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  • 17251. Wallén Warner, Henriette
    et al.
    Åberg, Lars
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Psychology.
    How does long-term use of an informing ISA-device affect drivers?2006In: the 26th International Congress of Applied Psychology (ICAP), Athens, Greece, 2006Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 17252.
    Wallén Warner, Henriette
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Psychology.
    Åberg, Lars
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Psychology.
    The long term effects of an ISA speed-warning device on drivers’ speeding behaviour2008In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 11, no 2, p. 96-107Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Different systems of intelligent speed adaptation (ISA) have already been tested in the field and large-scale implementation is being discussed. But do we really know how these systems affect drivers during long-term use?Between 2000 and 2003 a total of 61 test drivers had an ISA speed warning device installed in their vehicles. Data from these trials show that,initially, the device greatly reduced the amount of time the majority of test drivers spent above the speed limit, and to some extent also reduced their mean speeds, but this effect decreased with time. Further analyses of 27 of the 61 test drivers then showed that the activation of the warning system affected different drivers in quite a homogenous way, with regards to attitude, subjective norm and self-reported behaviour, but not with regards to perceived behavioural control. After activation,long-term use did, however, affect the test drivers in a homogenous way with regards to attitude, subjective norm and self-reported behaviour, as well as perceived behavioural control. When considering these results it must be remembered that the device tested was a first generation ISA speed-warning device and with more research we think that different ISA-systems could be improved and the effects made more stable during long-term use.

  • 17253. Walsh, Brandon
    et al.
    Tiivel, Toomas
    Tonkonogi, Michail
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Medical Science.
    Sahlin, Kent
    Increased concentrations of Pi and lactic acid reduce creatine stimulated respiration in muscle fibres.2002In: Journal of applied physiology, ISSN 8750-7587, E-ISSN 1522-1601, Vol. 92, p. 2273-2276Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We tested the hypothesis that the respiratory function of skeletal muscle mitochondria is impaired by lactic acidosis and elevated concentrations of Pi. The rate of respiration of chemically skinned fiber bundles from rat soleus muscle was measured at [Pi] (brackets denote concentration) and pH values similar to those at rest (3 mM Pi, pH 7.0) and high-intensity exercise (20 mM Pi, pH 6.6). Respiration was measured in the absence of ADP and after sequential additions of 0.1 mM ADP, 20 mM creatine (Cr; VCr), and 4 mM ADP. Respiration at 0.1 mM ADP increased after addition of Cr. However, VCr was 23% lower (P < 0.05) during high-intensity conditions than during resting conditions. VCr was also reduced when Pi or H+ was increased separately (P < 0.05). Respiration in the absence of ADP and after additions of 0.1 mM ADP and 4 mM ADP was not affected by changes in [Pi] or [H+]. The response was similar, irrespective of when acidosis was induced (i.e., quiescent or actively respiring mitochondria). In conclusion, Cr-stimulated respiration is impaired by increases in [H+] and [Pi] corresponding to those in exercising muscle. Although the reduced Cr-stimulated respiration could be compensated for by increased [ADP], this might have implications for intracellular homeostasis.

  • 17254. Walsh, Brandon
    et al.
    Tonkonogi, Michail
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Medical Science.
    Malm, Christer
    Ekblom, Björn
    Sahlin, Kent
    Effect of eccentric exercise on muscle oxidative function in man.2001In: Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, ISSN 0195-9131, E-ISSN 1530-0315, Vol. 33, no 3, p. 436-441Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of eccentric exercise on muscle oxidative function. Methods: Thirteen subjects performed high-intensity eccentric cycling for 30 min. Muscle oxidative function in vastus lateralis was evaluated by measurements of respiration in permeabilized muscle fibers (skinned fibers) and from the kinetics of oxyhemoglobin (oxyHb) saturation measured with near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Results: After eccentric cycling, all subjects reported extensive delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS), but plasma markers of muscle damage (creatine kinase and [beta]-glucuronidase activity) were not significantly altered. The half time of oxyHb desaturation after circulatory occlusion (128 +/- 11 s, mean +/- SE) and oxyHb resaturation after restoration of blood flow (13.8 +/- 0.7 s) were not significantly changed after eccentric cycling (N = 7). Respiration in skinned muscle fibers measured in the absence of ADP and in the presence of a submaximal (0.1 mM) or maximal ADP concentration (1 mM) was not significantly changed after eccentric cycling (N = 6). The sensitivity of respiration to ADP was not significantly changed after eccentric cycling. Conclusions: Muscle oxidative function (maximal respiration and respiratory control by ADP) was not compromised after high-intensity eccentric cycle exercise. Furthermore, NIRS indicates that after eccentric cycling muscle oxygen utilization and local oxygen transport at rest are unchanged. It is concluded that eccentric cycling, although causing DOMS, does not negatively affect skeletal muscle oxidative function.

  • 17255. Walsh, Brandon
    et al.
    Tonkonogi, Michail
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Medical Science.
    Sahlin, Kent
    Effect of endurance training on oxidative and antioxidative function in human permeabilised muscle fibres.2001In: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology, ISSN 0031-6768, E-ISSN 1432-2013, Vol. 442, p. 420-425Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 17256.
    Waltersdottir, Gina
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Political Science.
    Donald Trump och eventuell democratic backsliding i USA?: Hur valet 2016 omformade amerikansk politik2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den liberala demokratin är inte samma självklara väg framåt som tidigare ansågs. Democratic backsliding är numera ett reellt hot även mot västerländska, konsoliderade, liberala demokratier som själva ägnar sig åt democracy promotion utanför sina landsgränser. Den troligen största democracy promotorn över tid är USA som efter 2016 års val inte har varit förskonat från ovanstående trend. USA faller i alla de större demokratiska indexen sedan 2016 och har tappat avsevärt många placeringar i somliga av dem. Det är inte orimligt att hävda att USA befinner sig i en demokratisk recession.

    Uppsatsens avsikt är att undersöka vilka eventuella liberala demokratiproblem som uppstått i och med valet av Donald Trump samt hur eventuella förekommande liberaldemokratiska problem kan anses utgöra en trend till s.k. democratic backsliding i USA. Denna undersökning sker i breda drag genom en teorikonsumerande kvalitativ fallstudie för att kunna besvara denna studies forskningsfråga; dvs. vad som sker på olika plan med liberala demokratiska principer och institutioner i USA och om det kan anses utgöra en trend av democratic backsliding. Innehållet i de texter som har valts ut kommer att analyseras och redovisas, samt kommer den politik och de ageranden som har förts/gjorts från januari 2017 fram till skrivande stund av Donald Trump att presenteras och med grund i det teoretiska ramverket undersöks och analyseras huruvida USA’s demokrati urholkas samt om det finns en eller flera trender till democratic backsliding.

    Utifrån det empiriska materialet och valda teorier utmynnar studiens slutsatser i att USA genomgår en trend till democratic backsliding, då särskilt under åren 2017- 2019. Visserligen är det fråga om en mildare mildare form av sådan än så länge, dock finns trenden där. De inbyggda mekanismerna för maktdelning, checks and balances och fri media är till viss del underminerade eller försvagade. De slutsatser man kan dra av detta arbete är något nedslående och bådar inte väl för den västerländska demokratins återhämtning från den allt djupnande kris den för närvarande befinner sig i. Det är emellertid något problematiskt att uppmäta democratic backsliding då vilka resultat en sådan studie får är avhängande vilken definition av demokrati som läggs till grund för studien därav bör viss försiktighet iakttas vid läsandet av studiens slutsatser.

  • 17257.
    Waltersson, Erik
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Material Science.
    Eriksson, Göran
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Material Science.
    Undersökning av steady state och utvärdering av valskraft och friktion vid kallvalsning av aluminium2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    The purpose with this thesis was to examine the cold rolling mill located at Högskolan Dalarna and to stabilize the rolling process, to achieve steady state. Experiments with cold rolling of an aluminium strip have given results for rolling force, friction, reduction, strip tension and strain hardening. Results show that steady state has been found for the experiments with roll force and strain hardening, and not been found for the experiments with friction and reduction. Results show that increased strip tension gives lower roll forces. The roll force equation of Stone shows comparable results with reality for dry contact with reductions up to 30 %, but starts being incomparable with higher reductions. The roll force equation of Stone shows a bit higher roll forces than reality gave, but was comparable within reductions from 13 to 50 %. Experiments have shown that the aluminium strip has gone through strain hardening. Experiments show how the set roll gap did not yield the desired thickness reduction, there for the elastic spring constant for the rolling mill was examined and determined to be 417 N / mm for the specific alloy band. The influence of tension strip for roll force was examined and Results confirm the theory about how the roll force is decreased by increasing tension strip. The work rolls started to slip against the alumina strip as high tension strip; 70 N/mm2, gave low roll force; < 15kN.

