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  • 151.
    Ludvigsson, Rikard
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Analys av avslutschanser inom svensk elitfotboll2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte:

    Syftet med studien är att analysera anfallssekvenser i 16 fotbollsmatcher fördelat på åtta matcher i herrallsvenskan samt åtta matcher i damallsvenskan som leder fram till avslutschans. Fokus i analyserna är att avgöra vilken aktion som är avgörande för att få till ett avslut, vilket område på planen avslutet kommer ifrån, vilken tid avslutspelen sker och hur lång tid de tar samt med vilken teknik och kroppsdel avsluten genomförs. Metod: Den metod som användes för att få tag på nödvändiga data var att studera samtliga utvalda matcher via två olika play tjänster på internet och rita ner samtliga anfallssekvenser som leder till avslut på en mall av en fotbollsplan. Urvalet av fotbollsmatcher utfördes semi-randomiserat för damallsvenskan samt för herrallsvenskan från omgång 3, 4 och 5 hos damerna samt 7, 8 och 9 hos herrarna. Matcher på lappar drogs ur en burk för respektive serie och de 8 + 8 första matcherna som drogs analyserades. Resultat: I herrallsvenskan så är korta passningar den mest effektiva aktionen för att komma till avslut. Flest avslut görs utanför straffområdet men att flest mål gör i straffområdet. Flest avslut kommer i slutet av varje halvtid samt att bredsidestillslag är det vanligaste sättet att avsluta på. I damallsvenskan så är korta passningar den effektivaste aktionen. Flest avslut görs inne i straffområdet och det är där flest mål görs. Flest avslut kommer i slutet av matchen samt att bredsida är det mest effektiva sättet att avsluta på. Slutsats: Analys av avslutsekvenser är ett effektivt sätt för tränare att få information för att taktiskt kunna förbereda sitt eget spel på ett så bra sätt som möjligt samt att utnyttja motståndarnas svagheter. Studien visar att svenska elitlag avslutar med bredsida, att avsluten sker i straffområdet, att korta passningar är den mest förekommande aktionen för att komma till avslut samt att lagen är starka i slutet av matcherna. Dessa resultat ger tränarna intressanta data för hur laget ska anfalla på det mest effektiva sättet.

  • 152.
    Lundberg, Jakob
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Bejmar, Jonatan
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Ingen signifikant skillnad gällande dynamisk och statisk distanshantering i varierande viktklasser för elitatleter inom MMA2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    MMA (mixed martial arts) has expanded globally as entertainment, training and competition in recent years. MMA is a sport where techniques such as punches, kicks, throws and joints are used to defeat the opponent in unarmed close combat. Standing techniques such as punches and kicks are of great importance in sports and coaches / athletes strive to develop efficient techniques. The study investigates how UFC athletes work with distance moves relative to each other in knockout or tech knockout matches, comparisons were also made between a heavier and an easier weight class to detect any differences in behavior. Data was collected through a match observation where a total of 50 matches from the MMA event were collected with reverse chronological order starting from fight night Johnson VS Reis. The results showed that there were differences between movement and non-occupation at KO / TKO, but also that they were not significant. The same conclusion was made for comparisons between the weight classes. When there was an individual move, it was most common for it to move forward and the most common movement between athletes was forwards. Handling of dynamic and static distances is likely to have impact on elite athletes within MMA, but the results show that the difference between athletes in different weight classes is not significant and is likely to be affected to an equal extent by individual athletes' skills.

  • 153.
    Lundström, Elin
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Kantojärvi, Frida
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Gruppträningsinstruktörers skapande av motivationvid gruppträningspass: En kvalitativ studie om hur och varför instruktion, feedback och övriga betydelsefulla faktorer förmedlas samt dess betydelse för att öka gruppdeltagarens motivation till fortsatt fysisk aktivitet2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Background: An inactive lifestyle is a problem in today’s society, a problem that can contribute to negative health effects. Group fitness instructors have the possibility to affect the participants’ attitudes towards physical activity. This study therefor aims to examine how and why group fitness instructors choose to convey instructions and feedback, and which other factors are perceived as motivating for continued physical activity. Method: The study was conducted in the form of semi-structured interviews with ten participants from different fitness centers situated in the middle region of Sweden. The interviews were recorded, transcribed and thereafter analyzed by the interpretative phenomenological analysis methods. Results: Instructions were communicated mainly verbally or in a combination of verbally and visually. The majority were aware that learning is individual and that different techniques therefor should be used to create an understanding for the execution of an exercise. Feedback was communicated frequently and the majority meant that it should be adapted to the needs of each participant. Positive feedback was mainly used to inspire participants to additional performance, while constructive feedback mainly was used to correct improper execution. Other motivating factors that appeared to be important was to create an environment that help every participant to reach the goals of each session by act inspiring, create a holistic perspective and to involve the participants in their own development. Social interaction appeared to be an important factor, which was created by relationships. New finds consist of the discovery the majority of the instructors, after having given repeated constructive feedback to a participant on an exercise, would allow an incorrect execution to pass instead of solving the problem. Conclusion: The group fitness instructors seem to create a motivating environment, as is indicated by various factors. Recurring participants suggests that they experience the exercise as positive and that they are motivated to continue performing the physical activity in question. The group fitness instructors try to individualize their instructions and feedback, to get through to each individual. Furthermore they try to show alternative exercises, to give each participant the possibility of choosing a suitable level and thereby take part in their own development. The social interaction appeared to be an important factor in making participants return. The behavior of the group fitness instructors indicate that they are striving to create an environment that inspires continued physical activity.

  • 154.
    Lundström, Evelina
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    An observational analysis of the messagesconveyed in modern yoga: has the holistic essenceof yoga been maintained?2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Yoga is fast becoming a mainstream activity in western cultures in the health, fitness and wellness industry.Modern yoga forms practiced today are however very different from the original forms of yoga, which originatedfrom India thousands of years ago. Modern yoga tends to focus more on the physical development, which is onlya portion of the philosophy behind yoga described by Patanjali in the work Yoga Sutras, where the eight stepsfor how to live a meaningful life are presented. The original goal of yoga is self-realization, a holistic perspectiveon wellbeing with a focus on both physical and mental aspects of wellbeing as well as the spiritual developmentof the self. These characteristics have given yoga its strength as a therapeutic activity throughout history.However, with the change in focus from ancient to modern yoga are these characteristics still promoted in theyoga that is practiced today?Aim of the studyThe aim of this qualitative study is to examine how yoga is promoted in today's modern society, specifically insocial media by instructors.MethodA total of 11 video clips of yoga lessons from the popular database YoutTube were observed and analyzedthrough a non-participant observational analysis. The video clips were randomly selected from the top viewed andliked clips according to a defined inclusion criteria applied to the search term ‘yoga lesson’. The video clips wereviewed several times and the transcribed material was then analyzed to identify key themes.ResultsThe results of the observational analysis revealed five themes representing how yoga is promoted in social mediaby instructors. The five themes were; (1) structure of the lesson, (2) mental factors, (3) the atmosphere, (4)terminology and lastly (5) individual differences. The result show that the body poses were the main focus in theyoga lessons, the breathing techniques were not explained clearly, the atmosphere and terminology used affectedthe way yoga was mediated by the instructors and individual differences were taken into consideration by themajority of instructors.ConclusionsThe result of this study indicates that yoga promoted by instructors in social media today is mostly for physicaldevelopment. The philosophy mediated differs from the original philosophy described by Patanjali in YogaSutras.

  • 155. Lupo, Corrado
    et al.
    Guidotti, Flavia
    Goncalves, Carlos E.
    Moreira, Liliana
    Doupona Topic, Mojca
    Bellardini, Helena
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Tonkonogi, Michail
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Medicinsk vetenskap.
    Colin, Allen
    Capranica, Laura
    Motivation towards dual career of European student-athletes2015Inngår i: European Journal of Sport Science, ISSN 1746-1391, E-ISSN 1536-7290, Vol. 15, nr 2, s. 151-160Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study aimed to investigate motivations for the dual career of European student-athletes living in countries providing different educational services for elite athletes: State-centric regulation–State as sponsor/facilitator (State), National Sporting Federations/Institutes as intermediary (Federation) and Laisser Faire, no formal structures (No Structure). Therefore, the European Student-athletes’ Motivation towards Sports and Academics Questionnaire (SAMSAQ-EU) was administered to 524 European student-athletes. Exploratory Factor Analysis, and Confirmatory Factor Analysis were applied to test the factor structure, and the reliability and validity of the SAMSAQ-EU, respectively. A multivariate approach was applied to verify subgroup effects (P ≤ 0.05) according to gender (i.e., female and male), age (i.e., ≤24 years, >24 years), type of sport (i.e., individual sport and team sport) and competition level (i.e., national and international). Insufficient confirmatory indexes were reported for the whole European student-athlete group, whereas distinct three factor models [i.e., Student Athletic Motivation (SAM); Academic Motivation (AM); Career Athletic Motivation (CAM)] emerged, with acceptable reliability estimates, for State (SAM = 0.82; AM = 0.75; and CAM = 0.75), Federation (SAM = 0.82; AM = 0.66; and CAM = 0.87) and No Structure (SAM = 0.78; AM = 0.74; and CAM = 0.79) subgroups. Differences between subgroups were found only for competition level (P < 0.001) in relation to SAM (P = 0.001) and CAM (P < 0.001). For SAM, the highest and lowest values emerged for Federation (national, 5.1 ± 0.5; international, 5.4 ± 0.5) and State (national, 4.5 ± 0.9; international, 4.8 ± 0.7). The opposite picture emerged for CAM (Federation: national, 3.3 ± 0.7; international, 3.5 ± 0.9; State: national, 5.0 ± 0.8; international, 5.0 ± 0.9). Therefore, despite SAMSAQ-EU demonstrated to be a useful tool, results showed that European student-athletes’ motivation for dual career has to be specifically investigated according to social contexts.

