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  • 151.
    Lundgren, Mats
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education and Humanities, Educational Work.
    von Schantz Lundgren, Ina
    Dalarna University, School of Education and Humanities, Education.
    The Swedish Schools Inspectorate: How do headmasters perceive and handle an inspection?2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden has from 2008 an independent Schools Inspectorate. The inspections are carried out through regular supervision and thematic evaluations. From this point of view, the purpose of this paper is to describe and discuss how inspections of schools are perceived by headmasters at the local level and how they handle the results in the reports. A second objective is to discuss if inspections of schools can be viewed as an effective way in order to achieve a higher degree of goal fulfillment. Headmasters in a local authority were asked about their opinions about this in a case study. The results show that most of them perceive that the reports essentially give a correct picture. They say they are aware of the problems that exists and that they already have been working to take actions. However, inspections of schools build on an ideal image, a picture that is presented in the policy documents. This is far from reality in most schools and a difficult task for headmasters to cope with.

  • 152.
    Lundgren, Mats
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education and Humanities, Education.
    von Schantz Lundgren, Ina
    Dalarna University, School of Education and Humanities, Education.
    The Swedish Schools Inspectorate: Principals and their View on Inspections of Schools2012In: Education and Practice of School Leaders : The Ethical Dimension / [ed] Lárusdóttir. S. H., Ólafur H. Jóhannson, O. H., Hansen, B., Reykjavik: University of Iceland, School of Education , 2012, p. 55-62Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to describe and discuss how principals perceive and handle inspections of schools. In a case study, principals in one municipality were asked about their opinions. The picture of the ideal school, as it is described in official documents, seems to be different from what teachers face in their every-day-work. By comparing the ideal image of how school functions with how this is described in reports from the Schools Inspectorate it becomes possible to get a better understanding of what opportunities and constraints principals have to handle the discovered divergences. 

  • 153.
    Lundgren, Mats
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education and Humanities, Educational Work.
    von Schantz Lundgren, Ina
    Dalarna University, School of Education and Humanities, Education.
    Tyst kunskap i gymnasial yrkesutbildning sett med yrkeslärarens ögon2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Att tillägna sig yrkeskunskap handlar till stora delar om att lära genom praktiska och situationsbundna aktiviteter. Kunskap i handling har kommit att benämnas tyst kunskap. En kunskapsform som är svår att artikulera, men som framträder i yrkesutövarens handlingar. Artikelns syfte är att från dessa utgångspunkter synliggöra hur yrkeslärare i gymnasieskolan genomför sin undervisning. De analyskategorier som används visar att yrkeslärare undervisar genom att berätta, visa och instruera och att eleverna övar, genomför och reflekterar över sina handlingar under överinseende av läraren. Resultatet visar även att yrkeslärare ”bär med sig” sin tidigare yrkesprofession in i ”klassrummet” och att de från dessa förutsättningar organiserar, planerar och genomför lärandesituationer på sätt som antas möjliggöra att eleverna tillägnar sig ett yrkes tysta kunskaper.

  • 154.
    Lundgren, Mats
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education and Humanities, Educational Work.
    von Schantz Lundgren, Ina
    Dalarna University, School of Education and Humanities, Education.
    Uppfattningar om en organisationsförändring: En fallstudie av en förändrad ledningsorganisation avseende Barn- och ungdomsförvaltningen i Rättviks kommun2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Studien syftar till att undersöka effekter av en genomförd förändring av ledningsorganisationen inom Rättviks kommuns Barn- och ungdomsförvaltning. Mot denna bakgrund formuleras följande frågeställningar: - Hur har de önskade effekterna av den genomförda organisationsförändringen fått genomslag med avseende på hur verksamheten styrs och koordineras i praktiken? - Hur uppfattar de involverade aktörerna den nuvarande organisationsformens funktionalitet? - I vad mån har den nya organisationen löst de problem som var orsak till att omorganisationen genomfördes? Studien är en kvalitativ fallstudie. Bolman och Deal (2005) anlägger fyra olika perspektiv på organisationer, nämligen strukturellt, Human Relation (HR), politiskt och symboliskt, d.v.s. ett tvärvetenskapligt angreppssätt, på hur organisationer och deras verksamhet kan beskrivas, tolkas och förstås. Det är också dessa perspektiv som utgör grundstommen i den analys som görs av resultatet av studien. Har då Barn- och ungdomsförvaltningen blivit mera välfungerande och i så fall på vilka sätt? Den nya organisationsstrukturen uppfattas som ändamålsenlig och i huvudsak välfungerande, d.v.s. den skapar många av de förutsättningar som behövs för att det ska vara möjligt att hantera problem, optimera resurser och koordinera verksamheten trots att det i intervjuerna framkommer kritiska synpunkter, samtidigt som enkätsvaren i övervägande grad är positiva. Bilden skulle kunna uppfattas som motsägelsefull, men som vi argumenterar för så behöver det inte vara fallet. De problem som finns beror inte i de flesta fall på brister i den organisatoriska strukturen, utan snarare på andra faktorer, t.ex. att verksamheten har ett komplext innehåll samt på hur aktörerna spelar sina roller. Den huvudsakliga förbättringspotentialen verkar inte finnas i att den organisatoriska strukturen förändras, men ändå kan ändå en del aspekter av den nuvarande organisationsstrukturen diskuteras i fråga om tänkbara alternativa lösningar.

  • 155.
    Lundgren, Mats
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education and Humanities, Education.
    von Schantz Lundgren, Ina
    Dalarna University, School of Education and Humanities, Education.
    What is going on in the world of schools?: Reflections on the role of the participant observer in school development projects2005Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    International studies that compare school-systems in different countries often try to measure the pupils’ “knowledge-level”. The same thing also happens in national investigations, sometimes with focus on how marks in different subject develop during time. However, what does this tell us about the situation on the local level, in the single school and in the single classroom? Would, for example, participant observation be a better way to understand what happens in the school-system compared to traditional quantitative methods?

