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  • 16851.
    Zamorano-Llena, Carmen
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, English.
    “‘Words we can grow old and die in’: Female Reconstructions of the Irish Literary Idiom in Eavan Boland’s Later Poetry”2003In: International Conference “The Art of Ageing: An Interdisciplinary, International Conference on the Phases of Life”, 2003Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 16852.
    Zamorano-Llena, Carmen
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, English.
    “‘Words we can grow old and die in’: Female Reconstructions of the Irish Literary Idiom in Eavan Boland’s Later Poetry”2005In: Women Ageing Through Literature and Experience / [ed] Worsfold, Brian, Lleida, Spain: Edicions i Publicacions de la Universitat de Lleida , 2005, p. 127-37Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 16853.
    Zamorano-Llena, Carmen
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, English.
    Writing beyond the Nation: Philosophies of Migration and National Identity in Caryl Phillips’s Latest Work2010In: Across Borders Conference: Migration and Narration, Krosno, Poland, 2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 16854. Zan, Yanjun
    et al.
    Sheng, Zheya
    Lillie, Mette
    Rönnegård, Lars
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics. SLU.
    Honaker, Christa F
    Siegel, Paul B
    Carlborg, Örjan
    Artificial selection response due to polygenic adaptation from a multilocus, multiallelic genetic architecture2017In: Molecular biology and evolution, ISSN 0737-4038, E-ISSN 1537-1719, Vol. 34, no 10, p. 2678-2689Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ability of a population to adapt to changes in their living conditions, whether in nature or captivity, often depends on polymorphisms in multiple genes across the genome. In-depth studies of such polygenic adaptations are difficult in natural populations, but can be approached using the resources provided by artificial selection experiments. Here, we dissect the genetic mechanisms involved in long-term selection responses of the Virginia chicken lines, populations that after 40 generations of divergent selection for 56-day body weight display a 9-fold difference in the selected trait. In the F15 generation of an intercross between the divergent lines, 20 loci explained >60% of the additive genetic variance for the selected trait. We focused particularly on fine-mapping seven major QTL that replicated in this population and found that only two fine-mapped to single, bi-allelic loci; the other five contained linked loci, multiple alleles or were epistatic. This detailed dissection of the polygenic adaptations in the Virginia lines provides a deeper understanding of the range of different genome-wide mechanisms that have been involved in these long-term selection responses. The results illustrate that the genetic architecture of a highly polygenic trait can involve a broad range of genetic mechanisms, and that this can be the case even in a small population bred from founders with limited genetic diversity.

  • 16855.
    Zanelli, Gianluca
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, African studies.
    The Rwandan Genocide in Italian Media:the Cases of La Repubblica and La Stampa2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis aims to analyse the representation of Rwandan genocide by the Italian newspapers

    La Repubblica

    and La Stampa, through the examination of the articles covering the event and

    the comparison of the two perspectives. The research is situated in the broader context of the

    process of construction of a collective European imaginary on Africa, that shaped a generally

    negative representation of the African continent in western thought and media. The research

    shows how

    La Repubblica and La Stampa, in line with the western media coverage, shared a

    nearly similar vision of the genocide as an explosion of a presumed long-standing tribal hatred,

    a perspective characterized by stereotypes and biased interpretations that prevented to

    investigate the complex causes behind the event.

  • 16856.
    Zarzycka, Aleksandra
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Young tourist’s preferences in context of cultural tourism in Podlasie´s region2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The present paper constitutes a review of the results of a study concerning cultural tourism conducted on a group of students from selected higher education institutions in Bialystok. The aim of this paper is to analyze young tourists' preferences in Podlasie's region in terms of cultural tourism: their choice of activities and attractions, as well as trip related characteristics in contrast to the preferences of young non-cultural tourists. Quantitative research approach has been applied in the study in order to meet the objective of this paper, as the quantitative methods allow to summarize vast sources of information and facilitate comparisons across categories and over time (Kruger, 2003, p.18-19). An online survey was used as a technique to carry out the research. The main results indicate that students, as cultural tourists, prefer a variety of activities (both cultural and non-cultural) in diverse locations and do not limit themselves to any dominant attractions. The work has its value within the cultural tourism literature, as it discusses the potential of the tourist youth market in the developing rural area of post-communist country, Poland. The paper offers suggestions on a more in-depth further research.

  • 16857. Zasloff, Eva
    et al.
    Schytt, Erica
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing. Department of Woman and Child Health, Division of Reproductive and Perinatal Health Care, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Waldenström, Ulla
    First time mothers' pregnancy and birth experiences varying by age2007In: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6349, E-ISSN 1600-0412, Vol. 86, no 11, p. 1328-1336Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to provide a comprehensive picture of the young to the old first time mother as she presents to the clinician in terms of background, expectations, experiences and outcome of labour.

    METHODS: A longitudinal cohort study was conducted, including 1,302 primiparous women recruited at their first booking visit, at 593 antenatal clinics in Sweden (97% of all clinics), during three 1-week periods, evenly spread over 1 year in 1999 and 2000. Two questionnaires were posted and completed: in the second trimester and 2 months after the birth. Women were divided into 5 age groups, with women aged 26-29 as reference.

    RESULTS: The very young women, aged 15-20 years, had the most negative expectations of the upcoming birth. During pregnancy they were more worried and a depressive mood was more common than in the reference group, as were social problems such as unemployment and lack of support. After the birth, they remembered being more afraid and experiencing more pain and lack of control during labour. In spite of this, their overall experience of childbirth did not differ from the reference group. In contrast, the oldest women, aged 35-43 years, did not have negative feelings about the upcoming birth during pregnancy, and did not remember being afraid or experiencing more pain than the reference group, but experienced childbirth overall as more difficult. Only 57% of the oldest women had a normal vaginal delivery compared with 77% of the youngest women. In addition, 7% of the newborns in the oldest group were transferred to the neonatal clinic after the birth, which was almost 3 times as often as in the reference group.

    CONCLUSION: This study showed that expectations and experiences of childbirth vary by maternal age. Whereas the youngest women were more exposed to social and psychological problems, which may have affected their expectations and experiences during labour, the oldest women may have suffered from the biological disadvantage of high maternal age, which is associated with a more complicated delivery. When looking back at labour and birth, the youngest women probably felt that the total experience was better than expected, whereas the opposite may have been the case for the oldest group.