  • 156.
    Löfström, Håkan
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Sambandet mellan svenska elitlängdskidåkares kroppsvikt och tävlingsprestation2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte

    Denna studie syftar till att undersöka och beskriva hur det förhåller sig med korrelationen vad

    beträffar svenska elitlängdskidåkares prestationsförmåga under längdskidtävlingar relaterat

    till längdskidåkares kroppsvikter.

    Metod

    Totalt deltog 23 kvinnliga och 21 manliga svenska elitlängdskidåkare i studien. Kroppsvikt

    och kroppslängd samlades in via ett frågeformulär som skickades till var och en av

    individerna. Resultat från tävlingar samlades in via en tiddatabas på nätet. Svenska

    skidförbundet gör kapacitetsanalyser på tider från Svenska FIS tävlingar och publicerar dessa

    på webbsiten www.skidtid.se.

    All data analyserades för att fastställa korrelationer mellan tider och individernas kroppsvikt.

    Resultat

    Endast en svag korrelation mellan längdskidåkares kroppsvikt och prestation kunde fastställas

    när det gäller placering i mål samt placering på platta partier, utförspartier och uppförspartier.

    Slutsatser

    Denna studie visar att elitlängdskidåkares kroppsvikt inte är en avgörande faktor till

    framgång.

  • 157.
    Mikaelsson, Glenn
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Nyanlända elevers förståelse för ämnet idrott och hälsa i årskurs 7–9: En enkätstudie med kvalitativa anspråk2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien är att undersöka nyanländas elevers förståelse för ämnet idrott och hälsa i grundskolans senare del, årkurs 7-9. Studien genomfördes med hjälp av 28 respondenter som svarade på en kvalitativ enkät med öppna frågor om hur de upplevde ämnet idrott och hälsa på grundskolan. Studien visade att respondenterna hade blandade erfarenheter av ämnet idrott och hälsa. Respondenternas svar visar att några upplevde det problematiskt med bedömningssituationen genom att kunskapskraven var otydliga eller att läraren inte hade förmedlat kunskapskraven för eleven. Andra respondenter menande på att vissa moment som genomfördes i ämnet var obegripliga och svåra att genomföra.

    I studien framkom även att respondenterna ser på ämnet idrott och hälsa som en positiv del i grundskolan men att ämnet används som ett verktyg för att bli av med extra energi för att prestera i skolans andra ämnen.

  • 158.
    Milosevic, Stefan
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Hedman, Jesper
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Stress i arbetslivet: Arbetsrelaterad stress på träningsanläggning samt kontorsmiljöer2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to examine the work-related stress among trainers and office workers through a survey that was constructed to address the research questions. Short-term stress can be explained as a primary physiological change in the body in form of secretion of adrenaline and norepinephrine, which enhances performances. There is also good evidence that physical activity can promote physical and mental health. If the body is exposed to short-term stress over a longer period, it has the opposite effect both mentally and physically. This study was built on a mixed method approach, with a mix of both quantitative and qualitative questions, which of most were quantitative. The survey was distributed to three different companies, with various work duties. Surveys were collected during two different times, with a significant amount the last time. It was thereby analyzed and coded into the program Excel (2016). Only considerable data was later presented to match the research questions. To conclude the results, 82 percent felt work-related stress, while 18 percent didn’t feel work-related stress. Many study participants often feel work-related stress, and more than half of the participants in the study do not know how to handle their work-related stress. The minority of participants however, feels a positive change in terms of achievement and well-being, which is the research area studied less between the negative and positive impact that stress may have. Work-related stress can further reflect today’s approach on stress and scientist have identified a need for further research on “eustress” (positive stress).

  • 159.
    Mujkic, Asia
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Rantala, Robert
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    There is something about Mary… and Ted!: Training in mixed-sex groups makes you work harder. A study about the effort when training with the opposite sex.2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    In many sport associations, regardless of level, women and men rarely practice together. Previous studies indicate that work groups are generally more efficient when there is an even distribution between the sexes. Could that also be the case in sports? This study aims to investigate whether the sex composition of a training group affects the effort and performance of the participants. Eleven volunteers participated in the crossover study consisting of three different 150-meter sprint conditions; individually, single-sex group and mixed-sex group. Sprint times, heart rate and RPE were recorded during all three trials. The result of this study suggests that there might be practical benefits in regards to physical performance and effort to exercise in a training group consisting of both sexes instead of training only with the same-sex or individually. The understanding could be useful in areas such as; training optimisation for both athletes and in patient- and rehabilitation groups, increasing efficiency in work environments, in schools and sports clubs striving for both athletic success and gender equality.

  • 160.
    Mårtensson, Niclas
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Tejpning för att undvika akut smärta vidbenhinneinflammation2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    PurposeTo evaluate a new tapeing technique against the pain from acute and cronical pain from shinsplints and compare it against an already used techniqueMethodBefore the test all participant where examine by an physician to confirm that every person didsuffer from shin splints. If a person didn’t suffer from shin splint they where excluded fromthe study. The participants where divided into to groups where the first group received thenew tapeing technique and the other group received the other kinseological tapeing technique.Both group evaluated their pain after warming up and before the first running attempt, afterthe first running attempt, after receiving a tapeing technique and the second running attempt.To be able to know if all participants preform at equal levels at both running attempts, allparticipants where given a pulse watch to register both pulse and time.ResultsBoth tapeing techniques did lower the pain level. The new tapeing technique lowered the painwith 18 % on the right leg and 27 % on the left leg. The kinesological tapeing techniquelowered the pain with 37 % on the right leg and 36 % on the left leg. There where nosignificant differences between the two techniques.ConclusionsThe new tapeing technique seem to lower the pain levels but a bigger study group is needed toconfirm the results. The kinesological tapeing technique seem to have a bit better effect inlowering the pain levels. But too few participants participated in the study to be able to saythis for sure.

  • 161.
    Nilsson, Johnny
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap. 2The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, Stockholm.
    Cardinale, Daniele
    Aerobic and anaerobic test performance among elite male football players in different team positions2015Inngår i: LASE Journal of Sport Science, ISSN 1691-7669, E-ISSN 1691-9912, Vol. 6, nr 2, s. 73-92Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose was to determine the magnitude of aerobic and anaerobic performance factors among elite male football players in different team positions. Thirty-nine players from the highest Swedish division classified as defenders (n=18), midfield players (n=12) or attackers (n=9) participated. Their mean (± sd) age, height and body mass (bm) were 24.4 (±4.7) years, 1.80 (±5.9)m and 79 (±7.6)kg, respectively. Running economy (RE) and anaerobic threshold (AT) was determined at 10, 12, 14, and 16km/h followed by tests of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max). Maximal strength (1RM) and average power output (AP) was performed in squat lifting. Squat jump (SJ), counter-movement jump with free arm swing (CMJa), 45m maximal sprint and the Wingate test was performed. Average VO2max for the whole population (WP) was 57.0mL O2•kg-1min-1 . The average AT occurred at about 84% of VO2max. 1RM per kg bm0.67 was 11.9±1.3kg. Average squat power in the whole population at 40% 1RM was 70±9.5W per kg bm0.67 . SJ and CMJa were 38.6±3.8cm and 48.9±4.4cm, respectively. The average sprint time (45m) was 5.78± 0.16s. The AP in the Wingate test was 10.6±0.9W•kg-1 . The average maximal oxygen uptake among players in the highest Swedish division was lower compared to international elite players but the Swedish players were better off concerning the anaerobic threshold and in the anaerobic tests. No significant differences were revealed between defenders, midfielders or attackers concerning the tested parameters presented above.

  • 162.
    Nilsson, Johnny
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap. The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, Stockholm.
    Cardinale, Daniele
    Running economy and blood lactate accumulation in elite football players with high and low maximal aerobic power2015Inngår i: LASE Journal of Sport Science, ISSN 1691-7669, E-ISSN 1691-9912, Vol. 6, nr 2, s. 44-51Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose was to determine running economy and lactate threshold among a selection of male elite football players with high and low aerobic power. Forty male elite football players from the highest Swedish division (“Allsvenskan”) participated in the study. In a test of running economy (RE) and blood lactate accumulation the participants ran four minutes each at 10, 12, 14, and 16 km•h-1 at horizontal level with one minute rest in between each four minutes interval. After the last sub-maximal speed level the participants got two minutes of rest before test of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max). Players that had a maximal oxygen uptake lower than the average for the total population of 57.0 mL O2•kg-1•minute-1 were assigned to the low aerobic power group (LAP) (n=17). The players that had a VO2max equal to or higher than 57.0 mL O2•kg-1•minute-1 were selected for the high aerobic power group (HAP) (n=23). The VO2max was significantly different between the HAP and LAP group. The average RE, measured as oxygen uptake at 12, 14 and 16km•h-1 was significantly lower but the blood lactate concentration was significantly higher at 14 and 16 km•h-1 for theLAP group compared with the HAP group.

