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  • 17501.
    Östberg, Elisabeth
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, History.
    Könsnormer i hemkunskapen genom tiderna: En litteraturstudie om elevernas fostran utifrån ett genusperspektiv2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 17502.
    Östberg, Emma
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work.
    Hedin, Emelie
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work.
    Trygghetens betydelse för barns utveckling i förskolan2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med den här studien är att undersöka på vilket sätt förskollärare anser att trygghet och anknytning har en påverkan på barns utveckling utifrån deras erfarenheter, hur förskollärarna arbetar med trygghet i verksamheten, hur de skapar en trygg miljö för barnen och hur förskollärarna tolkar begreppen trygghet och anknytning. I dagens samhälle är barngrupperna stora och personaltätheten låg vilket utmanar verksamheten i hur barnen ska få en så trygg miljö som möjligt när de vistas i förskolan. Metoden som använts i den här studien är kvalitativ intervju och vi valde att intervjua fyra förskollärare. Det resultat vi fick fram var att trygghet och anknytning har en betydelse för barns utveckling. En slutsats från intervjuerna är att förskollärarna anser att tryggheten är av stor vikt för barnen på förskolan för att de ska kunna utforska och lära genom de aktiviteter som erbjuds. Pedagogens roll i detta blir då viktig i arbetet med att skapa trygghet för barnen.

  • 17503.
    Östberg, Joakim
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Graphic Arts Technology.
    Reklam i dagstidningar på surfplattor2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The recent decline in newspaper circulation requires newspaper publishers to shift their focus in the future. There are several reasons that there are less printed newspapers, since the 90's news on the Internet have increased, newspapers have become better at using the Internet as a news source and more sources have emerged. In recent years, the tablet has become common property, and many owners of these like to read their news on these devices. It requires that advertising can be adapted to tablets and accepted by readers at a higher rate if a transition from print to digital newspapers is to be possible. To make the advertising more accepted, it can be made more relevant to the reader by means of targeted advertising, and more informative through interactivity. If the readers welcomes advertisements and read them, ad buyers will want to advertise in the newspaper at a higher rate. Primarily, the paper magazine needs to develop to pay for their digital initiatives.

  • 17504.
    Östberg, Karin
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Ståhle, Hanna
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Omvårdnadsåtgärder vid sarkopeni: En litteraturöversikt2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Att beskriva omvårdnadsåtgärder som kan användas för äldre personer som har eller riskerar att utveckla sarkopeni. Metod: Studien genomfördes som en litteraturöversikt där artiklarna söktes i databaserna PubMed och Cinahl. Resultat: Åtgärderna som framgick av resultatet var att främja: fysisk aktivitet, kost och näringstillförsel och kombinationen fysisk aktivitet och näringstillförsel. Genom fysisk aktivitet och en god näringstillförsel kunde äldre med sarkopeni eller risk för sarkopeni förbättra fysiska funktioner och muskelstyrka. Slutsats: . En god nutrition med tillräckligt innehåll av protein är nödvändiga åtgärder vid sarkopeni. Äldre personer med sarkopeni fick god effekt av att börja träna trots att de redan vara nedsatta funktionsmässigt. Därför kan sjuksköterskan i mötet med patienten uppmuntra och informera om viktiga livsstilsförändringar som kan förebygga och förbättra de funktionsnedsättningar som sarkopeni innebär.

  • 17505.
    Östberg Lopes, Pernilla
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work.
    Gymnasieskolans språkintroduktionsprogram förnyanlända elever: En kvalitativ fallstudie om nyanländas förutsättningar till vidareutbildning2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studien undersöker i vilken utsträckning och på vilket sätt gymnasieskolans språkintroduktionsprogram

    i en kommun i Mellansverige lever upp till vad som anges i skollagen gällande

    undervisning på modersmål, studiehandledning och ämnesundervisning. Det undersöks även i

    hur stor utsträckning eleverna kommer vidare till gymnasiet efter avslutad utbildning på

    språkintroduktionen samt om de berörda lärarna upplever att eleverna får de förutsättningarna

    som krävs för att gå vidare till gymnasiet. Resultaten i den här kvalitativa fallstudien visar att

    det fortfarande finns mycket som behöver göras i den undersökta organisationen om fler elever

    ska lyckas komma vidare till gymnasieutbildningar än i dagsläget. Men det är inte bara

    den undersökta organisationen som har dessa problem och både Skolverket (2016b) och regeringen

    är medvetna om att verksamheten behöver förbättras (Holmqvist, 2016).