  • 16858.
    Zatyko, Judit
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Environmental Engineering.
    Solar Radiation from Sisimiut2004Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The topic of this project was to deal with measured solar radiation and other weather data from Asiaq station 515, sisimiut, Greenland in spring 2004 to make investigations and determinations about the available solar energy in high latitudes; determine the solar radiation on tilted surfaces from radiation on horizontal with the help of different solar radiation models for the test period, and compare the results to the measurements, Determine the ground reflectance during the test period.

  • 16859.
    Zavalov, Ivan
    Dalarna University, School of Languages and Media Studies, Moving Image Production.
    Etniska stereotyper på film: med utgångspunkt i amerikansk film med ryska motiv (2008-2011)2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Filmmediet idag är den mest populära formen av masskultur. Med sin världstäckande genomslagskraft och sitt stereotypa porträtterande av verklighet, påverkar filmen världsåskådningen för människor runtom i världen. Ett brinnande ämne i amerikansk film har alltid varit Ryssland, på grund av de politiska motsättningarna och den historiska rivaliteten med USA. Studiens syfte är att undersöka hur Ryssland porträtteras i amerikanska filmer från perioden för presidenterna Dmitrij Medvedevs respektive Barack Obamas första mandatperiod. Frågeställningen för uppsatsen är: hur ser stereotypa föreställningar om Ryssland ut i amerikansk film 2008-2011? Trettiotal filmer med ryska motiv valdes ut för undersökningen och analyserades utifrån de visuella och sociala aspekterna. Resultatet visar på att det förekommer tre skikt av stereotyper om Ryssland: de eviga, som har existerat i hundratals år och spridits av resenärer; stereotyper från epoken för det kalla kriget; och stereotyper om det moderna Ryssland inspirerade av medias nyhetsrapporteringar.

  • 16860.
    Zelenková, Iveta
    et al.
    Masaryk University.
    Vyhlídal, Jiří
    Masaryk University.
    Klimplová, Lenka
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management. Masaryk University.
    Hodnocení možnosti uplatnění vybraných prvků švédského monitoringu potřeb trhu práce v podmínkách ČR2015In: Fórum sociální politiky, ISSN 1802-5854, Vol. 9, no 4, p. 2-8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the paper is to describe an adapted Swedish qualitative way of monitoring employers' needs on a local or regional labour market and to evaluate its functionality and applicability in environment of Czech public employment services.

  • 16861.
    Zembo, Jelena
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Äldre invandrares från före detta Jugoslaviens förväntningar i mötet med sjuksköterskor i Sverige: -En kvalitativ intervjustudie2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today's society is becoming increasingly multicultural which places greater

    demands on both the care system and the nurses involved. The nurses’ lack of

    knowledge incompetence of various regarding eventual cultural differences can

    create cultural clashes and misunderstandings that can result in and improper care.

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the expectations of the elder

    immigrants, from the former Yugoslavia, when meeting in their meetings with the

    nurses in Sweden professionally,

    Method: The study is a qualitative study, with an inductive approach, and is based

    on six interviews with elderly immigrants who originally came from the former

    Yugoslavia. Personal contact was made with the informants to participate in the

    investigation by Serbian / Bosnian / Croatian / Macedonian associations in

    southern Sweden where these compounds are. The author went to the unions and

    informed about the study and those who wanted to participate contacted the author.

    The collected materials were systematically analysed with using content analysis.

    Results The findings that the older immigrants expecting the meeting with the

    nurse are presented in the following five categories. To obtain confirmation of the

    expressed needs, Empathetic contact, Communication and dialogue in the meeting,

    Respect for their values and views on health and Safety. Conclusion: The care of

    older patients with a different cultural background requires both cultural

    competence and a professional approach. The nurses need to be able to identify

    patient care needs, and in this special situation case be able to cope with even pass

    the eventual language barriers, in order to and reach the patient and understand

    their needs.

  • 16862.
    Zeng, Wenjie
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Ready to Cope with the Sharing Economy in Tourism Service: Small and Medium-Sized Travel Agencies in China2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis work investigates the response of China’s SME travel agencies to the growth of

    the sharing economy in travel and tourism services, with the aim to formulate practical

    recommendations for industry insiders. Through in-depth interviews conducted in the city of

    Shanghai, the thesis produces an outline of how the SME travel agencies perceive sharing

    economy in Chinese context. The aspects of business performance are studied for both

    incumbent travel agencies and those emerging sharing start-ups. The key concepts of sharing

    economy are focused and used to examine the sharable potential of SME travel agencies in

    order to achieve the aim of this thesis. It is revealed that SME travel agencies in Shanghai

    have adopted various new practices in response to market changes. It appears that the gradual

    development of their proactive “collaborative activities” interprets the tenets propagated by

    the sharing economy advocates. As sharing propensity becomes formidable, it is

    recommended that SME travel agencies should focus in line with key principles of the

    sharing economy on sharable potential in their products, distribution channels and sales

    personnel.

  • 16863. Zethelius, B
    et al.
    Berglund, L
    Sundström, J
    Ingelsson, e
    Basu, S
    Larsson, A
    Venge, P
    Ärnlöv, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Medical Science.
    Use of multiple biomarkers to improve the prediction of death from cardiovascular causes2008In: New England Journal of Medicine, ISSN 0028-4793, E-ISSN 1533-4406, Vol. 358, no 20, p. 2107-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background The incremental usefulness of adding multiple biomarkers from different disease pathways for predicting the risk of death from cardiovascular causes has not, to our knowledge, been evaluated among the elderly. Methods We used data from the Uppsala Longitudinal Study of Adult Men (ULSAM), a community-based cohort of elderly men, to investigate whether a combination of biomarkers that reflect myocardial cell damage, left ventricular dysfunction, renal failure, and inflammation (troponin I, N-terminal pro–brain natriuretic peptide, cystatin C, and C-reactive protein, respectively) improved the risk stratification of a person beyond an assessment that was based on the established risk factors for cardiovascular disease (age, systolic blood pressure, use or nonuse of antihypertensive treatment, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, use or nonuse of lipid-lowering treatment, presence or absence of diabetes, smoking status, and body-mass index). Results During follow-up (median, 10.0 years), 315 of the 1135 participants in our study (mean age, 71 years at baseline) died; 136 deaths were the result of cardiovascular disease. In Cox proportional-hazards models adjusted for established risk factors, all of the biomarkers significantly predicted the risk of death from cardiovascular causes. The C statistic increased significantly when the four biomarkers were incorporated into a model with established risk factors, both in the whole cohort (C statistic with biomarkers vs. without biomarkers, 0.766 vs. 0.664; P<0.001) and in the group of 661 participants who did not have cardiovascular disease at baseline (0.748 vs. 0.688, P=0.03). The improvement in risk assessment remained strong when it was estimated by other statistical measures of model discrimination, calibration, and global fit. Conclusions Our data suggest that in elderly men with or without prevalent cardiovascular disease, the simultaneous addition of several biomarkers of cardiovascular and renal abnormalities substantially improves the risk stratification for death from cardiovascular causes beyond that of a model that is based only on established risk factors.