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  • 17258.
    Walusimbi Kizanyiro, Samuel
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Soiling Effects on Photovoltaic Modules, Modelling of Specific Cleaning Frequency Optimization for a 10 MW PV Power Plant inTororo, Uganda2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The accumulation of dust on the photovoltaic (PV) modules for the PV plant result in energy loss and therefore, there was a need to assess the impact of soiling on the PV modules since soiling losses are location specific. In this work, the approach of quantifying soiling loss experimentally which involved comparing the temperature corrected short circuit current values for the naturally soiled string to the frequently cleaned string had higher accuracy than the method of extracting soiling loss from the PV plant production data. This was due to the uncertainties associated with the plant production data.

    The average soiling loss values were determined experimentally and from the plant production data. The month of January 2018 was found to have the highest soling loss of 6 % and March 2018 had the lowest soiling loss was less than 1 %. The soiling for the month of January 2018 was used to determine an optimum cleaning interval which balances out with the revenue lost due to soiling and the cost of the cleaning event using the cleaning schedule model and the optimum interval was 21 days from the last date when the plant last cleaned. This optimum cleaning interval reduces the total cost per unit energy generated by the PV plant and therefore, the levelized cost of electricity. However, the optimum cleaning interval may vary depending on the cost of the cleaning event as well as the seasonal variations in the soiling loss and energy generated. The cleaning schedule model developed can be used to determine when the PV plant should be cleaned. However, this model should be used as a guideline since soiling loss highly depends on the climate of the area and it is always changing.

  • 17259.
    Wan, Benting
    et al.
    Jiang Xi University of Finance and Economics.
    Qin, Y
    Song, William Wei
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    Path planning strategy of mobile nodes based on improved RRT algorithm2019In: Proceedings of 3rd International Conference on Computational Intellligence and Applications, IEEE, 2019, p. 228-234, article id 8711533Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The RRT algorithm is widely used in the high-dimensional path planning in a dynamic environment, and well adapted to the dynamics of motion of the mobile node needs. However, in large scale wireless sensor networks (WSN), the RRT algorithm lacks stability and is easy to deviate from the optimal path. In this paper we proposes a path planning algorithm called E-RRT to improve the problems that RRT has. The method proposed includes the coverage density of obstacle for initialize searching area for the exploring random tree, and the gradually extended region used to ensure the path to be found. The method also adopts the greedy algorithm to delete the intermediate point in the point sequence of path for an optimal path, and the quadratic Bezier curve to smooth the path for the mobile sensor node. The path found can be the shortest, collision-free and smoothing, and therefore to satisfy the requirement of path planning for mobile sensor nodes. The simulation results show that the E-RRT algorithm outperforms the RRT algorithm.

  • 17260. Wan Saudi, Wan Salman
    et al.
    Halim, Md Abdul
    Rudholm Feldreich, Tobias
    Gillberg, Linda
    Rosenqvist, Evelina
    Tengholm, Anders
    Sundbom, Magnus
    Karlbom, Urban
    Näslund, Erik
    Webb, Dominic-Luc
    Sjöblom, Markus
    Hellström, Per M
    Neuropeptide S inhibits gastrointestinal motility and increases mucosal permeability through nitric oxide.2015In: American Journal of Physiology - Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology, ISSN 0193-1857, E-ISSN 1522-1547, Vol. 309, no 8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Neuropeptide S (NPS) receptor (NPSR1) polymorphisms are associated with enteral dysmotility and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). This study investigated the role of NPS in conjunction with nitrergic mechanisms in the regulation of intestinal motility and mucosal permeability. In rats, small intestinal myoelectric activity and luminal pressure changes in small intestine and colon, along with duodenal permeability, were studied. In human intestine, NPS and NPSR1 were localized by immunostaining. Pre- and postprandial plasma NPS was measured by ELISA in healthy and active IBD humans. Effects and mechanisms of NPS were studied in human intestinal muscle strips. In rats, NPS 100-4,000 pmol·kg(-1)·min(-1) had effects on the small intestine and colon. Low doses of NPS increased myoelectric spiking (P < 0.05). Higher doses reduced spiking and prolonged the cycle length of the migrating myoelectric complex, reduced intraluminal pressures (P < 0.05-0.01), and increased permeability (P < 0.01) through NO-dependent mechanisms. In human intestine, NPS localized at myenteric nerve cell bodies and fibers. NPSR1 was confined to nerve cell bodies. Circulating NPS in humans was tenfold below the ∼0.3 nmol/l dissociation constant (Kd) of NPSR1, with no difference between healthy and IBD subjects. In human intestinal muscle strips precontracted by bethanechol, NPS 1-1,000 nmol/l induced NO-dependent muscle relaxation (P < 0.05) that was sensitive also to tetrodotoxin (P < 0.01). In conclusion, NPS inhibits motility and increases permeability in neurocrine fashion acting through NO in the myenteric plexus in rats and humans. Aberrant signaling and upregulation of NPSR1 could potentially exacerbate dysmotility and hyperpermeability by local mechanisms in gastrointestinal functional and inflammatory reactions.

  • 17261.
    Wande, Johan
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    Malm, Jens
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    Mått för att mäta kodkvalitet undersystemutvecklingsprocessen2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The desire to ascertain a high level of quality on the code written during the development of systems and applications is not something new in the system development world. Several larger companies use different kinds of metrics to measure the quality of the code in their systems with the goal of maintaining high reliability and quality.Trafikverket is a government authority responsible for the operation of the system that keeps the Swedish railroad running. Their systems play an important part in ensuring the operation and to ensure that train positions, the planning of departures and error handling works around the clock for the entire country, they find it important and strive to maintain the high quality of the systems.The aim of this thesis was to find out which measurements may be possible to use during the system development process to measure the quality of the code and how measurements can be used to increase the quality of IT solutions. It should be possible to measure the quality of the code that is written in both existing and newly developed systems at an early stage. The study is a case study conducted at Trafikverket, the metrics that were examined were code coverage, the level of maintainability index and the number of reported incidents for each system. Measurements were performed on seven of Trafikverket's systems. In the analysis the measurements were compared to the number of reported incidents. Interviews were conducted to provide a picture of how the operation of the development may affect the quality. Through literature studies we discovered a metric that could not be used practically in this case, this was cyclomatic complexity, it is available as part of the maintainability index, but also separately affects the ability to write unit tests. The results of the study show that the measurements are useful for this purpose but should not be used as individual metrics to measure quality because they all have their own function. A clear link between the level of the code coverage and the number of incidents could be observed in the investigated systems where high code coverage provides a lower rate of incidents. No correlation between maintainability index and incidents could be found.

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  • 17262.
    Wang, Guandong
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy and Environmental Technology.
    Evaluation of Monitored Pellet & Solar Heating Systems2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, three solar and pellet heating systems have been studied with the help of monitoring system. The main technology of these three systems is generally the same. The main target system is located in Hedemora which has an extra shunt loop in the boiler circuit. The following data have been monitored during this period: the solar irradiation, the outdoor and indoor temperature, the return and supply temperature of each circuit, the flow rate of each loop, the 3-phase and 1-phase electricity consumption. The aim of this thesis work is to evaluate the thermal performance of the system and through analysis of the detailed data find whether each component of the system functions as it should do. Also the main ambition is to make some improvements based on analysis of the one minute step monitoring data. The whole system can be divided into four different circuits: solar collector circuit, DHW circuit, space heating circuit and boiler circuit. In the process of study, a special excel sheet should be used to calculate the energy balance and operational curve of each component. In general, we found that the monitoring result varies with design setting. And more heat losses have been found in the process of the operating. For a two person detached house, ten square meter solar collector and 750 litres buffer store are both oversized. Based on these findings, in the future work, more simulations are needed. To pursuit more efficiency thermal performance, some temperature setting of the control system should be changed.