     

    This paper takes its departure from a reflection on field experiences in a three-year school development project in a Swedish upper secondary school. Participant observation has; however, to face problems similar to what insiders meet. The insider has an interest to do research in a, more or less, familiar environment. There is an obvious risk to be “prisoner” in your own conceptions. At the same time, this gives a possibility to create a deep understanding of the studied phenomena, an understanding of the study object that may be hard to create for a person who is unfamiliar with the environment. Our reflection is also build up on some theoretical assumptions about how to use participations observations to understand pedagogical processes that take place in schools. From these points of view, we will discuss some aspects of the following question:

    -  What possibilities and limitations do participant observation has in order to describe, interpret and understand complex processes in school development?

     

  • 156.
    Lundgren, Mats
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Education.
    von Schantz Lundgren, Ina
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Education.
    Kihlstrand, Anne-Maj
    School leaders as agents of change: a case study on how two head teachers are trying to implement the learning study method in their school2013In: Educational leaders as change agents: meeting an uncertain future / [ed] Aksu, M., Sabanci, A., & Aksu, T, Ankara: Akdeniz university, Faculty of education , 2013, p. 15-30Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper seeks to describe and discuss the impact of inspections of schools in Sweden. It outlines the political context, based on New Public Management (NPM) theory, according to what role the Schools Inspectorate is supposed to play in order to govern and control. Attention is also devoted, referring an on-going case study, to how inspections influence head teachers and their leadership in their everyday work.

     

    Reports from the Schools inspectorate are public. This forces both politicians and head teachers to take measures. In this case, the head teachers perceived that the inspection reports confirmed what they already knew, but it also gave them an alibi and a tool to push their teachers to take part in everyday school development work. During the first year after the inspection the head teachers mainly strived to adjust formal deficiencies in local steering documents. However, some of the deviations reported from the Schools inspectorate are regarding pedagogical problems that are complicated and difficult to handle. As interventions in many cases will show up much later the results are, for example as increased goal fulfilment, in this case, still an open question. Nevertheless, it seems obvious that the Schools Inspectorate must be seen as a result of the governing philosophy that denotes New Public Management NPM).

  • 157.
    Lundgren, Mats
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Education.
    von Schantz Lundgren, Ina
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Education.
    Lahdenperä, Pirjo
    Mälardalens högskola.
    Gustavsson, Hans-Olof
    Mälardalens högskola.
    Newly Arrived Immigrant Pupils in Swedish Schools: Experiences of Collegial Learning in an Interactive Action Research Project2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Newly immigrated children and young people beginning school in Sweden raise certain challenges. These may result not only from their (and their parents’) weak Swedish-language skills, but also from a schooling background that differs from pedagogical frameworks in Swedish schools. This places demands on school heads to organize and lead the school’s work in such a way as to meet these pupils’ needs, while teachers need to develop relevant competence. This situation was behind the initiation of the project “New Immigrants and Learning – Competence Development for Teachers and School Principals”. The project ran in schools in four Swedish municipalities, its aim being to develop the participating schools’ organization, and a pedagogy that would facilitate the schooling and integration of newly immigrated pupils. This report aims to describe the project, and with particular focus on collegial learning highlight principals’ participation in the project, and their role in leading processes that were initiated in the project. The project was based on the use of research circles, a think tank and lectures. The report will also examine and discuss in what degree these promoted collegial learning and collaboration, the development of pedagogical methods and competence related to the schooling of newly arrived immigrant pupils.

    A central conclusion is that the principal has an important function and responsibility to create an intercultural learning environment where opportunity is given for school professionals to meat, learn from one another, in collaboration plan for action, and reflect on the implementation and results. This highlights the importance of the principal setting aside time for work with pedagogical leadership in the school’s every day activities. 

  • 158.
    Lundgren, Mats
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Education.
    von Schantz Lundgren, Ina
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Education.
    Nytell, Ulf
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies.
    Do inspections of schools influence head teachers’ leadership?2013In: Educational leaders as change agents: Meeting an uncertain future / [ed] Aksu, M., Sabanci, A., & Aksu, T, Ankara: Akdeniz university, Faculty of education , 2013, p. 99-110Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper seeks to describe and discuss the impact of inspections of schools in Sweden. It outlines the political context, based on New Public Management (NPM) theory, according to what role the Schools Inspectorate is supposed to play in order to govern and control. Attention is also devoted, referring an on-going case study, to how inspections influence head teachers and their leadership in their everyday work.

     

    Reports from the Schools inspectorate are public. This forces both politicians and head teachers to take measures. In this case, the head teachers perceived that the inspection reports confirmed what they already knew, but it also gave them an alibi and a tool to push their teachers to take part in everyday school development work. During the first year after the inspection the head teachers mainly strived to adjust formal deficiencies in local steering documents. However, some of the deviations reported from the Schools inspectorate are regarding pedagogical problems that are complicated and difficult to handle. As interventions in many cases will show up much later the results are, for example as increased goal fulfilment, in this case, still an open question. Nevertheless, it seems obvious that the Schools Inspectorate must be seen as a result of the governing philosophy that denotes New Public Management NPM).

  • 159. Lundgren, Mats
    et al.
    von Schantz Lundgren, Ina
    Dalarna University, School of Education and Humanities, Education.
    Nytell, Ulf
    Dalarna University, School of Education and Humanities, Education.
    How does inspections of schools influence head teachers' leadership?2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper seeks to describe and discuss the impact of inspections of schools in Sweden. It outlines the political context, based on New Public Management, and what role Schools Inspectorate is supposed to play in order to govern and control. Special attention is devoted, referring to an on-going case study, to how inspections influence head teachers and their leadership.