  • 17506.
    Östberg Lopes, Pernilla
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Swedish as Second Language.
    Svenska som andraspråk: En studie av vuxna italienska andraspråksinlärares språknivå2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 17507.
    Östberg, Pär
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    Användbarhetstest i samband med utveckling av webbplats2003Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Varje år lägger företag ner hundratusentals kronor för egna webbplatser. När programmerare och ledning är nöjda med utseende och funktionalitet sätts webbplatsen i bruk. Det är ofta först nu som företaget får in respons på om webbplatsen från användarna. I vissa fall blir detta en katastrof eftersom fel produkt erbjuds till användaren eller att användaren inte förstår hur han ska använda produkten. För att förhindra detta problem på bästa möjliga sätt används användbarhetstest för att utreda vad användaren av det blivande systemet vill ha innan systemet distribueras. Målet med examensarbetet är att konstruera en webbplats avsedd för den kommande utbildningen Creative business management. Syftet är därefter att visa hur användbarhetstest på bästa möjliga sätt bör användas i samband med utvecklingsarbetet av webbplatser. Utvecklingsarbetet sker med hjälp av en anpassad version av Siegels utvecklingsmodell. För att utföra användbarhetstest används sedan Molich modell för användbarhetstest. Arbetet visar vidare att användbarhetstest bör användas kontinuerligt under hela utvecklingsarbetet för att inte riskera att arbetet glider iväg åt fel riktning. Det krävs endast fem testdeltagare för att finna 80 % av de möjliga användbarhetsproblemen på en webbplats. Det optimala är att använda fem testdeltagare i flera etapper i samband med olika versioner och uppgraderingar av webbplatsen för att kvalitetssäkra arbetet.

  • 17508.
    Östberg, Viveca
    Stockholms universitet.
    Bam i klassrum. Kamratstatus, statusfordelning och psykiskt välbefinnande1999In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 36, no 2, p. 36-62Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study focuses on social relations in school classes and their importance for mental well-being in middle childhood. The aspect of social relations under study is the status relations in the school class and both the individual’s own status position and the status distribution of the school class as a whole was considered. The number of children analysed was 13,932 and the number of school classes 524. The results show a clear association at individual level: the higher the status position the more uncommon is malaise. This is true both when malaise is reported by the teacher and by a parent, for both boys and girls and irrespective of the number of friends. The association was also generally present within school. It exists regardless of grade, type of school and class size. Furthermore, a minority of the classes did not contain any outsiders and here malaise was less common in all status positions. Consequently, that some children are put outside the group indicates problematic conditions for the persons in question but also for the other group members.

  • 17509.
    Östberg, Viveca
    et al.
    Stockholm University.
    Brolin Låftman, Sara
    Stockholm University.
    Girls with highly educated parents have less somatic complaints2017In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 54, no 4, p. 335-339Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, as in Western countries generally, somatic complaints are common in adolescents. These complaints are clearly connected with gender while the evidence of socioeconomic inequalities is less conclusive. The aim of this study is to analyse the combined relevance of gender and parental education for adolescents’ somatic complaints, using national data with direct information from adolescents and their parents (n=7,393). Among girls, but not among boys, a graded association was found demonstrating less somatic complaints with higher parental education. Stress and coping are discussed as potentially important mechanisms.

