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  • 151.
    Carlehäll, Kristian
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Resource Management.
    Blomquist, Victoria
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Resource Management.
    Det osynliga arbetsmiljöarbetet: -En studie om verksamheters arbete gällande organisatorisk arbetsmiljö2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The ways of improving organizations work environment is constantly developing and is now more than ever focused on the prevention of psychological illness related to the workplace. To help and guide organizations in improving their work environment the Swedish Work Environment Authority has issued a new provisions about organizational and social work environment (AMV, 2015:4). In this study, we’ll examine how public organizations utilize the new provisions (AMV, 2015:4) with a focus on the on the organizational environment. The theoretical perspectives in the study is based on strategic HRM, the demand- control and support-model and employee voice. We also examined contributing factors that have a positive and negative influence in the workforce wellbeing. To answer the primary purpose of this essay we conducted two parallel researches in organizations that are operative in the public sector. The organizations are operative in the township of Hofors and in the county council of Dalarna. We have used a phenomenology research approach to conduct six interviews, three from each organization, to get a thorough understanding of their efforts in improving the organizational work environment.

    What we found in the results and analysis are the benefits of common goals, common values and cooperation-groups. Our hopes with the study is to enhance the readers understanding about organizational working environment through our explanation of the practical methods the analyzed organizations work to improve their work environment and with our explained understanding of beneficial factors.

  • 152.
    Carlsson, Marie
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Resource Management.
    Psykosocial arbetsmiljö och stöd: En kvalitativ studie bland mellanchefer och första linjens chefer2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 153.
    Chukwu, Leonard O.
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Information and Engineering.
    Ramaswamy, Yazhini
    Dalarna University, School of Information and Engineering.
    Differentiating Video Game Addiction from Other High-Level Engagements Among Adult Players2021Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study focused on the behaviours of adult video game players in the context of positive and negative effects of video games, to accurately differentiate video game addicts from highly engaged and non-addicted players. To accomplish this, we adopted the Problematic Video Game Playing Test (PVGT) to measure the components of addiction and Flow Short Scale (FSS) to measure high-level engagement. This is a concept which has been lost in the previous studies, setting the current study apart from other studies which were primarily concerned with investigating the negative impact of video games on its players. To get the data needed for this study, we conducted an online survey with a 40-item questionnaire which included demographic information of the respondents, gaming experience and behavioural components of flow and addiction. We were able to attract 80 adult video game players to participate in the study. Our findings showed that 60% of these 80 adult video game players were not addicted, 34% were highly engaged while 6% of the players were addicted. These findings helped us to infer that not all highly engaged video game players are addicted. Furthermore, most of the addicted players were players who have been playing video games for a long time.

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  • 154.
    Claésson, Linnea
    Dalarna University, Not School affiliated.
    Frågorna i Worklys medarbetarundersökning2020Report (Other academic)
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  • 155.
    Clowes, Lindsay
    University of the Western Cape.
    The Vanishing Father: Changing Constructions of Fatherhood in Drum Magazine 1951–19652003In: Building a Human Rights Culture: South African and Swedish Perspectives / [ed] Karin Sporre & H Russel Botman, Falun: Högskolan Dalarna, 2003, p. 220-244Chapter in book (Other academic)
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  • 156.
    Cole, Esther
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Sustainable Tourism Pedagogy in Swedish Tourism Master’s Programs: Higher education curriculum approach towards sustainable pedagogy2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The sustainable practice of tourism is heavily dependent on its practitioners. Moreover, the education of these practitioners has been an ongoing debate with the sector. The author of this study have chosen to examine how sustainable is the tourism education and how it is been1 structured by analyzing the curriculums of master’s programs in higher educational institution in Swedish universities. The aim is to identify if the programs curriculums are holding the standard for sustainable tourism education. To accomplish this, a literature framework was established which includes transformational education and critical pedagogy. The content analysis method was applied to collect and analyze syllabuses from programs and courses. Results revealed the role of faculties in the pedagogy approach as syllabuses from programs and course in faculties grounded in economics studies had traits that were identified as unsustainable. The analysis also revealed that there were areas in which these syllabuses incorporated EfS principles. Even though the analysis revealed how the content of these syllabuses aligned with the principles of EfS, it also exposes the areas which traditional approaches are still being practiced. This study lays a foundation for future understanding of this area of research.

  • 157.
    Conradie, Ernst M.
    University of the Western Cape.
    On a Human Rights Culture in a Global Era: Some Ecological Perspectives2003In: Building a Human Rights Culture: South African and Swedish Perspectives / [ed] Karin Sporre & H Russel Botman, Falun: Högskolan Dalarna, 2003, p. 311-333Chapter in book (Other academic)
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  • 158.
    Cosman, Vadim
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Information and Engineering.
    Chowdary, Kailash
    Dalarna University, School of Information and Engineering.
    End user interface for collecting and evaluating company data: Real-time data collection through web-scraping2021Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The demand of open and reliable data, in the Era of Big Data is constantly increasing as thediversity of research and the need of trustworthy data as high-quality data is increasesconsiderably the quality of the findings . However, it is very hard to get reliable data for free witha small effort. With an immense progress of tools, on one hand for data scraping, data cleansing,data storing, and on the other hand so many platforms with data that can be scrapped, it isabsolutely crucial to make use of them and easily build data sets with real and trustworthy data,for free and in a user-friendly way. Using several available tools, an application with a graphicaluser interface (GUI) was developed. The possibilities of the applications are: collecting financialdata for any given list of companies, updating an existent data set, build a data set out of thewhole data warehouse(DW), based on several filters, make the data sets available to anyone whouses the application, and build simple visualization of the existent data. To make sure that‘garbage data in – garbage data out’ concept is avoided, a constant analysis of the data quality isperformed, and the quality of the data is adjusted so that it is ready for use in a research project.The work provides a viable solution for collecting data and making it borderless while respectingthe standards of data sharing. The application can collect data from 2 sources, with more than250 features per company. The application is updated with more functionalities and more sourcesof data.