    As the reports from the Schools inspectorate are made public, the politicians will be forced to act. They then try to pressure the head teachers to take measures. The head teachers perceived, however, from their point of view, that the report gave them a confirmation of what they already knew, but also as a tool to push on the development of their school. During the first year after the inspection, the head teachers mainly strived to adjusting deficiencies in formal documents and later on started various types of development works. The result of this, for example in terms of increased goal fulfilment, is still an open question, despite there are research that in most cases show small improvement in this aspect.

  • 160.
    Lundgren, Mats
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education and Humanities, Education.
    von Schantz Lundgren, Ina
    Dalarna University, School of Education and Humanities, Education.
    Nytell, Ulf
    Dalarna University, School of Education and Humanities, Education.
    Svärdhagen, Jan
    Dalarna University, School of Education and Humanities, Education.
    Learning study och forskningscirkeln som metoder för pedagogiskt ledarskap i digitala lärandemiljöer2013In: Att leda mot skolans mål / [ed] Johansson, Olof & Svedberg, Lars, Malmö: Gleerups Utbildning AB, 2013, p. 239-250Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Boken beskriver hur förskolechefer och rektorer kan utöva sitt pedagogiska ledarskap genom att använda metoder som Learning study och forskningscirklar för att utveckla fungerande digitala lärandemiljöer.

  • 161.
    Lundin, Jenny
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, History.
    Historisk empati i svensk historiedidaktisk forskning.: En systematisk litteraturstudie om begreppet historisk empati.2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Intresset för historiedidaktik ledde mig till Skolverkets Kommentarmaterial till kursplanen i historia där begreppet historisk empati återkom i relevanta sammanhang utan en närmare definiering. Jag bestämde mig för att ta reda på det vilket ledde till att syftet blev att se hur svensk historiedidaktisk forskning definierar begreppet historisk empati samt vad som aktiverar och utvecklar begreppet historisk empati enligt nationell forskning.

    För att ta reda på syftet och besvara mina frågeställningar användes en systematisk litteraturstudie med en induktiv ansats. Utifrån svensk historiedidaktisk forskning med internationell referenslitteratur som språngbräda insåg jag genom den induktiva metoden hur tre kategorier bildades utifrån forskares definitioner samt metoder för hur begreppet historisk empati kunde utvecklas hos individen. Forskare närmade sig begreppet genom att hänvisa till att begreppet historisk empati utvecklades antingen av en kognitiv förmåga eller ur en kontextuell förståelse men begreppet historisk empati kunde även utvecklas genom att en individ blev känslomässigt engagerad och därför motiverad till att lära vilket i sig kunde utveckla begreppet historisk empati. Mina slutsatser är att kategorierna tillsammans leder till att historisk empati utvecklas hos individen. Vad forskare menar utvecklar historisk empati hos individen är däremot olika då skillnaden är att forskare tillåter olika metoder till att utveckla begreppet historisk empati. De forskare som menar att det enbart krävs en kognitiv förmåga till att utveckla begreppet historisk empati ser inte att motivationen av att bli emotionellt engagerad som en del i att utveckla en historisk empatisk förmåga. Ytterligare finns de forskare som anser att en emotionell känsla kan fungera som motivation vilket leder till att en nyfikenhet skapas som leder till att en kognitiv förmåga byggs upp och att begreppet historisk empati utvecklas. 

  • 162.
    Magnússon, Gunnlaugur
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet.
    Göransson, Kerstin
    Karlstads universitet.
    Lindqvist, Gunilla
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Education.
    Contextualising inclusive education in education policy: the case of Sweden2019In: Nordic Journal of Studies in Educational Policy, ISSN 2002-0317Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, we regard inclusive education as a policy phenomenon that contains a range of ideas about the purpose of education, the content of education and the organization of education. As a political ideal expressed in policy, inclusive education competes with other political ideals regarding education, for instance economic discourses that prioritize effectivity and attainment as educational goals. Thus, inclusive education has to be realized in contexts where available options for action are restricted by several and often contradictory educational policies on different levels of the education system. We argue that while research and debate about inclusive education are important, both are insufficient without analyses of the context of national educational policy. Any interpretation of inclusive education is necessarily situated in a general education policy, and measures of what ‘inclusive schools’ are dependent upon for instance, political interpretation(s) of inclusive education, resource allocation and political discourse on both local and national educational level. Here, we will provide support for this argument through presentation of both research on inclusive education, an alignment of prior analyses of Swedish national education policies and our own analyses of government statements.

  • 163.
    Memedi, Mevludin
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Constructive alignment in Computer Engineering and Informatics departments at Dalarna University: An empirical investigation2015Student paper otherStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Constructive alignment (CA) is a pedagogical approach that emphasizes the alignment between the intended learning outcomes (ILOs), teaching and learning activities (TLAs) and assessment tasks (ATs) as well as creation of a teaching/learning environment where students will be able to actively create their knowledge.

    Objectives: This paper aims at investigating the extent of constructively-aligned courses in Computer Engineering and Informatics department at Dalarna University, Sweden. This study is based on empirical observations of teacher’s perceptions of implementation of CA in their courses.

    Methods: Ten teachers (5 from each department) were asked to fill a paper-based questionnaire, which included a number of questions related to issues of implementing CA in courses.

    Results: Responses to the items of the questionnaire were mixed. Teachers clearly state the ILOs in their courses and try to align the TLAs and ATs to the ILOs. Computer Engineering teachers do not explicitly communicate the ILOs to the students as compared to Informatics teachers. In addition, Computer Engineering teachers stated that their students are less active in learning activities as compared to Informatics teachers. When asked about their subjective ratings of teaching methods all teachers stated that their current teaching is teacher-centered but they try to shift the focus of activity from them to the students.