  • 163.
    Nilsson, Johnny
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap. Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, Stockholm.
    Fredriksson, Mårten
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, Stockholm.
    Peak oxygen uptake and muscle power can be simultaneously improved with hybrid training2015Inngår i: LASE Journal of Sport Science, ISSN 1691-7669, E-ISSN 1691-9912, Vol. 6, nr 1, s. 3-15Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 164.
    Nilsson, Johnny
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap. Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Laboratoriet för biomekanik och motorisk kontroll (BMC).
    Karlöf, Lars
    Jakobsen, Vidar
    A new device for measuring ski running surface force and pressure profiles2013Inngår i: Sports Engineering, ISSN 1369-7072, E-ISSN 1460-2687, Vol. 16, nr 1, s. 55-59Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The pressure/force acting between the running surface of a ski and the snow may indirectly change glide friction. Thus, measuring the pressure/force distribution may be important for a deeper understanding of glide in skiing. The present aim was to construct a device that allowed the pressure/force underneath the ski running surface (SRS) to be recorded. Pressure sensors were attached on top of a platform. Sheets of different materials were used to improve the interaction between the SRS and the sensors. Possible functions of the device are demonstrated in three applications that emphasized comparison of force distribution underneath skis selected for similarity, force distribution under both skis and a single ski as well as backward weight distribution. The results show that the device with the pressure sensors mapped pressure/force distribution underneath the skis in the applications presented, and the system can thus be a useful tool for further optimizing e.g., ski designs.

  • 165.
    Nilsson, Johnny
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap. Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, Stockholm.
    Rosdahl, Hans
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, Stockholm.
    Contribution of leg muscle forces to paddle force and kayak speed during maximal effort flat-water paddling2016Inngår i: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, ISSN 1555-0265, E-ISSN 1555-0273, Vol. 11, nr 1, s. 22-27Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose was to investigate the contribution of leg-muscle-generated forces to paddle force and kayak speed during maximal-effort flat-water paddling. Five elite male kayakers at national and international level participated. The participants warmed up at progressively increasing speeds and then performed a maximal-effort, nonrestricted paddling sequence. This was followed after 5 min rest by a maximal-effort paddling sequence with the leg action restricted—the knee joints “locked.” Left- and right-side foot-bar and paddle forces were recorded with specially designed force devices. In addition, knee angular displacement of the right and left knees was recorded with electrogoniometric technique, and the kayak speed was calculated from GPS signals sampled at 5 Hz. The results showed that reduction in both push and pull foot-bar forces resulted in a reduction of 21% and 16% in mean paddle-stroke force and mean kayak speed, respectively. Thus, the contribution of foot-bar force from lower-limb action significantly contributes to kayakers’ paddling performance.

  • 166.
    Nilsson, Mattias
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    En böjd stavdesigns påverkan på stakfasens egenskaper2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte

    Studien syftar till att klarlägga hur stavisättningen och stakfasen påverkas vid användandet av en böjd jämfört med en rak stavdesign vid stakning i hög hastighet på rullskidor på rullband. Följande frågeställningar har undersökts:

     Leder en böjd stavdesign till att stavisättningen sker längre fram?

     Leder en böjd stavdesign till att stakfasens absoluta längd förändras?

     Leder en böjd stavdesign till att stakfasens relativa längd förändras?

    Metod

    Tio manliga längdskidåkare (ålder 25,3 ± 5,1 år, kroppslängd 182,1 ± 8,6 cm, kroppsvikt 78 ± 6,5 kg) deltog i studien. Forskningspersonerna genomförde ett Vmax-protokoll stakning på rullskidor på rullband, med rak såväl som med böjd stavdesign. Rörelsedata samlades in och analyserades för att fastställa eventuella skillnader i stavisättning, stakfas, återförandefas och total cykeltid.

    Resultat

    En signifikant skillnad kan påvisas gällande stavisättning, där en böjd stavdesign leder till en stavisättning längre framför bindningen jämfört med en rak stavdesign. Ingen signifikant skillnad kan påvisas rörande stakfasen, återförandefasen eller total cykeltid.

    Slutsatser

    Studiens visar att stavspetsens rörelsebana flyttas vid nyttjande av en böjd stavdesign i riktning framåt. Dock påverkas inte stakfasen, återförandefasen eller total cykeltid, vilket innebär att stakfasens längd, i absoluta såväl som relativa termer, är densamma vid stakning med rak och böjd stavdesign.

  • 167.
    Nordvall, Carolina
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Betydelsen av visuell feedback vid utförande av handstyrkemätning2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 168.
    Nyberg, Gunn
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Att uppmärksamma sitt sätt att röra sig - kan elever lära sig det i idrott och hälsa?2018Inngår i: Idrott & hälsa, ISSN 1653-1124, nr 3, s. 20-22Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 169.
    Nyberg, Gunn
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Att urskilja och erfara sitt sätt att springa - kan elever lära sig det i idrott och hälsa?2018Inngår i: Forskning om undervisning och lärande, ISSN 2000-9674, E-ISSN 2001-6131, Vol. 6, nr 1, s. 43-63Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [sv]

    Att utveckla elevers allsidiga rörelseförmågor är ett syfte med ämnet idrott och hälsa. Vad rörelseförmåga innebär är dock otydligt och följaktligen även vad eleverna ska kunna. Den Learning study som rapporteras i den här artikeln utgår från resultatet av ett forskningsprojekt där syftet var att utforska vad rörelseförmåga kan innebära. Att urskilja och erfara sitt sätt att röra sig visade sig vara ett kunnande som var betydelsefullt för utveckling av rörelseförmågan hos kunniga idrottsutövare. Syftet med denna studie var a, att undersöka vad det kan innebära att kunna urskilja och erfara sitt sätt att springa i olika sammanhang samt b, att undersöka hur undervisningen kan utformas i syfte att erbjuda eleverna möjlighet att utveckla sitt kunnande. Resultatet visar en nyanserad bild av vad kunnandet innebär samt exempel på hur undervisning kan formas för att hjälpa elever att utveckla sitt kunnande.

  • 170.
    Nyberg, Gunn
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap. Stockholms universitet, CeHum.
    Att utveckla en kroppslig hastighetsmätare: en studie av free ski åkares rörelsekunnande2012Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Introduktion

    Rörelsekunnande och koordinativ förmåga har inte varit ett framträdande tema i ämnet idrott och hälsa varken nationellt (Larsson, Redelius och Fagell, 2007) eller internationellt Kirk, 2010; Tinning, 2010).

    Rörelsekunnande, i termer av ’ idrottslig förmåga’ betraktas snarare som ett underförstått, förgivet taget krav för att vara ’bra i idrott’ (Evans, 2004; Gard, 2006; Redelius m.fl., 2007; Kirk, 2010). Den ’idrottsliga förmågan’ verkar heller inte handla om kvalitativa aspekter i form av koordinativ förmåga, kroppsmedvetenhet, estetiskt uttryck eller skapande av rörelser och framträder inte som ett mål för en pedagogisk idé . Det är istället, trots ämnets tradition av att vara ett ’praktiskt’ ämne, det teoretiska kunnandet som premieras (Hay, 2006, Green, 2010) vilket får konsekvensen att kunskap i rörelser och rörelseaktiviteter blir trivialt (Kirk, 2010). Det finns därmed, som Evans (2004) efterfrågar, ett behov av att diskutera vad ’idrottslig förmåga’ kan vara. En utgångspunkt är att rörelsekunnande är en möjlig förmåga att utveckla men att den till stor del innefattar en tyst dimension som är svår att beskriva.

    Syfte & teoretisk ram

    Syftet med studien är att undersöka och beskriva free ski-åkares rörelsekunnande. Exempel på frågeställning är ”vad kan man när man kan en ”flat spin niohundra med tail grab”?

    Förståelsen av rörelsekunnande som kunskap hämtar inspiration från Michael Polanyis teori om tacit knowing. Här ses kunskap som en process; ett kunnande som blir personligt i bemärkelsen att det utvecklas i den praktiska erfarenheten (Polanyi, 1961). Free ski åkarnas rörelsekunnande förstås även utifrån de fyra aspekter av kunskap som kan ses som integrerade i all kunskap (Carlgren, 2009).

    Metod

    Erfarna, självlärda utövare i free skiing filmades under träning och intervjuades i form av stimulated recall. Data består av fyra videofilmer från träning och tävling samt fyra timslånga ljudinspelningar av stimulated recall intervjuer. Utövarna har fått kommentera sina filmade trick där temat för samtalet har varit att så noggrant som möjligt beskriva sitt momentana handlande.

    Resultat

    En preliminär analys visar att erfarna utövare utvecklat specifika kunnanden som bidrar till att de kan anpassa sina rörelser till olika yttre förhållanden (snöns konsistens, hoppets konstruktion, vindens riktning och hastighet). De har också utvecklat en förmåga att ’läsa av’ sin egen hastighet både i luften och på marken samt i roterande tillstånd. Deras specifika kunnande inbegriper också att navigera sin kroppsliga uppmärksamhet och växla denna under olika faser i sina rörelser.

    Diskussion

    Resultaten kan  bidra till en didaktisk diskussion om hur rörelsekunnande kan förstås och därmed också bidra till diskussionen om vad undervisning i rörelse kan innebära och vilket kunnande som kan utvecklas i en pedagogisk kroppslig praktik.