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  • 159. Cregård, Anna
    et al.
    Forsberg, Tina
    Tre modeller för samspel2023In: Samspel i kommunal administration: Lagspel, dragkamp eller hierarki? / [ed] Cregård, Forsberg och Berntson, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2023Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 160. Cregård, Anna
    et al.
    Forsberg, TinaDalarna University, School of Culture and Society, Occupational Science.Berntson, Erik
    Samspel i kommunal administration: Lagspel, dragkamp eller hierarki?2023Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 161. Cregård, Anna
    et al.
    Forsberg, Tina
    Dalarna University, School of Culture and Society, Occupational Science.
    Berntson, Erik
    Härenstam, Annika
    Samspel inom kommunal administration: sammanfattande konklusioner2023In: Samspel i kommunal administration: Lagspel, dragkamp eller hierarki? / [ed] Cregård, Forsberg och Berntson, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2023Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 162.
    Dahlberg, Lena
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Social Work.
    Bruhn, Åsa
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Occupational science.
    Marusarz, Marika
    Ersta Sköndal Högskola.
    McKee, Kevin
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Social Work.
    Turunen, Päivi
    Linköpings universitet.
    Socialt deltagande och tillgång till service: Upplevda hinder och hur de kan reduceras2012Report (Other academic)
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  • 163.
    Dahlberg, Matilde
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Resource Management.
    Att leva som man lär: Implementering av företagskultur vid företagsförvärv2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    As much as 83% of all acquisitions fail to increase shareholder value and 53% even decreases in shareholder value (Daniel & Metcalf, 2001). It is much easier to make the deal, but to make it work says Nguyen & Kleiner (2003). Unsuccessful acquisitions usually depend on cultural differences between the business and the implementation of corporate culture is a key factor for successful acquisitions (Lodofors & Boateng, 2006).

    The purpose is to examine the implementation of corporate culture after a merger and to identify the management and the managers' own experiences of success factors and difficulties during the process.

    The theoretical framework defines corporate culture and describes from several cultural levels where values get special attention when the study focuses on corporate values. There is also a description of the ways to develop cultures. It also describes factors that management and managers should take into account when implementing corporate culture. These are leadership, trust and learning (Schein, 2010, Nguyen & Kleiner, 2003, Lakshman, 2011, Bijlsma-Frankema, 2001 and others).

    To examine the purpose of the study a qualitative method of semi-structured interviews were conducted. The survey is based on interviews with managers and middle managers at the property company AB.

    The result shows that the company's implementation of the values perceived by most respondents as very successful. Success factors in their work on values summarized by taking the best of both worlds, adjusting structure for desired culture, practice what you preach, to have transparency in information and decision, to create a common vision of values and monitoring. The difficulty being discussed is to create a common value of the entire company.

    The study concludes that the implementation of corporate culture after a merger involves leaders must practice what they preach, and that management must create the conditions for it and work with monitoring of employees' experiences.

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  • 164.
    Dahlgren, Henrik
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    Rune, Malin
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    Österberg, Jonas
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    e-infrastruktur som stöd för hemtjänsten2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    The annual cost of home care services of transport in Falun/Borlänge, is now at 31 million kronor. It is clear from previous research that it is possible to reduce these costs through a restructuring of the existing home-help service. The restructuring aims to have a higher proportion of older people, who are in need of care, to live in special accommodation, in order to reduce transport costs. Therefore there is a need for systems that allow home-help service to plan their operations in such a way that transport is working as efficiently as possible. Through better planning, there are profits to be done. The rewards are not only of an economic nature but also include a reduced environmental impact, better working environment, improving road safety, and better service. One way to achieve this is to give home-help service personnel better navigation aid when they move between the customers. The thesis describes such a solution through a developed prototype based on a standardized interaction between a planning and a navigation service. The thesis describes such a solution through a developed prototype based on a standardized interaction between a planning and a navigation service. Development work has also been a first step in developing a standardized information infrastructure for home-help service. The purpose of the thesis is, on the basis of theory and the experience we have acquired through the development of the prototype, to discuss general issues which are of interest when developing standardized information infrastructure.

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  • 165.
    Dahlin, Tobias
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Culture and Society.
    Koshchiy, Dmitry
    Dalarna University, School of Culture and Society.
    Motivation vid arbete på distans: En studie om motivationsfaktorer vid distansarbete2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to describe and explain the significance and correlation between different motivational factors in remote work. A survey was used to measure four motivational factors - "recognition," "performance," "personal development," and "task" -based on Hertzberg's motivation theory. The population consisted of employees working either remotely or in hybrid conditions. To reach the population, the researchers join edvarious social media communities dedicated to remote workers and distributed the survey. A total of 227 individuals participated in the study and 160 met the criteria for the study. Dataanalysis was conducted using the statistical program SPSS including descriptive analysis and correlation analysis using Spearman's correlation coefficient. The results showed that remoteworkers considered feedback to be the most important form of recognition. There was also a positive correlation between feedback and the willingness to learn things among these employees. However, no correlation was found between job satisfaction under high timepressure and independence among remote employees. The results indicated that learning new things was the most crucial factor for personal development among remote employees. Additionally, there was a positive correlation between passion and independence.

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  • 166.
    Dahlqvist, Oscar
    Dalarna University, School of Culture and Society.
    Access to outdoor recreational sites for people withdisabilities: A qualitative study on the accessibility to nature for peoplewith disabilities in the region of Borlänge & Falun - Dalarna,Sweden2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Outdoor recreation or friluftsliv as called in Scandinavia has witnessed anincreased demand where more people venture outdoors to engage in activities innature. It is although not as easy for everyone to engage in these activities due toseveral limiting obstacles. People with disabilities that are confined to a manual orelectric wheelchair require adaptation of the areas to be able to participate. Thereare signs of development due to 10 goals set by the Swedish government for eachmunicipality to work towards. The findings of the study show that there are currentactions to improve accessibility; however; that it is slow process that in cases lackseveral vital considerations. There is an importance to involve people withdisabilities and relevant organizations to work with several important parts forspreading awareness. 

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  • 167.
    Danielsson, Martina
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Resource Management.
    Larsson, Mathilda
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Resource Management.
    Vart är vi på väg?: En kvalitativ studie om att stärka järnvägsbranschens attraktivitet2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor of Fine Arts), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The study is based on an assignment from Trafikverket, where the purpose was to investigate how an industry can work strategically to create attractiveness and how employer brand work can be done. The focus was on the rail industry due to the fact that it is an industry experiencing skills supply difficulties and can therefore be regarded as having lost in attractiveness. The result shows that there is difficulty in attractiveness work because a general definition is complex due to individuals asking for different things. What is important, however, is that a employee value proposition is established and that what is conveyed is also what is delivered to the employees. Work attractiveness is therefore linked to employer branding. In the case of employer branding, it is also important to define target groups and to use creative marketing where social media can be used to advantage. The result also shows that the rail industry is perceived as an anonymous industry that does not reach out with enough information about what they can offer. Contributing interviewees mean that the rail industry needs to be better at visibility, for example by showing up at schools and sending materials to the study and career counsellors with information about which courses are available.