  • 16864. Zethelius, B
    et al.
    Venge, P
    Ärnlöv, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Medical Science.
    Multiple biomarkers and cardiovascular risk2008In: New England Journal of Medicine, ISSN 0028-4793, E-ISSN 1533-4406, Vol. 359, no 7, p. 760-761Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 16865. Zetterberg, Hans
    Om Columbia-sociologin2018In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 55, no 4, p. 489-503Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 16866. Zetterberg, Hans L.
    A vocabulary justifying revolutions2010In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 47, no 3, p. 75-81Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 16867.
    Zetterberg, Hans L
    City-universitetet, Stockholm.
    Samhällssfärerna i historiens ljus1994In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 31, no 2, p. 63-85Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Societal spheres in the light of history

    A division of society into statecraft, economy, and civil society is found in Plato’s Republic. Its theoretical base is the differentiated and sometimes contradictory norms for these spheres. The mainstream of European structuration is traced from the ’two swords’ - state and church - that structured western European society in the Middle Ages to the six societal spheres (or cardinal institutions) of society - the economy, government, science, religion, ethics, and art - that are visible today. Each maintain a large measure of independence (Weber’s Eigengesetzlichkeit). Each is dependent on a special type of freedom: civic liberties, free trade, academic freedom, religious toleration, the right to follow one’s conscience, artistic license. The paper pauses in this differentiation process at special junctures: the English revolution, the emergence of the Latin American and North American societies, the evolution of modem society as an underpinning of democracy, the emergence of the European Union, and the post-Communist Central and Eastern Europe.

  • 16868.
    Zetterberg, Hans L.
    Stiftelsen Riksbankens jubileumsfond, Stockholm.
    Traditioner och möjligheter i nordisk sociologi2013In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 50, no 3-4, p. 289-309Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 16869.
    Zetterberg, Jonna
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Strandberg, Hanna
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Förlossningsupplevelse hos kvinnor med normal graviditet och graviditetsdiabetes2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Forskning har visat att förlossningsupplevelsen har betydelse för kvinnans framtida inställning till barnafödande. Forskningsresultat har huvudsakligen presenterats för normala graviditeter eller där urvalet varit blandat (normala och komplicerade graviditeter). Begränsad forskning finns om hur komplicerad graviditet kan påverka förlossningsupplevelsen. Syfte: Att jämföra förlossningsupplevelse bland kvinnor som haft normal graviditet respektive graviditetsdiabetes samt studera sambandsfaktorer för förlossningsupplevelsen. Metod: Studien är en retrospektiv kohortstudie där data insamlats med hjälp av enkäter. Deltagarna (n=444) är slumpmässigt valda bland kvinnor i Sverige med normal graviditet och kvinnor med graviditetsdiabetes. Kvinnor som fött tvillingar och som inte angivit barnets födelsevikt exkluderades från fördjupningsstudien, vilket innebar att data för 429 kvinnor, 326 med normal graviditet och 103 med graviditetsdiabetes ingick. Parametriska och ickeparametriska analyser har genomförts för att analysera materialet. Resultat: Nästan två tredjedelar av kvinnorna (62,9%) hade en positiv förlossningsupplevelse. Kvinnor med graviditetsdiabetes hade oftare en negativ förlossningsupplevelse jämfört med kvinnor med normal graviditet. Nöjdhet med smärtlindringen visade ett signifikant samband med förlossningsupplevelsen, de som var nöjda med smärtlindringen var mer nöjda med sin förlossningsupplevelse. Slutsats: Gravida kvinnor med komplicerad graviditet i form av graviditetsdiabetes har signifikant sämre förlossningsupplevelse jämfört med kvinnor som haft en normal graviditet.

  • 16870.
    Zetterblom, Ulrika
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work.
    Planering och genomförande avteknikundervisningen i grundskolan: En systematisk litteraturstudie om lärares förståelse avtekniken som ämne och hur deras undervisning relaterar tillläromedel, material och undervisningslokal2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie är att undersöka hur teknikundervisningen i grundskolan

    kan planeras och genomföras för att eleverna skall ges möjlighet att utveckla

    förmågorna inom teknikämnet. För besvarandet av detta syfte har en systematisk

    litteraturstudie genomförts där tidigare forskning har använts. Genom sökning i

    databaserna NorDiNa, Avhandlingar.se, Summon och ERIC (Ebsco) har relevant

    forskning valts ut som sedan kritiskt granskats, sammanställts och diskuterats.

    Forskning visar att lärarna har både en ämnesdidaktisk kunskapsbrist och en

    bristande förståelse för tekniken som ämne vilket påverkar deras förmåga att koppla

    teknikämnet till kursplanen. Detta påverkar även tiden de lägger på att planera sin

    undervisning samt hur de använder materialet i sin teknikundervisning, samtidigt

    visar forskningen att det finns för lite material tillgängligt inom

    teknikundervisningen. Forskningen visar att läromedel har ett begränsat språk med

    en inkonsekvent begreppshantering och att språket inte främjar problematiserande

    diskussioner samt att de tekniska systemen inte är synbara i läromedelstexterna.

    Forskningen indikerar även att en speciellt utformad tekniksal kan främja att en

    fördjupad lärsituation skapas i det praktiska arbetet.

  • 16871.
    Zetterlund, Oskar
    Dalarna University, School of Languages and Media Studies, Sound and Music Production.
    Efterklangens inverkan vid ADR: Hur efterklangspålägg upplevs av filmtittaren vid eftersynkad dialog i filmljudläggning2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta examensarbete går ut på att undersöka huruvida filmtittares upplevelser påverkas av inadekvat efterklangspålägg inom eftersynkronisering av dialog till film. Hur efterklangspålägget passar till filmen anses bestämmas mycket utav hur bildens perspektiv och miljön runt omkring illustreras.

    En lyssningsundersökning utfördes med två olika videoexempel som undersökningsdeltagarna fick se och sedan svara på frågor relaterade till dessa. Målet var att få in motiveringar till svaren för att få en grundligare bild av deltagarnas upplevelse av efterklangen. Detta lyckades och dessa kommentarer gav underlag för diskussion.