  • 171.
    Nyberg, Gunn
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap. Stockholms universitet.
    Att utveckla sin rörelseförmåga – exemplet house hop2013Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Rörelse och rörelseaktiviteter är ett centralt innehåll i ämnet idrott och hälsa och syftet med ämnet är bland annat att eleverna skall få utveckla sin rörelseförmåga (Gy 11, Lgr 11). Vad detta innebär verkar dock, enligt forskning, tolkas av lärare på olika och motsägelsefulla sätt. Å ena sidan uppfattas rörelseförmåga som enbart ett medel för att vara fysiskt aktiv och det räcker att delta (vara fysiskt aktiv) för att få godkänt i ämnet. Rörelser och rörelseförmåga är inte föremål för något lärande eller pedagogisk idé, det är den fysiska aktiviteten, pulshöjningen och muskelstärkande aktiviteter som blir huvudtemat och som i sin tur förväntas främja elevers hälsosamma livsstilar. Å andra sidan, när lärare bedömer och betygsätter elever för högre betyg framskymtar andra kriterier för rörelseförmågan. Då verkar denna likställas med att vara ’bra på sport’ och det som bedöms är ’mätbara prestationer, ofta i form av idrottsliga resultat’(Redelius, 2007 s. 226). Det finns därmed ett behov av att undersöka vad rörelseförmåga kan innebära och hur en sådan förmåga (eller förmågor) kan tydliggöras, artikuleras och diskuteras som ett ämnesspecifikt kunskapsinnehåll i idrott och hälsa.

     

    Den studie som genomförts, och som ligger till grund för den här presentationen, är en Learning study där en specifik rörelse (house hop) valdes som lärandeobjekt. Studien genomfördes tillsammans med tre lärare i idrott och hälsa på gymnasiet och det övergripande syftet var att undersöka vad det innebär att kunna en specifik rörelse.

    Syftet med denna presentation är att visa hur en fenomenografisk analys av elevers olika sätt att erfara en rörelse kan bidra till en ökad förståelse av vad rörelseförmåga kan innebära och hur undervisning i rörelseförmåga kan främjas av att utgå från elevers olika sätt att kunna den rörelse som det är tänkt att eleverna skall lära sig. Den fenomenografiska analysen bidrar också med ett sätt att identifiera vilka aspekter av en rörelse som behöver urskiljas för att kunna rörelsen på ett så komplext sätt som möjligt.

     

     

  • 172.
    Nyberg, Gunn
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap. Stockholms universitet, CeHum.
    Den idrottspedagogiska modellen sport education undersöks och lovordas: recension av Sport Education: International Perspectives, Peter Hastie (red)2013Inngår i: www.idrottsforum.orgArtikkel, omtale (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 173.
    Nyberg, Gunn
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap. Stockholms Universitet.
    Developing a ‘somatic velocimeter’ – the practical knowledge of freeskiers2015Inngår i: Qualitative Research in Sport, Exercise and Health, ISSN 2159-676X, E-ISSN 2159-6778, Vol. 7, nr 4, s. 488-503Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to explore what it means to know complex movements, from the perspective of the mover. The paper discusses the potential of the findings for providing ideas for both teaching and learning capability to move in the context of physical education.

    The knowing involved in moving is explored in the practice of freeskiing, characterized by a tradition of learning movements where practitioners have a strong commitment to learning how to move in complex, different and new ways.

    In this study, knowing how to move is seen in line with Michael Polanyi’s theory of tacit knowing where knowing is always rooted in personal experience and comprising what Ryle (2009) calls ’knowing how’ as well as ’knowing that’.

    The findings show that the freeskiers have developed specific kinds of knowing comprising a tacit component which is possible to articulate to a certain extent. Their capability to move can be conceived as complex knowing, comprising theoretical as well as practical aspects.

    If the educational objective in physical education is expressed as developing ways of knowing such as those exemplified in this study, the subject content, or at least part of it, could be described as movement education in which the intrinsic value of knowing movements could be recognized.

  • 174.
    Nyberg, Gunn
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap. Stockholm University, CeHum.
    Exploring ‘knowings’ in human movement: The practical knowledge of pole-vaulters2014Inngår i: European Physical Education Review, ISSN 1356-336X, E-ISSN 1741-2749, Vol. 20, nr 1, s. 72-89Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to explore and develop ways to describe what there is to know, from the perspective of the knower, when knowing how to carry out a complex movement. The paper will challenge the distinction between mental and physical skills, drawing on theories of tacit knowing (Polanyi, 1969), knowing how (Ryle, 1949), and knowing-in-action (Schön, 1991) together with empirical data from the context of elite sport. One assumption is that exploring knowing in moving in this context can contribute to developing students’ movement education in physical education.

      Pole-vaulting provides examples of what there is to know in terms of embodied capabilities possible to explicate and develop as an educational objective in physical education, irrespective of the context of competitive sports. Explicating the knowing (or capabilities) involved in the ‘capability to move’, as exemplified in this study could emphasize an educational aim concerning practical knowledge such as knowing in moving, and not necessarily specific skills related to competitive sport activities.

     

  • 175.
    Nyberg, Gunn
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap. Stockhoms universitet, CeHum.
    Idrottsämnets pedagogik: recension av Pedagogy and Human Movement: Theory, practice, research (Tinning, Richard)2012Inngår i: Idrottsforum.org/Nordic sport science forum, ISSN 1652-7224, Vol. feb 15Artikkel, omtale (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 176.
    Nyberg, Gunn
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Innebörden av att kunna 'house hop' rörelsekunnande som kroppslig förståelse2015Inngår i: Forskning om undervisning och lärande, ISSN 2000-9674, E-ISSN 2001-6131, Vol. 3, nr 15, s. 5-21Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [sv]

    I den här artikeln presenterar jag en del av mitt avhandlingsprojekt (Nyberg, 2014) där syftet var att undersöka vad rörelseförmåga kan innebära i termer av vad ’man kan’ när man kan röra sig på olika sätt. Syftet med artikeln är att visa hur en fenomenografisk analys av elevers olika sätt att röra sig kan bidra till hur kunskapen om rörelsekunnande kan utvecklas. Den fenomenografiska analysen innebär att, i det här fallet, systematiskt undersöka hur elevers ’kroppsliga förståelse’ av en rörelse uttrycks genom olika sätt att röra sig. Resultatet av analysen visar även vilka aspekter av rörelsen som är möjliga att urskilja och erfara, vilket bidrar till en förståelse av vad det innebär att kunna en rörelse. I artikeln diskuterar jag hur en fenomenografisk ansats kan underlätta för lärare i idrott och hälsa att bortse från sina egna underförstådda antaganden om vad det innebär att behärska en rörelse och hur undervisningen i idrott och hälsa kan bidra till utveckling av rörelseförmåga.

  • 177.
    Nyberg, Gunn
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Teaching and learning movement capability in PE: learning to run differently2018Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Teaching and learning movement capability in PE: learning to run differently

    One aim with PEH in Sweden is to develop students all round movement capability. What movement capability means is however unclear and subsequently also what students are supposed to learn and know. Also, capability to move seems to be a taken-for-granted prerequisite for, or outcome of, being physically active.

    This presentation reports an action research project taking a departure from previous research exploring what movement capability can mean. The result from this study indicated that knowing one’s own way of moving was a significant specific way of knowing as a part of movement capability. The aim with this action research project was a) to investigate what it means, from the perspective of the students, to know one’s own way of moving when running in different settings and with different purposes and B) to investigate how learning situations can be formed to provide possibilities for students to develop their knowing.

    The project was conducted in collaboration with two PE teachers and two of their classes including a total of 40 students in upper secondary school in Sweden. A Learning study was carried out which included a pre-test, a phenomenographic analysis of the pre-test, planning teaching based on a phenomenographic approach to learning, implementing the teaching and a post-test. Then, based on analysis of the teaching and the pre-test, another cycle was carried out. Data was generated with the help of video- and audio recording.

    The findings show a nuanced picture of what it means to know one’s own way of running which was not possible to know from start. Also, the findings suggest that a phenomenographic approach to teaching  can help students develop their awareness of their own  ways of moving as well as challenging implicit ‘standards of excellence’, embedded in a common approach to teaching and learning movements in PE.

  • 178.
    Nyberg, Gunn
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap. Stockholms universitet.
    The meaning of knowing how to move in specific ways - capability to move as embodied understanding2013Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    The subject physical education has a tradition of being a ‘practical’ subject. However, practical forms of knowing such as for example bodily awareness and capability to move do not, neither for teachers nor pupils, seem to be a main issue of learning in PE (Tinning, 2010; Redelius et al, 2009,). Rather, physical education in terms of the theme of this presentation, capability to move, is reduced to implicit and taken-for-granted ‘standards of excellence’, only reluctantly discussed by PE teachers (Kirk, 2010, 114). However, the knowing involved in moving is not easily articulated and may, according to Polanyi (1954), “often result in explaining away quite genuine practices or experiences” (p. 385).  Articulating what there is to know when knowing how to move in different ways could provide a base for dealing with capability to move as an educational objective in physical education.

    Aim and theoretical framework

    The aim of this study is to explore and articulate the meaning of knowing how to move in a specific way exemplified through a movement called ‘house hop’. The study takes as it’s starting point an epistemological perspective on capability to move corresponding with Ryle’s (1949) “knowing how”, not separating mental and physical skills. Accordingly, a phenomenographic analysis of students’ experiencing of the object of learning (‘house hop’) have been used.