    Employer brand specialists from four different companies and five study and career counsellors have participated in the study through semi-structured interviews. The qualitative method has contributed to deepening and understanding the study's questions. An analysis was made based on theories about "the changed work life", employer branding, attractive work and marketing strategies. The analysis shows that changing society places other demands on work, but at the same time it is emphasized that the requirements differ depending on who is asked. Using well-thought-out marketing strategies linked to what an organization wants to accomplish is therefore an important part of the pursuit of an employer's brand work, and especially important for the rail industry.

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  • 168.
    Davideit, Melina
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Resource Management.
    Wahlgren, Ida
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Resource Management.
    Att tillfredsställa allas behov: En jämförande studie om arbetsmotivation hos mellanchefer i privat och offentlig sektor2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 169.
    de Bernardi, Cecilia
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Collaboration and social capital in rural areas: Tourism as driving force for resilience2018Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 170.
    de Bernardi, Cecilia
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Tourism Studies.
    New approaches to heritage tourism research: a review of two recent volumes2019In: Journal of Tourism and Cultural Change, ISSN 1476-6825, E-ISSN 1747-7654, Vol. 17, no 2, p. 239-245Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 171.
    de Bernardi, Cecilia
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Reflections on the hegemonic exclusion of critical realism from academic settings: alone in a room full of people2018In: Journal of Critical Realism, ISSN 1476-7430, E-ISSN 1572-5138, Vol. 17, no 4, p. 374-389Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, I discuss my personal experience of the issues that can arise when adopting critical realism in academic contexts dominated by irrealist (positivist, phenomenological and post-structuralist) methodological approaches. I draw inspiration for my analysis from the concept of Gramscian hegemony and the concept of ‘authenticity’. These concepts are related because hegemonic processes prevent individuals from freely expressing themselves. In my case, academic hegemony has resulted in social pressure to sacrifice my authentic critical realist self in order to achieve academic success. I also discuss groupthink dynamics, suggesting that they are a mechanism by which hegemony–and denial of individual authenticity–can be achieved. This paper is meant to be a theoretical and reflexive discussion, which could be the starting point for empirical studies investigating the situation of a critical realist in a hegemonic academic context. 

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  • 172.
    de Bernardi, Cecilia
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Strengthening tourism scholarship for sustainable development: the role of critical realism2018Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The number of incoming tourists in the world rises every year (World Bank, 2016), and this has an impact on the goals for the 2030 Agenda especially regarding climate change, sustainability of ecosystems and the availability of water (UN, 2016). Despite the internal and external controversies surrounding tourism scholarship, it is a field that has much potential to contribute to the achievement of the goals of the 2030 Agenda. In tourism research, there are still well-established and strong divisions between quantitative and qualitative research. The quantitative approach usually relies on positivism, while the qualitative approach increasingly commits to phenomenological, hermeneutic, postmodernist and constructivist positions. Furthermore, research underpinned by these assumptions often does not clearly state nor discuss epistemological or ontological issues, taking the previously mentioned positions for granted almost as they were the accepted norm.

    In this paper, I review the latest 200 articles that have been published in each of the three top tourism and hospitality journals. I comment specifically on their epistemological and ontological assumptions. I then use this review as the basis for a philosophical discussion in which I argue that critical realism can underlabour for tourism scholarship. That is, it can provide tourism scholarship with an ontology and epistemology that will allow it to effectively discover and tackle the issues that are connected to overcrowding and unsustainable destination development to ensure that the goals of the 2030 Agenda are met.

    References:

    UN. (2016). Transforming our world: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development .:. Sustainable Development Knowledge Platform. Retrieved April 5, 2018, from https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/post2015/transformingourworld

    World Bank (2016). International tourism , number of arrivals. Retrieved April 5, 2018, from https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/ST.INT.ARVL

  • 173.
    de Bernardi, Cecilia
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Tourism Studies.
    The authentic tourism academic, a compromise?2017Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 174.
    de Bernardi, Cecilia
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Tourism Studies. Multidimensional Tourism Institute, University of Lapland.
    "The question of authenticity in Sámi tourism: the role(s) of labels"2019Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Authenticity is discussed and considered relevant in a number of different tourism enterprises. Authenticity has had a strong, but debated conceptual role in tourism, while from a heritage management perspective it has been conceptualised according to more practical implications. In this paper, authenticity is mainly related to the information advertised in marketing and to the potential role of a new authenticity conceptualisation based on compromise. The discussion also considers the possible effects on Sámi tourism and Sámi heritage. Sámi tourism companies are involved in issues concerning authenticity, but from a slightly different perspective than the ones usually advanced in research. Sámi cultural heritage has been a relevant attraction for several decades and many issues have been identified with the use of Sámi culture in Nordic tourism. One of the biggest problems is the fact that the Sámi are an indigenous population composed of different groups with different languages and cultural aspects. The Sámi have to balance their culture’s connection to the past and the lively contemporary cultural manifestations in a way that is attractive to the tourists. In this regard, it is relevant to discuss the role of labels and certification in Sámi tourism enterprises and the potential upsides and downsides of adopting labelling schemes to different aspects of Sámi cultural heritage.  

     

    This paper is concerned with one aspect of a doctoral project and it focuses on the potential role of authenticity and labels. This study will present some of the labels that are in use in the context of Sámi tourism. Furthermore, the paper focuses on a cultural label created by Sámi entrepreneurs in Sweden, which will now be taken into consideration in a newly financed European NPA (Northern Periphery and Arctic programme) called ARCTISEN. Cultural labels are conceptualised as a potential way to sustain, promote and protect cultures such as Sámi culture, which have been subjected to the negative sides of tourism promotion and visitation. The paper will also outline current movements from Sámi institutions to promote the growth of different kinds of labels. The main goal is to present how authenticity and labels have a strong potential for different aspects of Sámi heritage involved in the tourism industry.