  • 17263. Wang, Haidong
    et al.
    Abajobir, Amanuel Alemu
    Abate, Kalkidan Hassen
    Abbafati, Cristiana
    Abbas, Kaja M.
    Abd-Allah, Foad
    Abera, Semaw Ferede
    Abraha, Haftom Niguse
    Ärnlöv, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Medical Science. Karolinska Institutet.
    Murray, Christopher J. L.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Global, regional, and national under-5 mortality, adult mortality, age-specific mortality, and life expectancy, 1970-2016: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 20162017In: The Lancet, ISSN 0140-6736, E-ISSN 1474-547X, Vol. 390, no 10100, p. 1084-1150Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Detailed assessments of mortality patterns, particularly age-specific mortality, represent a crucial input that enables health systems to target interventions to specific populations. Understanding how all-cause mortality has changed with respect to development status can identify exemplars for best practice. To accomplish this, the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2016 (GBD 2016) estimated age-specific and sex-specific all-cause mortality between 1970 and 2016 for 195 countries and territories and at the subnational level for the five countries with a population greater than 200 million in 2016. Methods We have evaluated how well civil registration systems captured deaths using a set of demographic methods called death distribution methods for adults and from consideration of survey and census data for children younger than 5 years. We generated an overall assessment of completeness of registration of deaths by dividing registered deaths in each location-year by our estimate of all-age deaths generated from our overall estimation process. For 163 locations, including subnational units in countries with a population greater than 200 million with complete vital registration (VR) systems, our estimates were largely driven by the observed data, with corrections for small fluctuations in numbers and estimation for recent years where there were lags in data reporting (lags were variable by location, generally between 1 year and 6 years). For other locations, we took advantage of different data sources available to measure under-5 mortality rates (U5MR) using complete birth histories, summary birth histories, and incomplete VR with adjustments; we measured adult mortality rate (the probability of death in individuals aged 15-60 years) using adjusted incomplete VR, sibling histories, and household death recall. We used the U5MR and adult mortality rate, together with crude death rate due to HIV in the GBD model life table system, to estimate age-specific and sex-specific death rates for each location-year. Using various international databases, we identified fatal discontinuities, which we defined as increases in the death rate of more than one death per million, resulting from conflict and terrorism, natural disasters, major transport or technological accidents, and a subset of epidemic infectious diseases; these were added to estimates in the relevant years. In 47 countries with an identified peak adult prevalence for HIV/AIDS of more than 0.5% and where VR systems were less than 65% complete, we informed our estimates of age-sex-specific mortality using the Estimation and Projection Package (EPP)-Spectrum model fitted to national HIV/AIDS prevalence surveys and antenatal clinic serosurveillance systems. We estimated stillbirths, early neonatal, late neonatal, and childhood mortality using both survey and VR data in spatiotemporal Gaussian process regression models. We estimated abridged life tables for all location-years using age-specific death rates. We grouped locations into development quintiles based on the Sociodemographic Index (SDI) and analysed mortality trends by quintile. Using spline regression, we estimated the expected mortality rate for each age-sex group as a function of SDI. We identified countries with higher life expectancy than expected by comparing observed life expectancy to anticipated life expectancy on the basis of development status alone. Findings Completeness in the registration of deaths increased from 28% in 1970 to a peak of 45% in 2013; completeness was lower after 2013 because of lags in reporting. Total deaths in children younger than 5 years decreased from 1970 to 2016, and slower decreases occurred at ages 5-24 years. By contrast, numbers of adult deaths increased in each 5-year age bracket above the age of 25 years. The distribution of annualised rates of change in age-specific mortality rate differed over the period 2000 to 2016 compared with earlier decades: increasing annualised rates of change were less frequent, although rising annualised rates of change still occurred in some locations, particularly for adolescent and younger adult age groups. Rates of stillbirths and under-5 mortality both decreased globally from 1970. Evidence for global convergence of death rates was mixed; although the absolute difference between age-standardised death rates narrowed between countries at the lowest and highest levels of SDI, the ratio of these death rates-a measure of relative inequality-increased slightly. There was a strong shift between 1970 and 2016 toward higher life expectancy, most noticeably at higher levels of SDI. Among countries with populations greater than 1 million in 2016, life expectancy at birth was highest for women in Japan, at 86.9 years (95% UI 86.7-87.2), and for men in Singapore, at 81.3 years (78.8-83.7) in 2016. Male life expectancy was generally lower than female life expectancy between 1970 and 2016, and the gap between male and female life expectancy increased with progression to higher levels of SDI. Some countries with exceptional health performance in 1990 in terms of the difference in observed to expected life expectancy at birth had slower progress on the same measure in 2016. Interpretation Globally, mortality rates have decreased across all age groups over the past five decades, with the largest improvements occurring among children younger than 5 years. However, at the national level, considerable heterogeneity remains in terms of both level and rate of changes in age-specific mortality; increases in mortality for certain age groups occurred in some locations. We found evidence that the absolute gap between countries in age-specific death rates has declined, although the relative gap for some age-sex groups increased. Countries that now lead in terms of having higher observed life expectancy than that expected on the basis of development alone, or locations that have either increased this advantage or rapidly decreased the deficit from expected levels, could provide insight into the means to accelerate progress in nations where progress has stalled. Copyright (C) The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an Open Access article under the CC BY 4.0 license.

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  • 17264. Wang, Haidong
    et al.
    Bhutta, Zulfiqar
    Coates, Matthew M
    Coggeshall, Megan
    Dandona, Lalit
    Diallo, Khassoum
    Franca, Elisabeth Barboza
    Fraser, Maya
    Ärnlöv, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Medical Science. Uppsala university.
    Murray, Christopher J. L
    Global, regional, national, and selected subnational levels of stillbirths, neonatal, infant, and under-5 mortality, 1980-2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 20152016In: The Lancet, ISSN 0140-6736, E-ISSN 1474-547X, Vol. 388, no 10053, p. 1725-1774Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Established in 2000, Millennium Development Goal 4 (MDG4) catalysed extraordinary political, financial, and social commitments to reduce under-5 mortality by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015. At the country level, the pace of progress in improving child survival has varied markedly, highlighting a crucial need to further examine potential drivers of accelerated or slowed decreases in child mortality. The Global Burden of Disease 2015 Study (GBD 2015) provides an analytical framework to comprehensively assess these trends for under-5 mortality, age-specific and cause-specific mortality among children under 5 years, and stillbirths by geography over time.

    Methods

    Drawing from analytical approaches developed and refined in previous iterations of the GBD study, we generated updated estimates of child mortality by age group (neonatal, post-neonatal, ages 1–4 years, and under 5) for 195 countries and territories and selected subnational geographies, from 1980–2015. We also estimated numbers and rates of stillbirths for these geographies and years. Gaussian process regression with data source adjustments for sampling and non-sampling bias was applied to synthesise input data for under-5 mortality for each geography. Age-specific mortality estimates were generated through a two-stage age–sex splitting process, and stillbirth estimates were produced with a mixed-effects model, which accounted for variable stillbirth definitions and data source-specific biases. For GBD 2015, we did a series of novel analyses to systematically quantify the drivers of trends in child mortality across geographies. First, we assessed observed and expected levels and annualised rates of decrease for under-5 mortality and stillbirths as they related to the Soci-demographic Index (SDI). Second, we examined the ratio of recorded and expected levels of child mortality, on the basis of SDI, across geographies, as well as differences in recorded and expected annualised rates of change for under-5 mortality. Third, we analysed levels and cause compositions of under-5 mortality, across time and geographies, as they related to rising SDI. Finally, we decomposed the changes in under-5 mortality to changes in SDI at the global level, as well as changes in leading causes of under-5 deaths for countries and territories. We documented each step of the GBD 2015 child mortality estimation process, as well as data sources, in accordance with the Guidelines for Accurate and Transparent Health Estimates Reporting (GATHER).

    Findings

    Globally, 5·8 million (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 5·7–6·0) children younger than 5 years died in 2015, representing a 52·0% (95% UI 50·7–53·3) decrease in the number of under-5 deaths since 1990. Neonatal deaths and stillbirths fell at a slower pace since 1990, decreasing by 42·4% (41·3–43·6) to 2·6 million (2·6–2·7) neonatal deaths and 47·0% (35·1–57·0) to 2·1 million (1·8-2·5) stillbirths in 2015. Between 1990 and 2015, global under-5 mortality decreased at an annualised rate of decrease of 3·0% (2·6–3·3), falling short of the 4·4% annualised rate of decrease required to achieve MDG4. During this time, 58 countries met or exceeded the pace of progress required to meet MDG4. Between 2000, the year MDG4 was formally enacted, and 2015, 28 additional countries that did not achieve the 4·4% rate of decrease from 1990 met the MDG4 pace of decrease. However, absolute levels of under-5 mortality remained high in many countries, with 11 countries still recording rates exceeding 100 per 1000 livebirths in 2015. Marked decreases in under-5 deaths due to a number of communicable diseases, including lower respiratory infections, diarrhoeal diseases, measles, and malaria, accounted for much of the progress in lowering overall under-5 mortality in low-income countries. Compared with gains achieved for infectious diseases and nutritional deficiencies, the persisting toll of neonatal conditions and congenital anomalies on child survival became evident, especially in low-income and low-middle-income countries. We found sizeable heterogeneities in comparing observed and expected rates of under-5 mortality, as well as differences in observed and expected rates of change for under-5 mortality. At the global level, we recorded a divergence in observed and expected levels of under-5 mortality starting in 2000, with the observed trend falling much faster than what was expected based on SDI through 2015. Between 2000 and 2015, the world recorded 10·3 million fewer under-5 deaths than expected on the basis of improving SDI alone.

