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  • 151. Sahlin, K
    et al.
    Shabalina, I
    Mattsson, M
    Bakkman, L
    Fernström, M
    Rozhdestvenskaya, Z
    Enqvist, J
    Nedergaard, J
    Ekblom, B
    Tonkonogi, Michail
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Medical Science.
    Ultraendurance exercise increases the production of reactive oxygen species in isolated mitochondria from human skeletal muscle2010In: Journal of applied physiology, ISSN 8750-7587, E-ISSN 1522-1601, Vol. 108, no 4, p. 780-787Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Exercise-induced oxidative stress is important for the muscular adaptation to training but may also cause muscle damage. We hypothesized that prolonged exercise would increase mitochondrial production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) measured in vitro and that this correlates with oxidative damage. Eight male athletes (24–32 yr) performed ultraendurance exercise (kayaking/running/cycling) with an average work intensity of 55% V?O2peak for 24 h. Muscle biopsies were taken from vastus lateralis before exercise, immediately after exercise, and after 28 h of recovery. The production of H2O2 was measured fluorometrically in isolated mitochondria with the Amplex red and peroxidase system. Succinate-supported mitochondrial H2O2 production was significantly increased after exercise (73% higher, P = 0.025) but restored to the initial level at recovery. Plasma level of free fatty acids (FFA) increased fourfold and exceeded 1.2 mmol/l during the last 6 h of exercise. Plasma FFA at the end of exercise was significantly correlated to mitochondrial ROS production (r = 0.74, P < 0.05). Mitochondrial content of 4-hydroxy-nonenal-adducts (a marker of oxidative damage) was increased only after recovery and was not correlated with mitochondrial ROS production. Total thiol group level and glutathione peroxidase activity were elevated after recovery. In conclusion, ultraendurance exercise increases ROS production in isolated mitochondria, but this is reversed after 28 h recovery. Mitochondrial ROS production was not correlated with oxidative damage of mitochondrial proteins, which was increased at recovery but not immediately after exercise.

  • 152.
    Sarhatlic, Nermin
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Känsla av sammanhang till fysisk aktivitet: En interventionsstudie för att förändra elevernas motivation till fysisk aktivitet.2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie var att undersöka möjligheterna till att förändra elevernas motivation till fysisk aktivitet. I studien användes enkäten BREQ-2 (se bilaga 2) som är validerad för att mäta motivation hos ungdomar. Efter genomförd enkätundersökning kunde resultatet påvisa elevers motivation till fysisk aktivitet.

    Ett interventionsprogram genomfördes som är inspirerad av Aaron Antonovskys teorier om känsla av sammanhang med syfte att förändra elevernas motivation till fysisk aktivitet.

    Undersökningen genomfördes på en gymnasieskola i Mellansverige. Två klasser valdes ut varav en av klasserna var testgrupp och den andra klassen var en kontrollgrupp. Klasserna bestod av en jämlik fördelning mellan pojkar och flickor och eleverna var mellan femton till sexton år gamla vid genomförandet. Innan interventionsprogrammet genomfördes fick båda klasserna fylla i en enkät som besvarade vilken typ av motivation eleverna motiverades av till fysisk aktivitet (se bilaga 2). Samma enkät fylldes i och besvarades av eleverna efter interventionsprogrammet för att undersöka eventuella skillnader i motivation innan och efter. Det var enbart testgruppen som utförde interventionsprogrammet.

    Resultatet av studien påvisar att båda grupperna dvs. testgruppen och kontrollgruppen har förändrat sin motivation till fysisk aktivitet. I testgruppen där interventionsprogrammet genomfördes har tre olika typer av motivation förändrats, d.v.s.

    amotivation, external regulation, introjected regulation, identified regulation och integrated regulation. De tre motivationerna som förändrades var amotivation, external regulation och introjected regulation. Två av dessa typer av motivation hör till yttre motivationen som beskrivs att eleverna upplever att de måste utöva fysiskt aktivitet eller att eleverna utövar fysisk aktivitet för att slippa skuldkänslor, amotivation är när eleven helt saknar någon form av motivation till fysisk aktivitet (se tabell 3).

  • 153.
    Seger, Jan
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Hård af Segerstad, Kristina
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Nilsson, Johnny
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    GIH:s rullskidprojekt: Lärarstudenter GIH 2008 delrapport 2: 20092010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Gymnastik – och idrottshögskolan, GIH, har en lång tradition av utbildning inom skidåkning. Redan 1924 genomfördes den första fjällfärden för civila studenter i Jämtland och sedan 1926 har obligatorisk utbildning i turteknik, förlagd till fjällterräng, genomförts (Schantz & Halldén, 1988). Utförsåkning och längdåkning har också länge funnits med som inslag i vinterutbildningen. För närvarande har samtliga program vid GIH (lärarprogrammet, tränarprogrammet och hälsopedagogprogrammet) en obligatorisk vinterutbildning i fjällmiljö, omfattande omkring tre högskolepoäng (cirka två veckors heltidsstudier).