  • 17510.
    Östensson, Erika
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Mathematics Education.
    Begreppsförståelse i matematikundervisningen: En studie om hur matematikundervisning bidrar till att främja andraspråkselevers begreppsförståelse i årskurs tre2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Antalet andraspråkselever har ökat i den svenska skolan och många av dessa elever har inte utvecklat tillräckliga kunskaper för att nå matematisk begreppsförståelse. Syftet med denna studie är att från ett lärarperspektiv undersöka på vilka kommunikationssätt matematikundervisningen bidrar till att främja andraspråkselevers begreppsförståelse. För att kunna besvara arbetets syfte och frågeställningar har en empirisk studie gjorts genom observationer i en årskurs tre och intervju med en matematiklärare. Materialet som insamlats har analyserats utifrån bland annat Prediger et al. (2012) tre grundidéer om språkväxling i matematikundervisning. Resultatet visade att kommunikationssättet i en matematikundervisning är viktigt för att främja andraspråkselevers begreppsförståelse i matematik. Vidare visade resultatet att en språkväxling mellan elevernas första– och andraspråk till en viss del kan vara fördelaktigt. Dessutom visade resultatet att det är gynnsamt att växla mellan skolspråk och vardagsspråk i matematikundervisningen. Resultatet visade även att det är bra att använda sig av olika matematiska representationer för att underlätta för andraspråkselever i matematikundervisningen. De slutsatser som dragits utifrån studiens resultat är att kommunikationen i matematikundervisningen är av stor vikt för andraspråkselevers utveckling i matematik.

  • 17511.
    Österberg, Magnus
    Dalarna University, School of Education and Humanities, History.
    Kyrkorum och status: En studie om bänkplacering i 1700-talets Falun2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie har som syfte att undersöka bänkrummets betydelse för vidmakthållandet av hierarkier och status i 1700-talets Falun. Materialet som används för att uppfylla detta syfte består främst av kyrkorådsprotokoll ifrån Kristine församling i Falun mellan 1744-1784. Utöver dessa kyrkorådsprotokoll används stundtals biografier för att kunna ge en djupare bild av vissa individer. Resultatet visar att det under den undersökta perioden råder en strikt uppdelning av kyrko-rummet. Det mest uppenbara är uppdelningen mellan kvinnor och män. Uppdelningen av kyr-korummet följer emellertid inte bara könstillhörighet utan även ett mönster för över- och un-derordning. Inflytelserika personer satt långt fram i kyrkan och detta gällde både på manssi-dan som kvinnosidan i kyrkan. Ju längre bak i kyrkan man satt desto lägre social status hade man. Att sitta utmed en vägg verkar inte heller ha varit förknippat med hög status i Falun. Bänkplaceringen i kyrkan blev ett sätt att upprätthålla skillnad mellan människor, dock inte helt utan utmaningar och undantag.

  • 17512.
    Österberg, Robin
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Swedish as Second Language.
    Svenska som andraspråk, i skolan och i livet: Några elevers upplevelse av SVA-undervisning och dess framtidseffekt2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Effectiveness of second language education in Sweden has been debated in the media and among lawmakers as well as within several fields of research, but few of the participants have had opportunity to comment on the matter. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine and clarify the views of some Swedish second language learners on how the educational system is meeting curriculum goals regarding possibilities to take part in work and community settings. Five learners of Swedish as a second language underwent a semi-structured interview, while five other second language learners participated in a survey on the same topic. The collected materials are then grouped and presented by theme and discussed. The results suggest that while second language learners of Swedish appreciate the opportunity to take part in the education because it gave them a way into other school subjects, they also feel that the course organization and content has not been the springboard into social and career settings prescribed in the syllabus.