    Conclusions: From teachers’ perspectives, the courses are partially constructively-aligned. Their courses are “aligned”, i.e. ILOs, TLAs and ATs are aligned to each other but they are not “constructive” since, according to them, there was a low student engagement in learning activities, especially in Computer Engineering department.

  • 164.
    Messina Dahlberg, Giulia
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Education. Örebro universitet.
    Languaging in virtual learning sites: studies of online encounters in the language-focused classroom2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis focuses upon a series of empirical studies which examine communication and learning in online glocal communities within higher education in Sweden. A recurring theme in the theoretical framework deals with issues of languaging in virtual multimodal environments as well as the making of identity and negotiation of meaning in these settings; analyzing the activity, what people do, in contraposition to the study of how people talk about their activity. The studies arise from netnographic work during two online Italian for Beginners courses offered by a Swedish university. Microanalyses of the interactions occurring through multimodal video-conferencing software are amplified by the study of the courses’ organisation of space and time and have allowed for the identification of communicative strategies and interactional patterns in virtual learning sites when participants communicate in a language variety with which they have a limited experience.

    The findings from the four studies included in the thesis indicate that students who are part of institutional virtual higher educational settings make use of several resources in order to perform their identity positions inside the group as a way to enrich and nurture the process of communication and learning in this online glocal community. The sociocultural dialogical analyses also shed light on the ways in which participants gathering in discursive technological spaces benefit from the opportunity to go to class without commuting to the physical building of the institution providing the course. This identity position is, thus, both experienced by participants in interaction, and also afforded by the ‘spaceless’ nature of the online environment.

  • 165.
    Messina Dahlberg, Giulia
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Education. Örebro universitet.
    Learning analytics to visually represent the mobility of learners in the language-focused virtual classroom: a multivocal approachManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 166.
    Messina Dahlberg, Giulia
    et al.
    University of Skövde.
    Bagga-Gupta, Sangeeta
    Örebro universitet.
    Mapping languaging in digital spaces: literacy practices at borderlands2016In: Language Learning & Technology, ISSN 1094-3501, E-ISSN 1094-3501, Vol. 20, no 3, p. 80-106Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 167.
    Monsalve, Carlos
    Dalarna University, School of Languages and Media Studies, Spanish.
    La competencia emocional en los profesores de idioma materno: Un análisis cualitativo desde las vivencias de cuatro profesores de idioma materno - español2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [es]

    La labor de profesor de idioma materno requiere de un continuo y directo contacto con las personas de su entorno, quizás en mayor grado que muchas otras profesiones. Ese contacto se realiza con personas de variadas condiciones, como la edad, la cultura y el sexo, entre otras. Para ello y para que sus resultados sean más eficientes y se reflejen positivamente en su entorno laboral,  se precisa que el profesor posea una adecuada competencia emocional.  

    Más aun, el profesor de idioma materno en un país de acogida de inmigrantes, precisa de adecuadas capacidades para que a la par con sus conocimientos del idioma que imparte, estén los del manejo de situaciones que implican componentes emocionales.

    Lo anterior está motivado en gran parte, por el hecho de que sus alumnos presentan frecuentemente problemáticas al llegar a un nuevo país, encontrar una nueva cultura, un nuevo idioma y otras variadas situaciones. Esas problemáticas, involucran en su gran mayoría componentes emocionales.

    En otra perspectiva, con la realización de este trabajo se intenta ampliar conocimientos sobre la importancia de la Inteligencia Emocional en la educación y en especial para los docentes; y se intenta obtener conclusiones e ideas sobre el tema, que de alguna manera se puedan aplicar a la labor del profesor de idioma materno.

  • 168.
    Morén, Göran
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work. Karlstads universitet, Institutionen för pedagogiska studier.
    Samhällsfrågor i samhällskunskaps­undervisningen2016In: Kapet (elektronisk), E-ISSN 2002-3979, ISSN 2002-3979, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 95-115Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här artikeln är en del av ett licentiatprojekt om samhällsfrågor som didaktiskt utmaning. Utgångspunkten är begreppet samhällsfrågor, som förekommer i ämnesplanen för samhällskunskap i gymnasieskolan. Detta är den andra delstudien i projektet, som också innehåller en läroplansstudie och en kommande intervjustudie. Empirin för denna artikel utgörs av en enkät med 74 gymnasielärare i samhällskunskap där de fått redogöra för hur de uppfattar begreppet samhällsfrågor som det framträder i styrdokumenten, vilken innebörd det har för och i deras undervisning och hur det förhåller sig till andra centrala begrepp i ämnesplanen, företrädesvis centralt innehåll och förmågor (som ska bedömas enligt kunskapskraven). En grund för analysen hämtas från tidigare forskning och läroplansstudien av begreppet samhällsfrågor, där ett dubbelt spänningsfält gällande såväl undervisningens upplägg som syfte tecknas. Detta spänningsfält ses som utgångspunkten för en möjlig logik. Resultatet visar att det inte var lätt att positionera lärarna utifrån det konstaterade spänningsfältet. Den dominerande bilden från lärarenkäten uppvisar en alternativ logik. Enligt den framhäver man inte spänningen mellan en undervisning med utgångspunkt i frågor och en undervisning med utgångspunkt i ett förutbestämt innehåll. Man tonar också ner spänningen mellan ett syfte i form av utvecklandet av förmågor och ett syfte i form av förmedlandet av ett bestämt innehåll.