    Method

    In order to explore what it means to know a movement, a Learning Study was conducted. A Learning Study is a kind of design experiment inspired by the Japanese Lesson Study (Marton and Lo, 2007), where the main aim is to explore an object of learning. A group of teachers, in collaboration with a researcher, investigate together the most powerful way to teach a specific object of learning. The purpose of this study was, however, to explore what it means to know the object of learning, not the outcome, or the process, of students´ learning.

    This presentation draws mainly on data from video recordings of the pre-test and video recorded lessons from a Learning Study in upper secondary school.

    Findings

    The findings show the meaning of knowing house hop as different ways of knowing the movement ‘as something’ as well as several aspects to discern and experience in order to know the movement in a powerful way.

    Discussion

    It will be discussed how students’ experiencing of a movement are expressed in their way of moving. Conceiving the knowing involved in ‘house hopping’ (as well as other ways of moving) from a phenomenographic approach, conceiving different ways of knowing a movement as complementary rather than differentiating abilities,  as well as comprising physical and mental skills as unseparable could also contribute to a discussion concerning teaching and learning capability to move.

  • 179.
    Nyberg, Gunn
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap. Stockhoms universitet, CeHum.
    Varken skakad eller rörd, recension av Shaking or Stirring?: A case-study of physical education teacher education in Norway (Moen Mordal, Kjersti)2012Inngår i: Idrottsforum.org/Nordic sport science forum, ISSN 1652-7224, Vol. okt 12Artikkel, omtale (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 180.
    Nyberg, Gunn
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap. Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Ethnology, History of Religions and Gender Studies (CeHum.
    Ways of knowing in ways of moving: A study of the meaning of capability to move2014Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall aim of this thesis has been to investigate the meaning of the capability to move in order to identify and describe this capability from the perspective of the one who moves in relation to specific movements. It has been my ambition to develop ways to explicate, and thereby open up for discussion, what might form an educational goal in the context of movements and movement activities in the school subject of physical education and health (PEH).

    In this study I have used a practical epistemological perspective on capability to move, a perspective that challenges the traditional distinction between mental and physical skills as well as between theoretical and practical knowledge. Movement actions, or ways of moving, are seen as expressions of knowing.

    In order to explore an understanding of the knowing involved in specific ways of moving, observations of  actors’ ways of moving and their own experiences of moving were brought together. Informants from three different arenas took part: from PEH in upper secondary school, from athletics and from free-skiing.

    The results of the analyses suggest it is possible to describe practitioners’ developed knowing as a number of specific ways of knowing that are in turn related to specific ways of moving. Examples of such specific ways of moving may be discerning and modifying one’s own rotational velocity and navigating one’s (bodily) awareness. Additionally, exploring learners’ pre-knowing of a movement ‘as something’ may be fruitful when planning the teaching and learning of capability to move. I have suggested that these specific ways of knowing might be regarded as educational goals in PEH.

    In conducting this study, I have also had the ambition to contribute to the ongoing discussion of what ‘ability’ in the PEH context might mean. In considering specific ways of knowing in moving, the implicit and taken-for-granted meaning of ‘standards of excellence’ and ‘sports ability’can be discussed, and challenged.

  • 181.
    Nyberg, Gunn
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Backman, Erik
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Larsson, Håkan
    Gymnastik- och Idrottshögskolan.
    Exploring the meaning of movement capability in physical education teacher education through student voices2019Inngår i: European Physical Education Review, ISSN 1356-336X, E-ISSN 1741-2749, Vol. 26, nr 1, s. 144-158Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Scholars argue that movement content knowledge in physical education teacher education (PETE) needs to be revisited and problematised. In this paper we develop the concept of movement capability representing a widened view of movement content knowledge. If teacher educators want to teach movement capability as an intrinsic educational goal in PETE there is an apparent need to consider what to teach, how it is taught and also how movement capability is understood by the learners. The aim of this paper is to analyse how PETE students experience the meaning of movement capability through the teaching in aquatics, dance and ice-skating. This study takes its departure from a number of previous empirical studies investigating the meaning of movement capability. Interviews with seven PETE students, divided into two focus groups, were conducted on three occasions. A phenomenographic analysis shows four qualitatively different ways of experiencing the meaning of movement capability. Major differences that can be seen when comparing the results of a previous study on physical education teachers and students in PETE are the aspect of subjective experiences and the aspect of the observer. In the main, the students do not seem to take into account an observer’s point of view to the same extent as the group of teachers. The results will hopefully contribute to a deeper and more complex understanding of what can be seen as movement capability in PETE and physical education, and thereby enhance development of the teaching and learning of this capability.

  • 182.
    Nyberg, Gunn
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Barker, Dean
    Örebro universitet.
    Larsson, Håkan
    The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences (GIH), Stockholm.
    Exploring the educational landscape of juggling: challenging notions of ability in physical education2020Inngår i: Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, ISSN 1740-8989, E-ISSN 1742-5786Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Research on physical education (PE) shows a prevalence of narrow and reductionist views on what counts as ability. These views tend to privilege certain students and marginalize others, and often equate ability with technique based sport performance. A lot of research is still directed towards the above problem. However, very few have devoted time and energy to actually resolving this problem. If no alternatives to narrow and reductionist views of ability are presented, then research will struggle to make a difference to the practice of PE. Assuming that movement is a key element in PE, the question of what counts as ability in PE is, we argue, a question of what capabilities a learner needs to develop in order to move in different ways. Investigating what movement capability can mean will provide possibilities for discussing and negotiating the meaning of ability in PE when the learning goal is something other than technique based sport performance.

    Purpose

    The aim of this paper is to further advance the knowledge base of what movement capability can mean within the context of PE. By achieving this aim, we intend to challenge narrow views on ability and thereby provide enhanced possibilities for PE to make a difference for students’ abilities through education. 

    Theory and method

    The process of coming to know something can be seen as exploring, with all senses, a landscape. Exploration involves recognizing details and nuances of the landscape and their relationships to one another. In this investigation we examine what there is to know in the landscape of juggling using Ryle’s and Polanyi’s notions of knowing and learning.

    In line with a focus on the learners’ perspectives, interviews and observations were conducted with students whilst they were coming to know juggling. Ethnographic-type conversations were used to help students describe what they seemed to know or were aiming to know. Students were invited to write diaries with a focus on their experiences during the learning process, which we hoped could extend our insights regarding the experiential aspects in learning.

    Findings

    Findings of the investigation suggest that in the group of students, four significant ways of knowing the landscape of juggling are important: grasping a pattern; grasping a rhythm; preparing for the next throw and catch and navigating one’s position and throwing. The research challenges the narrow view on ability as technique based sport performance by providing examples of what movement capability can mean in terms of knowing a movement landscape alternatively to knowing a specific movement ‘in the right way’.

     

     

     

  • 183.
    Nyberg, Gunn
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap. Stockholms universitet, CeHum.
    Carlgren, Ingrid
    Stockholms universitet, CeHum.
    Exploring capability to move: somatic grasping of house-hopping2015Inngår i: Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, ISSN 1740-8989, E-ISSN 1742-5786, Vol. 20, nr 6, s. 612-628Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The aim of this study is to explore what it means to be able to move in different ways. What does it mean, from the perspective of the learners, to know how to carry out a specific movement?  What is there to know and how could this insight contribute to the planning of developing learners’ capability to move in different ways?  As an example of a ‘new’ way of moving to be learnt, a movement called ‘house-hop’ (i.e. a 360-degree rotation initiated on the ground and completed in the air) was introduced as an object of learning in a PE-class in a secondary high school in Sweden. The paper explores learners’ different ways of moving as expressing different ways of knowing how to ‘house-hop’ comprising also certain aspects of the movement being discerned simultaneously by the learners. In this way, an attempt will be made to explicate what there is to know when knowing a movement.

    Background: Evans (2004) initiated a discussion about what ‘ability’ means and how it is recognized and valued within the context of PE which has been further discussed in a growing body of critical research. He also raised the question of which ‘abilities’ the PE subject is supposed to develop while at the same time stating that ‘talk of physically educating the body’ in terms of ‘practical knowledge’, ‘physical literacy’ or ‘kinaestethic intelligence’ has ‘almost disappeared from the discourse of PE’ (Evans, 2004, 95). Rather, physical education in terms of the theme of this paper, capability to move, is reduced to implicit and taken-for-granted ‘standards of excellence’, only reluctantly discussed by PE teachers (Kirk, 2010, 114). There is a need for conceiving capability to move as an educational aim so that it can be explicitly discussed and dealt with in physical education

    Theoretical framework and method: The study takes as it’s starting point an epistemological perspective on capability to move corresponding with Ryle’s (1949) ’knowing how’,  challenging the distinction between mental and physical skills in regarding the knowing involved in capability to move as comprising interwoven mental and physical processes. Additionally, phenomenography and Variation Theory are used as analytical framework integrated in a Learning study. Learning Study is a kind of design experiment inspired by the Japanese Lesson Study (Marton and Lo, 2007), where the main aim is to explore an object of learning.

    Findings and discussion: The findings show different ways of knowing house-hop as well as several aspects to discern in order to know the movement in a powerful way. The knowing involved in house-hopping can be seen as somatic grasping comprising mental and physical skills as an integrated whole. The paper discusses how this approach to investigating learners’ different ways of knowing a new way of moving to be learnt can contribute to the planning of teaching and learning capability to move.