    Under senare år har en ökande andel av de antagna studenterna uppvisat brister vad gäller grundläggande skidfärdighet, vilket försvårat möjligheterna till breddning och fördjupning, såväl teoretiskt som praktiskt, under vinterutbildningen. De stora skillnaderna i färdighet hos studenterna innebär, förutom svårigheterna att tekniskt och didaktiskt arbeta med olika aspekter av skidåkning med heterogena grupper under en så begränsad tid, även att säkerheten under turåkningsmomentet får större fokus än vad som tidigare varit fallet. Den bristande skidåkningsfärdigheten hos vissa studenter kan bland annat få till följd att de får svårt att genomföra turåkningen. Den vanligtvis otillräckliga snötillgången i Mellansverige gör att träning på "hemmaplan" blir svår att genomföra.

    I syfte att söka komma till rätta med denna problematik genomfördes ett delprojekt inom ramen för det så kallade "GIH 2008-projektet". Studenter som själva ansåg sig ha en bristande skidteknik, eller betraktade sig som nybörjare i skidåkning, erbjöds delta i projektet. Utöver möjligheten att stödja studenter som saknade eller hade liten tidigare erfarenhet av skidåkning, fanns här möjlighet att prova olika metodiker för didaktiska studier.

    Denna åtgärd från GIH:s sida att bistå studenter som av geografiska, klimatologiska eller av andra orsaker inte haft möjlighet att tidigare skaffa sig skiderfarenhet kommer sannolikt att bli än mer betydelsefull i framtiden.

    Nedan presenteras data för stakmomentet och diagonalåkningen i projektet. Ett antal utrustningar, bestående av skidskor, stavar och rullskidor införskaffades och studenterna fick en möjlighet att under några veckor träna rullskidåkning

    Såväl kvalitativa som kvantitativa metoder användes för utvärdering av träningsprocesser. Denna utvärdering baserades på videofilmning och datorbaserad videoanalys.

  • 154.
    Sinanovic, Haris
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Larsson, Ludvig
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Undersökning om fotbollsutövande gymnasieelevers uppfattningar av skaderisk på konstgräs respektive naturgräs: En kvantitativ enkätundersökning2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    The aim with this study is investigate football practicing high school students’ perceptions of risk of injury on artificial turf and natural grass.

    Methods

    A quantitative questionnaire survey including 46 participating football practicing high school students. The Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test was used to calculate the mean and to distinguish statistically significant differences between the different groups, match and training on artificial turf and natural grass. The Chi-Square crosstab post-hoc test was used to distinguish statistically significant differences between the different types of injury on the respective game grounds

    Results

    The results in this study showed that the participating football practicing high school students’ perceived that the injury risk of acute- and overload injuries was higher on artificial turf than on natural grass, both during training and match. The difference between the different groups, acute and overload injuries during training and match on articial turf and natural grass was statistically significant as the level of significancewas less than p <0.05. The injury types that the participating football practicing high school students perceived to be the most common on artificial turf was abrasion/ laceration. The injury types that the participating football practicing high school students perceived to be the most common on natural grass were musclesprain/ strain. The difference between the different groups, musclesprain/ strain as well as abrasion/ laceration on artificial turf and natural grass was statistically significant as the level of significance was less than p <0.05.

    Conclusions

    This study confirms that the participating football practicing high school students’ perceptions concur with what previous studies have shown about elite football players' perceptions of injury risk on artificial turf in comparison with natural grass. The risk of acute and overload injuries is perceived to increase when playing on artificial turf in comparison to natural grass. Qualitative research methods could contribute to deeper understanding of the subject itself, as well as experiences of perceptions of injuries and types of injury on respective turfs. In order to draw further conclusions, should future studies include more participants.