  • 17513.
    Österberg, Sofie
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Sundström, Elisabeth
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Ungdomars kunskap om och attityder till HIV/AIDS samt deras sexuella beteende: en systematisk litteraturstudie2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna systematiska litteraturstudie var att ur ett globalt perspektiv undersöka ungdomars kunskaper om HIV/AIDS och vilka faktorer som påverkar kunskapsnivån. Syftet var vidare att ur ett globalt perspektiv undersöka ungdomars attityder till HIV/AIDS samt deras sexuella beteende. Sökning av artiklar har skett via databaserna Blackwell Synergy, ELIN@dalarna samt EBSCO Host. Övrig litteratur söktes manuellt på Internet och bibliotek. Inklusionkriterier var att artiklarna skulle vara publicerade mellan år 2000-2006, ha ett vetenskapligt värde, vara skrivna på det svenska eller engelska språket samt vara primärstudier. Vidare skulle deltagarna i artiklarna utgöras av ungdomar mellan 13-25 år. För att bedöma artiklarnas kvalitet användes två granskningsmallar en för kvalitativa artiklar och en för kvantitativa artiklar. Studiens resultat visade att kunskapsnivån bland ungdomar såg olika ut beroende av kön, ålder, sexuell erfarenhet, antal partners, kultur, ekonomiska förutsättningar, föräldrarnas utbildningsnivå samt boende i tätort eller på landsbygd. Ungdomarna uttryckte en rädsla för att smittas av HIV men ansåg sig inte vara i riskzonen för att smittas. Informationskällor om HIV/AIDS utgjordes främst av media och undervisning i skolan. Åldern för ungdomarnas sexuella debut varierade. Resultatet visade även att ett flertal sexpartners var vanligt förekommande och att kondom sällan användes som skydd vid samlag.

  • 17514.
    Östergaard, Amelie
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work.
    En förståelse för begreppet hållbar utveckling2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I skollagen står ingenting om hållbar utveckling eller undervisning för hållbar utveckling.Däremot står det klart och tydligt i läroplanen för grundskolan, förskoleklassen ochfritidshemmet 2011 (Lgr11) att eleverna ska få kunskaper om vad som behövs för att skapa engod miljö och en hållbar utveckling (Skolverket, 2011 s. 14). Vidare finns det i kursplanerna förde samhällsorienterade ämnena att alla elever efter årskurs tre, ska besitta kunskaper om hur manskapar en god miljö och en hållbar utveckling (Skolverket, 2011 s. 204). Ingenstans står det dockvad en god miljö är och vad en hållbar utveckling innebär. Det är i den här otydligheten som dethär arbetet har vuxit fram och syftet är att ta reda på vad forskare säger om begreppet samt hurdet har förändrats och förändrat skolan. Det visade sig dock att begreppet är väldigtsvårdefinierat och av denna anledning går det heller inte att slå fast vid en definition eller ett rättsätt. Målet har istället varit att se på förändringar i styrdokument och skapa en struktur av alla deutsagor om hållbar utveckling som forskare har bidragit med.

  • 17515.
    Österholm, Sara
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Religious Studies.
    Coaching i vineyardrörelsen: Att ställa de rätta frågorna2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna uppsats är att analysera boken

    Coaching church planters – A manual for church planters and those who coach them för att reda ut vad coaching inom vineyardrörelsen syftar till och består av samt på sättet denna liknar eller skiljer sig från coaching i andra sammanhang.

    Genom undersökningen verkade syftet med coaching inom vineyardrörelsen vara att dels lokalisera nya kyrkoplanterare och dels se till att de lyckades med att plantera nya kyrkor. Metoderna som rörelsen använder sig av, det vill säga vad coachingen består av, var svårare att urskilja men verkade bottna i en serie frågor vilka är tänka sätta igång diverse tankeprocesser hos de som coachas.

    Flera likheter med coaching i andra sammanhang gick att urskilja samtidigt som skillnaden bestod i referenser och rättfärdigande med hjälp av religion samt ett nedvärderande av andra yrkesgrupper och dess metoder, som andra typer av coacher inte verkar ägna sig åt.