  • 175.
    de Bernardi, Cecilia
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Pashkevich, Albina
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Representations and National Marketing: the Case of Indigenous Peoples in Nordic and Russian DMOs’ webpages2017Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 176.
    De Silva, Jaliya Jeevantha
    Dalarna University, School of Culture and Society.
    Challenges and Barriers to Career Advancement for Female Chefs in Kandy - Sri Lanka2021Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the male-dominated chef profession, female chefs face numerous obstacles. According to research, female chefs experience obstacles such as advancement, poor pay, work-life balance, burnout, and sexual harassment, according to research (Harris & Giuffre, 2010; MurrayGibbons & Gibbons, 2007). Therefore, this research aims to understand and investigate the significant issues of gender inequality in career advancement for female chefs in the culinary industry in Kandy, Sri Lanka. Addressing these concerns could aid management in efficiently fixing challenges, recruiting more female chefs to the profession, and expanding their possibilities and career prospects in the hotel business.In a variety of forms, gender inequality tends to stifle women's advancement. The purpose of this qualitative research was to find more about how female chefs in professional kitchens in five-star hotels in Kandy, Sri Lanka, have dealt with gender inequality. This research looked at the participants' culinary backgrounds, culinary experiences, gender disparity issues, and lessons learned (i.e., copying, gender-inequality-addressing initiatives). The results found that participants' critical workplace problems were related to hiring issues, work-life balance and promotion, and pregnancy and mobility issues. Female chefs were made their way through this study to share their concerns about gender discrimination in the hospitality kitchen operations in Kandy, Sri Lanka, which could successfully address gender inequality in professional kitchen operations.Since so many students will be entering the real world soon after graduating from private and public culinary schools in Sri Lanka, the human integration curriculum must be taught that women are on equal footing with males. Female chefs, on the other hand, are regarded as innovative and enthusiastic about work. As a result, if the hotel business does not accommodate female chefs, the sector will lose the skilled workforce. Furthermore, the state's economy suffers when talented female chefs are unable to contribute to its development.

  • 177.
    De Silva, Jaliya
    et al.
    Centre for Tourism and Leisure Research (CeTLeR).
    Thulemark, Maria
    Dalarna University, School of Culture and Society, Human Geography.
    Can you break through a cement ceiling? – female chefs’ possibilities for a career in the Sri Lankan culinary industry2022In: Anatolia: An International Journal of Tourism and Hospitality Research, ISSN 1303-2917, E-ISSN 2156-6909, Vol. 33, no 3, p. 507-510Article in journal (Refereed)
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  • 178.
    de Vries, Sander Christiaan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Potential threat of international studentdissatisfaction in the Netherlands analysed by cross– cultural adaption theory: Examining the effect of racial abuse on international studentsatisfaction, host receptivity and host conformity.2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Numerous research articles already touched upon the subject of racism in the Netherlands, the denial and ignorance of race and racism is however still there in Dutch society. The aim of this research paper was to determine whether or not the international students studying in the Netherlands feel welcome and satisfied in Dutch society. This was done by online questionnaires. This research examined how cross- cultural adaption (host receptivity and host conformity pressure) and international student encounters with racism affected their overall student satisfaction and likelihood to recommend the Netherlands as favorable country to study to others back in their home country. Out of the survey of 254 international students, 48 had experienced some form of racial abuse. The findings are presented, but it does have to be stated that the required sample size has not been met in this research (a required 382 sample size). Therefore the credibility and reliability of this research paper might be questioned. This also means that the results cannot be generalized to the population of international students in the Netherlands, or any other population. Furthermore, the non-representation of several nationalities might bias the results. The results however did indicate that racial abuse did affect the students’ likeliness to recommend the Netherlands as a favorable country to study to others. Also, the host receptivity score, host conformity pressure score and satisfaction with living and studying in the Netherlands was reported more negatively when the respondent was a victim of racism in the Netherlands.

  • 179.
    Diakopoulou, Spyridoula- Pavlina
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Photographic Representations of a Tourism Destination: A case study of Greenland2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    – The purpose of this study is to analyse Greenland’s destination image represented in tourism promotional materials. The research object is the photographs included in Greenland’s official website, Visit Greenland, which indicate the way that national DMO represent the destination.

    Design/Methodology/Approach

    – Qualitative research approach that includes content method of visual analysis was used to seek an understanding of visual representation through images that are depicted in the official website of Greenland. A total of 415 photographs was examined, in accordance to the special attributes and objects that illustrate the destination image of Greenland, in order to analyse and interpret their meanings.

    Findings

    – After analysing the photographs included in Greenland’s official website, it was found that the national DMO mostly promotes the natural-based attributes of Greenland, the absence of human, the placement of Greenland’s culture as a secondary promotional characteristic, and the promotion of unsullied landscapes.

    Limitations/Implications

    – Apart from the limitations of a case study concerning objectivity and applicability of the results, this study has also context limitation. The promotion of the destination from the National DMO was taken into consideration, excluding other tour operators, in addition to the non-disclosure of user-generated content.

    Originality/Value

    – This study contributes to tourism literature on DMOs image representation of the Arctic regions that rarely have been conducted. Findings may represent a mutually beneficially outcome of both national DMOs and tour operators as well as create a basis for further research on the promotional strategies of Greenland.

  • 180.
    Dobers, Peter
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola.
    Stier, Jonas
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies.
    Quadruple Helix Co-creation in SSH: Experiences, considerations, lessons learned in a pan-European study in 12 countries2018In: Book of papers, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
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  • 181.
    Donnerstål, Linn
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Resource Management.
    Sjödin, Lisa
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Resource Management.
    Kollektivt lärande: En kvalitativ studie om hur kollektivt lärande uppstår samt ledarskapets betydelse för det kollektiva lärandet vid en statlig myndighet2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Organizations are dependent on the employees' unique knowledge, which has come to be regarded as the most important strategic resource. Knowledge is also important for organizations' success and competitiveness. To maintain competitive advantage, it is important to create successful learning opportunities that encourage both individual and collective learning. This study aims to describe and analyse how collective learning arises and the importance of leadership for collective learning. The theoretical frame is based on theories about what prerequisites are required for collective learning and the importance of leadership. The survey's empirical data has been obtained through semi-structured interviews with three employees and three leaders at a development department at a government agency in central Sweden. The study's results have been analysed in relation to the theoretical frame. The study's conclusions are that collective learning has the potential to arise through dialogue and reflection in group meetings, through close relationships and via digital documentation. The activities that leaders create and have the potential for collective learning are; planned activities such as departmental days that enable joint exercises, knowledge forums and common lunches. Furthermore, leaders create the prerequisites by building relationships with their employees and encouraging employees to collaborate by stating cooperation as a pay criterion.