  • 155.
    Sjöström, Erika
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Säterdahl, Joel
    Vintercyklisten - ett konditionsfrämjande projekt? Hur påverkas konditionen av att delta i Vintercyklisten2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 156.
    Sjöström, Frida
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Medeldistanstränares användning av feedback tillelitidrottare: Hur används feedback i träningssituationer?2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to understand and describe how coaches for elite middle-distance runners use feedback at practice. The questions of the study included what type of feedback was used, how and when it was given and in some cases even justifications for why it was given that way.Semi-structured interviews were chosen as the research method and the sample was six coaches from Sweden. Every interview was transcribed and analyzed in the same way to find categories that would answer the aim.The results showed that there were differences between the respondent’s experiences according to what, how and when they gave feedback. Three of the coaches gave the feedback at technique while the other three gave more feedback on body position and how to run relaxed. When feedback was given during practice did also differ among the coaches.The conclusion of this study is that most feedback is dependent on the coach’s own experience and what type of feedback that was given.

  • 157.
    Skoglund, Björn
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies.
    Att mäta hälsa bland vårdpersonal - en litteraturstudie2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 158.
    Spångmyr, Marie
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies.
    Hur arbetar tränare inom orientering för att förebygga skador?2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 159.
    Stannard, S
    et al.
    Institute of Food, Nutrition and Human Health, Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand.
    Hawke, Emma
    Institute of Food, Nutrition and Human Health, Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand.
    Schnell, N
    Fonterra Research Centre, Palmserston North, New Zealand.
    The effect of galactose supplementation on endurance cycling performance2009In: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0954-3007, E-ISSN 1476-5640, Vol. 63, no 2, p. 209-214Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES:

    This study tested the hypothesis that supplementation with galactose before and during endurance exercise would spare carbohydrate (CHO), optimize fat utilization and improve performance compared with a typical sports drink formulation.

    SUBJECTS:

    Nine well-trained cyclists undertook three trials, each consisting of 120 min at 65 VO(2max) followed immediately by a set work, self-paced time trial (TT). Three treatments, allocated as a randomized balanced design, consisted of the following: (a) 8% (w/w) solution of galactose (Gal); (b) 8% solution of 50% galactose/50% glucose (Gluc/Gal); and (c) 8% solution of 80% glucose/20% fructose (Gluc/Fru). These were consumed as 0.67 g CHO per kg body wt 45-min pre-exercise; 1.0 g CHO per kg body wt per h for the first 120 min of exercise; 0.33 g CHO per kg body wt during the TT. Blood samples were collected before and during exercise; respiratory gas samples were collected only during fixed workload exercise.

    RESULTS:

    Mean TT power output was significantly less in Gal compared with Gluc/Gal (P=0.030). Blood glucose and insulin concentrations were lower, and free fatty acids higher in Gal compared with Gluc/Gal and Gluc/Fru. Respiratory exchange ratio was not significantly different between trials.

    CONCLUSIONS:

    Ingestion of an 8% galactose-only solution (12.5 ml per kg body wt per h) is detrimental to endurance performance compared with equivalent volumes of iso-osmotic solutions containing 50% galactose/50% glucose or 80% glucose/20% fructose. This may reflect the inability of the liver to convert galactose into glucose at a rate required to support strenuous exercise intensity.

  • 160.
    Stenberg, Emma
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Är den tillämpade idrottsforskningen könsneutral?: Fallstudie på en tidskrifts publikationer2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte

    Mötet mellan kroppen som något socialt format och som något biologiskt mätbart som sker i idrott kan vara problematiskt vilket visat sig genom tidigare forskning inom området. Olika sätt att se på kön kan göra att biologisk jämlikhet mellan män och kvinnor förutsätts där det finns skillnader eller att skillnader förutsätts där det inte finns några. Syftet med denna studie var att genom en systematisk litteraturgranskning belysa det tillämpade idrottsvetenskapliga forskningsfältets urval av försökspersoner och rapportering av dessa. Samt utifrån teorier kring kön och genus tolka resultatet av detta. Vidare var syftet att undersöka effekten av förstaförfattarens könskategori på val av urvalsgrupper och rapportering av dessa. Studien tar bland annat sin utgångspunkt i Hirdmans formler för förhållandet mellan man och kvinna för att analysera de resultat som fås. Tas både kulturella och biologiska aspekter på kroppen i beaktning i den idrottsvetenskapliga forskning som sker som sedan skall tillämpas i praktiken?

    Metod

    Genom en fallstudie av en idrottsvetenskaplig tidskrift som publicerar studier inom den tillämpade idrottsvetenskapliga forskningen kodades dess publicerade artiklar. Totalt kodades 291 artiklar som hörde till original investigations, case studies och technical reports. Särskild vikt lades vid de kodade artiklarnas sammanfattning och urval av försökspersoner varför titel, sammanfattning, sökord och könskategori på förstaförfattare kodades. Även könsfördelning på försökspersonerna i urvalsgruppen och totalt antal försökspersoner kodades. 