    Interpretation

    Gains in child survival have been large, widespread, and in many places in the world, faster than what was anticipated based on improving levels of development. Yet some countries, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa, still had high rates of under-5 mortality in 2015. Unless these countries are able to accelerate reductions in child deaths at an extraordinary pace, their achievement of proposed SDG targets is unlikely. Improving the evidence base on drivers that might hasten the pace of progress for child survival, ranging from cost-effective intervention packages to innovative financing mechanisms, is vital to charting the pathways for ultimately ending preventable child deaths by 2030.

    Funding

    Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

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  • 17265. Wang, Haidong
    et al.
    Naghavi, Mohsen
    Allen, Christine
    Barber, Ryan M
    Bhutta, Zulfiqar
    Carter, Austin
    Casey, Daniel C
    Charlson, Fiona J
    Ärnlöv, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Medical Science. Uppsala university.
    Murray, Christopher J. L
    Global, regional, and national life expectancy, all-cause mortality, and cause-specific mortality for 249 causes of death, 1980-2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 20152016In: The Lancet, ISSN 0140-6736, E-ISSN 1474-547X, Vol. 388, no 10053, p. 1459-1544Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Improving survival and extending the longevity of life for all populations requires timely, robust evidence on local mortality levels and trends. The Global Burden of Disease 2015 Study (GBD 2015) provides a comprehensive assessment of all-cause and cause-specific mortality for 249 causes in 195 countries and territories from 1980 to 2015. These results informed an in-depth investigation of observed and expected mortality patterns based on sociodemographic measures.

    Methods

    We estimated all-cause mortality by age, sex, geography, and year using an improved analytical approach originally developed for GBD 2013 and GBD 2010. Improvements included refinements to the estimation of child and adult mortality and corresponding uncertainty, parameter selection for under-5 mortality synthesis by spatiotemporal Gaussian process regression, and sibling history data processing. We also expanded the database of vital registration, survey, and census data to 14 294 geography–year datapoints. For GBD 2015, eight causes, including Ebola virus disease, were added to the previous GBD cause list for mortality. We used six modelling approaches to assess cause-specific mortality, with the Cause of Death Ensemble Model (CODEm) generating estimates for most causes. We used a series of novel analyses to systematically quantify the drivers of trends in mortality across geographies. First, we assessed observed and expected levels and trends of cause-specific mortality as they relate to the Socio-demographic Index (SDI), a summary indicator derived from measures of income per capita, educational attainment, and fertility. Second, we examined factors affecting total mortality patterns through a series of counterfactual scenarios, testing the magnitude by which population growth, population age structures, and epidemiological changes contributed to shifts in mortality. Finally, we attributed changes in life expectancy to changes in cause of death. We documented each step of the GBD 2015 estimation processes, as well as data sources, in accordance with Guidelines for Accurate and Transparent Health Estimates Reporting (GATHER).

    Findings

    Globally, life expectancy from birth increased from 61·7 years (95% uncertainty interval 61·4–61·9) in 1980 to 71·8 years (71·5–72·2) in 2015. Several countries in sub-Saharan Africa had very large gains in life expectancy from 2005 to 2015, rebounding from an era of exceedingly high loss of life due to HIV/AIDS. At the same time, many geographies saw life expectancy stagnate or decline, particularly for men and in countries with rising mortality from war or interpersonal violence. From 2005 to 2015, male life expectancy in Syria dropped by 11·3 years (3·7–17·4), to 62·6 years (56·5–70·2). Total deaths increased by 4·1% (2·6–5·6) from 2005 to 2015, rising to 55·8 million (54·9 million to 56·6 million) in 2015, but age-standardised death rates fell by 17·0% (15·8–18·1) during this time, underscoring changes in population growth and shifts in global age structures. The result was similar for non-communicable diseases (NCDs), with total deaths from these causes increasing by 14·1% (12·6–16·0) to 39·8 million (39·2 million to 40·5 million) in 2015, whereas age-standardised rates decreased by 13·1% (11·9–14·3). Globally, this mortality pattern emerged for several NCDs, including several types of cancer, ischaemic heart disease, cirrhosis, and Alzheimer's disease and other dementias. By contrast, both total deaths and age-standardised death rates due to communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional conditions significantly declined from 2005 to 2015, gains largely attributable to decreases in mortality rates due to HIV/AIDS (42·1%, 39·1–44·6), malaria (43·1%, 34·7–51·8), neonatal preterm birth complications (29·8%, 24·8–34·9), and maternal disorders (29·1%, 19·3–37·1). Progress was slower for several causes, such as lower respiratory infections and nutritional deficiencies, whereas deaths increased for others, including dengue and drug use disorders. Age-standardised death rates due to injuries significantly declined from 2005 to 2015, yet interpersonal violence and war claimed increasingly more lives in some regions, particularly in the Middle East. In 2015, rotaviral enteritis (rotavirus) was the leading cause of under-5 deaths due to diarrhoea (146 000 deaths, 118 000–183 000) and pneumococcal pneumonia was the leading cause of under-5 deaths due to lower respiratory infections (393 000 deaths, 228 000–532 000), although pathogen-specific mortality varied by region. Globally, the effects of population growth, ageing, and changes in age-standardised death rates substantially differed by cause. Our analyses on the expected associations between cause-specific mortality and SDI show the regular shifts in cause of death composition and population age structure with rising SDI. Country patterns of premature mortality (measured as years of life lost [YLLs]) and how they differ from the level expected on the basis of SDI alone revealed distinct but highly heterogeneous patterns by region and country or territory. Ischaemic heart disease, stroke, and diabetes were among the leading causes of YLLs in most regions, but in many cases, intraregional results sharply diverged for ratios of observed and expected YLLs based on SDI. Communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional diseases caused the most YLLs throughout sub-Saharan Africa, with observed YLLs far exceeding expected YLLs for countries in which malaria or HIV/AIDS remained the leading causes of early death.

    Interpretation

    At the global scale, age-specific mortality has steadily improved over the past 35 years; this pattern of general progress continued in the past decade. Progress has been faster in most countries than expected on the basis of development measured by the SDI. Against this background of progress, some countries have seen falls in life expectancy, and age-standardised death rates for some causes are increasing. Despite progress in reducing age-standardised death rates, population growth and ageing mean that the number of deaths from most non-communicable causes are increasing in most countries, putting increased demands on health systems.

    Funding

    Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

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  • 17266. Wang, Haidong
    et al.
    Wolock, Tim M
    Carter, Austin
    Nguyen, Grant
    Kyu, Hmwe Hmwe
    Gakidou, Emmanuela
    Hay, Simon I
    Mills, Edward J
    Ärnlöv, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Medical Science. Uppsala universitet.
    Murray, Christopher J L
    Estimates of global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and mortality of HIV, 1980-2015: the Global Burden of Disease Study 20152016In: The Lancet HIV, ISSN 2352-3018, Vol. 3, no 8, p. E361-E387Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Timely assessment of the burden of HIV/AIDS is essential for policy setting and programme evaluation. In this report from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015 (GBD 2015), we provide national estimates of levels and trends of HIV/AIDS incidence, prevalence, coverage of antiretroviral therapy (ART), and mortality for 195 countries and territories from 1980 to 2015.

    Methods

    For countries without high-quality vital registration data, we estimated prevalence and incidence with data from antenatal care clinics and population-based seroprevalence surveys, and with assumptions by age and sex on initial CD4 distribution at infection, CD4 progression rates (probability of progression from higher to lower CD4 cell-count category), on and off antiretroviral therapy (ART) mortality, and mortality from all other causes. Our estimation strategy links the GBD 2015 assessment of all-cause mortality and estimation of incidence and prevalence so that for each draw from the uncertainty distribution all assumptions used in each step are internally consistent. We estimated incidence, prevalence, and death with GBD versions of the Estimation and Projection Package (EPP) and Spectrum software originally developed by the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS). We used an open-source version of EPP and recoded Spectrum for speed, and used updated assumptions from systematic reviews of the literature and GBD demographic data. For countries with high-quality vital registration data, we developed the cohort incidence bias adjustment model to estimate HIV incidence and prevalence largely from the number of deaths caused by HIV recorded in cause-of-death statistics. We corrected these statistics for garbage coding and HIV misclassifi cation.

