occupancy ratio. Adjusted odds ratios for ED occupancy ratio quartiles 2, 3, and 4 versus quartile 1 were 1.48 (95% CI 1.14 to 1.92), 1.63 (95% CI 1.24 to 2.14), and 1.53 (95% CI 1.15 to 2.03), respectively.

    CONCLUSION: Patients assigned to lower triage acuity levels when arriving to the ED and without need of acute hospital care on departure from the ED had higher 10-day mortality when the mean ED length of stay exceeded 8 hours and when ED occupancy ratio increased.

  • 189. Berg, Lena M
    et al.
    Ehrenberg, Anna
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Florin, Jan
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Östergren, Jan
    Göransson, Katarina E
    Significant changes in emergency department length of stay and case mix over eight years at a large Swedish University Hospital2019In: International Emergency Nursing, ISSN 1755-599X, E-ISSN 1878-013X, Vol. 43, p. 50-55Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: Describe the longitudinal development of crowding and patient/emergency department (ED) characteristics at a Swedish University Hospital.

    METHODS: A retrospective longitudinal registry study based on all ED visits with adult patients during 2009-2016 (N = 1,063,806). Patient characteristics and measures of ED crowding (ED occupancy ratio, length-of-stay [LOS], patients/clinician's ratios) were extracted from the hospital's electronic health record. Non-parametric analyses were conducted.

    RESULTS: The proportion of unstable patients (triage level 1-2) increased while the proportion of admitted patients decreased. All crowding variables were stable, except for LOS, which increased by 9 min/visit/year (95% CI: 8.8-9.1). LOS for visits by patients ≥ 80 years increased more compared to those 18-79 (248 min vs. 190 min, p < 0.001). Unstable patients increased their median LOS compared to stable patients (triage level 3-5). LOS for discharged patients increased with an average of 7.7 min/year (95% CI: 7.5-7.9) compared to 15.5 min/year (95% CI: 15.2-15.8) for those being admitted.

    CONCLUSION: Fewer admissions, despite an increase of unstable patients, is likely related to lack of in-hospital beds and contributes to ED crowding. The increase in median ED LOS, especially for patients in the subgroups unstable, ≥80 years and admitted to in-hospital care reflects this problem.

  • 190. Berg, Lena M
    et al.
    Florin, Jan
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Ehrenberg, Anna
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Östergren, Jan
    Djärv, Therese
    Göransson, Katarina E
    Reasons for interrupting colleagues during emergency department work: a qualitative study2016In: International Emergency Nursing, ISSN 1755-599X, E-ISSN 1878-013X, Vol. 29, no SI, p. 21-26Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: Emergency department team members frequently need to interact with each other, a circumstance causing multiple interruptions. However, information is lacking about the motives underlying these interruptions and this study aimed to explore clinicians' reasons to interrupt colleagues during emergency department work.

    METHOD: Semi-structured interviews with 10 physicians and 10 registered nurses at two Swedish emergency departments. The interviews were analyzed inductively using content analysis.

    RESULTS: The working conditions to some extent sustained the clinicians' need to interrupt, for example different routines. Another reason to interrupt was to improve the initiator's work process, such as when the initiators perceived that the interruption had high clinical relevance. The third reason concerns the desire to influence the work process of colleagues in order to prevent mistakes and provide information for the person being interrupted to improve patient care.

    CONCLUSION: The three identified categories for why emergency department clinicians interrupt their colleagues were related to working conditions and a wish to improve/influence the work processes for both initiators and recipients. Several of the reasons given for interrupting colleagues were done in order to improve patient care. Interruptions perceived as negative to the recipient were mostly related to the working conditions.

  • 191. Berg, Lena M
    et al.
    Källberg, Ann-Sofie
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing. Department of Medicine Solna, Karolinska Institutet; Department of Emergency Medicine, Falun Hospital.
    Ehrenberg, Anna
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Florin, Jan
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Östergren, Jan
    Djärv, Therese
    Brixey, Juliana J
    Göransson, Katarina E
    Factors influencing clinicians' perceptions of interruptions as disturbing or non-disturbing: a qualitative study2016In: International Emergency Nursing, ISSN 1755-599X, E-ISSN 1878-013X, Vol. 27, p. 11-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: Emergency departments consist of multiple systems requiring interaction with one another while still being able to operate independently, creating frequent interruptions in the clinical workflow. Most research on interruptions in health care settings has focused on the relationship between interruptions and negative outcomes. However, there are indications that not all interruptions are negatively perceived by those being interrupted. Therefore, this study aimed to explore factors that influence when a clinician perceives interruptions as non-disturbing or disturbing in an emergency department context.