  • 169.
    Nicoll, Katherine
    et al.
    University of Stirling.
    Fejes, Andreas
    Linköpings universitet, Pedagogik och vuxnas lärande.
    Olson, Maria
    Stockholms Universitet; Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information.
    Dahlstedt, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, REMESO - Institutet för forskning om Migration, Etnicitet och Samhälle.
    Biesta, Gert
    University of Luxembourg.
    Opening discourses of citizenship education: a theorization with Foucault2013In: Journal of education policy, ISSN 0268-0939, E-ISSN 1464-5106, Vol. 28, no 6, p. 828-846Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We argue two major difficulties in current discourses of citizenship education. The first is a relative masking of student discourses of citizenship by positioning students as lacking citizenship and as outside the community that acts. The second is in failing to understand the discursive and material support for citizenship activity. We, thus, argue that it is not a lack of citizenship that education research might address, but identification and exploration of the different forms of citizenship that students already engage in. We offer a fragmentary, poststructuralist theorization oriented to explore the contemporary limits of the necessary', drawing on specific resources from the work of Michel Foucault and others for the constitution of local, partial accounts of citizenship discourses and activities, and exploration of their possibilities and constraints. We argue this as a significant tactic of theorization in support of an opening of discourses of citizenship and in avoiding the discursive difficulties that we have identified. Our theorization, then, is significant in its potential to unsettle discourses that confine contemporary thought regarding citizenship education and support exploration of what might be excessive to that confinement.

  • 170.
    Nilholm, Claes
    et al.
    Department of Education, Jönköping University.
    Almqvist, Lena
    CHILD, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology, Sweden.
    Göransson, Kerstin
    School of Education, Culture and Communication, Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Lindqvist, Gunilla
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Education. Uppsala universitet.
    Is it possible to get away from disability-based classifications in education?: An empirical investigation of the Swedish system2013In: Scandinavian Journal of Disability Research, ISSN 1501-7419, E-ISSN 1745-3011, Vol. 15, no 4, p. 379-391Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Disability classifications is given a minor role in the Swedish national policy on special needs in schools. In the present study questionnaires are used to investigate the actual importance of medical diagnosis in obtaining special support as well as attitudes towards such practices. The study involves different levels of the educational system as well as different occupational groups within compulsory schooling and preschool. The results show that: 1) disability-based categories are seen as less needed in practice by chief education officers than by principals; 2) disability-based classifications have stronger support among school staff than in the guiding documents and among principals and chief education officers; 3) a disability-based approach has stronger support at the compulsory school level than at the preschool level; 4) the group most in favour of disability-based classifications is teachers and those most against are chief education officers, principals and SENCOs.

  • 171.
    Nilholm, Claes
    et al.
    Malmö University.
    Almqvist, Lena
    Mälardalen University.
    Lindqvist, Gunilla
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Education. Jönköping University.
    What is the problem?: explanations of school difficulties by eight occupational groups2013In: International Journal of Special Education, ISSN 0827-3383, E-ISSN 1917-7844, Vol. 28, no 1, p. 161-171Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Data from four different questionnaires are analyzed.  Explanations of school problems are compared for chief education officers, principals (in municipal and independent schools), subject teachers, class teachers, special teachers, special educational needs coordinators (SENCOs), and  assistants. Explanations involving deficits tied to the individual child were by far most common. Teachers and principals were the groups least likely to view teachers as a cause of school problems. Principals were even less likely to do so than the teachers themselves, and this was also the group that was least likely to consider the functioning of classes as an explanation of school difficulties. A school-leadership paradoxis identified, meaning that principals discern causes of school problems that are not within their influence.

  • 172.
    Nordgren, Eva
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Universitetsbiblioteket.
    Thorn, Linda
    Uppsala universitet, Universitetsbiblioteket.
    Att ge nycklar till kunskap: universitetsbibliotekets kurser i informationssökning2010In: Kunskapens nya världar: Uppsala Learning Lab och hur pedagogik och teknik kan mötas / [ed] Jenny Lee, Uppsala: Uppsala Learning Lab, Uppsala universitet , 2010, p. 181-184Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 173.
    Nordmark, Marie
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap.
    "Anna you really have to help me, tell me what to write. Please, just the first line."2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 174.
    Nordmark, Marie
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap.
    Digitalt skrivande i gymnasieskolans svenskundervisning: en ämnesdidaktisk studie av skrivprocessen2014Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis is to investigate the writing process in the teaching of the subject of Swedish at upper secondary school. This study analyses the relations between the pupils’ writing and the school environment in which the writing takes place and how the pupils position themselves and others in relation to their use of digital artefacts and norms in the classroom. The empirical material has been created in three classes at two different schools. The data consists of participant observations of 42 lessons, all of which were video recorded using two cameras, and audio recorded semi-structured interviews with 24 pupils and 3 teachers. Theoretically, the study is based on sociocultural perspectives on literacy and learning and a multimodal social semiotic understanding of meaning-making based on an interest in the use of resources that constitute meaning in the social environment. From an ecological perspective, writing is examined as discourses in which the participants and the environment interact. Analytic concepts are used by inspiration from Kress et al (2005) and Smidt (2002). The figure “Writing roles in fields of tension” has been constructed to illustrate the students’ writing roles and positioning's in the empirical material. The results show that the shift from paper and pen to computer and screen means more than a shift change in the use of artefacts. The teaching of digital writing has a point of departure as a project in communication. In multimodal environments, pupils are often left without access to a teacher due to the layout of the room. This leads to positioning in roles, such as help seeker and helper. The classrooms are characterised by the constant presence of social media and its demands on students’ attention. Earlier generations of writing processes emphasised the importance of prewriting, drafting and revision in stages. In the digital writing process these stages are lacking. In this context, the digital writing process can be understood as a “fourth generation process” consisting of writing, saving and sending. The fourth generation of writing process stresses on the writing at a micro- rather than macro level. The word processing functions of spelling and grammar offer clickable solutions to problems, but cannot be considered as tools for learning. In the digital classroom pupils are vulnerable, left to their own resources and have difficulties in handling complex assignments.