    Findings

    Global HIV incidence reached its peak in 1997, at 3·3 million new infections (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 3·1–3·4 million). Annual incidence has stayed relatively constant at about 2·6 million per year (range 2·5–2·8 million) since 2005, after a period of fast decline between 1997 and 2005. The number of people living with HIV/AIDS has been steadily increasing and reached 38·8 million (95% UI 37·6–40·4 million) in 2015. At the same time, HIV/AIDS mortality has been declining at a steady pace, from a peak of 1·8 million deaths (95% UI 1·7–1·9 million) in 2005, to 1·2 million deaths (1·1–1·3 million) in 2015. We recorded substantial heterogeneity in the levels and trends of HIV/AIDS across countries. Although many countries have experienced decreases in HIV/AIDS mortality and in annual new infections, other countries have had slowdowns or increases in rates of change in annual new infections.

    Interpretation

    Scale-up of ART and prevention of mother-to-child transmission has been one of the great successes of global health in the past two decades. However, in the past decade, progress in reducing new infections has been slow, development assistance for health devoted to HIV has stagnated, and resources for health in low-income countries have grown slowly. Achievement of the new ambitious goals for HIV enshrined in Sustainable Development Goal 3 and the 90-90-90 UNAIDS targets will be challenging, and will need continued eff orts from governments and international agencies in the next 15 years to end AIDS by 2030.

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  • 17267. Wang, J.
    et al.
    Liu, G.
    Song, William Wei
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    Firefly algorithm with proportional adjustment strategy2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Firefly algorithm is a new heuristic intelligent optimization algorithm and has excellent performance in many optimization problems. However, in the face of some multimodal and high-dimensional problems, the algorithm is easy to fall into the local optimum. In order to avoid this phenomenon, this paper proposed an improved firefly algorithm with proportional adjustment strategy for alpha and beta. Thirteen well-known benchmark functions are used to verify the performance of our proposed algorithm, the computational results show that our proposed algorithm is more efficient than many other FA algorithms.

  • 17268.
    Wang, Jian
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    An online simulator for Duodopa treatment and prediction of optimal individual dose to patients.2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this work was to develop an online simulator for levodoopa infusion in Parkinson’s disease based on a pharmacokinetic model. Using this simulator, optimal infusions setting were calculated, the relation between flow rate and morning bolus dose and usefulness for optimising the titration procedure of new infusion patients based on cased-based reasoning were investigated. Results show that the simulator was quite useful for simulating medication treatment and the relationship between optimal flow rate and morning dose seemed linear with some reasonable outliers. The prediction error revealed a tendency of simulator to under predict the actual flow rates and to over predict morning doses. At last, the simulator predicted well on each single occasion of majority of patients, but different flow rates and morning doses on different occasions of the same patient resulted in different matching parameters in database.

  • 17269. Wang, Li
    et al.
    Psilander, Niklas
    Tonkonogi, Michail
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Ding, Shuzhe
    Sahlin, Kent
    Similar expression of oxidative genes after interval and continuous exercise2009In: Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, ISSN 0195-9131, E-ISSN 1530-0315, Vol. 41, no 12, p. 2136-2144Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: There is a debate whether interval or traditional endurance training is the most effective stimulus of mitochondrial biogenesis. Here, we compared the effects of acute interval exercise (IE) or continuous exercise (CE) on the muscle messenger RNA (mRNA) content for several genes involved in mitochondrial biogenesis and lipid metabolism.

    Methods: Nine sedentary subjects cycled for 90 min with two protocols: CE (at 67% V?O2max) and IE (12 s at 120% and 18 s at 20% of V?O2max). The duration of exercise and work performed with CE and IE was identical. Muscle biopsies were taken before and 3 h after exercise. Results: There were no significant differences between the two exercise protocols in the increases in V?O2 and HR, the reduction in muscle glycogen (35%-40% with both protocols) or the changes in blood metabolites (lactate, glucose, and fatty acids). The mRNA content for major regulators of mitochondrial biogenesis [peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) ? coactivator 1a (PGC-1a), PGC-1-related coactivator, PPAR/d] and of lipid metabolism [pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase isozyme 4 (PDK4)] increased after exercise, but there was no significant difference between IE and CE. However, the mRNA content for several downstream targets of PGC-1a increased significantly only after CE, and mRNA content for nuclear respiratory factor 2 was significantly higher after CE (P < 0.025 vs IE).

    Conclusions: The present findings demonstrate that, when the duration of exercise and work performed is the same, IE and CE influence the transcription of genes involved in oxidative metabolism in a similar manner.

  • 17270.
    Wang, Lu
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Material Science.
    Birgerson, J.
    Osterman, Jesper
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Material Science.
    Skarp, Kent
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Material Science.
    Voit, W.
    Inkjet printing of linearly photopolymerizable polymer as alignment in LCD2005In: SID international symposium, Boston, 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 17271.
    Wang, Qiong
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy and Environmental Technology.
    PV standalone system in traffic signal application2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A PV standalone system in traffic signal application was researched and designed based on the energy shortage worldwide and to settle some problems on traffic signal lights against actual application. This system was able to leave out the construction project of the road, economization of funds, energy saving and environmental protection, and which will not result in the traffic jam in the process of fixing and debugging. The traffic control conveniently becomes true at the area where is far away from the grid. The main aim of the thesis is to design a PV standalone system in traffic light application in Shenyang, China. Additional aim is to find the most energy-efficient ways of working for LED load in solar PV lighting application. The PWM technology was studied and the energy consumption under different conditions will be tested. The system design feeds the relevant industry standards. The method for system sizing is used extensively by Telecon in Australia and represents a very conservative approach in which array size is optimized as a function of battery capacity. Through theoretical and practical research, a multi-view understanding can be gained in the PV application. A standalone system in traffic signal is sized and the results of sizing are 275W PV panel and 390Ah battery totally. The system includes three same systems with the sizing of 55W PV panel and 80Ah battery and one bigger system with the sizing of 110W PV panel and 150Ah battery. The required capital cost is ?25770. The discount payback is 17.1 years. The saved electricity per year is 151.8KWh. A cost effective system could be gained with the increased intensity of financial incentive and decreased price of PV panel.

  • 17272. Wang, Xinru
    et al.
    Xia, Liang
    Bales, Chris
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Zhang, Xingxing
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Copertaro, Benedetta
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Pan, Song
    Wu, Jinshun
    A systematic review of recent air source heat pump (ASHP) systems assisted by solar thermal, photovoltaic and photovoltaic/thermal sources2020In: Renewable energy, ISSN 0960-1481, E-ISSN 1879-0682, Vol. 146, p. 2472-2487Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 17273. Wang, X.T.
    et al.
    Yu, Z.L.
    Siwecki, Tadeusz
    Engberg, Göran
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Material Science.
    Sun, Z.Q
    Physical Modeling on Recrystallization of Austenite in Steels in Thermo-mechanical Processing2007In: Materials Science Forum, ISSN 1662-9752, Vol. 561-565, p. 1953-1956Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A physical model for austenite recrystallization of steel concerning TMCP is developed. Dislocation density plays a key role as recrystallization driving force. The dislocation density change is a result of competition between dislocation generation and dynamic recovery. Recrystallization is described as a nucleation-growth process. An abnormal subgrain growth mechanism is introduced for nucleation. A few subgrains fulfilling abnormal growth conditions will stand out and become nuclei of recrystallization. The recrystallized grain grows to the deformed materials driven by the stored energy. Oswald ripening occurs for grains surrounded by recrystallized grains. The models were verified by laboratory simulation results for selected austenite stainless steels. It showed good agreement between predicted and experimental results.

  • 17274.
    Wang, Xun
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Chinese.
    The Change and the Development of the Chinese Euphemisms: A Study Based on a Survey of the Use of Euphemisms byRespondents of Different Age Groups2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Chinese euphemisms have aroused much interest of many researches due

    to its distinctive function and diversity. The choice and use of Chinese euphemisms

    are affected by many factors such as the Chinese traditional culture, social customs,

    people’s self-cultivation, the situation context and linguistic context of a conversation,

    etc. Hence, the progress of society, the development of technology and the renewing

    of the concept make up the dynamic characteristic of the Chinese euphemisms.

    However, most studies focus mainly on the vocabulary people use and their

    expressing habits and patterns, there are few studies focus on how Chinese

    euphemisms develop along with the times. Studies that shed light on how modern

    people use broad euphemisms and narrow euphemisms are even less.

    Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to collect linguistic materials and design a

    questionnaire to make a survey on the current situation of using euphemisms by

    respondents of different age groups. The result of this survey shows that modern

    people are not only becoming less and less indirect in terms of the scope of using

    euphemisms, but also less and less tactful in terms of the vocabulary that they use.