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  • 182.
    Drufva, Jonas
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Resource Management.
    Hell, Erik
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Resource Management.
    Policys – papper i en pärm eller en del av organisationskulturen?2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta examensarbete har sitt fokus på organisationskultur och policydokument i en offentlig

    organisation. Syftet för den undersökning som utfördes var att öka förståelsen för relationen

    mellan organisationskultur och policydokument samt att undersöka vilken betydelse

    policydokument och organisationskultur har för personalen. Vår ambition var att undersöka

    hur personalens förhållningssätt till policydokument är, om policydokumenten är en del utav

    deras organisationskultur, hur kulturen kommer till uttryck på deras arbetsplats samt hur den

    undersökta enheten arbetar med policydokument. Resultatet av undersökningen visar på att

    det inte finns ett aktivt arbete med policydokument. Policys är någonting man använder sig

    utav vid uppkomna situationer och detaljkunskapen om dessa policydokument var bristfällig

    hos respondenterna. De visste vart dessa dokument fanns att tillgå men inte vad själva

    dokumenten innefattade. Den tidigare erfarenheten av implementeringen av policys var

    negativ bland medarbetarna. Den erfarenheten som de flesta utav respondenterna talade om

    var en specifik personalpolicy. Denna policy hade en tidigare chef försökt implementera och

    denna implementering hade skett på ett bristande sätt men är till viss del ändå levande i

    verksamheten. En annan del av resultatet visade att det fanns en stark organisationskultur som

    präglades utav en familjär känsla och en positiv attityd. Resultatet visar att det fanns stark

    organisationskultur men även starka subgrupper inom enheten. Utifrån det som framkom

    under denna undersökning så har vi skapat rekommendationer. Dessa rekommendationer utgår

    ifrån hur vi anser att Städservice kan arbeta med policys på ett strukturerat sätt samt hur de

    kan lyfta fram det positiva som de redan gör.

  • 183.
    Duk, Perla
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Drougge, Kristofer
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Managerial Perceptions about Service Innovation in Hotels: Case Study, Sweden2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Nowadays, competition is fierce in the hotel industry. The fast development in technology is followed by a permanent battle to keep adequate level of competitive advantage. Innovation seems to be one of the most suitable solutions in the service sector. This is of interest due to the consistent and apparent interconnection between innovation and successful performance found in earlier research. However, in order to achieve successful market performance, it is necessary to have an effective management strategy of service innovation. This factor and the gap in knowledge found in research about innovation in the hospitality industry is the starting point for this research paper where the purpose is to gain understanding about managerial perception of service innovation and enlighten service innovation influence over market performance. In-depth interviews with hotel managers in Sweden were conducted, about their perception of service innovation first, then its influence over market performance. Results reveal that service innovation offers opportunities for hotels to be competitive, although there is a lack of specific strategies. Service innovation, due to its diverse aspects is perceived as complex, particularly referring to technology. It is important to recognize technology as a factor arising from the outside environment and how it influences service innovation and later market performance. Through the developing of strategy for service innovation hotels can improve market performance and stay competitive. The study contributes to increase knowledge and understanding of different managerial perceptions of service innovation and its influences over market performance in the hotel industry.

  • 184.
    Dunand, Fanny
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Factors influencing the length of stay of international tourists: Case study of Venice and its lagoon2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The length of stay is an important decision during the tourist holiday planning, because it is linked to the allocated budget and the choice of type of accommodation. Moreover, it is an important element for tourism demand because it induces both the experienced actions and activities and consequently, the money spent at the destination.

    Nowadays, tourists tend to travel several times during the year but for shorter time. This study aims to investigate the factors influencing the length of stay of international tourists visiting Venice, Italy. Venice has to deal with major issues caused by the significant growth of tourism such as tourists overcrowding, the high number of day-trippers and the decline of the population. The results from this study may contribute to solve the problems that Venice is facing. It could assist the destination marketers in identifying and targeting overnight tourists presenting the longest length of stay. Thereby, it would favour higher rate of occupancy in accommodations and higher tourism earnings.

    A quantitative method is chosen for this study based on an empirical model using an OLS (Ordinary Least Square) regression. This study is carried out by using secondary data collected by an Italian consulting firm between January 2012 and January 2013. The model includes the factors that have been identified from literature, for instance the tourists’ profile (such as age and occupation) and some trips characteristics (such as package and size group). Some factors have stronger effects than others; although, empirical findings demonstrate that each variable does influence the length of stay. The findings indicate that the available time of tourists, their budget and distance between residence and holiday’s destination are also relevant factors influencing the duration of stay.

  • 185.
    Ehliasson, Kent
    Linköpings universitet, Tema teknik och social förändring.
    Framtidsstudier i stora organisationers långsiktiga planering: analysmodell och fallstudier2005Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    People use a variety of means to orient themselves towards the future. A more organised approach to handling the future known as "futures studies" is often used in a variety of contexts including long-term planning within large organisations. In the effort to enhance the quality of such studies, there have been arguments for better methods (which makes sense), but methods may not be the most important aspect in the production of futures studies. Greater theoretical awareness in the substantive questions upon which the study is based is more important. To that end, the intent of this dissertation is to infuse a keener awareness of fundamental assumptions in futures studies and contribute to increasing their quality.

    One objective of the dissertation is to formulate a method or procedure to analyse the futures studies of large organisations, apply it to two empirical cases and thereafter analyse its strengths and weaknesses. The method I discuss and develop extensively in this work consists of an analytical framework that focuses on three aspects of each future study: its architecture, its relationship to a few of the key future issues of our time and its assumptions regarding our views on society, humanity and technology. A second objective is to systematically study future documents from two large organisations and attempt to clarify motives, orientation, methodology and distinguishing characteristics in their future processes. The cases I have chosen are the Swedish Armed Forces and the telecommunications company Ericsson, which were both in a period of transition around the mid 1990s.

    The dissertation shows how the method has been used to bring to the fore and clarify central ideas in futures studies, identify ambiguities and fuzzy thinking and to show and expose more covert assumptions. The analysis also illustrates that certain aspects of the model have been observed in the empirical material, other ideas are found to a lesser extent and certain perspectives are entirely absent. The paper stresses that the model developed has both strengths and weaknesses, but the overall assessment is that it was well-balanced and maintains appropriate depth in relation to desired efficiency. The study shows that the analytical method is relevant and adequate to understand and describe the direction and content of futures studies and in so doing enhance their quality.