    Resultat

    I häften av alla artiklar gick könsfördelning inte att utläsa i sammanfattning. Totalt identifierades 8643 försökspersoner varav 4191 var av manligt kön, 1440 av kvinnligt kön och 3012 gick inte att koda till en könskategori. Fler än 50 % av artiklarna identifierades med ett urval av enbart män, 6 % med ett urval av enbart kvinnor, 21 % blandat urval och resterande gick inte att koda. I 84 % av fallen identifierades förstaförfattare som man.

    Slutsats

    Vid en första anblick av en artikel kan det vara svårt att bilda sig en uppfattning kring könsfördelning på studiens urvalsgrupp. Urvalsgrupperna är inte jämnt fördelade mellan kvinnor och män. En skev rekrytering av urvalet kan ge upphov till att den idrottsvetenskapliga forskningen speglar idrottens premisser att det är en manlig arena. På detta sätt riskerar den att reproducera den manliga normen inom idrotten genom att påverka framtida forskning eller idrottsutbildningar.

  • 161.
    Strand, Ellen
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Lev, älska och surfa: En kvalitativ studie om surfing som livsstil2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    The purpose of this study was to examine the surfer's experiences of surfing as a lifestyle sport.

    - How describe surfers their experiences in the lifestyle sport of surfing?

    - What categories can their understanding of surfing as a lifestyle sport be centered around?

    Method

    The methodology for the survey was a phenomenological hermeneutic approach. The choices of a phenomenological hermeneutical approach give the opportunity to take part of people's "inner worlds" i.e. how they perceive the world in which they live in. To gather data the author used narrative interviews, creating a deeper understanding of the phenomenon to be investigated, and urges participants as freely as possible to tell about his or her perceived experience.

    Results

    Based on the analysis the author created six categories that linked to the surfers understanding and described how a surfer experience surfing. These categories were; Surf Life, affiliation, mindfulness, devotion, self-satisfaction and aestheticizing

    Conclusions

    The conclusion of this study is that surf, for good or bad, creates a dependency that participants cannot be without. Surfing makes the participants happy and attracts them to constantly evolve but it also develops a dependency where you just think about yourself. The six participants live their lives in different ways, but their differences will vanish when they meet out in the water where they have one thing in common, live, love and surfing.

  • 162.
    Strömberg, Josephine
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Bergeå, Johanna
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Tävlingsryttares uppfattning gällande styrketräning2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Equestrian sport is one of the biggest sports in Sweden with 29 600-competition riders. Equestrian sport demands a high physical capacity and competition riders need to have both strength, endurance and balance. Therefore, strength training should always be a part of a competition rider´s training regime, because strength training can lead to enhanced performance at the same time as it prevents injuries. Despite this, research that show how much strength training a competition rider perform is limited. Some say that competition riders most often don´t perform any training outside of riding, while some say that physical training is a natural element in a competition rider everyday life.

    Purpose

    : The purpose of this study was to describe competition rider´s perceptions regarding strength training as well as the motivation for strength training. Furthermore, the study aims at examining how much and what kind of strength training competition riders perform as well as why/why not strength training is being performed.

    Method:

    Information was gathered through questionnaires and through interviews. The selection for the questionnaire was based of competition riders over the age of 18 that compete in islandic horse-competition. The selection for the interviews was based of equestrian trainers in the south of Dalarna that all train competition rider.

    Results:

    The result showed that more than half of the competition riders that were part of this study reach the recommendations that are set for strength training. The result also showed a generally positive attitude towards strength training where a perception of strength training leading to a better riding performance was noticeable. The reasons why competition riders perform strength training turned out to be "To be healthy" and "To become a better rider". The reasons why competition rider’s don´t perform strength training turned out to be "Lack of time", "Lack of motivation" and to some extent also "Lack of knowledge".

    Slutsatser

    : The competition riders and equestrian trainers in this study generally have a positive attitude towards strength training, but despite of this there are some barriers that prevent strength training. Competition riders should work to overcome these barriers, because strength training has been showed important when performing on top in equestrian sport.