    This phenomenon can be observed when people talk about topics such as death,

    disease, appearance, unemployment, marriage and privacy. Modern people tend to

    be relatively low decoratively worded. In other words, people are to some extent

    becoming less indirect and less tactful. This paper verifies the adaptability as well as

    the updating and upgrading of Chinese euphemisms. It also discusses the linguistic

    diversity of modern people in terms of using broad and narrow euphemisms under

    different contexts.

    This paper will not only help us to understand how Chinese language adapts to

    the change with the times, but also digs deeper into the great role that social culture

    plays in language development.

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  • 17275. Wang, Yu
    Non-parametric Statistics in the Context of Program Evaluation2007Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 17276.
    Wang, Yu
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Carling, Kenneth
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Nääs, Ola
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    High school student's summer jobs and their ensuing labour market achievement2006Report (Other academic)
  • 17277. Wang, Yu
    et al.
    Carling, Kenneth
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Nääs, Ola
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Är kommunala sommarjobb en gräddfil till arbetsmarknaden?2006Report (Other academic)
  • 17278. Wang, Z.
    et al.
    Prashanth, K. G.
    Surreddi, Kumar Babu
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Materials Technology.
    Suryanarayana, C.
    Eckert, J.
    Scudino, S.
    Pressure-assisted sintering of Al–Gd–Ni–Co amorphous alloy powders2018In: Materialia, ISSN 2589-1529, Vol. 2, p. 157-166Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 17279. Wang, Z. -W
    et al.
    Wang, S. -K
    Wan, B. -T
    Song, William Wei
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems. Jiangxi University of Finance and Economics, Nanchang, China.
    A novel multi-label classification algorithm based on K-nearest neighbor and random walk2020In: International Journal of Distributed Sensor Networks, ISSN 1550-1329, E-ISSN 1550-1477, Vol. 16, no 3Article in journal (Refereed)
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  • 17280.
    Wangmo, Olivia
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education and Humanities, Biology.
    Bergström, Maria
    Dalarna University, School of Education and Humanities, Biology.
    Blutsafts inverkan på blodets hemoglobinvärde2005Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    The aim of the study was to test whether or not menstruating women’s levels of haemoglobin changed after three weeks consumption of Blutsaft. Previous studies on nutrition supplements including iron have shown increased haemoglobin levels. On Blutsaft, however, there are no studies carried out and published. The participants in this pilot study were menstruating women, with haemoglobin levels between 105 and 125 g/l at the initial part of the study. Haemoglobin concentrations were measured by capillary blood samples before and after three weeks recommended daily consumption of Blutsaft. Four participants completed the study and the result showed an increase in haemoglobin concentration of between 7 and 17 g/l., with a median value at 16,75 g/l. Despite the few participants who completed the study a significant increase in haemoglobin concentration, after the consumption of Blutsaft, can be determined.

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  • 17281.
    Ware, Vron
    Open University, Storbritannien.
    Why Critical Whiteness Studies needs to think about warfare2009In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 46, no 3, p. 57-64Article in journal (Refereed)
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  • 17282.
    Warell, Peter
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Chinese.
    New Chinese Words in 2014 – A Study of Word-formation Processes2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis was to investigate how new Chinese words are formed and to examine the linguistic patterns among them. This thesis focused on the analysis of Chinese words formed in 2014. The quantitative data for the analysis included a collection of 423 new Chinese words from the book 2014 汉语新词语 (hànyǔxīn cíyǔ) by Hou and Zhou. Parts of speech and number of syllables in the new words were investigated, although the focus was on word-formation processes. A discussion of derivation, blending, abbreviation, analogy, borrowing, change of meaning, compounding and inventions is also included. The share of each word-formation process used for each of the new words was presented statistically in order to reveal the significance of each word-formation process. The analysis showed that compounding, derivation and abbreviation were the major word-formation processes in 2014. The study also suggests that words formed by derivation and analogy were much more frequent in 2014, in comparison to previous studies. Furthermore, the ways words are formed in Chinese are changing and evolving, as some word-formation processes are becoming more frequently used in the formation of new words.

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  • 17283. Warenius, Linnea
    et al.
    Pettersson, Karen O.
    Nissen, Eva
    Höjer, Bengt
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Chishimba, Petronella
    Faxelid, Elisabeth
    Vulnerability and sexual and reproductive health among Zambian secondary school students2007In: Culture, Health and Sexuality, ISSN 1369-1058, E-ISSN 1464-5351, Vol. 9, no 5, p. 533-544Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study aimed to explore secondary school students' needs in relation to sexual and reproductive health in order to inform efforts to improve the quality of health services available to young people. The study involved data collection from 716 11-22-year-old students in four secondary schools in an urban area in Zambia. Students completed a questionnaire and were invited to write down any inquiries they had regarding sexuality and reproduction. Findings revealed that boys and girls lack adequate information about human reproduction and STIs, including HIV. To avoid misconceptions and myths, they also need clear information on contraceptives and masturbation. Responses indicate that young people would welcome guidance and support related to contraception, pregnancy, abortion and STIs/HIV, but also on love and relationships. Culture, religion and gender are important factors influencing sexuality and sexual abuse. These issues need to be taken into consideration when developing youth-friendly programmes for young people.

  • 17284. Warensjö, M
    et al.
    Rune, Göran
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Wood Technology.
    Stem straightness and compression wood in 22-year-old container-grown Scots pine trees2004In: Silva Fennica, ISSN 0037-5330, E-ISSN 2242-4075, Vol. 38, no 2, p. 143-153 Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 17285. Warner, Georgina
    et al.
    Baghdasaryan, Zaruhi
    Osman, Fatumo
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing. Uppsala University.
    Lampa, Elin
    Sarkadi, Anna
    'I felt like a human being'-An exploratory, multi-method study of refugee involvement in the development of mental health intervention research.2019In: Health Expectations, ISSN 1369-6513, E-ISSN 1369-7625Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Great advancements have been made in patient and public involvement (PPI), including the development of guidance on how to conduct, report and evaluate PPI. Despite these efforts, the evidence base remains relatively weak. A substantive methodological development is required. This is particularly important for vulnerable groups within society, for whom PPI can be challenging but has the potential to play a transformative role in shaping research.

    OBJECTIVES: To describe the group dynamic characteristics and immediate impact of PPI from the user representatives' perspective in a case study of refugee involvement in the development of mental health intervention research. To pilot and methodologically appraise the Active Involvement of Users in Research Observation Schedule and Questionnaire.

    DESIGN: The Active Involvement of Users in Research Observation Schedule and Questionnaire were administered together with a focus group discussion.

    SETTING: 'Refugee Advisors' were involved in the development of a randomized controlled trial protocol evaluating a brief group intervention for refugee children experiencing symptoms of post-traumatic stress in Sweden.

    RESULTS: The multi-method approach demonstrated good feasibility. There were clear examples of how the advisors influenced research development. The advisors described a perceived impact on the research, equality and acceptance, and knowledge gain. A sense of appreciation and empowerment was also interpreted. However, potential issues relating to the relevance of contributions and use of an interpreter were identified.

    DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: The methodological approach piloted in this study offers a promising, rigorous way to evaluate PPI. The research tools require further refinement and validation.

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  • 17286.
    Warner, Henriette Wallén
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Psychology.
    Factors influencing drivers’ speeding behaviour2006Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Every year many people all over the world are killed and severely injured in road traffic accidents. Even though driving too fast is a behaviour well known to contribute to both the number and the outcome of these accidents, drivers are still speeding. The general aim of this thesis, and its five empirical studies, is therefore to further the knowledge about drivers speeding behaviour by using the theory of planned behaviour and the model underpinning the driver behaviour questionnaire as frames of reference. The behavioural data used is obtained from field trials with intelligent speed adaptation and the speed reducing potential of this system is also examined. The results show that attitude towards exceeding the speed limits, subjective norm, perceived behavioural control and moral norm from the theory of planned behaviour, but also violations and inattention errors from the model underpinning the driver behaviour questionnaire, can be used to predict drivers’ everyday speeding behaviour. These two models can also be combined in order to gain further knowledge about the causes of speeding. Identification of drivers’ beliefs about exceeding the speed limits gives further insight into the underlying cognitive foundation of their attitude, subjective norm and perceived behavioural control. This provides valuable information for future design of speed reducing measures. Regarding intelligent speed adaptation, the results show that the ISA speed-warning device greatly reduces the amount of time drivers spend above the speed limits, and to some extent also reduces their mean speeds, but that this effect decreases with time. Although the drivers are not totally satisfied with the experience of the ISA speed-warning device, they like the idea and can see its usefulness. As the device tested is a first generation ISA speed-warning device, further research has the potential to greatly improve the system.