  • 17516.
    Österlind, Eva
    Dalarna University, School of Education and Humanities, Educational Work.
    Elevers förhållningssätt till läxor: en uppföljningsstudie2001Report (Other academic)
  • 17517.
    Österlund Efraimsson, Eva
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Communication in Smoking Cessation and Self-management: a study at Nurse-led COPD-clinics in Primary Health Care2010Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    ABSTRACT The general aim of this thesis was to investigate behavioral change communication at nurse-led chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) clinics in primary health care, focusing on communication in self-management and smoking cessation for patients with COPD. Designs: Observational, prospective observational and experimental designs were used. Methods: To explore and describe the structure and content of self-management education and smoking cessation communication, consultations between patients (n=30) and nurses (n=7) were videotaped and analyzed with three instruments: Consulting Map (CM), the Motivational Interviewing Treatment Integrity (MITI) scale and the Client Language Assessment in Motivational Interviewing (CLAMI). To examine the effects of structured self-management education, patients with COPD (n=52) were randomized in an intervention and a control group. Patients’ quality of life (QoL), knowledge about COPD and smoking cessation were examined with a questionnaire on knowledge about COPD and smoking habits and with St. George’s Respiratory Questionnaire, addressing QoL. Results: The findings from the videotaped consultations showed that communication about the reasons for consultation mainly concerned medical and physical problems and (to a certain extent) patients´ perceptions. Two consultations ended with shared understanding, but none of the patients received an individual treatment-plan. In the smoking cessation communication the nurses did only to a small extent evoke patients’ reasons for change, fostered collaboration and supported patients’ autonomy. The nurses provided a lot of information (42%), asked closed (21%) rather than open questions (3%), made simpler (14%) rather than complex (2%) reflections and used MI non-adherent (16%) rather than MI-adherent (5%) behavior. Most of the patients’ utterances in the communication were neutral either toward or away from smoking cessation (59%), utterances about reason (desire, ability and need) were 40%, taking steps 1% and commitment to stop smoking 0%. The number of patients who stopped smoking, and patients’ knowledge about the disease and their QoL, was increased by structured self-management education and smoking cessation in collaboration between the patient, nurse and physician and, when necessary, a physiotherapist, a dietician, an occupational therapist and/or a medical social worker. Conclusion The communication at nurse-led COPD clinics rarely involved the patients in shared understanding and responsibility and concerned patients’ fears, worries and problems only to a limited extent. The results also showed that nurses had difficulties in attaining proficiency in behavioral change communication. Structured self-management education showed positive effects on patients’ perceived QoL, on the number of patients who quit smoking and on patients’ knowledge about COPD.

  • 17518.
    Österlund Efraimsson, Eva
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Kan egenvårdsutbildning ge kunskaper som leder till ökad livskvalitet och att fler patienter slutar röka?: En jämförelse av två olika omhändertagandenav KOL patienter i primärvården. En kvasiexperimentell studie2005Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien var att jämföra livskvalitet, kunskap om KOL och antal patienter som inlett ett rökstopp där en grupp erhöll standard vård och en annan grupp förutom standard vård även fick ett strukturerat omhändertagande på en distriktssköterskeledd KOL- mottagning med undervisning i egenvård. Studien genomfördes med kvasiexperimentell design. Urvalet var 52 patienter från primärvården med diagnosen KOL. Patienterna matchades utifrån kön, sjukdomens svårighetsgrad och slumpades sen till två grupper, en interventionsgrupp och en jämförandegrupp. Jämförandegruppen erhöll standardvård medan interventionsgruppen utöver standardvård erhöll två utbildningsbesök i egenvård hos astma KOL-sjuksköterskan på en vårdcentral i mellansverige. Som datainsamlingsmetod har två enkäter använts. En enkät som innehöll frågor om kön, ålder, civilstånd, utbildning, upplevd kunskap om KOL och rökstatus samt en enkät som hade till syfte att ge information om hur andningsbesvären påverkar patientens livskvalitet. Båda grupperna har svarat på enkäterna vid två tillfällen, vid det första besöket och vid det sista besöket efter tre månader. Interventionsgruppen har däremellan fått två utbildningsbesök. Resultaten visade statistiskt säkerställda skillnader mellan grupperna gällande livskvalitet, rökstopp och kunskaper om KOL. Interventionsgruppen hade fått minskade andningsbesvär, hade ökat sin fysiska aktivitet och fått en bättre psykosocial hälsa. Medan jämförande gruppen hade försämrats något i alla dessa avseenden. I interventionsgruppen hade sex av sexton rökande patienter slutat att röka, medan ingen hade slutat av de fjorton rökande patienterna i jämförandegruppen. Patienterna i interventions- gruppen hade också väsentligen större kunskaper om sin sjukdom jämfört med patienterna i jämförandegruppen.