    Av resultaten att döma upplevde deltagarna att efterklangen inte stämde vidare överens med bildens perspektiv och miljö. Detta hade mycket att göra med att efterklangen var aningen för torr i sin karaktär för att kännas naturlig.

  • 16872.
    Zetterström, Denise
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Revisionsberättelsen & bokslutsrapporten: Små bolags redovisningsalternativ efter avskaffande avrevisionsplikten2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The audit requirement for small companies in Sweden was abolished in year 2010. After thederegulation, the management of small companies had several alternative actions to still becredible fore stakeholders. The companies can voluntarily choose to hire an accountant, let anauthorized bookkeeper create a financial report or take care of the financial statements ontheir own.The study´s purpose is to create understanding and knowledge of financial reports and auditreports, if they by the lenders point of view can help to increase the creditworthiness, as wellas trust and legitimacy of companies financial reporting.The result shows that a clean audit report can help to increase companies’ creditworthinessmore than the financial report. Both the financial report and the audit report may help orstrengthen companies’ legitimacy. However, the auditor and the audit report are seen as amore established method. Creditors know how the auditor operates, what laws, rules,standards and norms the auditor follows in its scrutiny. The fact that the auditor standsindependent to the companies who gets audited makes the accounts more credible. The auditreport and the auditors are therefore the kind of accounting that contributes most to creditorsfinding confidence in companies.The study´s theoretical framework is used to interpret and understand the collected empiricaldata and the study´s purpose and problem. The theoretical framework consists of stakeholdertheory, principal – agent theory, legitimating theory and previous research that can touch thestudy´s subject. Empirical data were collected using qualitative semi-structured interviews.Four credit managers and four business advisors from various banks in Sweden participated asrespondents. With help of the theoretical framework and collected empirical material ananalysis was made which finally resulted in the study´s conclusions.

  • 16873.
    Zhang, Baoxin
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy and Environmental Technology.
    How the different time steps weather data affect the simulation results of solar combisystems2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The hourly time step weather data are very common used in the field of evaluations and predictions of the performance of solar heating systems, especially in the computer simulation area. However, studies in [3] states that using the hourly weather data in simulation of solar systems may ignore the variations of solar radiation during one hour, it will cause a inaccurate simulation results. Using the smaller time step weather data instead can resolve this problem and make the simulation results very close to the fact. In this paper, the variations of solar radiation during hourly will be found through comparison of the same weather data based on different time steps (hourly and 6min). A whole weather data reference year based on 6min, 12min, 18min, 30min and 60min in Borlänge, Sweden will be built. Then the total radiation on a sloped surface, clearness index and solar utilizability based on these different time steps weather data will be calculated and compared with each other respectively. The results show that same weather data based on different time steps do not affect the calculation results of total radiation on a sloped surface (collector surface) but they may affect the beam and diffuse fractions and estimate of collector performance. After that all the weather based on different time steps will be used in the simulations of three different solar combisystems. As the result shows, using the hourly weather data leads to relative conservative estimate of solar heating systems compare with that based on shorter time step weather data, although the difference is very limited.

  • 16874.
    Zhang, Fan
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    Fleyeh, Hasan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    A review on electricity price forecasting using neural network based models2018Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 16875.
    Zhang, Fan
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    Fleyeh, Hasan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Short term electricity price forecasting using CatBoost and bidirectional long short term memory neural network2018Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 16876.
    Zhang, Fan
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    Fleyeh, Hasan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Wang, X.
    Lu, M.
    Construction site accident analysis using text mining and natural language processing techniques2019In: Automation in Construction, ISSN 0926-5805, E-ISSN 1872-7891, Vol. 99, p. 238-248Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Workplace safety is a major concern in many countries. Among various industries, construction sector is identified as the most hazardous work place. Construction accidents not only cause human sufferings but also result in huge financial loss. To prevent reoccurrence of similar accidents in the future and make scientific risk control plans, analysis of accidents is essential. In construction industry, fatality and catastrophe investigation summary reports are available for the past accidents. In this study, text mining and natural language process (NLP) techniques are applied to analyze the construction accident reports. To be more specific, five baseline models, support vector machine (SVM), linear regression (LR), K-nearest neighbor (KNN), decision tree (DT), Naive Bayes (NB) and an ensemble model are proposed to classify the causes of the accidents. Besides, Sequential Quadratic Programming (SQP) algorithm is utilized to optimize weight of each classifier involved in the ensemble model. Experiment results show that the optimized ensemble model outperforms rest models considered in this study in terms of average weighted F1 score. The result also shows that the proposed approach is more robust to cases of low support. Moreover, an unsupervised chunking approach is proposed to extract common objects which cause the accidents based on grammar rules identified in the reports. As harmful objects are one of the major factors leading to construction accidents, identifying such objects is extremely helpful to mitigate potential risks. Certain limitations of the proposed methods are discussed and suggestions and future improvements are provided.

  • 16877.
    ZHANG, LEI
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    YOU, XI
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    The Choice of STIGA Table Tennis Blades: Evidence from China2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate how individuals with different characteristics make their choice-decisions when consuming STIGA table tennis blades, which are combinations of various attributes, such as price, control, attack, etc. It is expected that the general trend of choice behavior on this special commodity can be, at least to some extent, revealed. Data were collected using questionnaires sent to registered members of a table tennis club in China. The questionnaires included information and questions about individuals’ monthly income levels, ages, technique styles, etc. A multinomial logit model was then applied to analyze factors determining Chinese consumers’ choice behavior on STIGA table tennis blades. The results indicated that the main element influencing Chinese consumers’ choice of STIGA ping-pong blades was the technique style and other variables did not seem to influence the choice of table tennis blades. These results might be explained by the limited sample size as well as unmeasured and immeasurable factors. Thus, a more extensive research is needed to be conducted in the future.

  • 16878.
    Zhang, Liming
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Han, Yang
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Detecting Major Genes Controlling Robustness of Chicken Body Weight Using Double Generalized Linear Models2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Detecting both the majors genes that control the phenotypic mean and those controlling phenotypic variance has been raised in quantitative trait loci analysis. In order to mapping both kinds of genes, we applied the idea of the classic Haley-Knott regression to double generalized linear models. We performed both kinds of quantitative trait loci detection for a Red Jungle Fowl x White Leghorn F2 intercross using double generalized linear models. It is shown that double generalized linear model is a proper and efficient approach for localizing variance-controlling genes. We compared two models with or without fixed sex effect and prefer including the sex effect in order to reduce the residual variances. We found that different genes might take effect on the body weight at different time as the chicken grows.