  • 17287.
    Warner, Henriette Wallén
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Psychology.
    ISA i mobiltelefonen: Utvärdering av användaraspekter2010In: Transportforum, Linköping, 2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 17288.
    Warner, Henriette Wallén
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Psychology.
    The theory of planned behaviour within traffic psychology2007In: International Cooperation on Theories and Concepts in Traffic Safety (ICTCT) Workshop, Valencia, Spanien, 2007Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The theory of planned behaviour is a well-known theory within social psychology. According to this theory people’s attitude towards the behaviour, their subjective norm and their perceived behavioural control determine their behaviour (a defined action) indirectly via their intention (a willingness to try to perform the behaviour). Attitude towards the behaviour is determined by behavioural beliefs, which are beliefs about the likely consequences of the behaviour (behavioural belief strength), weighted by the evaluation of how good or bad these outcomes would be (outcome evaluation). Subjective norm is determined by normative beliefs, which are beliefs about what important others think of the behaviour (normative belief strength), weighted by the motivation to comply with these important others (motivation to comply). Perceived behavioural control is determined by control beliefs, which are beliefs about factors that may facilitate or impede performance of the behaviour (control belief strength), weighted by the perceived power of these factors (control belief power). A positive attitude and subjective norm together with a large perceived behavioural control results in a strong intention to perform the behaviour. Given enough actual control over the behaviour, people are expected to carry out their intention as soon as an opportunity is given. For behaviours over which people have incomplete volitional control it is also useful to consider perceived behavioural control as a codeterminant (together with intention) of the behaviour. The relationship between perceived behavioural control and behaviour is however dependent on the accuracy of people’s perception of their control over the behaviour. Within traffic psychology the theory of planned behaviour has been successfully used as a frame of reference to predict and explain behaviours such as drinking and driving, dangerous overtaking, close following, lane discipline and speeding. A short review of different studies using the theory of planned behaviour will be presented and pros and cons with the theory will be discussed.

  • 17289.
    Warner, Henriette Wallén
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Psychology.
    Varför kör man för fort?2005In: Transportforum, Linköping, Sweden, 2005Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 17290.
    Warner, Henriette Wallén
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Psychology.
    Sandin, Jesper
    The intercoder agreement when using the Driving Reliability and Error Analysis Method in road traffic accident investigations2010In: Safety Science, ISSN 0925-7535, E-ISSN 1879-1042, Vol. 48, p. 527-536Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many different classification schemes have been used in the analysis of road traffic accidents but the agreement between coders using the same classification scheme is rarely tested and/or reported. As a high intercoder agreement is a prerequisite for a study’s validity, this is a serious shortcoming. The aim of the present study was, therefore, to test the intercoder agreement of the Driving Reliability and Error Analysis Method (DREAM) version 3.0 by letting seven coders from different European countries analyse and classify the causes of the same four accident scenarios. The results showed that the intercoder agreement for genotypes (contributing factors) ranges from 74% to 94% with an average of 83%, while for phenotypes (observable effects) it ranges from 57% to 100% with an average of 78%. The results also showed that weaknesses in classification schemes, methods, training of coders as well as in presentation of accident information can be identified by testing the intercoder agreement.

  • 17291.
    Warner, Henriette Wallén
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Psychology.
    Türker, Özkan
    Lajunen, Timo
    Tzamalouka, Georgia
    Cross-cultural comparison of drivers’ tendency to commit different aberrant driving behaviours2011In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 14, no 5, p. 390-399Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The first aim of the present study was to identify key items which are rated differently by drivers from Finland, Sweden, Greece and Turkey. The second aim was to examine how these key items relate to drivers’ self-reported accident involvement. Similar comparisons have previously been conducted in Europe but these have only included items classified as violations and errors, but not lapses. A sample of Finnish (N = 200), Swedish (N = 200), Greek (N = 200) and Turkish (N = 200) drivers completed the driver behaviour questionnaire (DBQ) and reported their accident involvement during the previous 3 years. The results showed that nine key items (which drivers from different countries rated differently) could be identified. These items included two aggressive violations, four ordinary violations, three lapses, but no errors. Out of these nine items, five items (Become angered by a certain type of driver and indicate your hostility by whatever means you can, Disregard the speed limit on a motorway, Overtake a slow driver on the inside, Pull out of a junction so far that the driver with right of way has to stop and let you out and Get into the wrong lane approaching a roundabout or a junction) could explain differences in drivers’ self-reported yearly accident involvement when all four countries were taken together. At the same time, none of the items could explain differences in self-reported yearly accident involvement in Finland and Sweden while one of the items (Overtake a slow driver on the inside) could explain differences in self-reported yearly accident involvement in Greece and two of the items (Become angered by a certain type of driver and indicate your hostility by whatever means you can and Disregard the speed limit on a residential road) could explain differences in self-reported yearly accident involvement in Turkey. This shows that different countries have different problems with regard to aberrant driving behaviours which need to be taken into account when promoting traffic safety interventions and the driver behaviour questionnaire (DBQ) can be used to diagnose risk areas and to better inform road safety practitioners within and between countries.

  • 17292.
    Warner, Henriette Wallén
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Psychology.
    Åberg, Lars
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Psychology.
    Why do drivers speed?2004In: the 3rd International Conference on Traffic & Transport Psychology (ICTTP), Nottingham, UK, 2004Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 17293.
    Warner, Henriette Wallén
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Psychology.
    Åberg, Lars
    Sjögren, Susanne
    Thorsén, Sanna
    Okpokam, Tony
    A comparison between Swedish and Nigerian taxi drivers2007In: Proceedings of the International Cooperation on Theories and Concepts in Traffic Safety (ICTCT) Workshop, Beijing, Kina, 2007Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2004 approximately 1.2 million people were killed in road traffic accidents and as many as 50 million were injured according to the World Health Organization. Vulnerable road users (e.g. pedestrians, bicyclists, motorcyclists, rickshaw- and cart-drivers) in low- and middle-income countries shoulder a large proportion of the global burden of road traffic deaths and serious injury. The elderly, children and disabled are especially vulnerable. While road traffic accident deaths in high-income countries are projected to decrease by 27% between 2000 and 2020, they are projected to increase by 83% in low- and middle-income countries. One of the World Health Organization’s concluding recommendations for the future was therefore to “enhance programmes of law enforcement with public information and education campaigns”. One problem with this is, however, that we know very little about how road users in low- and middle-income countries perceive the traffic environment and why they make the decisions they do. This is because much research focuses on European or American road users while, for example, African road users are hardly ever represented. Research findings from high-income countries can sometimes be successfully used even in low- and middle-income countries but this is far from always the case. One reason to why research findings in road safety are not always globally applicable is that the traffic environment is very different in different parts of the world, but also because of ideological bias in research. While most accident literature is based on “rational” approaches where accidents are seen as preventable many people in low-income countries have a completely different worldview where predestination plays an important role. In an attempt to further the knowledge about African road users a small pilot study was conducted comparing Nigerian and Swedish taxi drivers. The study was based on the theory of planned behaviour and addressed behaviours such as exceeding the speed limits and not using seat belts. This pilot study is the first in a series of studies. The results as well as their implications for the future studies will therefore be discussed.

  • 17294.
    Warner, Henriette Wallén
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Psychology.
    Öskan, Turker
    Lajunen, Timo
    Swedish and Turkish drivers’ willingness to install intelligent speed adaptation (ISA) in their cars2009In: 11th European Congress of Psychology (ECP), Oslo, Norge, 2009Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Intelligent speed adaptation (ISA) aims to help drivers keep to the speed limit. The aim of the present study was therefore to examine if there are differences in drivers’ propensity to install intelligent speed adaptation systems due to the drivers’ country of residence, their aberrant driving, and the technical solution used. Methods: 224 Swedish and 316 Turkish drivers completed a questionnaire including the DBQ and questions about the drivers’ propensity to have different ISA systems installed. Results: Swedish drivers were less positive than Turkish drivers towards installing ISA systems. Drivers who frequently commit violations were less positive towards installing ISA systems, while drivers who frequently make errors were more positive towards installing the systems. Both Swedish and Turkish drivers were most positive towards installing the speed limit information system, followed by the advisory system, the supportive and lastly the intervening system.