  • 17519.
    Österlund Efraimsson, Eva
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Motiverande samtal2013In: Patientundervisning / [ed] Birgitta Klang Söderkvist, Stockholm: Studentlitteratur, 2013, 3, p. 209-228Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 17520.
    Österlund Efraimsson, Eva
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Bettembourg Grundström, Aina
    Andersson, Katrin
    Göthman, Birgitta
    Experiences of lung-cancer care : Perspectives of patients and significant others: An empirical, qualitative study2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 17521.
    Österlund Efraimsson, Eva
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Drevenhorn, Eva
    Göteborgs universitet, Institutionen för vårdvetenskap och hälsa, University of Gothenburg, Institute of Health and Care Sciences.
    Primärvårdens mottagningar2013In: Omvårdnad i primärvården / [ed] Christina Bökberg, Stockholm: Studentlitteratur, 2013, p. 126-144Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 17522.
    Österlund Efraimsson, Eva
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Ehrenberg, Anna
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Communication and self-management education at nurse-led COPD clinics in primary health care2010In: European Association for Communication in Health Care, Verona, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The general aim of this thesis was to investigate behavioral change communication at nurse-led chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) clinics in primary health care, focusing on communication in self-management and smoking cessation for patients with COPD. Designs: Observational, prospective observational and experimental designs were used. Methods: To explore and describe the structure and content of self-management education and smoking cessation communication, consultations between patients (n=30) and nurses (n=7) were videotaped and analyzed with three instruments: Consulting Map (CM), the Motivational Interviewing Treatment Integrity (MITI) scale and the Client Language Assessment in Motivational Interviewing (CLAMI). To examine the effects of structured self-management education, patients with COPD (n=52) were randomized in an intervention and a control group. Patients’ quality of life (QoL), knowledge about COPD and smoking cessation were examined with a questionnaire on knowledge about COPD and smoking habits and with St. George’s Respiratory Questionnaire, addressing QoL. Results: The findings from the videotaped consultations showed that communication about the reasons for consultation mainly concerned medical and physical problems and (to a certain extent) patients´ perceptions. Two consultations ended with shared understanding, but none of the patients received an individual treatment-plan. In the smoking cessation communication the nurses did only to a small extent evoke patients’ reasons for change, fostered collaboration and supported patients’ autonomy. The nurses provided a lot of information (42%), asked closed (21%) rather than open questions (3%), made simpler (14%) rather than complex (2%) reflections and used MI non-adherent (16%) rather than MI-adherent (5%) behavior. Most of the patients’ utterances in the communication were neutral either toward or away from smoking cessation (59%), utterances about reason (desire, ability and need) were 40%, taking steps 1% and commitment to stop smoking 0%. The number of patients who stopped smoking, and patients’ knowledge about the disease and their QoL, was increased by structured self-management education and smoking cessation in collaboration between the patient, nurse and physician and, when necessary, a physiotherapist, a dietician, an occupational therapist and/or a medical social worker. Conclusion The communication at nurse-led COPD clinics rarely involved the patients in shared understanding and responsibility and concerned patients’ fears, worries and problems only to a limited extent. The results also showed that nurses had difficulties in attaining proficiency in behavioral change communication. Structured self-management education showed positive effects on patients’ perceived QoL, on the number of patients who quit smoking and on patients’ knowledge about COPD.