  • 184.
    Nyberg, Gunn
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Carlgren, Ingrid
    Stockholms universitet, CeHum.
    The meaning of knowing what is expected to be known: The case of  ‘Househop’2012Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to explore what it means to know a specific movement, a so called ‘househop’, i.e. a rotation initiated on the ground and fulfilled in the air. The knowing of ’househop’ (including the capability to perform a househop) is an example of a subject content in Physical Education. Despite the fact that PE has a tradition of being a ‘practical’ subject, practical forms of knowing such as for example bodily awareness and capability to move (e.g. jumping, running or dancing) does not, neither for teachers nor pupils, seem to be a main issue of learning in PE (Tinning, 2010; Redelius et al, 2009,). In the context of learning motor skills the knowing is often explicated in terms of  measurable outcomes, for example in length, height or time (Renshaw, Davies & Savelsbergh, 2010), not in terms of what there is to know.

    A necessary condition for learning is to discern what there is to learn (Marton & Pang, 2006,).  This study gives an example of how to explicate what there is to be known as well as specific ways of knowing (Carlgren, 2007) when developing the capability of performing a ‘househop’. To make it possible for the students to develop the capability to perform a househop the teaching must be designed so that the students can experience and discern so called critical aspects of a househop.

    Knowledge concerning the meaning of specific learning objects (something that is expected to be known by the students as well as specific ways of knowing it) is generated in so called Learning Studies ( Marton & Pang, 2006, Marton & Lo, 2011, Carlgren, 2012). The object of learning in a Learning Study can be described as a triadic phenomenon. There is something to be known, a specific kind of knowing to be developed and someone who knows, a knower (Carlgren, 2011). There is nothing known if there is no knower knowing it. This triadic phenomenon is transactional (Dewey & Bentley, 1949).  

    Rather than seeing capability to move as a practical form of knowledge it can be conceptualized as intelligent actions not necessarily entailing the double operation of considering and executing (Ryle, 1949,2009). The knowing is not restricted to cognitive understanding and knowing how to perform a movement is not restricted to physical processes. It includes skills as well as what is often referred to as ‘tacit knowing’ (Polanyi, 1969; Johannessen,1988).

    Methods/methodology

    This study is carried out in the form of a Learning Study. The Learning Study is a collaborative (teachers and researcher work together) research approach that focus on the learning of specific objects. So called critical aspects of these objects are discerned through a systematic and iterative process (Marton & Ling, 2007). The study was conducted in collaboration with three PE - teachers in upper secondary school.

    The results that will be presented in this paper are based on an analysis of the video recorded pre-test used in the Learning Study as well as analysis of two video recorded research lessons. The analysis is carried out within the theoretical framework of phenomenography (Marton, 1981) and Variation theory ( Marton & Pang, 2006)

    Expected outcomes/results

    The results are presented in terms of the features of the learning objects that must be discerned and mastered when performing a ‘househop’.

    Through the phenomenographic analysis categories such as “House hop as solitary parts”, “House hop as requiring no speed or power” and “ House hop as concerning only upper body” emerged. These categories laid the foundation for a systematic process of discerning critical aspects such as for example the direction of the rotation, the meaning of the arm movement for creating speed and power and the meaning of one´s legs participation through the movement. Further critical aspects emerged when analyzing the lessons and all together they provided possibilities to explicate the meaning of knowing how to perform a ‘house hop’

  • 185.
    Nyberg, Gunn
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Larsson, Håkan
    Gymnastik och idrottshögskolan.
    Exploring the educational landscape of juggling –challenging notions of ability in physical education2019Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 186.
    Nyberg, Gunn
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap. Stockholms universitet, CeHum.
    Larsson, Håkan
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap. Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, Stockholm.
    Exploring ‘what’ to learn in physical education2014Inngår i: Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, ISSN 1740-8989, E-ISSN 1742-5786, Vol. 19, nr 2, s. 123-135Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The aim of this article is to show a need for explicating ‘what’ there is to learn in physical education (PE) with a particular focus on learning to move with the meaning potential seen as integral to moving. Further, the aim is to provide an example of exploring ‘bodily knowing’ from the perspective of practical epistemology as outlined by researchers such as Michael Polanyi, Allan Janik and Gilbert Ryle.

    Background: Learning has been a prominent issue within the PE research for quite some time. Overviews of research show that the object of learning, the ‘what-aspect’ within the didactic triangle, has been taken into account, though the obvious focus is the ‘how-aspect’, as in how learning occurs. In PE, the ‘what-aspect’, according to teachers as well as pupils, is vague, and the aim of the subject is expressed in terms of ‘fun-aspects’ rather than ‘what-aspects’. Taking a standpoint from research concerning aims, content and important knowledge in PE in Sweden, with reference to international research, this article will shed light upon physical activity as a taken-for-granted content, conceptualized either as an instrument for fulfilling the demands of the contemporary health-discourse or an instrument for performing well in sports. In doing this, the article will argue for the urgent need of explicating what capabilities students are supposed to develop in PE.

    Key concepts: The concept of knowledge in relation to PE will be discussed. Drawing on Janik's discussion of the epistemological structure of practical professional knowledge, emphasizing the importance of making the base of knowledge explicit, capability to move will be regarded as an object of learning, a possible ‘what-aspect’, in PE. To overcome the boundaries between practical and theoretical knowledge, Polanyi's concept knowing will be used. Conceiving knowings as embracing several aspects of knowledge as well as comprising both mental and physical processes, knowings in human movement will be elaborated.

    Conclusion: As our initial overview of research about ways of reasoning about knowledge and learning in PE suggested, there is an imminent need to systematically develop a language for learning in PE where what to learn, the specific knowings that PE is nurturing, is paramount, and where this ‘what’ is not reduced to superficial knowledge about health issues or physical skills. We believe that exploring the ‘knowing how’ aspect of learning will highlight potential ‘knowings’ in human movement. Following the concept ‘knowing’ as in line with Ryle's ‘knowing how’, not separating mental and physical skills, can serve as an analytical tool and a starting point for articulating examples of ‘knowings’ as objects of learning and thus providing opportunities to conceptualize human movement in terms of knowing and learning.

  • 187.
    Nyberg, Gunn
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Larsson, Håkan
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap. Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, Stockholm.
    PE teachers' content knowledge of capability to move2015Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Lately, there has been much debate within Swedish physical education teacher education (PETE) about ‘what a physical education teacher should know' (Backman and Larsson, 2014), or put differently, what content knowledge is useful to teachers in the school subject physical education and health (PEH). This debate is related to a discussion about the purpose of PEH in schools and, importantly, what the role of movement is in PEH. In particular, this discussion has revolved around what students are supposed to learn from participating in PEH (Nyberg and Larsson, 2014).

    Recent research has shown that the dominating PEH cultures do not emphasize systematic work with specific learning objects such as for example learning movements (Larsson and Karlefors, 2015). One possible reason for this is that PEH teachers lack the necessary content knowledge. Thus, the purpose of this article is to explore PEH teachers' content knowledge of students' capability to move. This issue will be explored through analyzing what teachers have to say about moving students in interviews, in part while viewing video recorded PEH lessons.

    The empirical data of this study are interviews of eight PEH teachers taken from a larger research project of which the overarching purpose was to explore action in the school subject PEH in Sweden, in particular in relation to issues of knowledge, teaching and learning.

    Shulman's (2004) theorizing on content knowledge was used to encompass the focus of analysis, namely PEH teachers' subject matter content knowledge regarding the capability to move. Further, a phenomenographic analysis was conducted in order to investigate the teachers' different ways of knowing (or conceptualizing or experiencing) capability to move.

    The findings show that among the teachers there were five different ways of knowing capability to move which provide a picture of the teachers' total subject matter content knowledge. Additionally, this multifaceted picture of what capability to move can mean for the teachers contributes, we will argue, to a deeper and differentiated understanding of the phenomenon capability to move in the context of education. Further, we will be able to discuss how teachers' different ways of knowing capability to move may influence the teaching and learning movements and capability to move in PEH.

  • 188.
    Nyberg, Gunn
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Larsson, Håkan
    Physical education teachers' content knowledge of movement capability2017Inngår i: Journal of teaching in physical education, ISSN 0273-5024, E-ISSN 1543-2769, Vol. 36, nr 1, s. 61-69Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this article is to explore physical education (PE) teachers' content knowledge of the emerging concept movement capability. Interviews with eight PE teachers were conducted, partly using a stimulated recall technique which involved watching and commenting on video recorded PE lessons. A phenomenographic analysis was used to outline the different ways of conceptualizing movement capability. Five different ways of conceptualizing movement capability were identified, which indicates the complexity of the concept movement capability. However, the result also provides a structure for developing a systematic and structured way of conceiving movement capability. In this study we have highlighted a multifaceted, nuanced and differentiated picture of movement capability to see moving as educationally valuable. We conclude by emphasizing that movement capability should not be restricted to only its constitutive parts as teachers' plan PE teaching, but should be approached as a whole. © 2017 Human Kinetics, Inc.