  • 163.
    Stub Nybelius, Marit
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    License to Jump: A history of women´s Ski Jumping2015 (ed. 1)Book (Other academic)
  • 164.
    Stub Nybelius, Marit
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Sports and mediatization: a case of women´s ski-jumping2011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Ski jumping was the only sport included in the Winter Olympics, where women were not allowed to take part until the first week of April 2011, when IOC decided to let them in to the Olympic family, a major victory for women´s ski-jumping. Since 2004 the Norwegian media had women ski jumping as one important topic in their media coverage. The third of March 2010 the new Holmenkollen ski-jumping hill was inaugurated. It had been rebuilt for the World Championships 2011. The first jump on the hill was surrounded by an intense debate. Annette Sagen was decided to be the first jumper on the hill after a poll on the social media channel Facebook that gave Annette Sagen over 40 000 votes.  However Tuesday the second of March Björn Einar Romören, a world cup jumper, did the first jump during a training session. This act started a significant chain of events. The biggest Norwegian web – magazines Verldens Gang and Aftenposten made this the head story and they invited the readers to interaction. Within 24 hours 11 000 comments were written, most of them in favor of Sagen and against Romören´s behavior. The Norwegian Ski Association excluded Romören from two World Cup competitions. What did happen during these days in the media?  I want to present the activities, which went on in two web-magazines, and analyze the articles written on the topic. Main issues are to show what an impact a social media network had on the sport in this specific case and how different actors appeared in the media and discuss if Romörens exclusion was a result of the mediatization.

  • 165.
    Sundqvist, Emanuel
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies.
    Internt och externt uppmärksamhetsfokus inom fotboll: En studie på ett idrottsgymnasium i Mellansverige2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 166.
    Svensson, Elias
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Streijffert, Marcus
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Självupplevda möjligheter att utöva idrott hos personer med fysisk funktionsnedsättning: En enkätundersökning inom uthållighetsidrott2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    The aim of the survey was to chart how endurance athletes with physical disabilities

    experience their opportunities to exercise sport compared to a group of conventional athletes

    within endurance sport.

    Method

    A quantitative survey with nine statements and an open question was applied. The sample

    consisted of 40 athletes with physical disability (mean age = 31.5, SD = 12.1) in the

    intervention group and 57 conventional athletes (mean age = 34.6, SD = 11.6) in the control

    group.

    Result

    The athletes with physical disabilities experienced significantly worse opportunities than

    conventional athletes regarding training group nearby (p = 0.002), sense of belonging (p =

    0.001) and access to equipment (p = 0.009). The overall mean of the claims with likert scale

    in the survey was 3.76 (SD = 1.23) for athletes with physical disabilities and 3.97 (SD = 1.02)

    for conventional athletes.

    Conclusion

    Athletes with physical disabilities both experience the absence of a training group nearby and

    a lower sense of belonging may be possible, ie. the difficulty in getting a training company

    reduces sense of beloning. For future research, a qualitative survey with leaders in disability

    sports is required to increase understanding of the training environment and access to

    equipment.

  • 167.
    Syvertsen Olofsson, Elisabeth
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Fysisk aktivitet för personer med fibromyalgi: En kvalitativ studie om fibromyalgisjukas upplevelser2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Fibromyalgia is a disease in which the victim suffers mainly from pain / aches and fatigue / asthenia. The symptoms appear to be due to the brain's ability to process painful impression is disturbed, and other symptoms will often not that there's anything wrong with the system. Prolonged localized pain, infections and stress are a few factors that are believed to help trigger fibromyalgia, and the symptoms they give affects all aspects of daily function. The symptoms besides the main symptoms can vary and therefore treatment are based on existing symptoms. It's about relieving symptoms when no cure is available, and this is done, inter alia, with physical activity. Physical activity is reported to be an important part of treatment according to scientific studies. However, different stimuli can trigger pain, and physical activity is one such challenge. This led to the purpose and questions about what fibromyalgia sufferers had experiences when it came to physical activity.Purpose: Clarify what experiences people diagnosed with fibromyalgia had of physical activity.Method: Participants were sought by Swedish Fibromyalgia Association's website and a qualitative study was conducted in the form of semi-structured interviews by telephone. The material collected was transcribed and analyzed using content analysis techniques.Results: The experiences of physical activity was due to the form of the day and could be both positive and negative. Respondents felt that they need activities suited for fibromyalgia with support for disease constraints. Physical activity that they experienced possible for them and saw opportunities to consisted mostly of low-intensity activities that could be applied on the basis of their abilities. Among perceived opportunities were many time- and place-bound and required, for example, personnel or special environment.Conclusion: Previous research and literature on experiences of physical activity was confirmed by the current study. Simple, varied and flexible physical activity with emphasis on personalization demanded by the respondents and the study's main findings.

  • 168.
    Söderlund, Helene
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Främjandet av fysisk aktivitet genom rastverksamhet och skolgårdens miljö för förebyggande av övervikt hos barn på låg- och mellanstadiet2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to examine the promotion of physical activity through break

    activities and the schoolyard environment for the prevention of children obesity at primary

    school level.