  • 16879. Zhang, Nan
    et al.
    Chen, Xiangjie
    Su, Yuehong
    Zheng, Hongfei
    Ramandan, Omar
    Zhang, Xingxing
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Chen, Hongbin
    Riffat, Saffa
    Numerical investigations and performance comparisons of a novel cross-flow hollow fiber integrated liquid desiccant dehumidification system2019In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 182, p. 1115-1131Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The heat and mass transfer process of a novel cross-flow hollow fiber integrated liquid desiccant dehumidification system is analysed numerically. Compared with other porous media or packing towers in dehumidification applications, hollow fibre membranes have significant advantages including low weight, corrosion resistant and no liquid droplet carryover. A novel air-KCOOH cross-flow dehumidification system was designed and manufactured, with 5500 hollow fibres formed into a circular module. The variations of the dehumidification effectiveness and moisture removal rates were studied numerically and validated against experimental results under the incoming air mass flow rates of 0.08-0.26kg/s and relative humidity from 55% to 75%. The dehumidification performance comparisons for the proposed system using CaCl2, LiCl and KCOOH as the desiccants have been conducted as well. The results demonstrated that under the same m*(ratio between solution mass flow rate to the air mass flow rate), the proposed system using 62% KCOOH could achieve approximately the same latent effectiveness compared with 40% CaCl2 and 32% LiCl, with the at least 3.1% sensible effectiveness increased by. Therefore, it could be concluded that the proposed system using KCOOH as desiccant could be more applicable for dehumidification purpose compared with other systems using conventional liquid desiccants.

  • 16880.
    Zhang, Ning
    Dalarna University, School of Languages and Media Studies, Science communication.
    Science is Primary - Children Thinking and Learning in the Chemistry Laboratory2005Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The goal of primary science education is to foster children’s interest, develop positive science attitudes and promote science process skills development. Learning by playing and discovering provides several opportunities for children to inquiry and understand science based on the first–hand experience. The current research was conducted in the children’s laboratory in Heureka, the Finnish science centre. Young children (aged 7 years) which came from 4 international schools did a set of chemistry experiments in the laboratory. From the results of the cognitive test, the pre-test, the post-test, supported by observation and interview, we could make the conclusion that children enjoyed studying in the laboratory. Chemistry science was interesting and fascinating for young children; no major gender differences were found between boys and girls learning in the science laboratory. Lab work not only encouraged children to explore and investigate science, but also stimulated children’s cognitive development.

  • 16881.
    Zhang, Pengcheng
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Is there wage premium to computer use in Sweden2005Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the wage premium to computer use in Sweden in the early 1990’s. I use simple regression model and interaction terms in my paper to examine the effect of computer use at work. Although the data is only one-year cross-section data, my results clearly show a wage premium to computer use in Sweden. There are also interesting findings in my paper by using Swedish data. From the results, I find wage premium to be related to intensity of computer use at work.

  • 16882. Zhang, S.
    et al.
    Song, William Wei
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    Ding, M.
    Hu, P.
    A multi-semantic classification model of reviews based on directed weighted graph2016In: Web Information Systems Engineering – WISE 2016: 17th International Conference, Shanghai, China, November 8-10, 2016, Proceedings, Part II / [ed] Wojciech Cellary, Mohamed F. Mokbel, Jianmin Wang, Hua Wang, Rui Zhou, Yanchun Zhang, 2016, Vol. 10042, p. 424-435Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Semantic and sentimental analysis plays an important role in natural language processing, especially in textual analysis, and has a wide range of applications in web information processing and management. This paper intends to present a sentimental analysis framework based on the directed weighted graph method, which is used for semantic classification of the textual comments, i.e. user reviews, collected from the e-commerce websites. The directed weighted graph defines a formal semantics lexical as a semantic body, denoted to be a node in the graph. The directed links in the graph, representing the relationships between the nodes, are used to connect nodes to each other with their weights. Then a directed weighted graph is constructed with semantic nodes and their interrelationships relations. The experimental results show that the method proposed in the paper can classify the semantics into different classification based on the computation of the path lengths with a threshold. © Springer International Publishing AG 2016.

  • 16883.
    Zhang, Sheng
    et al.
    Nanchang Hangkong Univ, Sch Informat Engn, Nanchang, Peoples R China.;Dalarna Univ, Business Intelligence & Informat, Borlange, Sweden..
    Liu, Xiaodong
    Nanchang Hangkong Univ, Sch Informat Engn, Nanchang, Peoples R China..
    Bao, Xiaoling
    Nanchang Hangkong Univ, Sch Informat Engn, Nanchang, Peoples R China..
    Song, William Wei
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    Multilayer and multi-agent data fusion in WSN2015In: Web Information Systems Engineering – WISE 2014 Workshops: 15th International Workshops IWCSN 2014, Org2 2014, PCS 2014, and QUAT 2014, Thessaloniki, Greece, October 12-14, 2014, Revised Selected Papers / [ed] Boualem Benatallah, Azer Bestavros, Barbara Catania, Armin Haller, Yannis Manolopoulos, Athena Vakali, Yanchun Zhang, 2015, Vol. 9051, p. 211-225Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the wireless sensor networks, the hardware limitations of sensor nodes cause high transmission failure rate. We usually increase the density of nodes to improve the quality of information transmission. However, it is difficult for the limited energy supply, storage, and communication bandwidth to transfer large amount of redundant sensory data. So we use data fusion technology to remove the redundant data as much as possible before the data transmission. Data fusion becomes a research hotspot in recent years. In this paper we propose a multilayer and multi-agent data fusion mode, and analyze the proposed mode performance in three aspects: hops, energy consumption and network delay. The simulation experiments show that, if reasonably suitable parameters, such as the network scale, the number and size of agents, the data processing cost, are selected, the mobile agent mode is much better than the client/server mode.