  • 175.
    Nordmark, Marie
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap.
    New patterns in code-switching?: Empirical explanations on adolescents 'emulate-switching' in a community of membership.2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 176.
    Nordmark, Marie
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap.
    The use of computers challenges processes of writing.2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 177.
    Nordmark, Marie
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap.
    Writing roles in fields of tensions between collective and individual digital writing.2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    From theoretical understanding of New Literacy Studies and ecological perspective on literacy (Barton 1994/2010; Smidt 2002; Kress et al2005) this paper explore and discuss writing roles in fields of tensions between collective and individual digital writing in the teaching ofSwedish at upper secondary school. The focus of the study is an analysis of relations between pupils´ writing, school environment in whichthe writing takes place, and how pupils position themselves and others in relation to their use of digital artefacts and norms in the classrooms. Literacy studies are rarely focused on the teaching of Swedish at upper secondary school level. The study takes its point ofdeparture from a broader understanding of writing, and investigates how writing interacts with reading, talking and listening. The analysis is bases on participant observations and video recordings of 42 lessons in Swedish in 3 classes at upper secondary school, and on interviews with 24 pupils and 3 teachers taking part in the study. The findings show that the teaching of writing in the subject of Swedish at upper secondary school is a project in communication with others. This means that the individual writing relates to collective participation in classroom and in social media. The shift from paper and pencil to computer and screen means more than a shift change in the use of artefacts. In order to illustrate this I have created the figure "Writing roles in fields of tension" from analyses of the empirical material. Four writing roles crystallised: mentor, social performer, independent writer and help seeking writer. The figure highlights the dynamics of writing and also the complexity in the use of digital artefacts and interpretation of norms in the environment. The pupils' identity making meets different writing cultures, which become an ecological interplay of constant negotiation. Participation also creates writing identities inrelation to the collective environment, and leads to the writer identifying him- or herself with values and practices of the community.

  • 178.
    Norman, Emma
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Education.
    Servin, Malin
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Education.
    "Vi har inte samma språk men vi kan förstå varandra i alla fall": En intervjustudie om hur förskollärare beskriver sitt arbete med icke-verbal kommunikation i flerspråkiga förskolor.2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den ökade internaliseringen som lyfts i läroplanen för förskolan innebär att förskolan är en arena där många olika kulturer möts. Denna mångfald ställer höga krav på de som är verksamma inom förskolan. Statistik från 2017 visar att 5% av alla barn som vistas i förskolan är nyinvandrade. Detta kan innebära att förskolan blir det första mötet med det svenska samhället och språket för många barn. Då barnen inte kan uttrycka sig med hjälp av det verbala majoritetsspråket, svenska, tror vi att den icke-verbala kommunikationen kan spela en viktig roll i hur dessa barn får möjlighet att delta i demokratiska sammanhang vilket förstärks av forskning. Syftet med studien är att få kunskap kring hur några förskollärare i en kommun beskriver deras arbete med icke-verbal kommunikation i mötet med äldre (tre till fem år), flerspråkiga barn. För att få reda på hur förskollärare beskriver sitt arbete med icke-verbal kommunikation i en flerspråkig förskola har en kvalitativ intervju genomförts. Sammanlagt intervjuades sex förskollärare på tre olika förskolor. Resultatet, som analyserats utifrån ett sociokulturellt perspektiv, visar att det finns en icke-verbal mångfald som förskollärarna använder sig av för att erbjuda barnen kommunikationsmöjligheter i verksamheten oavsett om de behärskar majoritetsspråket eller inte. Förskollärare lyfter dock att den icke-verbala kommunikationen kan vara problematisk i främst stressiga situationer, vilket innebär att barnens kommunikativa handlingsutrymme blir begränsat. Då förskollärarna stöttar de äldre, flerspråkiga barnens kommunikativa förmågor används den icke-verbala kommunikationen främst för att stimulera barnens verbala språkutveckling i majoritetsspråket. En viktig slutsats som framkommer i intervjuerna av förskollärarna är att de två kommunikativa systemen, det vill säga det verbala och det icke-verbala, förstärker varandra och båda behövs för att de äldre flerspråkiga barn vi möter i förskolan ska få möjligheter att bli delaktiga i den förskolekontext de befinner sig i. Avgränsningar i studien har gjorts då fokus enbart ligger på de äldre, flerspråkiga barnen i förskolan. Detta har påverkat valet av förskolor att genomföra studien på samt den forskning som lyfts.

  • 179.
    Olsmats, Carl
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Industrial Engineering and Management.
    Utbildning för bildning: reflektioner kring utbildning av ingenjörer i allmänhet och Industriella ekonomer i synnerhet2015Student paper otherStudent thesis
  • 180.
    Olson, Maria
    Stockholms universitet, Centrum för de humanistiska ämnenas didaktik (CeHum).
    Att skaffa behörighet – att utveckla yrkeskompetenser? Presentation av aktuell pedagogisk forskning om yrkesutbildning och yrkeslärarutbildning för lärare, rektorer och andra verksamma i yrkesutbildning i regionen Skaraborg, samt studerarande vid yrkeslärarutbildningen, Högskolan i Skövde. På 'Forskarfredagen', Högskolan i Skövde, 27 september (2013)2013Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 181.
    Olson, Maria
    Stockholms universitet, Institutionen för utbildningsvetenskap med inriktning mot humaniora och samhällsvetenskap; Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information.
    Consumer Attitude for Self-Making - The ´Neo´ in Swedish Education policy on Active Citizenship and Worries about it2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Educating for active citizenship is a pressing issue in educational policymaking in the European countries, not least in the current neoliberal climate defined by economic and social change and by calls from different quarters for increased pluralism. Growing demands from the European Union on its member states to provide for active citizens through education fuels this task. In this text, Swedish education policy will be taken as a case in order to highlight how this issue is being handled in this ‘local’ national policy setting in Europe. It is argued that the Swedish educational citizen fostering agenda is marked out by a neo liberal orientation as regards the depiction of citizenship, where the envisioned ‘active’ citizen can be described as one with a consuming attitude for self-making. To this end, Sweden appears to respond to supranational demands quite well as regards citizenship education. Nevertheless the 'neo' in Swedish education policy on citizenship is worrying, I argue, as it tends to gloss over important notions of citizenship and citizenship education necessary to consider in our times.