    METHOD: Explorative design based on interviews with 10 physicians and 10 registered nurses at two Swedish emergency departments. Data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis.

    RESULT: Factors influencing whether emergency department clinicians perceived interruptions as non-disturbing or disturbing were identified: clinician's constitution, external factors of influence and the nature of the interrupted task. The clinicians' perceptions were related to a complex of attributes inherent in these three factors at the time of the interruption. Thus, the same type of interruption could be perceived as either non-disturbing or disturbing contingent on the surrounding circumstances in which the event occurred.

    CONCLUSION: Emergency department clinicians' perceptions of interruptions as non-disturbing or disturbing were related to the character of identified influencing factors.

  • 192.
    Bergdahl, Sandra
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Löfgren, Josefin
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Följsamhet till råd om egenvård hos patienter med diabetes typ 2: En litteraturöversikt2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Type 2 diabetes is an endocrine disorder and a global health problem, with the

    number falling ill persons greatly increases. Treatment of type 2 diabetes consists mainly of

    self-care, which places great demands on the patient and the healthcare system. A lack of

    compliance to advice on self-care can lead to poorer health for the patient and increased costs

    for society.

    Aim: The purpose of this literature review was to describe the factors that influence

    compliance to advice on self-care in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Method: A literature review based on 15 scientific articles, both qualitative and quantitative

    articles were reviewed. The databases CINAHL and PubMed were used.

    Results: Factors affecting compliance to advice on self-care were identified and resulted in

    five broad categories: Information; Knowledge; Social support; technological support and

    Life situation revealed as important factors for low compliance to advice on self-care.

    Conclusion: It is very important to try to identify each individual's different conditions, in

    order to thus be able to cu

  • 193.
    Bergendahl, Sandra
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Lövstrand, Madelene
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Sjuksköterskans preoperativa information för patientens postoperativa smärtupplevelse: - En litteraturöversikt2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Hip surgery is a common operation, for both elective and acute approach. Nurses’ duties includes pain prevention and information to the patient. This with the patient always in focus. Studies have shown that it is most common to give the information verbally, and that patients want to know more preoperative about the postoperative phase to be more involved.

    Aim

    : The purpose of this literature review was to investigate the importance of nurses’ preoperative information for postoperative pain management.

    Methods

    : For the research the database CINAHL and PubMed was used. A review template was used, and only the articles with a medium high score has been used. This work is based on 17 articles which has been divided in main categories that was elective, acute, information and pain.

    Results

    : A relationship between preoperative information and postoperative pain was found in 13 of the articles. This connection indicate that the given information provided the patients to manage their postoperative pain. Patients undergoing elective surgery was better prepared and was given more patient activated education preoperative than acute surgery. Preoperative individual strategies was identified.

    Conclusion:

    Most of the studies showed that preoperative information is used to reduce postoperative pain by increasing patients’ participation and their ability to cope better. Since a connection was found between most of the articles in this work it increases the likelihood that there is a relationship between nurses’ preoperative information and patients’ postoperative pain experience.

  • 194.
    Bergens, Katarina
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Palmer, Ellinor
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Det goda bemötandet inom prehospital akutsjukvård: En litteraturöversikt2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Syftet med denna litteraturöversikt var att beskriva vad som kännetecknar ett gott bemötande inom den prehospitala akutsjukvården och vilken betydelse bemötandet har för vården. Metod: Studien genomfördes som en litteraturöversikt och artiklar söktes via databaserna CINAHL och PubMed. De elva inkluderade artiklarna resulterade i kategorier och subkategorier som beskriver vad som är utmärkande för ett gott bemötande inom den prehospitala sjukvården och vilken betydelse det har för vården. Resultat: Resultatet visade att ambulanspersonalen ska anpassa kommunikationen efter patientens förutsättningar och de ska ha ett förhållningssätt som baseras på respekt, ödmjukhet och empati. En förutsättning för en god omvårdnad är att en omvårdnadsrelation, baserad på tillit och förtroende, upprättas. Omvårdnadsrelationen synliggör patientens sårbarhet, vilket ställer krav på ambulanspersonalen att visa respekt för patientens integritet. Slutsats: Patienten har inte bara fysiska utan även psykiska och sociala behov. Att ambulanspersonalen har en holistisk människosyn gör att patienten blir bemött som en unik individ och därmed får en bättre prognos medan brister i den prehospitala vårdkedjan kan äventyra patientsäkerheten.