    As method for this study, a web-based questionnaire, with my own questions designed from

    previous studies and literature on the subject, was used. Since both quantitative and

    qualitative data were considered necessary questions of both kinds have been used. A total of

    twenty people were surveyed, from four selected occupational groups at primary school level.

    Since some of the respondents were employed at more than one school they shared a total of

    29 positions. 15 respondents answered the questionnaire.

    The analyzed result shows that the primary schools in the community have clear areas of

    improvement when it comes to working with break time activities and the environment as

    factors for the prevention of obesity among children. There are no documented statistics on

    the percentage of overweight children in the primary schools. Statistics could be used as a tool

    for prevention. The observed schools don´t have any organized break activities where the

    teachers participate actively in promoting physical activity among the students. The

    municipality's schoolyards seem to be generally okay for interesting children in physical

    activity and play but, in the opinions of head teachers and teachers, could be developed to

    become more inspiring for children.

    The conclusion of this study is that the considered municipality should review it´s promotion

    of physical activity and the prevention of children obesity at primary school level. With a

    greater involvement from the schools break guards where they are more active among the

    children as well as an investment in the schoolyard environment are relatively simple actions

    that could probably help a lot in a positive direction. Of course there are some financial

    aspects of this, but the municipality should see this as a good investment for the future of

    public health.

  • 169.
    Tonkonogi, Michail
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Medical Science.
    Bågskytte - en precisionsidrott med höga krav på specifik styrka2014In: Bågskytten, ISSN 0345-1216, Vol. 67, no 4, p. 13-15Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 170.
    Tonkonogi, Michail
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Den aeroba nojan2011In: Idrott och Kunskap, ISSN 1652-6961, no 2, p. 56-57Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 171.
    Tonkonogi, Michail
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Hur många stulna medaljer?2012In: Idrott och Kunskap, ISSN 1652-6961, no 4, p. 58-59Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 172.
    Tonkonogi, Michail
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Medical Science.
    Idrottsmedicinen sviker barnen2012In: Svenska Dagbladet, ISSN 1101-2412, no 25 nov, p. 5-5Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 173.
    Tonkonogi, Michail
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Mest är inte alltid bäst2011In: Idrott och Kunskap, ISSN 1652-6961, no 3, p. 56-57Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 174.
    Tonkonogi, Michail
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Om korta, tydliga råd och sammanfattningsrutor…2012In: Idrott och Kunskap, ISSN 1652-6961, no 3, p. 54-55Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 175.
    Tonkonogi, Michail
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Statisk uthållighet i bågskytte2012In: Bågskytten, ISSN 0345-1216, Vol. 65, no 11, p. 18-20Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 176.
    Tonkonogi, Michail
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Medical Science.
    Styrketräning bra för balansen2016In: här&nu, ISSN 1653-2287, no 5, p. 11-11Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 177.
    Tonkonogi, Michail
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Medical Science.
    Styrketräning för unga bågskyttar2016In: Bågskytten, ISSN 0345-1216, Vol. 69, no 7, p. 12-15Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 178.
    Tonkonogi, Michail
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Styrketräning är positivt för barns utveckling2012In: Svensk Idrottsforskning: Organ för Centrum för Idrottsforskning, ISSN 1103-4629, no 2, p. 53-54Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 179.
    Tonkonogi, Michail
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Medical Science.
    Träning bra för nära relationer2016In: här&nu, ISSN 1653-2287, no 4, p. 13-13Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 180.
    Tonkonogi, Michail
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Medical Science.
    Träningslärans grunder - fysiska grundegenskaper och träningsprinciper2018In: Idrottens träning, Stockholm: SISU Idrottsböcker , 2018, p. 22-57Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 181.
    Tonkonogi, Michail
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Uthållighetsträning och kolhydrater: det stora missförståndet2012In: Idrott & Kunskap, ISSN 1652-6961, no 5, p. 58-59Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 182.
    Tonkonogi, Michail
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Är din uppvärmning optimal? 2011In: Idrott och Kunskap, ISSN 1652-6961, no 5, p. 58-59Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 183.
    Tonkonogi, Michail
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Medical Science.
    Bellardini, Helena
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Fysisk trening for barn och ungdom: for helse, allsidig utvikling og prestasjon2013 (ed. 1)Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 184.
    Tonkonogi, Michail
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Medical Science.
    Bellardini, Helena
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Träna bort den stressrelaterade ohälsan2016 (ed. 1)Book (Other academic)
  • 185.
    Tonkonogi, Michail
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Bellardini, Helena
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Åldersanpassad fysisk träning för barn och ungdomar2012 (ed. 1)Book (Other academic)
  • 186.
    Tynell, Rikard
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Delkropp- eller helkroppsarbete som återhämtningsstrategi efter upprepade högintensiva arbetsbelastningar på stakergometer hos svenska elitlängdskidåkare.: En kvantitativ studie om återhämtningsstrategier2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of the study was to investigate the difference between two recovery strategies, lower-body work (cycle) and whole-body work (roller skiing), regarding to power development in repeated maximum workout on double-poling ergometer. Moreover, the study also aims to investigating whether the heart rate and the blood-lactate concentration differ between the recovery strategies.