  • 182.
    Olson, Maria
    Stockholms universitet, Centrum för de humanistiska ämnenas didaktik (CeHum); Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information.
    Educating the Democratic Citizen: the case of Sweden2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 183.
    Olson, Maria
    Stockholms universitet, Centrum för de humanistiska ämnenas didaktik (CeHum).
    Konflikten som verktyg i mänskligt växande2012Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 184.
    Olson, Maria
    Stockholms universitet, Centrum för de humanistiska ämnenas didaktik (CeHum).
    To Be or not to Be a (properly educated) Citizen: comments on the ICCS 2009 study2012In: Utbildning och Demokrati, ISSN 1102-6472, E-ISSN 2001-7316, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 17-27Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 185.
    Olson, Maria
    Stockholms universitet, Centrum för de humanistiska ämnenas didaktik (CeHum); Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information.
    What Counts as Young People's Civic Engagement in Times of Accountability?: On the Importance of Maintaining Openness about Young People's Civic Engagement in Education2012In: Utbildning och Demokrati, ISSN 1102-6472, E-ISSN 2001-7316, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 29-55Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One aspect of the ICCS study's measurement of young people's citizen competence is 'civic engagement'. In this article it is argued that even though the study's assessment captures important aspects of young people's civic engagement, too strong educational reliance on it may contribute to meagreness in the educaitonal assignment to see to an engaged citizenry. By providing deeper insight into the ICCS study's assessment rationale, and by presenting qualitatively derived examples of young people's civic engagement, it is suggested that in order to see to fruitful ways of approaching the educational task of providing for young people's civic engagement, we need to maintain openness to different depictions of civic engagement. Among them those that matter as such for the young people themselves in and through the social and material practices they take part in.

  • 186.
    Olson, Maria
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Centrum för de humanistiska ämnenas didaktik (CeHum).
    Andersson, Erik
    Högskolan i Skövde.
    Om att mäta och värdera ungdomars demokratiska medborgarkompetens2012Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 187.
    Olson, Maria
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Centrum för de humanistiska ämnenas didaktik (CeHum).
    Edling, Silvia
    Uppsala universitet.
    Liljestrand, Johan
    Högskolan i Gävle.
    Demokrati i aktuell svensk lärarutbildning och skola2012In: Demokrati og laererbevissthet, 2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 188.
    Olson, Maria
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Centrum för de humanistiska ämnenas didaktik (CeHum); Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information.
    Edling, Silvia
    Uppsala universitet.
    Liljestrand, Johan
    Högskolan i Gävle.
    Andersson, Erik
    Högskolan i Skövde.
    Är du mätbar nog, lilla vän?: Mätbarhetskultur, ICCS 2009 och ungdomars medborgarkompetens2012In: Skola och Samhälle, ISSN 2001-6727Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 189.
    Olson, Maria
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Fejes, Andreas
    Linköpings universitet, Pedagogik och vuxnas lärande.
    Dahlstedt, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, REMESO - Institutet för forskning om Migration, Etnicitet och Samhälle.
    Nicoll, Katherine
    University of Stirling, Scotland, UK.
    Citizenship production beyond the curriculum2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 190.
    Olson, Maria
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Centrum för de humanistiska ämnenas didaktik (CeHum); Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande.
    Gamalielsson, Jonas
    Gustavsson, Susanne
    Lundell, Björn
    Addressing Democratic and Didactic Implications of Different Technological Offerings in Compulsory School Teaching Practices2014In: NGL 2014. Next Generation Learning Conference: Conference Summary / [ed] Erik Brunnert Walfridsson, Falun: Högskolan i Dalarna , 2014, p. 52-62Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper draws from a multidisciplinary research study that aims to identify and analyse democratic and didactic implica- tions of different technological offerings in compulsory school teaching practices. The research study also aims to develop strate- gies to promote learning through open knowledge processes in Swedish educa- tional contexts. The overarching goal of our research is to contribute to systematic and in-depth knowledge of specific, educa- tion-related challenges in one of today’s most important ongoing changes in schools, the implementation of IT. In this paper we report on the current state of practice concerning the use of technologi- cal offerings in school and its democratic and didactic implications to the aim of elaborating on pedagogical and technolog- ical challenges in the context of compulsory school. 

  • 191.
    Olson, Maria
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information.
    Gustavsson, SusanneHögskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information.
    Tema: att bilda lärare i digital kompetens2011Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 192.
    Olson, Maria
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information; Stockholms universitet, Centrum för de humanistiska ämnenas didaktik (CeHum).
    Irisdotter Aldenmyr, Sara
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Centrum för de humanistiska ämnenas didaktik (CeHum).
    “Thera-Teachers” And “Not-Yets”: Implications Of The Current Trend Of Therapeutic Education?2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 193.
    Olsson, Maria
    Dalarna University, School of Education and Humanities, Education. Specialpedagogiska institutionen, Stockholms universitet.
    Eget arbete - en praktikers reflektioner2005In: Eget arbete - en kameleont i klassrummet: Perspektiv på ett arbetssätt från förskola till gymnasium / [ed] Eva Österlind, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2005, p. 39-59Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 194.
    Olsson, Maria
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work. Stockholms universitet, Specialpedagogiska institutionen.
    Lärares ledarskap som möjliggörande och begränsande i mötet med ’alla’ barn: En deltagarorienterad studie2016Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis is to, based on teachers’ experiences, describe and analyse meanings of teachers’ leadership in general, and in relation to children in need of special support in particular. The study was carried out within the tradition of participatory-oriented research, a research circle. The dialogues in the circle were based on the participants’ questions, experiences, interests, and knowledge. The circle included a researcher and nine teachers from the following types of schools: preschool, preschool class, compulsory school, and compulsory school for pupils with learning disabilities.