  • 17295.
    Warner, Henriette Wallén
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Psychology.
    Özkan, Turker
    Lajunen, Timo
    Can the traffic locus of control (T-LOC) scale be successfully used to predict Swedish drivers’ speeding behaviour?2010In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 42, p. 1113-1117Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The first aim of the present study was to examine the factor structure of the traffic locus of control (TLOC)scale in a Swedish sample of drivers. The second aim was to examine if this scale can be used to predict drivers’ speeding behaviour. A sample of Swedish car owners (N= 223) completed a questionnaire including questions based on the traffic locus of control (T-LOC) scale as well as questions about their speeding behaviour. The results showed a five factor solution including own skills, own behaviour, other drivers, vehicle/environment and fate. Own behaviour and vehicle/environment could be used to predict drivers’ speeding behaviour on roads with a 90 km/h speed limit while none of the variables included in the traffic locus of control (T-LOC) scale could be used to predict drivers’ speeding behaviour on roads with a 50 km/h speed limit. On 90 km/h roads own behaviour was positively related to drivers’ speeding behaviour while vehicle/environment was negatively related to their speeding behaviour.

  • 17296.
    Warner, Henriette Wallén
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Psychology.
    Özkan, Turker
    Lajunen, Timo
    Cross-cultural differences in drivers’ speed choice2009In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 41, p. 816-819Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study was to examine if there are any cross cultural differences between Swedish and Turkish drivers’ rating of the variables in the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) with regard to complying with the speed limit. A sample of 219 Swedish and 252 Turkish drivers completed a questionnaire including questions based on the theory of planned behaviour (i.e. regarding attitude, subjective norm,perceived behavioural control, intention and behaviour). The results show that country differences in drivers’ intention to comply with the speed limit as well as their self reported compliance could be explained by differences found in their attitude, subjective norm and perceived behavioural control. Furthermore,drivers who live in a country with fewer road traffic fatalities (i.e. Sweden), compared with driverswholive in a country withmore road traffic fatalities (i.e. Turkey),reported amore positive attitude towards complying with the speed limit, a more positive subjective norm, a higher perceived behavioural control, a higher intention and a larger proportion of the time spent complying.

  • 17297.
    Warner, Henriette Wallén
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Psychology.
    Özkan, Turker
    Lajunen, Timo
    Drivers’ propensity to install different types of intelligent speed adaptation systems in their cars2010In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 13, no 3, p. 206-214Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study was to examine if there are differences in drivers’ propensity to have different types of intelligent speed adaptation installed in their cars depending on the sample of drivers (i.e. Swedish or Turkish), their aberrant driving behaviours (i.e. violations and errors), and/or the technical solution used (i.e. speed limit information, advisory, supportive and intervening systems). A sample of 224 Swedish and 316 Turkish drivers completed a questionnaire including questions based on the driver behaviour questionnaire (DBQ) as well as questions about the drivers’ propensity to have different types of intelligent speed adaptation installed in their cars. The results showed that the Swedish sample of drivers was less positive than the Turkish sample of drivers towards having the advisory, supportive and intervening systems installed. Furthermore, drivers who frequently commit violations were less positive towards having any of these systems installed than were drivers who commit violations less frequently, while drivers who frequently make errors were more positive towards having the systems installed than were drivers who make errors less frequently. Both the Swedish and the Turkish sample of drivers were most positive towards having the speed limit information system installed, followed by the advisory system on second place, the supportive system on third place and lastly the intervening system on fourth place.

  • 17298.
    Warneryd, Martin
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology. RISA; Mälardalen University.
    Håkansson, Maria
    RISE.
    Karltorp, Kersti
    RISE; Jönköping International Business School.
    Unpacking the complexity of community microgrids: A review of institutions’ roles for development of microgrids2020In: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 121, article id 109690Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Community microgrids implemented in existing electricity grids can meet both development targets set out in the Paris agreement: 1. mitigate greenhouse gas emissions through increased implementation of renewable energy sources, and 2. to adapt to climate related disturbances and risk of catastrophes. Community microgrids are, however, complex to implement and institutional change is needed to reach their full potential. The purpose of this article is to review existing literature and analyze institutional developments influencing the growth of community microgrids. The literature describes a concentration of microgrid activities in specific regions: USA, EU, Asia and Australia. Varying reasons for implementing community microgrids were found in the different regions but similar institutional developments occurred, albeit with differing emphasis due to contextual specificities. Formal directions do however influence informal institutions even though their aims differ. Power utilities stand out as a critical actor and both formal and informal institutions put pressure on utilities to update their traditional business models. This article illustrates how informal and formal institutions play a significant role in the growth of community microgrids in existing electricity grids and provide interesting examples which can be utilized by policymakers. Microgrid development is still in a formative phase and further institutional change in the form of updated regulations is needed.

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  • 17299.
    Warneryd, Martin
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology. RISE; Mälardalen University.
    Karltorp, Kersti
    RISE; Jönköping International Business School.
    The role of values for niche expansion: the case of solar photovoltaics on large buildings in Sweden2020In: Energy, Sustainability and Society, ISSN 2192-0567, Vol. 10, no 7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Solar photovoltaic (PV) plants can contribute to the transformation of the electricity system in Sweden not only by adding capacity, but also by forming new decentralized ownership structures and involving new actors. This article focuses on solar PV plants on larger buildings, which represent a significant share of the installed capacity (although the total capacity is still very low in Sweden) and which have a good future potential. We are interested in the reasons owners of large buildings have for investing in solar PV plants, despite the fact that they face a complex regulatory situation. The aim of this paper is, therefore, to identify added values from solar PV plants for large buildings and to see how these values contribute to the ongoing expansion of the solar PV niche in Sweden. We use sustainability transitions as the theoretical point of departure and focus particularly on the role of values in an expanding niche. Data was collected via 15 semi-structured interviews, mainly with large building owners. It provides an interesting empirical case of the pioneers within the actor group of large building owners who potentially can play an important role in the expansion of solar PV technology in Sweden. Theoretically, the article contributes to the sustainable transition research field by demonstrating how values are developed and affect the niche-regime interplay.

    Results

    The findings demonstrate that owning a solar PV plant adds values such as sustainability, fair cost, and induced innovativeness. These values have an effect on niche expansion by contributing for example to the development of a social network, new role development, positive niche narrative, and niche empowerment.

    Conclusions

    We conclude that the broad set of values added by solar PV plants on large buildings increases the desire and enhances the positive experience to take on a new role development. Furthermore, we conclude that added values contribute to developing a social identity which is important when expanding the social network around the niche. Finally, we conclude that added values shape the positive niche narrative among niche advocates and give direction for policy development related to the niche.

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  • 17300.
    Warström, Jennie
    Dalarna University, School of Education and Humanities, Swedish as Second Language.
    Barn utan språk?: En kvalitativ studie om pedagogers språkutvecklande arbete i förskolan och hur det synliggörs2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Undersökningens syfte var att ta reda på hur pedagoger arbetar för att stödja barns andraspråksutveckling på en förskola. Mina frågeställningar var: Hur säger pedagogerna att de planerar för ett språkutvecklande arbete med flerspråkiga barn? Hur syns (synliggörs) möjligheter/begränsningar till språkutveckling i verksamheten? Hur arbetar pedagogerna med barn som ännu inte har uppnått jämförbar nivå i svenska som sina enspråkigt svenska kamrater?

    Jag genomförde två kvalitativa intervjuer med två pedagoger på den aktuella avdelningen samt åtta observationer i språkutvecklande situationer. Dessa situationer var samling, matsituationer, högläsning, valstund samt fri lek. Intervjuer samt observationer skedde under två dagar. Tekniken som jag använt mig av är inspelning med hjälp av diktafon och anteckningar.

    Resultatet visade att pedagogerna arbetar språkutvecklande främst i form av sånger samt högläsning. De uppmärksammar barnens kultur med hjälp av en världskarta samt bilder på flaggor där barnen kommer ifrån. Resultatet visar även att de ej uppmärksammar barnens kultur i den utsträckning de säger sig vilja vilket ses som en begränsning.

    Resultatet av observationerna visar att pedagogerna arbetar språkutvecklande med sånger samt högläsning och genom samtal med barnen. Samtalen vid matsituationer visade sig innehålla stora möjligheter till språkutveckling, medan möjligheterna till språkutveckling vid högläsningen visade sig bristfällig. Vid högläsningen skedde samtalet kring boken främst under själva läsningen, dock inget före eller efter läsningen, vilket ses som en begränsning till språkutveckling.

    Resultatet visade även att barnen i leken ofta lämnas ensamma i ett rum utan pedagog närvarande, och därigenom missar pedagogerna språkutvecklande tillfällen. Vid några tillfällen fanns pedagog närvarande i rummet utan att uppmärksamma barnens chans till språkutveckling. Vid samlingarna fanns möjligheter till språkutveckling som pedagogerna uppmärksammade, dock bestod mycket av tiden av tillsägelser till barnen att vara tysta eller sitta stilla, vilket kan inverka hämmande på möjligheter till språkutveckling.

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