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  • 186.
    Ehliasson, Kent
    Linköping University.
    Futures studies as social science: An analytic scheme and a case study2008In: Futures: The journal of policy, planning and futures studies, ISSN 0016-3287, E-ISSN 1873-6378, Vol. 40, no 5, p. 489-502Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several authors in the futures studies field have in their efforts to improve quality argued that better methods must be developed, which makes sense. But the theoretical awareness in the substantive questions upon which the studies are based is probably more important. In that light, the primary objective of this article is to formulate a method of how fundamental social issues (views on society and humanity) are addressed in a future study, apply it to one empirical case (telecommunications company Ericsson) and thereafter analyze the method’s strengths and weaknesses. The study shows that the method gained a satisfactory foothold in the material and it has an appropriate depth in relation to desired efficiency. This work has shown that the analytical method is relevant and adequate to understand and describe the orientation and contents of futures studies. Therewith, the study has generated greater awareness of fundamental assumptions in future studies that can contribute to enhancing their quality. © 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 187.
    Ehliasson, Kent
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Culture and Society, Occupational Science.
    Forsberg, Tina
    Dalarna University, School of Culture and Society, Occupational Science.
    Byråkrati eller profession? Erfarenheter från ledning och styrning före, under och efter pandemin inom en region2023Conference paper (Refereed)
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  • 188.
    Eidersten, Elin
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Culture and Society.
    Werf, Louise
    Dalarna University, School of Culture and Society.
    ”Vi är ju trots allt helt beroende av att vi klarar av att förstå varandra”: en studie om tillit i virtuella miljöer: En kvalitativ studie genomförd inom svenska offentliga organisationer2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This Bachelor's thesis focuses on trust as an organizational phenomenon, more specifically, thedyadic trust development and dynamics in the relationship between leader and follower withinSwedish public organizations when the workplace is virtual. The study applies a qualitativemethod with a relational perspective on leadership and trust, drawing on trust theory, leadershiptheory and research in both virtual trust and virtual leadership. The study includes data fromleaders and followers in two Swedish public organizations collected in semi-structuredinterviews. The main contribution of this study is the model that is presented which is based onthe empirical material and on a pre-existing model of trust including integrity, benevolence andability, and on current research in trust and leadership in virtual environments. According tothis model, the use of communication, body language, conversations that build relationships,technical aids and a balance between control and support are of importance to trust in virtualsettings. The study also demonstrates differences between how leaders and followers perceivethe balance between control and support. The findings imply for managerial leadership thatraising the level of awareness of trust development in virtual settings is crucial, because leadersmay act with the intent of increasing the level of support but end up decreasing the level of trustwhen the follower interprets the act as increased control. This may affect the ability to apply atrust-based leadership in virtual settings, which is, because of the work by the governmentappointed Trust-delegation, what many Swedish public organizations today have the ambitionto do. The model that is presented in this study can be used as a tool when working with trustand open up to future research.

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  • 189.
    Ekengren, Madeleine
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Resource Management.
    Liss-Back, Emelie
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Resource Management.
    En kvalitativ studie om risk-och friskfaktorer inom den psykosociala arbetsmiljön2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The theoretical starting point for this study was that employees are affected depending on how they experience demands, control and social support in the workplace. The purpose of this study was to create a deeper understanding of the psychosocial work environment, by examining the risks and health factors that employees perceive in their work environment. The study has used a qualitative study in which eight semi-structured interviews were conducted on the basis of a purposeful selection of the collective employees of an industrial company.The result shows that employees felt that good leadership, social support and high influence were the most prominent health factors. The risk factors identified in the study were staff shortages, high efficiency and production goals as well as lack of leadership in the form of lack of knowledge and the absence of the highest manager. The employees who felt they could handle their workload in a good way were the employees who, for example, described that they had a supportive manager and good control in the work. However, the study found that the factors that some employees perceived as health factors could be perceived by others as risk factors. This turned out to be due to how the employees perceived their work situation. The conclusion showed that both a collective and an individual perspective must be taken into account when organizations choose to work with the requirements and control model

  • 190.
    Ekman, Julia
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Finding the right Volunteer for Event organisers: A comparison between Volunteering to a music event and a ski event in Dalarna, Sweden2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    When organising events volunteer participation is very important. The volunteers make the

    machinery of the events go around and without them the experiences of the visitors might suffer.

    When volunteering a person gives up their spare time in order to work for free. It takes a special

    kind of commitment to make such a sacrifice. Therefore it is very important to get the right

    people engaged as volunteers and this is a challenge for every event manager.

    The aim of this thesis is to describe and compare the socio-demographic profiles of

    people volunteering as well as their motives for volunteering at the Peace & Love music event

    and Falun2015, the Ski World Championship. During the International World Ski

    Championship, Falun2015 and the music festival Peace and Love there were many volunteers

    active. These events are very different but they still have a lot of similarities; they are time

    restricted, local to the area of Dalarna in central Sweden and they cater to people with special

    interests.

    The data has been collected through questionnaires handed out at the events. The data

    from the Peace & Love festival is secondary and the data from Falun2015 has been collected and

    analysed for this thesis specifically. It was found that in general the volunteers at Peace & Love

    are younger whilst the age distribution amongst the Falun2015 volunteers is quite equally

    distributed. This can later be reflected in the income level and the educational level, arguing that

    younger people might increase these levels later in life. The top three motivations for

    volunteering are very similar, this indicates that it is the personal interest that dictates which

    event a volunteer engages in.

    This thesis will help event managers reach out to the right population segment that fits the event

    at hand. Further research should be done on weather the adaptation of focusing volunteer

    recruitment to specific socio- and/or economic demographics has any influence on the number of

    volunteers signing up.

  • 191.
    Ekström,, Emma
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Culture and Society.
    Höglund, Maria
    Dalarna University, School of Culture and Society.
    ” …det är viktigt att sätta laget före jaget ”: En kvalitativ studie om enhetschefers uppfattning av ledarskap på distans.2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Due to the Covid-19 pandemic, leaders have been largely forced to lead remotely, since organizations in the country have been expected to facilitate remote work as much as possible (Folkhälsomyndigheten, 2021). The purpose of this study is to contribute to a deeper understanding of how leaders view remote leadership. In order to answer the question, qualitative interviews were conducted to find out what opportunities and challenges there are with remote leadership and what types of technical aids are used.Studies show that transformative leadership is preferable to transactional leadership when leading remotely (Antonakis et al., 2016; Wright et al., 2011). According to Hoch and Kozlowski (2014), the transformative leader's qualities are to create motivation among employees, which leads to increased job satisfaction. According to Alward and Phelps (2019), a leader’s trust and confidence are important for remote management. Research shows that new technology can be a success inhibitor (Olson & Olson, 2009) and that it is important that leaders communicate with their voice to employees (Offstein et al., 2010).The study uses qualitative methods that are inspired by empirical phenomenology. The study is hermeneutical, interpreting the results using an abductive approach. The study's collection method has been semi-structured interviews of seven home-care unit managers.The empirical results show that accessibility and communication are considered important when leading remotely. This is partly supported by the theory, but this also shows that the phenomenon of remote leadership is relatively unexplored and that further research on the phenomenon of remote leadership linked to accessibility is needed.