  • 195.
    Bergens, Marika
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Johnson, Pernilla
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Arbetsrelaterade stressfaktorer ochsjuksköterskans möjlighet till en patientsäker vård2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The aim of this literature review was to describe the factors that influence work-related stress and how it affects the ability to provide a safe patient care.Methods: The study was conducted through a literature review and the articles were searched through databases CINAHL and PubMed. The 14 included articles resulted in two themes and five subthemes that describes factors for work-related stress and its effects.Results: The degree of workload, lack of communication and poor relationships at work was largely a contributing cause of work-related stress. Staff shortages did increase stress to the nurses who worked and came with additionally high risk of exhaustion and burnout. Time pressure meant that nurses did not manage important aspects of nursing care. The focus was on carrying out practical tasks while patient care did suffer. These factors contributed greatly to the compromise of patient safety, in terms of the nurses reduced concentration, which among other things led to missed or failed documentation and medication errors.Conclusion: Staff shortages and time pressure is greatly contributing factors in nurses become stressed and burned out. These factors make it difficult to maintain an evidence-based and patient-safe care.

  • 196.
    Berggren, Emma
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Graf, Susanna
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Faktorer som påverkar sjuksköterskors följsamhet till riktlinjer för handhygien utifrån en beteendeteori En litteraturöversikt2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Healthcare-associated infections are a global problem and good handhygiene

    is the main tool in the fight against healthcare- associated infections.

    Adherence to hand hygiene is globally low. The nurse’s hands are the main source

    of spreading infection, and because of that the nurse’s behavior towards hand

    hygiene is important. The nurse’s intention to perform hand hygiene can be

    explained by the internal dimension, who are, according to the Theory of planned

    behaviour, attitudes, subjective norms and perceived behavioural control.

    Aim: The aim of this literature review was to describe the attitudes, subjective

    norms and perceived behavioural controls that affect nurses’ adherence to guidelines

    for hand hygiene.

    Method: This study was conducted as a literature review and based on fourteen

    articles of quantitative and qualitative method from the databases PubMed,

    CINAHL and Web of Science.

    Results: The results of the literature review demonstrate that, from the perspective

    of the Theory of planned behaviour, there were attitudes, subjective norms and

    perceived behavioural controls that affected nurses’ adherence to guidelines for

    hand hygiene. Nurses felt that personal protection was an important attitude that

    motivated to hand hygiene. In subjective norm the patient, colleagues and role

    models emerged as motivating factors to perform hand hygiene and the feeling that

    it is easy to perform hand hygiene was the most prominent factor under perceived

    behavioural control.

    Summary: Adherence to guidelines for hand hygiene is low in spite of national

    efforts and campaigns to increase adherence. The results showed that nurses’

    adherence to guidelines for hand hygiene was mainly influenced by personal

    protection, the patient, peers, role models and the feeling that it is easy to perform

    hand hygiene. The results of this literature review can be used to increase the

    knowledge in this area and develop new strategies to increase nurses’ adherence to

    guidelines for hand hygiene.

  • 197.
    Berggren, Malin
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Caring Science.
    Strömberg, Camilla
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Caring Science.
    Granskning av riktlinjer vid Sveriges förlossningskliniker gällande sfinkterskada i samband med förlossning: Innehållsanalys med en kombination av en deduktiv och induktiv ansats2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Sphincter injury is serious complication in connection to vaginal childbirth. Desire to avoid vaginal birth again is seen in women who previously suffered from a sphincter injury.

    Objective: To identify and evaluate obstetric guidelines in Sweden regarding sphincter injury in relation to childbirth

    Method: Content analysis with a combination of a deductive and inductive approach.