  • 189.
    Nyberg, Gunn
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Larsson, Håkan
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan.
    Rörelseförmåga i idrott och hälsa: En bok om rörelse, kunskap och lärande2016 (oppl. 1)Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    I ämnet idrott och hälsa ska eleverna få möjlighet att utveckla sin rörelseförmåga. Men vad är rörelseförmåga egentligen? Innebär det att vara framgångsrik i bollspel, att kunna springa fort eller att behärska en satstagning för en rotation i luften? Genom att ge en bild av vad rörelseförmåga kan vara, hur rörelseförmåga kan utvecklas och vad det kan betyda för elever att röra sig på olika sätt i olika sammanhang, bidrar Rörelseförmåga i idrott och hälsa med tankar och idéer om hur undervisning i ämnet kan utformas. Boken handlar också om hur vi kan utmana normer som påverkar elevers lärande, undervisningens innehåll samt våra föreställningar om vad som räknas som "bra i idrott". Författarna hoppas att boken ska kunna bidra med ett perspektivskifte som utmanar de (ofta outtalade och förgivettagna) kvalitetskrav som etablerade och formaliserade idrotter bär med sig till undervisningen i idrott och hälsa. Boken vänder sig främst till studerande som ska bli lärare i idrott och hälsa samt verksamma lärare, men också till andra som har intresse av undervisning i rörelse och rörelseförmåga

  • 190.
    Nyberg, Gunn
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Meckbach, Jane
    Gymnastik-och idrottshögskolan, Stockholm.
    Exergame - a pedagogical device in movement education?2015Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A fundamental dimension in the subject Physical Education (PE) is movement and movement activities. However, there is a lack of discussion, in the context of PE, regarding capability to move in terms of coordinative abilities, body consciousness, educing bodily senses and creating movements (Larsson et al., 2005, 2011; Ekberg 2009,;Redelius et al., 2009; Evans 2004; Shusterman 2004; Whitehead 2005; Kirk 2010, p. 29; Tinning 2010, p. 29).

    Our intention with this presentation is to contribute to a discussion of what capability to move can mean and how this capability can be developed in the context of PE. Our interest focuses on the growing use of exergames as a form of teaching aid in PE (Quennerstedt et al., 2013) and subsequently this study explores these games' potential contribution to teaching and learning capability to move. Many of these games include imitating movements and one argument of using the games in PE, apart from fighting obesity and increasing students' fitness levels, is, according to PE teachers in Sweden, their potential contribution to motor skill acquisition (Meckbach et al., 2013).

    The aim with this study is twofold. Firstly, we will explore a specific dance game's contribution to a group of students' motor skill acquisition. However, our approach to motor skills is in this context described as a theoretical perspective on capability to move as knowing how in line with Ryle (1949), including both understanding and mastering, thus also challenging the distinction between mental and physical skills. Secondly, having explored the students' knowing when playing the dance game, we will discuss necessary conditions for developing capability to move and the game's potential contribution ‘as a teacher' in relation to the potential contribution of a PE-teacher.

    The data used in this study comprises video recordings of students playing Nintendo Wii dance games in PE-lessons. In order to conduct a systematic and thorough analysis of the students' knowing in moving two video sequences were chosen, showing four students imitating two distinct dance movements which constituted the base for a phenomenographic analysis. The result of the analysis showed different ways of knowing the movements and also what aspects were discerned by the students. This structure of awareness constituted a starting point for a discussion of necessary conditions for learning the movements in more complex ways thus also the potential contributions of the game ‘as a teacher' in relation to a PE teacher.

  • 191.
    Nyberg, Gunn
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Meckbach, Jane
    Gymnastik-och idrottshögskolan Stockholm.
    Exergames ‘as a teacher’ of movement education: exploring knowing in moving when playing dance games in physical education2017Inngår i: Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, ISSN 1740-8989, E-ISSN 1742-5786, Vol. 22, nr 1, s. 1-14Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: A fundamental dimension of school physical education (PE) is arguably movement and movement activities. However, there is a lack of discussion in the context of PE regarding what can be called the capability to move in terms of coordinative abilities, body consciousness and educing bodily senses.

    Purpose: This article explores and articulates what there is to know, from the mover’s perspective, when knowing how to move in specific ways when playing exergames (dance games). Taking different ways of moving as expressing different ways of knowing as a point of departure, the following questions are the focus of this article: i) How do students move when imitating movements in a dance game, and what different ways of knowing the movements can be described in the student group? ii) What aspects of the movements are discerned simultaneously through the different ways of knowing the movements? and iii) What aspects seem critical for the students to discern and experience in order to know the movements in as complex a way as possible?

    Design and analysis: The theoretical point of departure concerns an epistemological perspective on the capability to move as knowing how with no distinction between physical and mental skills, and also knowing as experiencing aspects of something to know. The data in this study comprises video recordings of students playing Nintendo Wii dance games in PE lessons in a compulsory school (for children aged between 7 and 16) in a small Swedish town. There were three PE lessons with four different stations, of which one was Nintendo Wii dance games (Just Dance 1 and 2). In total, the videoed material covers three 60-minute PE lessons, recorded during the autumn of 2012 and in which just over twenty students participated. In the study, we have used video observation as a data collection method. Jordan and Henderson (1995, 51) maintain that video observation removes the gap between ‘what people say they do and what they, in fact, do’. To conduct a systematic and thorough analysis of how the students experienced the avatar’s movements, we looked for moments where all the students and the avatar could be simultaneously observed. Two video sequences were chosen, showing four students imitating two distinct and defined movements which constituted the basis for a phenomenographic analysis.

    Conclusion: The result of the phenomenographic analysis shows different ways of knowing the movements as well as what aspects are discerned and experienced simultaneously by the students. In other words, these aspects also describe knowing in terms of discerning, discriminating and differentiating aspects of ways of moving. By examining a certain exergame’s role ‘as a teacher’, we have emphasized the capability to move, from the mover’s perspective, as an intrinsic educational goal of PE while highlighting the need for systematically planning movement education.   

  • 192.
    Olsson, Daniel
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Vikten på stavspetsen påverkar dess rörelsebana vid dubbelstakning på rullskidor.2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte

    Syftet med undersökningen är att genom en experimentell studie jämföra två stavspetsars, med olika vikt, inverkan på stavspetsens rörelsemönster under rullskidåkning i olika åkhastigheter på rullband vid dubbelstakning.

    Metod

    Tio elitaktiva manliga längdskidåkare deltog i studien där de under rullskidåkning på band filmades med ett rörelseanalyssystem som samlade in data rörande stavspetsens rörelsemönster i x-, y- och z-led. Två olika stavspetsar med olika vikt jämfördes under dubbelstakning vid två olika arbetsintensiteter.

    Resultat

    Då lätt stavspets används befinner sig punkten där stavspetsen är längst fram i rörelsecykeln både högre upp i förhållande till mattan och längre fram i förhållande till stavisättningen än då tung stavspets används. Detta oberoende av arbetsintensitet. Avståndet i x-led mellan stavspetsens isättning och skidans bindning är kortare när lätt stavspets används oavsett arbetsintensitet. Då lätt stavspets används befinner sig punkten där stavspetsen är längst bak i rörelsecykeln både högre upp i förhållande till mattan och längre bak i förhållande till stavsläppet än då tung stavspets används. Detta oberoende av arbetsintensitet. Punkten då stavspesten befinner sig högst upp i rörelsecykeln är högre upp för lätt stavspets än för tung. Även detta oberoende av arbetsintensitet. Då det gäller stavspetsens kontakttid med mattan visas ingen skillnad mellan lätt och tung stavspets oavsett arbetsintensitet.

    Slutsatser

    Tydliga skillnader mellan hur de två stavspetsarnas rörelsemönster ser ut vid rullskidåkning i olika arbetsinsatser hittades. I tävlingssammanhang används så lätt utrustning som möjligt inom elitlängdskidåkning. Den lätta stavspetsen i undersökningen överensstämmer mer med vikten hos den utrustning som används vid dessa aktiviteter än den tunga. Rörelsemönstret hos den lätta stavspetsen kan därmed även tänkas spegla rörelsemönstret vid skidåkning på snö bäst. När rörelseanalyser utförs borde detta tas i beaktning om målet är att efterlikna tävlingssituationen så mycket som möjligt.

  • 193.
    Pettersson, Madelene
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Kropps- eller skönhetstävling?: En jämförelsestudie mellan bikini fitness och traditionella skönhetstävlingar2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte Följande studie avser att göra en jämförelse mellan bikini fitness och klassiska skönhetstävlingar med syftet att försöka förstå uppkomsten av bikini fitness som tävlingsgren inom bodybuildingkulturen.MetodStudien är en kvalitativ dokument- och litteraturstudie, där dokument i form av kriterier och regler för bikini fitness har studerats och jämförts med kriterier och regler för skönhetstävling, och där tidigare forskning i form av forskningsartiklar med vetenskaplig grund har studerats och utgjort grunden för studien. Studien har utgått ifrån genus- och feministisk teori för att söka förstå varför bikini fitness har uppstått och vad tävlingsgrenen kan ge uttryck för.ResultatResultaten visar att kriterier för bikini fitness liknar och påminner om kriterier för skönhetstävlingar. Både kriterierna och reglerna för bikini fitness och kriterierna och reglerna för skönhetstävling kräver ett vackert ansikte, en generell attraktivitet och en viss mängd femininitet hos de tävlande.SlutsatserBaserat på tidigare forskning kring kvinnlig bodybuilding, jämfört medresultaten i denna studie, och i relation till den aktuella könsordningen i samhället går det att konstatera att en förklaring till bikini fitness uppståndelse inom bodybuilding, kan vara de västerländska kroppsidealen, samhällets vilja att bevara den kvinnliga kroppen inom vissa stereotypiska och nedsättande fora, den samhälleliga viljan att, även inom en normbrytande idrott så som bodybuilding tillhandahålla en alldeles speciell kategori som i huvudsak betonar kvinnlighet och femininitet framför atletisk prestation, och viljan att underordna kvinnan i förhållande till mannen.