  • 17523.
    Österlund Efraimsson, Eva
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Ehrenberg, Anna
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Fossum, Björn
    Department of Clinical Science and Education, Södersjukhuset, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm; Sophiahemmet University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Larsson, Kjell
    National Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Klang, Birgitta
    Division of Nursing, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Red Cross University College of Nursing, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Olai, Lena
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Nurses’ and patients’ communication in smoking cessation at nurse-led COPD clinics in primary health care2015In: European Clinical Respiratory Journal, ISSN 1399-3003, Vol. 2, article id 27915Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Smokers with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have high nicotine dependence making it difficult to quit smoking. Motivational interviewing (MI) is a method that is used in stimulating motivation and behavioral changes.

    Objective: To describe smoking cessation communication between patients and registered nurses trained in MI in COPD nurse-led clinics in Swedish primary health care.

    Methods: A prospective observational study with structured quantitative content analyses of the communication between six nurses with basic education in MI and 13 patients in non-smoking consultations.

    Results: Only to a small extent did nurses’ evoke patients’ reasons for change, stimulate collaboration, and support patients’ autonomy. Nurses provided information, asked closed questions, and made simple reflections. Patients’ communicationwasmainly neutral and focusing on reasons for and against smoking. It was uncommon for patients to be committed and take steps toward smoking cessation.

    Conclusion: The nurses did not adhere to the principles of MI in smoking cessation, and the patients focused to a limited extent on how to quit smoking.

    Practice implications: To make patients more active, the nurses need more education and continuous training in motivational communication.

  • 17524.
    Österlund Efraimsson, Eva
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Ehrenberg, Anna
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Fossum, Bjöörn
    Larsson, Kjell
    Klang, Birgitta
    Nurses’ and patients’ communication in smoking cessation at nurse-led COPD clinics in primary health care2011In: International Primary Care respiratory Group (IPCRG), Amsterdam, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: To examine smoking cessation communication between patients and registered nurses, with a few days of Motivational Interviewing (MI) based education, in consultations over time at nurse-led Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) clinics in primary health care (PHC). Method: The first and third of three consultations were videotaped, involving 13 smokers and six nurses. In these consultations smoking cessation communication was analyzed using the Motivational Interviewing Treatment Integrity (MITI) Scale and Client Language Assessment in Motivational Interviewing (CLAMI). Results: The nurses did, but only to a small extent, evoke patients’ reasons forchange, foster collaboration and support patients’ autonomy. In the registration of specific utterances; they provided a lot of information (42%), asked closed (21%) rather than open questions (3%) and made more simple (14%) than complex (2%) reflections. Most of the registration of the patients’ utterances in the communication were either toward or away from smoking cessation coded in the category Follow/Neutral (59%), followed by utterances in the categories of Reason for change 40%, Taking steps 1% and Commitment 0%. No significant differences could be observed in the results of MITI and CLAMI between the first and third consultations. Conclusion: Smoking cessation communication at nurse-led COPD clinics neither focused on the patients’ reasons for or against smoking nor motivated patients to express commitment to, or take steps towards, smoking cessation

  • 17525.
    Österlund Efraimsson, Eva
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Ehrenberg, Anna
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Fossum, Bjöörn
    Larsson, Kjell
    Klang, Birgitta
    Nurses’ and patients’ communication in smoking cessation at nurse-led COPD clinics in primary health care2011In: European Respiratory Society (ERS), Amsterdam, 2011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To explore smoking cessation communication between patients and registered nurses in consultations over time at nurse-led Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) clinics in primary health care. Method: The first and third of three consultations were videotaped, involving 13 smokers and six nurses with a few days of Motivational Interviewing (MI) based education. In these consultations smoking cessation communication was analyzed using the Motivational Interviewing Treatment Integrity Scale (MITI) and Client Language Assessment in Motivational Interviewing (CLAMI). Results: The nurses did only to a small extent evoke patients’ reasons for change, foster collaboration and support patients’ autonomy. Nurses provided a lot of information (42%), asked closed (21%) rather than open (3%) questions and made more simple (14%) than complex (2%) reflections. Patients communication were mainly Follow/Neutral (59%), Reasons for and against smoking 40%, least common were Taking steps (1%) and Commitment (0%) toward smoking cessation. Conclusion: The nurses did not use professional smoking cessation communication and the patients did not talk about how to quit smoking. Practice Implications: To make the patients more active in their smoking cessation process at nurse-led COPD clinics in primary health care the nurses need continuous education and training in smoking cessation communication.