  • 16884.
    Zhang, Sheng
    et al.
    Nanchang Hangkong Univ, Sch Informat Engn, Nanchang, Peoples R China..
    Wang, Xin
    Nanchang Hangkong Univ, Sch Informat Engn, Nanchang, Peoples R China..
    Yao, Minghui
    Nanchang Hangkong Univ, Sch Informat Engn, Nanchang, Peoples R China..
    Song, William Wei
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems. Dalarna Univ, Business Intelligence & Informat, Borlange, Sweden..
    Community-based message transmission with energy efficient in opportunistic networks2016In: Web Information Systems Engineering – WISE 2016: 17th International Conference, Shanghai, China, November 8-10, 2016, Proceedings, Part II, 2016, Vol. 10042, p. 411-423Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An Opportunistic Networks is a wireless self-organized network, in which there is no need to build a fixed connectivity between source node and destination node, and the communication depends on the opportunity of node meeting. There are some classical message transmission algorithms, such as PRoPHET, MaxProp, and so on. In the Opportunity Networks with community characteristic, the different message transmission strategies can be sued in inter-community and intra-community. It improves the message successful delivery ratio significantly. The classical algorithms are CMTS and CMOT. We propose an energy efficient message forwarding algorithm (EEMF) for community-based Opportunistic Networks in this paper. When a message is transmitted, we consider not only the community characteristic, but also the residual energy of each node. The simulation results show that the EEMF algorithm can improve the message successful delivery ratio and reduce the network overhead obviously, in comparison with classical routing algorithms, such as PRoPHET, MaxProp, CMTS and CMOT. Meanwhile the EEMF algorithm can reduce the node's energy consumption and prolong the lifetime of network.

  • 16885.
    Zhang, Xiaoxue
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy and Environmental Technology.
    Sun, Qiao
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy and Environmental Technology.
    Performance Evaluation of a Grid-connected PV system in Falun2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The photovoltaic system of 150WP in Falun is on the sloped roof which is 14 degree with east and west orientations. A calibration of the radiation sensors has been done in order to correct the voltage drop caused by the extended cable length. The radiation sensors are calibrated by comparing the measured irradiance of the PV system with the reference irradiance which is measured by a portable data logger system. The annual performance of the system is evaluated over one year from April 08 to March 09 according to IEC 61724. Two other PV systems are compared with Falun system based on the annual performance of each system. The total system energy production of one year is about 96 MWh and the performance ratio PR is 0.817.

  • 16886. Zhang, Xingxing
    An Initial Concept Design of an Innovative Flat-Plate Solar Thermal Facade for Building Integration2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 16887.
    Zhang, Xingxing
    University of Nottingham.
    Investigation of a Cogeneration of Cooling/heating-electricity Supply Heat Pump System Based on PV/e Roof Module2010In: Building Energy & Environment, ISSN 1003-0344, Vol. 2, p. 56-58Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 16888. Zhang, Xingxing
    Smart Meter and In-home Display Technology towards Sustainable Residential Development: Case Study of a Pilot Investigation in Shanghai2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 16889.
    Zhang, Xingxing
    et al.
    University of Nottingham.
    Jingshun, Shen
    Zehui, Hong
    Luying, Wang
    Tong, Yang
    Llewellyn, Tang
    Yupeng, Wu
    Yong, Shi
    Liang, Xia
    Shengchung, Liu
    Building integrated solar thermal (BIST) technologies and their applications: A review of structural design and architectural integration2015In: Journal of Fundamentals of Renewable Energy and Applications, ISSN 2090-4533, E-ISSN 2090-4541, Vol. 5, no 5, p. 1-21Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Solar energy has enormous potential to meet the majority of present world energy demand by effective integration with local building components. One of the most promising technologies is building integrated solar thermal (BIST) technology. This paper presents a review of the available literature covering various types of BIST technologies and their applications in terms of structural design and architectural integration. The review covers detailed description of BIST systems using air, hydraulic (water/heat pipe/refrigerant) and phase changing materials (PCM) as the working medium. The fundamental structure of BIST and the various specific structures of available BIST in the literature are described. Design criteria and practical operation conditions of BIST systems are illustrated. The state of pilot projects is also fully depicted. Current barriers and future development opportunities are therefore concluded. Based on the thorough review, it is clear that BIST is very promising devices with considerable energy saving prospective and building integration feasibility. This review shall facilitate the development of solar driven service for buildings and help the corresponding saving in fossil fuel consumption and the reduction in carbon emission.

  • 16890. Zhang, Xingxing
    et al.
    Li, Guozhen
    Tang, Llewellyn
    Zhou, Tongyu
    A compact flat-plate heat pipe with ammonia water as working medium2017Patent (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 16891.
    Zhang, Xingxing
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Lovati, Marco
    Vigna, Ilaria
    Widén, Joakim
    Han, Mengjie
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    Gál, Csilla V
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Feng, Tao
    A review of urban energy systems at building cluster level incorporating renewable-energy-source (RES) envelope solutions2018In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 230, p. 1034-1056Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The emergence of renewable-energy-source (RES) envelope solutions, building retrofit requirements and advanced energy technologies brought about challenges to the existing paradigm of urban energy systems. It is envisioned that the building cluster approach—that can maximize the synergies of RES harvesting, building performance, and distributed energy management—will deliver the breakthrough to these challenges. Thus, this paper aims to critically review urban energy systems at the cluster level that incorporate building integrated RES solutions. We begin with defining cluster approach and the associated boundaries. Several factors influencing energy planning at cluster scale are identified, while the most important ones are discussed in detail. The closely reviewed factors include RES envelope solutions, solar energy potential, density of buildings, energy demand, integrated cluster-scale energy systems and energy hub. The examined categories of RES envelope solutions are (i) the solar power, (ii) the solar thermal and (iii) the energy-efficient ones, out of which solar energy is the most prevalent RES. As a result, methods assessing the solar energy potentials of building envelopes are reviewed in detail. Building density and the associated energy use are also identified as key factors since they affect the type and the energy harvesting potentials of RES envelopes. Modelling techniques for building energy demand at cluster level and their coupling with complex integrated energy systems or an energy hub are reviewed in a comprehensive way. In addition, the paper discusses control and operational methods as well as related optimization algorithms for the energy hub concept. Based on the findings of the review, we put forward a matrix of recommendations for cluster-level energy system simulations aiming to maximize the direct and indirect benefits of RES envelope solutions. By reviewing key factors and modelling approaches for characterizing RES-envelope-solutions-based urban energy systems at cluster level, this paper hopes to foster the transition towards more sustainable urban energy systems.