    Results: The most frequently occurring risk factors and prevention with help of perineal protection were described in the guidelines. The physician made diagnosis and repaired the sphincter injury at the theatre.  Complications such as coital pain and anal incontinence were described in the guidelines. Paracetamol and diclofenac was most common analgesic regimen given for pain. Prophylaxis such as antibiotic treatment and laxative were common. Information given to women was described. Follow-up by physician, midwife and physiotherapist was recommended after four weeks to six months. For future birth a cesarean section was recommended.

    Conclusion: The guidelines were constructed in the same way and had to a large extent similar content. The authors of the present work recommend a national guideline.

  • 198.
    Bergholm Andersson, Karin
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Erfarenheter av att vårda personer med demenssjukdom: En kvalitativ intervjustudie med distriktssköterskor2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: District nurses come in contact with people who have dementia diagnosis to different extent.

    Aim: The aim of this study was to examine nurses' experiences in meeting people with dementia diagnosis and how they adapt giving care that are based on the patient's needs.

    Method: The study was qualitative and based on interviews with four district nurses. For processing the collected data content analysis was used.

    Results: The analysis revealed the three domains, the nurse's situation, the person with dementia diagnosis´ situation and adapting care measures. Further analysis led to four categories, facing a complex care situation, to be challenged, to take care of resources and to adapt their health care measures to the individual or to the dementia. The district nurses identified that people with dementia is a fragile and vulnerable group and to care for them was a challenge on many levels. It requires in-depth knowledge and an ability to see all the factors that surround this population, it´s challenging, complex and exciting. Working person-centered is something that both sought and done in practice, they also take good care of resources that will benefit the patients.

    Conclusion: The district nurses showed joy and commitment that were prominent and seemed to be linked to their education and knowledge. Research including people with dementia and others with limited decision-making capacaty are needed and desirable. Their participation would provide valuable knowledge that could lead to the development in the care concerning this vulnerable population.

  • 199.
    Bergholm, Helena
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Bertilsson, Hans-Erik
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Patienters upplevelser av att leva med bensår: Litteraturöversikt2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background:

    Leg ulcer is a symptom caused by different underlying illnesses of

    which poor venous circulation is the most common one. People over 65 years of

    age are at the highest risk. Leg ulcer is a burden both for the patient and the

    healthcare system.

    Aim:

    To describe patients experiences of life with leg ulcers.

    Method:

    This study was conducted as a literature review, in which 16 articles was

    included using the databases Cinahl, Pubmed and Psycinfo. The articles were of

    qualitative and quantitative design.

    Result:

    Patient experiences of living with leg ulcers resulted in three categories:

    To experience suffering, to feel restricted and to experience lack of knowledge.

    The patients experienced a lot of suffering regarding pain, sleep deprivation and

    negative emotions. The patients also experienced limitations caused by

    immobility, limitations in the choice of clothes and shoes and social restrictions.

    The patients lack of knowledge, information and the nurses lack of knowledge

    about leg ulcer treatment was obvious in this study.

    Conclusion:

    Patient perceived a lot of suffering and limitations caused by life with

    leg ulcers. Pain was the most dominant symptom and was rarely assessed or

    treated properly. Pain caused deterioration and enhancement of other symptoms

    with profound effect on patient's wellbeing. Added support, information and pain

    control could improve patient wellbeing.

  • 200.
    Berghov, Emmelie
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Danielsson, Lovisa
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Att vårdas i ett isoleringsrum vid infektion eller risk för infektion – patientens upplevelse.: En litteraturöversikt.2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim:

    To describe the experience of being cared for in an isolation room in patients with infection or at risk for infection.

    Background:

    Patients may need to be isolated for various reasons, either to prevent infection or to protect infection-sensitive patients. Multiresistant bacteria are an increasing problem around the world. In order to reduce antibiotic resistance and prevent infection of multiresistant bacteria, a measure is to isolate patients who are infected.

    Method:

    A literature review. The result is based on 14 articles, both qualitative and quantitative articles have been used.

    Result:

    There were both positive and negative experiences of being cared for in an isolation room. Among the positive experiences were feelings of security and the opportunity to privacy. The negative experiences were connected with the physical environment, ignorance and emotions like anxiety and loneliness. Also the healthcare professional´s attitudes, response and compliance with routines affected the patient´s experience of isolation care.

    Conclusion:

    The isolation experience is unique to each individual and factors that can affect the experience are the healthcare professional’s ability to provide adequate information, have a good behavior, and give the patient the opportunity to preserve social contacts.

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