    Method: Seven elite-active male skiers at national level were recruited to the study where a crossover method was applied. A prologue and three heats with three minutes of high-intensity work were performed during each performance. Recovery strategies were carried out with 16 min work at a workload for ≈ 55% of VO2max. The collected test variables in this study were lactate concentration, effect development, and heart rate.

    Results: A significant difference was found in the lactate concentration after whole-body work as a recovery strategy. However, there was no difference between the strategies in power development during the heats. Furthermore, no difference in heartrates was detected before or during the heats.

    Conclusions: None of the investigated recovery strategies can be recommended above the other in order to optimize the sprint performance in cross-country skiing. However, whole-body work resulted in a lower blood-lactate concentration prior to next heat compared to lower-body work as recovery strategy.

  • 187.
    van der Maarel, Martin
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Byqvist, Mikael
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Hur parkmiljöer kan påverka vardagsrörelse: en studie utifrån aktiva unga vuxnas uppfattningar2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Reduced movement in everyday life is a problem that is becoming increasingly common in the world today. Although people today are becoming more and more regularly physically active and conduct more planned exercise, the everyday movement that is needed to maintain a good health and reduce the risk of dying prematurely, is decreasing. Something that has been shown to increase everyday activity is the presence of park environments. Research has shown that where fewer parks existed, people were more sedentary and less active. The

    aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between everyday movement and park environments based on the view of physically active young adults. The method used in this study consisted of interviewing young adults (18-30 years of age). Why this selection was used was because this group of age were previously considered to have good health during their period of life, but new evidence shows that people of these ages are becoming increasingly inactive in their daily lives. Physically active people were chosen to see how their perceptions of movement in addition to their normal training meant to them. Six active young adults were recruited to the study and interviewed. The results showed that young adults understand the meaning of the positive effects of movement, but at the same time they were negatively motivated to visit park environments. The single movement in parks indicated by the participants was in the form of walks and jogging. Participants suggested that more types of activities (kiosks, outdoor gyms, etc.) should be available to increase the visitor level in park environments for a longer period of time, as well as conduct more daily living there.

  • 188.
    Vestergren, Tommy
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Josefsson, Jesper
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Muskelaktivering under farmers walk, marklyft, trapbarmarklyft (high-bar) och trapbar marklyft (low-bar): En Deskriptiv Studie2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    SubjectThe purpose of this descriptive study was to examine the mean muscle activation rate in the exercises farmers walk, conventional deadlifts, trapbar deadlift (high bar) and trapbar deadlift (low bar).MethodsThe participants were five healthy men with no injuries or diseases, with at least two years of prior experience in general strength training and the four specific test exercises; and able to perform at least five repetitions of 150 kilos conventional deadlift. Their average age, height and body weight was 25 ± 4 years, 180 ± 3 cm and 85 ± 4 kg. The EMG-apparatus used in the study was a Biometrics Datalog (Cumfelinfach, Gwent, UK) with associated surface electrodes and knee goniometer. The analysis of the recorded data was done with the software Biometrics DATALOG PC software (v: 7.50). The compilation of all data used Microsoft Excel 2010. The data are presented in mean ± standard deviation in relation to mean maximum voluntary contraction (MVIC). In the study, participants performed a number of pre-tests, for the so called MVIC, which then was used as a normalization of the EMG-data. The main test in the study were four different exercises; conventional deadlift, trapbar deadlift (high bar) and trapbar deadlift (low-bar) and farmers walk. During the test participants used 150 kg for five repetitions on the deadlifts and 150 kg for fifteen meters on the farmers walk.ResultsThe results presented here for the deadlift is in line with previous results presented for various deadlift variations in relation to MVIC for all muscles tested in previous studies. The greatest normalaized mean EMG-activation rate was achieved in the lower body muscles; vastus lateralis, gluteus medius; and the erector spinae muscles. While the torso muscles—with the teres Major muscles as an outliner—was active to a lesser extent. We found similar results with the other two deadlift versions with the trapbar (High and lowbar). Farmers walk showed similir degree of muscle activation in the lower body as the deadlifts, while the exercise showed a higher mean EMG-activation rate of the upper body muscles.ConclusionThe three different deadlift versions have similar activation patterns, while the farmers walk activates the upper body to a greater degree. Each exercise achieves a high degree of mean EMG-activation and can be used to stimulate strength increases, both for muscle-endurance and too some extent maximum strength.