  • 16892.
    Zhang, Xingxing
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Pan, Song
    Wu, Jinshun
    Xia, Liang
    China leans balance to distributed solar-power projects: challenge and opportunities2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 16893.
    Zhang, Xingxing
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Pan, Song
    Wu, Jinshun
    Xia, Liang
    Recycling discarded shipping containers for reliable building envelopes: a design case for senior citizens in Solar Decathlon China 20172017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 16894.
    Zhang, Xingxing
    et al.
    University of Nottingham.
    Shen, Jingchun
    Adkins, Deborah
    Yang, Tong
    Tang, Llewellyn
    Zhao, Xudong
    He, Wei
    Xu, Peng
    Liu, Chenchen
    Luo, Huizhong
    The early design stage for building renovation with a novel loop-heat-pipe based solar thermal facade (LHP-STF) heat pump water heating system: Techno-economic analysis in three European climates2015In: Energy Conversion and Management, ISSN 0196-8904, E-ISSN 1879-2227, Vol. 106, p. 964-986Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most of the building renovation plans are usually decided in the early design stage. This delicate phase contains the greatest opportunity to achieve the high energy performance buildings after refurbishment. It is therefore important to provide the pertinent energy performance information for the designers or decision-makers from multidisciplinary and comparative points of view. This paper investigates the renovation concept of a novel loop-heat-pipe based solar thermal facade (LHP-STF) installed on a reference residential building by technical evaluation and economic analysis in three typical European climates, including North Europe (represented by Stockholm), West Europe (represented by London) and South Europe (represented by Madrid). The aim of this paper is firstly to explore the LHP-STF’s sensitivity with regards to the overall building socio-energy performance and secondly to study the LHP-STF’s economic feasibility by developing a dedicated business model. The reference building model was derived from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) commercial buildings research, in which the energy data for the building models were from the ASHRAE codes and other standard practices. The financial data were collected from the European statistic institute and the cost of system was based on the manufactured prototype. Several critical financial indexes were applied to evaluate the investment feasibility of the LHP-STF system in building renovation, such as Payback Period (PP), Net Present Value (NPV), and the modified internal rate of return method (IRR). Four common investment options were considered in this business model, including buying outright (BO), buying by instalment (BI), energy efficiency funding (EEF) and power purchase agreement (PPA). The research results indicate that the LHP-STF could contribute to the hot water load throughout the year with substantially reduced heating load in winter, and yet a slight increased cooling load in summer. Among four investment options, the BO was considered as the best investment method with the highest NPV, IRR and the shortest payback period. With regards to relatively limited solar resources, London was found to be the best place for investment with the highest economical revenues and an attractive payback period of less than four years for all purchase options. Although Madrid has the richest solar resource, this system has the lowest economic profit and the longest payback period. This outcome confirms that the renewable energy incentives have a higher impact than solar resources on current solar thermal facade technologies under such pricing fundamentals. This multidisciplinary research is expected to be helpful for the strategic decisions at the early design stage for building renovation with the proposed system and further promote development of solar driven service system, leading to the savings in fossil fuel consumption and reduction in carbon emission.

  • 16895.
    Zhang, Xingxing
    et al.
    University of Hull; University of Nottingham.
    Shen, Jingchun
    He, Wei
    Xu, Peng
    Zhao, Xudong
    Tan, Junyi
    Comparative study of a novel liquid-vapour separator incorporated gravitational loop heat pipe against the conventional gravitational straight and loop heat pipes - Part I: Conceptual development and theoretical analyses2015In: Energy Conversion and Management, ISSN 0196-8904, E-ISSN 1879-2227, Vol. 90, p. 409-426Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim of the paper is to investigate the thermal performance of a novel liquid–vapour separator incorporated gravity-assisted loop heat pipe (GALHP) (T1), against a conventional GALHP (T2) and a gravitational straight heat pipe (T3), from the conceptual and theoretical aspects. This involved a dedicated conceptual formation, thermo-fluid analyses, and computer modelling and results discussion. The innovative feature of the new GALHP lies in the integration of a dedicated liquid–vapour separator on top of its evaporator section, which removes the potential entrainment between the heat pipe liquid and vapour flows and meanwhile, resolves the inherent ‘dry-out’ problem exhibited in the conventional GALHP. Based on this recognised novelty, a dedicated steady-state thermal model covering the mass continuity, energy conservation and Darcy equations was established. The model was operated at different sets of conditions, thus generating the temperature/pressure contours of the vapour and liquid flows at the evaporator section, the overall thermal resistance, the effective thermal conductivity, and the flow resistances across entire loop. Comparison among these results led to determination of the optimum operational settings of the new GALHP and assessment of the heat-transfer enhancement rate of the new GALHP against the conventional heat pipes. It was suggested that the overall thermal resistance of the three heat pipes (T1, T2, and T3) were 0.10 °C/W, 0.49 °C/W and 0.22 °C/W, while their effective thermal conductivities were 31,365 W/°C m, 9,648 W/°C m and 5,042 W/°C m, respectively. This indicated that the novel heat pipe (T1) could achieve a significantly enhanced heat transport effect, relative to T2 and T3. Compared to a typical cooper rod, T1 has around 78 times higher effective thermal conductivity, indicating that T1 has the tremendous competence compared to other heat transfer components. It should be noted that this paper only reported the theoretical outcomes of the research and the second paper would report the follow-on experimental study and model validation. The research results could be directly used for design, optimisation and analyses of the new GALHP, thus promoting its wide applications in various situations to enable the enhanced thermal performance to be achieved.

  • 16896.
    Zhang, Xingxing
    et al.
    University of Nottingham; University of Hull.
    Shen, Jingchun
    He, Wei
    Xu, Peng
    Zhao, Xudong
    Tan, Junyi
    Comparative study of a novel liquid-vapour separator incorporated gravitational loop heat pipe against the conventional gravitational straight and loop heat pipes - Part II: Experimental testing and simulation model validation2015In: Energy Conversion and Management, ISSN 0196-8904, E-ISSN 1879-2227, Vol. 93, p. 228-238Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim of the paper is to report the experimental study of a novel liquid–vapour separator incorporated gravity-assisted loop heat pipe (GALHP) (T1), against the conventional GALHP (T2) and a gravitational straight heat pipe (T3). Based on the results derived from the theoretical analyses and computer modelling, three prototype heat pipes, one for each type, were designed, constructed and tested to characterise their thermal performance under a series of operational conditions. By using the experimental data, the computer simulation model reported in the authors’ previous paper was examined and analysed, indicating that the model could achieve a reasonable accuracy in predicting the thermal performance of the three heat pipes. Under the specifically defined testing condition, T1 has more evenly distributed axial temperature profile than the other two heat pipes (T2 and T3). The start-up timings for T1, T2 and T3 were 410 s, 1400 s and 390 s respectively, indicating that the heat transfer within T2 was affected by the larger evaporator dry-out surface area and restricted evaporation area. The overall thermal resistance of T1 was 0.11 °C/W, which was around 20% and 50% that of T2 and T3. The tested effective thermal conductivity in T1 was 29,968 W/°C m, which was 296% and 648% that of T2 and T3, and 7492% that of a standard copper rod. It is therefore concluded that the novel heat pipe (T1) could achieve a significantly enhanced heat transport effect, relative to T2, T3 and standard cooper rod. The experimental results derived from this research enabled characterisation of the thermal performance of T1, relative to other heat pipes, and validation of the developed computer simulation model derived from the authors’ previous research. These two parts researches in combination will enable design, optimisation and analyse of such a new GALHP, thus promoting its wide application and achieving efficient thermal management.