  • 194.
    Prytz, Ester
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Effekten av koffeinoblat på sprintprestation hos vuxna2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 195. Quennerstedt, Mikael
    et al.
    Gibbs, Beatrice
    Almqvist, Jonas
    Nilsson, Johnny
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Winther, Helle
    Beatrice: Dance video games as a resource for teaching dance2017Inngår i: Digital technologies and learning in physical education: Pedagogical cases / [ed] Ashley Casey, Victoria a. Goodyear & Kathleen M. Armour, New York: Routledge, 2017, 1, s. 69-85Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 196.
    Ross, Olivia
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Norgren, Ellenor
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Är arbetsmiljön lika “flashig” som titeln personlig tränare?: En studie om personliga tränare och deras psykosociala arbetsmiljö.2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien var att undersöka hur personliga tränare upplever sin psykosociala arbetsmiljö. Vidare används KASAM-teorin för att se vilka faktorer som bidrar till, respektive hindrar en god psykosocial arbetsmiljö. Metoden som användes var enkät med uppföljande intervju. Enkäten innehöll 18 frågor med stängda svarsalternativ. Enkäterna mailades ut till personliga tränare som nått myndig ålder, bosatta i Sverige och hade en anställning på en friskvårdsanläggning. I mailet fick även deltagarna förfrågan om deltagande i den uppföljande intervjun. Utifrån resultatet från enkäten skapades intervjufrågorna. Tre intervjuer gjordes. Resultatet av enkäterna sammanställdes i figurer och analyserades utifrån KASAM-teorin, även intervjuerna analyserades utifrån samma teori. Det framkom i resultatet att deltagarna upplever information och kommunikation mellan dem och chef, organisation och ledning som en bristfällig faktor i arbetsmiljön. Slutsatsen av denna studie har visat att personliga tränare upplever sin psykosociala arbetsmiljö på olika sätt. Det finns olika faktorer som har utvecklingspotential enligt KASAM-teorins tre begrepp. Dock anser majoriteten av deltagarna att de är motiverade och engagerade i sitt arbete vilket är en viktig del för att uppleva begriplighet, hanterbarhet och meningsfullhet.

  • 197.
    Rönnqvist, Mats
    et al.
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Larsson, Håkan
    Gymnastik och idrottshögskolan.
    Nyberg, Gunn
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Barker, Dean
    Örebro universitet.
    Understanding learners’ sense making of movement learning in physical education2019Inngår i: Curriculum studies in Health and Physical Education, ISSN 2574-2981, Vol. 10, nr 2, s. 172-186Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a substantial body of physical education scholarship focusing on movement learning. The question of how pupils themselves make sense of movement learning has however, largely escaped attention. Answers to such a question would seem to be highly germane if educators are to engage in pupil centered pedagogies. In light of this absence, the aim of this investigation was to describe how movement learners made sense of their own movement development. Drawing on theoretical tenets of Gilbert Ryle (2009. The concept of mind. New York, NY: Routledge) and Michael Polanyi (1969. Knowing and being. Essays by Michael Polanyi . Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press), three cases from an investigation in which movement learning was occurring are presented. The investigation was conducted during a physical education project week with pupils from an upper secondary school. Data were produced using observations, informal interviews, semi-structured interviews, and research diaries as a group of pupils learned to juggle. The results suggest that: the aspects of moving to which learners attend change as they learn; learners have a relatively limited capacity to verbally articulate what they learn, and; learners ’ expectations of ideal ways of moving have considerable impact on how they come to make sense of their own ways of moving. The practical implications of these points are discussed in the final section of the paper.

  • 198.
    Rössler, Barbara
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Outdoor education in Swedish compulsory schools: A case study2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this essay is to investigate and display the present position of outdoor education

    in Swedish compulsory schools. In doing so the focus lies on teachers’ and researchers’

    perspectives on the current situation and the influence of a teacher’s personal interest in the

    general process of implementing outdoor education as a teaching technique. Next to an

    intensive literary and national curriculum research, the inquiry draws on the concept of habitus,

    by Pierre Bourdieu, to analyze interview transcripts from qualitative interviews with four

    participants who implement outdoor education in their teaching practice. Findings suggest that

    there is a strong dependence between a teacher’s personal

    outdoor habitus and teachers

    teaching habitus

    when it comes to implementing outdoor education as constant teaching

    technique. Nevertheless, is it emphasized that there is neither a need to be an outdoor specialist,

    nor to change a teacher’s personal

    habitus towards an outdoor habitus by training, when aiming

    to work with pupils outdoors on a regular basis. In fact, it is discussed that it is more important

    to focus on the

    teaching habitus and provide future, as well as in-service, teachers with a

    practical training and useful toolbox for a proper implementation at school. Issues such as

    safety, feasibility, collaboration and the general circumstances at the respective school, seem to

    be key factors within this discussion aiming to identify the options and values of outdoor

    education for the whole curriculum. In this essay challenging and supporting factors, as well as

    potential initiatives for using outdoor education as a constant teaching technique in the future

    are discussed.

  • 199.
    Rüdrich, Joar
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Korrelation mellan markkontakt och totaltid hos svenska sprinterlöpare inom friidrottsgrenen 100 meter2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte och frågeställning

    Syftet med studien är att studera hur svenska elitlöpares totaltider förhåller sig till de olika variablerna markkontakt, flygtid, hastighet, stegfrekvens och steglängd, med största fokus på hur markkontakterna påverkar hastigheten.

    Studiens två frågeställningar var:

    (1) Hur ser sambandet ut mellan de fyra variablerna markkontakt, flygtid, steglängd samt stegfrekvens vid den maximala hastigheten vid upprätt löpning hos elitlöpare verksamma inom sprintdistansen 100 meter?

    (2) Hur korrelerar markkontakt och hastighet hos elitlöpare verksamma inom sprintdistansen 100 meter?

    Metod

    En kvantitativ studie genomfördes där 33 manliga och 20 kvinnliga försökslopp på flygande 30 kartlades med mätutrustningen Optojump. Dessa mätvärden analyserades i SPSS för att jämföra korrelation mellan varje mätvärde, ett sambandsdiagram mellan markkontakt och hastighet gjordes samt den översiktliga statistiken analyserades.

    Resultat

    Resultaten visar att kortare markkontakter kan ge en högre hastighet, att flygtiden mellan män och kvinnor är lika, att genomsnittet av löparna i studien hade än lägre stegfrekvens och steglängd än litteraturen som presenteras i studien.

    Slutsatser

    Resultatet i studien visar att, i likhet med forskningsstudier, att en kortare markkontakt kan ge en höge horisontell löphastighet än en lång. Studien åskådliggör dock att betydligt fler variabler, än endast markkontakt, har stor inverkan på hastighet och totaltid. Jämfört visar detta att mer forskning inom området behövs för att kunna optimera träningsupplägg för löpare.

  • 200.
    Sarhatlic, Nermin
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Känsla av sammanhang till fysisk aktivitet: En interventionsstudie för att förändra elevernas motivation till fysisk aktivitet.2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie var att undersöka möjligheterna till att förändra elevernas motivation till fysisk aktivitet. I studien användes enkäten BREQ-2 (se bilaga 2) som är validerad för att mäta motivation hos ungdomar. Efter genomförd enkätundersökning kunde resultatet påvisa elevers motivation till fysisk aktivitet.

    Ett interventionsprogram genomfördes som är inspirerad av Aaron Antonovskys teorier om känsla av sammanhang med syfte att förändra elevernas motivation till fysisk aktivitet.

    Undersökningen genomfördes på en gymnasieskola i Mellansverige. Två klasser valdes ut varav en av klasserna var testgrupp och den andra klassen var en kontrollgrupp. Klasserna bestod av en jämlik fördelning mellan pojkar och flickor och eleverna var mellan femton till sexton år gamla vid genomförandet. Innan interventionsprogrammet genomfördes fick båda klasserna fylla i en enkät som besvarade vilken typ av motivation eleverna motiverades av till fysisk aktivitet (se bilaga 2). Samma enkät fylldes i och besvarades av eleverna efter interventionsprogrammet för att undersöka eventuella skillnader i motivation innan och efter. Det var enbart testgruppen som utförde interventionsprogrammet.

    Resultatet av studien påvisar att båda grupperna dvs. testgruppen och kontrollgruppen har förändrat sin motivation till fysisk aktivitet. I testgruppen där interventionsprogrammet genomfördes har tre olika typer av motivation förändrats, d.v.s.

    amotivation, external regulation, introjected regulation, identified regulation och integrated regulation. De tre motivationerna som förändrades var amotivation, external regulation och introjected regulation. Två av dessa typer av motivation hör till yttre motivationen som beskrivs att eleverna upplever att de måste utöva fysiskt aktivitet eller att eleverna utövar fysisk aktivitet för att slippa skuldkänslor, amotivation är när eleven helt saknar någon form av motivation till fysisk aktivitet (se tabell 3).

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