  • 189.
    Vilagi, Christopher
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Munter Ribeiro, Philip
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Självupplevd skadeförekomst vid Crossfitutövning iSverige: En retrospektiv kohortstudie2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Objective

    The objective of this study is to map the self-perceived injury frequency in Swedish Crossfit participants.

    Design

    Retrospective cohort study.

    Method

    An electronic survey was made and distributed in the Facebook group ”CF Sweden”, a group for Swedish Crossfit participants consisting of about 8000 members. The survey identified demographic data, training attributes and injury frequency in Swedish Crossfit participants. To be included in the study the participants had to be >18 years old and had to train at an affiliated Crossfit gym/box.

    Results

    305 individuals answered the survey, of which only 274 were included in the study because they didn’t fulfill the inclusion criteria’s. Of those included 137 (50 %) were men and 137 (50 %) were women, the majority of the participants were in the age category 28-37 years, 89 (32,5 %) followed by the category 38-47 years, 86 (31,4 %) and most participants answered that they had practiced Crossfit for more than 25 months, 162 (59,1%). The results show how 162 (59,1 %) of the participants had injured themself during the last year and that shoulders, 82 (49,1 %) were the body part most likely to get injured during Crossfit, followed by the lower back, 42 (25,1 %) and knees, 34 (20,4 %). The majority of the Crossfit participants answered that they had injured themselves during a WOD, 94 (56,6 %) followed by weightlifting, 51 (30,7 %).

    Conclusion The injury frequency in Crossfit does not differ disproportionately from other sports. The results of the study show very similar results to previous research that strengthen this study's ability to its findings.

  • 190.
    Visnevska, Lauma
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Hassel, Frida
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Varför avslutas en elitidrottssatsning i ungdomsåren?: En intervjustudie kring vilka de vanligaste faktorerna som bidrog till en avslutad elitidrottssatsning i ungdomsåren.2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to examine the most common reasons why young elite athletes dropped out their sport at the top level. To study this case, we collected our data with an interview as a method and Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis as instrument to interpreted participants citations into the factors. These factors later were categorized under different themes: Other, Internal and External factors, Sickness and Injuries. The most common reasons quoted was exhaustion (psychological) and fatigue (physical), too high performance requirement, environmental change, conflict of interest, too demanding training environment and lack of leadership skills.

  • 191. Wang, Li
    et al.
    Psilander, Niklas
    Tonkonogi, Michail
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Ding, Shuzhe
    Sahlin, Kent
    Similar expression of oxidative genes after interval and continuous exercise2009In: Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, ISSN 0195-9131, E-ISSN 1530-0315, Vol. 41, no 12, p. 2136-2144Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: There is a debate whether interval or traditional endurance training is the most effective stimulus of mitochondrial biogenesis. Here, we compared the effects of acute interval exercise (IE) or continuous exercise (CE) on the muscle messenger RNA (mRNA) content for several genes involved in mitochondrial biogenesis and lipid metabolism.

    Methods: Nine sedentary subjects cycled for 90 min with two protocols: CE (at 67% V?O2max) and IE (12 s at 120% and 18 s at 20% of V?O2max). The duration of exercise and work performed with CE and IE was identical. Muscle biopsies were taken before and 3 h after exercise. Results: There were no significant differences between the two exercise protocols in the increases in V?O2 and HR, the reduction in muscle glycogen (35%-40% with both protocols) or the changes in blood metabolites (lactate, glucose, and fatty acids). The mRNA content for major regulators of mitochondrial biogenesis [peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) ? coactivator 1a (PGC-1a), PGC-1-related coactivator, PPAR/d] and of lipid metabolism [pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase isozyme 4 (PDK4)] increased after exercise, but there was no significant difference between IE and CE. However, the mRNA content for several downstream targets of PGC-1a increased significantly only after CE, and mRNA content for nuclear respiratory factor 2 was significantly higher after CE (P < 0.025 vs IE).

    Conclusions: The present findings demonstrate that, when the duration of exercise and work performed is the same, IE and CE influence the transcription of genes involved in oxidative metabolism in a similar manner.

  • 192.
    Westergren, Jens
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Tonkonogi, Michail
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    No difference in sprint cycling performance tests on a stationary and mobile ergometer2011In: Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, ISSN 0195-9131, E-ISSN 1530-0315, Vol. 43, no 5, p. 161-161Article in journal (Other academic)
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