  • 16897.
    Zhang, Xingxing
    et al.
    University of Hull.
    Shen, Jingchun
    Lu, Yan
    He, Wei
    Xu, Peng
    Zhao, Xudong
    Qiu, Zhongzhu
    Zhu, Zishang
    Zhou, Jinzhi
    Dong, Xiaoqiang
    Active Solar Thermal Facades (ASTFs): From concept, application to research questions2015In: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 50, p. 32-63Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the paper is to report a comprehensive review into a recently emerging building integrated solar thermal technology, namely, Active Solar Thermal Facades (ASTFs), in terms of concept, classification, standard, performance evaluation, application, as well as research questions. This involves the combined effort of literature review, analysis, extraction, integration, critics, prediction and conclusion. It is indicated that the ASTFs are sort of building envelope elements incorporating the solar collecting devices, thus enabling the dual functions, e.g., space shielding and solar energy collection, to be performed. Based on the function of the building envelopes, the ASTF systems can be generally classified as wall-, window-, balcony-and roof-based types; while the ASTFs could also be classified by the thermal collection typologies, transparency, application, and heat-transfer medium. Currently, existing building and solar collector standards are brought together to evaluate the performance of the ASTFs. The research questions relating to the ASTFs are numerous, but the major points lie in: (1) whole structure and individual components layout, sizing and optimisation; (2) theoretical analysis; (3) experimental measurement; and (4) energy saving, economic and environmental performance assessment. Based on the analysis of the identified research questions, achievements made on each question, and outstanding problems remaining with the ASTFs, further development opportunities on this topic are suggested: (1) development of an integrated database/software enabling both architecture design and engineering performance simulation; (2) real-time measurement of the ASTFs integrated buildings on a long-term scheme; (3) economic and environmental performance assessment and social acceptance analysis; (4) dissemination, marketing and exploitation strategies study. This study helps in identifying the current status, potential problems in existence, future directions in research, development and practical application of the ASTFs technologies in buildings. It will also promote development of renewable energy technology and thus contribute to achieving the UK and international targets in energy saving, renewable energy utilization, and carbon emission reduction in building sector.

  • 16898.
    Zhang, Xingxing
    et al.
    University of Hull.
    Shen, Jingchun
    Xu, Peng
    Zhao, Xudong
    Xu, Ying
    Socio-economic performance of a novel solar photovoltaic/loop-heat-pipe heat pump water heating system in three different climatic regions2014In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 135, p. 20-34Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aimed to study the socio-economic performance of a novel solar photovoltaic/loop-heat-pipe (PV/LHP) heat pump water heating system for application in three different climatic regions, namely, cold area represented by London, warm area represented by Shanghai, and hot (subtropical) area represented by Hong Kong. This study involved prediction of the annual fossil-fuel energy saving, investment return period and carbon emission reduction of the new system against the traditional gas-fired and electrical boilers based water heating systems. An established dynamic model developed by the authors was utilised to predict the system’s energy performance throughout a year in the three climatic regions. A life-cycle analytical model was further developed to analyse the economic and environmental benefits of the new system relative to the traditional systems. Analyses of the modelling results drew out several conclusive remarks: (1) the system could achieve the highest energy efficiency when operating at the hot (subtropical) climatic region (represented by Hong Kong), enabling the heat output of as high as 922 kW h/m2 yr and water temperature of above 45 °C, while the grid power input is only 59 kW h/m2 yr; (2) the system is worth for investment when operating at the high energy charging tariff area (represented by London), with the cost payback periods of 8 and 5 years relative to the traditional gas-fired and electrical boilers based systems, respectively; (3) the system could obtain the most promising environmental benefits when operating in Shanghai where the energy quality (embodied carbon volume of per kW h energy) is relatively poor, enabling reduction in life-cycle carbon emissions of around 4.08 tons/m2 and 17.87 tons/m2 respectively, relative to the gas-fired and electrical boilers. Answer to such a question on which area is most suitable for the system application is highly dependent upon the priority order among the three dominating factors: (1) energy efficiency, (2) economic revenue, and (3) environmental benefit, which may vary with the users, local concerns and policy influence, etc. The research results will be able to assist in decision making in implementation of the new PV/thermal technology and analyses of the associated economic and environmental benefits, thus contributing to realisation of the regional and global targets on fossil fuel energy saving and environmental sustainability.

  • 16899. Zhang, Xingxing
    et al.
    Shen, Jingchun
    Yang, Tong
    Tang, Llewellyn
    Experimental study of a solar photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) system2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 16900.
    Zhang, Xingxing
    et al.
    University of Nottingham.
    Shen, Jingchun
    University of Nottingham, Ningbo.
    Yang, Tong
    Tang, Llewellyn
    Wang, Luying
    Liu, Yingqi
    Xu, Peng
    Smart meter and in-home display for energy savings in residential buildings: a pilot investigation in Shanghai, China2019In: Intelligent Buildings International, ISSN 1750-8975, E-ISSN 1756-6932, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 4-26Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Smart meters and in-home displays (IHDs) have been recently adopted to help give residential users more control over energy consumption, and meet environmental and supply security objectives. The article aims to identify the effectiveness and potential of smart meters and real-time IHDs in reducing Shanghai household energy consumption by affecting occupants? behaviour. A general landscape of the occupant behaviour in residential buildings was briefly painted. A pilot study in Shanghai with an effective sample of 131 respondents was arranged into two groups as IHD and non-IHD households. A dedicated statistical analysis model was developed based on the micro-level empirical data to investigate the characteristics and the regulations of electricity consumption in these two groups, such as check frequency, electricity consumption reduction and shifting, energy bill saving, and standby power. The research results demonstrate that IHDs could lead to around 9.1% reduction in monthly electricity consumption and about 11.0% cut off in monthly electricity bills. A general comparison of the electricity consumption reduction between this research and the average UK case was further made. Barriers at current stage and challenges for further work were finally discussed. The statistical model is expected to ?future proof? smart meter and real-time displays through macro-level designing in modularity and flexibility in China. The overall research initially proves the concept of the feasible impact of smart meter and display technologies in the Chinese context, which is further expected to contribute to the empirical evidence on how IHD feedback could influence household electricity consumption in the Chinese context.

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