    The study is based on an understanding of leadership as a relational practice. Leadership is practised in the interaction between teacher and child. Both parties exert influence over the practice of leadership. A central assumption in the study is that knowledge can develop through and in interactions between people, that knowledge and power are connected, and that knowledge and actions are intertwined. Another central assumption is that learning is a complex phenomenon.

    In the analysis of the research circle’s dialogues, the following meanings of teachers’ leadership emerge: to facilitate learning and discipline, and to promote different interests. The practice of leadership involves teachers handling complex situations in their interactions with ‘all’ children, i.e. children in need of special support and children without such needs. Leadership is practised between teachers and children, and the teachers have to consider the group of children as a collective in relation to the individual children. At the same time, the teachers have to consider their intentions versus what happens during the interactions. In addition, the teachers have to pay heed to the fact that their own actions and the children’s actions influence one another. Finally, the teachers have to consider the individual child’s ‘best interest’ in relation to the requirements of the policy documents. Furthermore, the results indicate that the practice of leadership is perceived as both unpredictable and, to some extent, predictable at the same time, which adds to the complexity of leadership. The teachers cannot know for sure what the children understand or if the children’s actions facilitate learning. However, the teachers can make certain assumptions about how to practice leadership in order to facilitate learning and discipline in children with different needs. The meanings of leadership were expressed in different ways in the circle’s dialogues; both as enabling and limiting in interactions with children in need of special support. One of the study’s conclusions is that leadership seems to be particularly complex in interactions with children in need of special support.

    The research circle’s dialogues served to promote a democratic knowledge process. The dialogues were characterised by respect for the participants’ different opinions; however, this does not mean that they were free from power structures.

  • 195.
    Olsson, Maria
    Dalarna University, School of Education and Humanities, Education. Specialpedagogiska institutionen, Stockholms universitet.
    Möjligheter och hinder för en lärandeprocess i en forskningscirkel2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 196.
    Olsson, Maria
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Education. Specialpedagogiska institutionen, Stockholms universitet.
    Teachers’ Leadership in Relation to Children’s Differences2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 197.
    Olsson, Maria
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education and Humanities, Education. Specialpedagogiska institutionen, Stockholms universitet.
    Wetso, Gun-Marie
    Dalarna University, School of Education and Humanities, Education.
    Challenges of Creating a Collaborative Learning Process within a Participatory-Oriented Research Project2013In: Disruptions and eruptions as opportunities for transforming education: Abstract book, NFPF/NERA , 2013, p. 1-2Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 198.
    Olsson, Maria
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education and Humanities, Education. Specialpedagogiska institutionen, Stockholms universitet.
    Wetso, Gun-Marie
    Dalarna University, School of Education and Humanities, Education.
    Teachers' Leadership in the Heterogeneous Pedagogical Environments2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 199.
    Persson, Elin
    Dalarna University, School of Education and Humanities, Swedish as Second Language.
    Literacy i ett andraspråksklassrum: Fyra lärares förståelse och användning av literacy2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Föreliggande studie vill undersöka hur fyra verksamma lärare i svenska som andraspråk, enligt dem själva, förstår och undervisar literacy i ett multimodalt samhälle. Genom en kvalitativ metod har de fyra lärarna intervjuats enskilt och deras svar har sedan placerats i redan befintliga teman från en studie av Cross (2011) som, tillsammans med ett sociokulturellt perspektiv, utgör teoretiska utgångspunkter och analysverktyg för denna studie. Det analyserade resultatet visar bland annat att lärarna fokuserar mycket på sociala och kulturella praktiker vid literacyundervisning och att de inkluderar multimodaliteter i begreppet literacy men att det får olika mycket utrymme i undervisningen beroende på tillfrågad lärare.

  • 200.
    Persson, Jonas
    Dalarna University, School of Education and Humanities, Education.
    "Multiplikationsklubben": Ett matematikundervisningsprojekt i årskurs 2-4 för att automatisera multiplikationstabellen2012Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I uppsatsen redovisas en studie som gjorts om ett multiplikationsprojekt, som går under namnet Multiplikationsklubben, vilket genomförs av lärare på två skolor i Mellansverige. Projektet syftar till en större måluppfyllelse i matematik genom en bättre automatiserad multiplikationstabell hos eleverna i grundskolans tidiga år. I studien granskas bakgrund, motiv och mål med Multiplikationsklubben. Elevers och lärares olika uppfattningar om multiplikation och tabellkunskaper samt syn på vad multiplikation innebär jämförs med de uppfattningar som olika forskare uttrycker i litteraturen. Genom intervjuer med två lärare och tolv elever på en av skolorna som deltar i Multiplikationsklubben analyseras projektet mot bakgrund av forskning i ämnet. Många av de uppfattningar och idéer som elever och lärare uttrycker återfinns i tidigare studier samt i populärvetenskaplig litteratur inom ämnet, t.ex. att en automatiserad multiplikationstabell hos eleven är grunden inom mycket av matematiken. En annan uppfattning är den att en automatiserad multiplikationstabell kan nås genom förståelse för tabellen och en variation i multiplikationsträningen vilket generar en motivation hos eleven i träningen. Studiens resultat visar att förståelsen för tabellen kan uppnås via en praktisk multiplikationsträning genom multiplikationsspel och ett klossbyggande som strävar mot en konkretisering av multiplikations-tabellen. Multiplikationsprojektet syftar till att lyfta matematiken och nå en högre måluppfyllelse hos eleverna genom en mer motiverande undervisning.

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