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  • 192.
    El Jazzar, Nivin
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Resource Management.
    Eriksson, Anna-Stina
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Resource Management.
    “Alla säger alltid att jag verkar må så bra på jobbet och jag mår verkligen bra här.”: En kvalitativ studie om friskfaktorer på Borlänge kommun2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to contribute to a deeper understanding of factors that are crucial for long-term well-being and health from an employee perspective. This by studying what employees in the social sector in Borlänge municipality experience contributes to well-being and health in the workplace. Furthermore, this study intended to give suggestions on how the work with health factors in Borlänge municipality can be developed. To best answer the purpose, a qualitative method was chosen in which the approach for collecting empirical data was semi-structured interviews with long-term healthy employees from the area of personal assistance. The results showed that factors such as supportive leadership, participation, autonomy, positive work climate and work-life balance were common in the respondents work situation, which are factors that has shown to have a positive effect on employees' health. Furthermore, the respondents' long-term well-being and health could also be explained by additional health factors that were identified in their work environment. The respondents described that security due to long work experience and work ethic linked to loyalty were factors that contributed to their well-being. The experience is described as a means of handling various situations that may arise in the work situation as well as stress reducing as it creates a clarity about what expectations are in the work and between colleagues. High work ethic due to loyalty seems to be rooted in a desire to contribute to the benefit of another human by being an important resource in his or her life. All in all, the results show that the foundation for successful environment work with health factors requires security and trust partly between the manager and employees and partly between the employees. Finally, the study's results show that, in certain circumstances, health factors may contribute to new opportunities for promoting work environment work.

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  • 193.
    Elbe, Jörgen
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Culture and Society, Business Administration and Management.
    Farsari, Ioanna
    Dalarna University, School of Culture and Society, Tourism Studies.
    Do we need a new airport in the Mountains?: An analysis of soft and strong sustainability arguments2023In: Enabling Sustainable Visits / [ed] Mathias Cöster, Sabine Gebert Persson & Owe Ronström, Visby: Uppsala University, 2023, p. 53-78Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 194.
    Elbe, Jörgen
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Culture and Society, Business Administration and Management.
    Farsari, Ioanna
    Dalarna University, School of Culture and Society, Tourism Studies.
    Stakeholders’ sustainability discourses of a tourist project in rural Sweden2021In: 29th Nordic Symposium on Tourism and Hospitality Research, “Shaping mobile futures: Challenges and possibilities in precarious times", 2021Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainability is a concept that has been dominating developmental and political debates during at least the last two decades. It is a contested concept, flexible enough to match diverse or even conflicting viewpoints and interests. In tourism, this vagueness is related to the value-based character of the sustainable tourism concept. The concept is often related to broad and sweeping ethical and ideological considerations and to a simplified and harmonic view on sustainable development where inescapable conflict of interests between social, cultural, economic and environmental issues are neglected. The aim of this research is to critically discuss discourses of sustainability of a disputed tourist project in rural Sweden as communicated in mass media. More specifically, the research is examining the case of Sälen mountain resort and look on how the development process of a new international airport, inaugurated in 2020, was presented and debated in newspapers. The project was considered controversial with many proponents as well as opponents raising conflicting interests and points of view. We have analysed material in newspapers for the period 2011-2019. Preliminary findings indicate that the project of the development of an international airport is presented as hopeful and good with indications of intrinsic though utilitarian values. Pro-growth discourses around increasing numbers of international tourists and job generation, or even of positive environmental impacts are evident in the media. Opposition on the other hand, comes as debate articles and develops around tax-payers money, responsibility to future generations and environmental concerns. Discourses of weak and strong approaches and pro-growth vs degrowth become part of the discussion of the results to inform the theoretical framework of analysis. As this transportation project and the discourses around it analysed rely a lot on the premise of growth and international tourism, aspects of circularity become also part of the discussion.  The role of an international airport as a transportation mega-project to compensate for rurality and peripherality as well as social sustainability is evident also in the discourses. Aspects of locality and proximity are ignored in these discourses and pinpoint its relevance to circularity paradigm and its contribution in advancing sustainability discourses. 

  • 195.
    Eldh, Ann Catrine
    Örebro universitet, Hälsovetenskapliga institutionen.
    Patient participation: what it is and what it is not2006Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In general, patient participation is regarded as being informed and partaking in decision making regarding one’s care and treatment. This interpretation is common in legislation throughout the Western world and corresponding documents guiding health care professionals, as well as in scientific studies. Even though this understanding of the word participation can be traced to a growing emphasis on individuals’ autonomy in society and to certain dictionary defi nitions, there are other ways of understanding participation from a semantic point of view, and no trace of patients’ descriptions of what it is to participate can be found in these definitions.

    Hence, the aim of this dissertation was to understand patients’ experience of the phenomenon of patient participation. An additional aim was to understand patients’ experience of non-participation and to describe the conditions for patient participation and non-participation, in order to understand the prerequisites for patient participation.

    The dissertation comprises four papers. The philosophical ideas of Ricoeur provided a basis for the studies: how communication can present ways to understand and explain experiences of phenomena through phenomenological hermeneutics. The first and second studies involved a group of patients living with chronic heart failure. For the fi rst study, 10 patients were interviewed, with a narrative approach, about their experience of participation and non-participation, as defi ned by the participants. For the second study, 11 visits by three patients at a nurse-led outpatient clinic were observed, and consecutive interviews were performed with the patients and the nurses, investigating what they experience as patient participation and non-participation. A triangulation of data was performed to analyse the occurrence of the phenomena in the observed visits. For paper 3 and 4, a questionnaire was developed and distributed among a diverse group of people who had recent experience of being patients. The questionnaire comprised respondent’s description of what patient participation is, using items based on findings in Study 1, along with open-ended questions for additional aspects and general issues regarding situations in which the respondent had experienced patient participation and/or non-participation.

    The findings show additional aspects to patient participation: patient participation is being provided with information and knowledge in order for one to comprehend one’s body, disease, and treatment and to be able to take self-care actions based on the context and one’s values. Participation was also found to include providing the information and knowledge one has about the experience of illness and symptoms and of one’s situation. Participation occurs when being listened to and being recognised as an individual and a partner in the health care team. Non-participation, on the other hand, occurs when one is regarded as a symptom, a problem to be solved. To avoid non-participation, the information provided needs to be based on the individual’s need and with recognition of the patient’s knowledge and context.

    In conclusion, patient participation needs to be reconsidered in health care regulations and in clinical settings: patients’ defi nitions of participation, found to be close to the dictionaries’ description of sharing, should be recognised and opportunities provided for sharing knowledge and experience in two-way-communication.

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  • 196.
    Eldh, Ann Catrine
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Hälsovetenskapliga institutionen.
    Ehnfors, Margareta
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för vårdvetenskap och omsorg.
    Ekman, Inger
    The Sahlgrenska Academy at Göteborg University, Faculty of Health and Caring Sciences, Institute of Nursing, Göteborg.
    The meaning of patient participation for patients and nurses at a nurse-led clinic for chronic heart failure2006In: European Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing, ISSN 1474-5151, E-ISSN 1873-1953, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 45-53Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BackgroundThe legislation of many Western countries emphasizes active patient participation. Patients with chronic heart failure (CHF), however, have experienced participation differently from the general interpretation of legal definitions. Education improves uptake of self-management strategies yet knowledge is lacking about support of patients' own resources in CHF.

    AimTo explore the phenomena of patient participation and non-participation as shown in patient visits to a nurse-led clinic for CHF and as experienced by the patients and nurses.

    MethodsData triangulation of field notes from participatory observations and texts from narrative interviews with the patients and assigned nurse specialists. Data were analyzed according to the phenomenological hermeneutic tradition.

    FindingsPatients' experience of participation and non-participation was interpreted as “Being responsible and accepting responsibility” and “Lacking an equal relationship while being controlled”, respectively. Nurses experienced patient participation as “Getting information and security to act” and patient non-participation as “Not accepting”.

    ConclusionConflicting values of patients and nurses, which were interpreted with respect to participation and non-participation, presumably might influence patient information and education negatively. The issue of participation should be raised as a means of attaining concordance and to facilitate patient participation with education specifically tailored to the individual patient's needs.

  • 197.
    Eldh, Ann Catrine
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Hälsovetenskapliga institutionen.
    Ehnfors, Margareta
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för vårdvetenskap och omsorg.
    Ekman, Inger
    The Sahlgrenska Academy at Göteborg University, Faculty of Health and Caring Sciences, Institute of Nursing, Göteborg.
    The phenomena of participation and non-participation in health care: experiences of patients attending a nurse-led clinic for chronic heart failure2004In: European Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing, ISSN 1474-5151, E-ISSN 1873-1953, Vol. 3, no 3, p. 239-246Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Patient participation is stressed in the health care acts of many western countries yet a common definition of the concept is lacking. The understanding of experiences of patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) who attend nurse-led specialist clinics, a form of care suggested as beneficiary to this group, may promote a better understanding of participation. Aim: To investigate the meanings of participation and non-participation as experienced by patients living with CHF. Methods: Narrative interviews analysed in the phenomenological hermeneutic tradition inspired by Ricoeur where the interpretation is made in the hermeneutic circle, explaining and understanding the experienced phenomena. Findings: Participation was experienced as to “be confident”, “comprehend” and “seek and maintain a sense of control”. Non-participation was experienced as to “not understand”, “not be in control”, “lack a relationship” and “not be accountable”. The findings indicate that the experiences of participation and non-participation can change over time and phases of the disease and treatment. Conclusion: The study suggests an extended view on the concept of participation. Patients' experiences of participation in health care can vary and should therefore be an issue for dialogue between nurses and patients with CHF in nurse-led specialist clinics.

  • 198.
    Eldh, Ann Catrine
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Hälsovetenskapliga institutionen.
    Ekman, Inger
    The Sahlgrenska Academy at Göteborg University, Faculty of Health and Caring Sciences, Institute of Nursing, Göteborg.
    Ehnfors, Margareta
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för idrott och hälsa.
    Conditions for patient participation and non-participation in health care2006In: Nursing Ethics, ISSN 0969-7330, E-ISSN 1477-0989, Vol. 13, no 5, p. 503-514Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explored patients' experiences of participation and non-participation in their health care. A questionnaire-based survey method was used. Content analysis showed that conditions for patient participation occurred when information was provided not by using standard procedures but based on individual needs and accompanied by explanations, when the patient was regarded as an individual, when the patient's knowledge was recognized by staff, and when the patient made decisions based on knowledge and needs, or performed self-care. Thus, to provide conditions for true patient participation, professionals need to recognize each patient's unique knowledge and respect the individual's description of his or her situation rather than just inviting the person to participate in decision making.

  • 199.
    Eliasson, Anna
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Tourism Studies.
    How animal parks are marketing themselves through an animal welfare perspective: Analysis of Sea World, Australia Zoo, Orsa Rovdjurspark and Sriracha Tiger Zoo2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Animal parks have for decades worked as a popular tourism attractions, both from an educationally and entertainment point of view. The awareness of animals and their welfare is something that is well discussed in the literature. However, the welfare of animals with the connection from a marketing perspective, is something that is still relatively unknown. This thesis have investigated the amount of animal welfare that is integrated in the marketing from four different animal parks. The research was conducted through a qualitative content analysis, where the marketing material from the animal organisations were being analysed. The results from this research revealed that the amount of animal welfare differed among the parks. In three of them the focus on welfare were relatively high, whilst in the fourth the welfare were none existed. While the analysis indicated on some similarities among the parks, some differences were also stated. These results can be of interests for further research within the tourism field. For instance research where these results are being compared with the parks business actions, to see how well they matches.

  • 200.
    Emanuelz, Elin
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Resource Management.
    Nordh, Emma
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Resource Management.
    Det är lönen som räknas, eller?: En uppföljning av Ludvika kommuns lönesatsning påsocialsekreterare 20162017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    There has been widespread attention to social workers and their working life in recent years.

    This issue is relevant to all parties in the labour market and thus a key subject for the final

    exam for the Bachelor of Science in Human Recourse Management. The following essay

    aims

    to follow up on the wage efforts made by Social workers in Ludvika Municipality in 2016.

    The data was collected through a methodological combination consisting of an Internet-based

    survey of the social workers affected, and nine qualitative interviews. The theoretical starting

    points began with motivational theories such as Maslow´s hierarchy of needs. Herzberg´s two

    factor theory and cognitive expectation theory. The main part of the theory section is the

    theory of ‘arbetslivsförankring’, which is the authors’ translation of job embeddedness,

    created by Holtom, Mitchell and Lee (2006). An explanatory model for this theory was

    formulated and returned in the results analysis to estimate the level of working life anchorage

    in social administration in Ludvika Municipality.

    The results

    show that the wage effort to some extent fulfilled its purpose, as 30 out of 34

    empolyees still working in the social administration in Ludvika Municipality. On the other

    hand, wage efforts brought some negative consequences when social workers expressed

    frustration stating that there is more than pay supplement required to stay on their job.

    The

    conclusion

    is that the pay could be better communicated to further the relationship and create

    confidence between employers and employees, in regards to what makes employs decide to

    stay in their workplace, it was repeatedly found that factors other than pay were the main

    motivators.

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