  • 17526.
    Österlund Efraimsson, Eva
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Ehrenberg, Anna
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Klang, Birgitta
    Fossum, Bjöörn
    Support in smoking cessation at nurse-led Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary disease clinics2010In: European Respiratory Society, Barcelona, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: To describe to what extent registered nurses use Motivational Interviewing (MI) in smoking cessation communication over time at nurse-led chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) clinics in primary health care. Background: For smokers with COPD the most crucial and evidence-based intervention is smoking cessation. Method and Results: The study included two videotaped consultations, the first and third of three at the clinic, with each of 13 smokers. The nurses’ smoking cessation communication was analyzed using the Motivational Interviewing Treatment Integrity scale, a behavioral coding system that assesses the practitioners’ use of motivational interviewing. Nurses and patients talked for equal amounts of time in one third of the 26 consultations, whilst nurses talked for longer in the remaining two thirds. To capture an impression of the consultation, five parameters were judged on a five-point Likert-scale, with five as the top score. Evocation, collaboration, autonomy-support and empathy averaged between 1.31 and 2.23 whereas direction scored five in all consultations. Of communication behaviors, giving information was the most frequently used, followed by closed questions, MI non–adherent and simple reflections. MI Adherent, open questions and complex reflections occurred rarely. There were no significant individual or group-level differences in any of the ratings between the first and the third consultations. Conclusion: In smoking cessation communication the nurses had low scores on evocation, collaboration, autonomy-support, empathy and high scores on direction. They also supplied large amounts of information, posed closed questions and made simple reflections. Open questions and complex reflections occurred rarely.

  • 17527.
    Österlund Efraimsson, Eva
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Fossum, Bjöörn
    Ehrenberg, Anna
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Larsson, Kjell
    Klang, Birgitta
    Support in smoking cessation at nurse-led Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease clinics2010In: 5th International Primary Care Respiratory Group World Conference, Toronto, Kanada, 2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 17528.
    Österlund Efraimsson, Eva
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Fossum, Bjöörn
    Ehrenberg, Anna
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Larsson, Kjell
    Klang, Birgitta
    Use of motivational interviewing in smoking cessation at nurse-led chronic obstructive pulmonary disease clinics2012In: Journal of Advanced Nursing, ISSN 0309-2402, E-ISSN 1365-2648, Vol. 68, no 4, p. 767-782Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim. This paper is a report of a study to describe to what extent Registered Nurses, with a few days of education in motivational interviewing based communication, used motivational interviewing in smoking cessation communication at nurse-led chronic obstructive pulmonary disease clinics in primary health care.

    Background. For smokers with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease the most crucial and evidence-based intervention is smoking cessation. Motivational interviewing is often used in healthcare to support patients to quit smoking.

    Method. The study included two videotaped consultations, the first and third of three at the clinic, with each of 13 smokers. Data were collected from March 2006 to April 2007. The nurses’ smoking cessation communication was analysed using the Motivational Interviewing Treatment Integrity scale. To get an impression of the consultation, five parameters were judged on a five-point Likert-scale, with five indicating best adherence to Motivational Interviewing.

    Results. Evocation’, ‘collaboration’, ‘autonomy-support’ and ‘empathy’ averaged between 1·31 and 2·23 whereas ‘direction’ scored five in all consultations. Of communication behaviours, giving information was the most frequently used, followed by ‘closed questions’, ‘motivational interviewing non–adherent’ and ‘simple reflections’. ‘Motivational interviewing adherent’, ‘open questions’ and ‘complex reflections’ occurred rarely. There were no important individual or group-level differences in any of the ratings between the first and the third consultations.

    Conclusion. In smoking cessation communication the nurses did not employ behaviours that are important in motivational interviewing.

  • 17529.
    Österlund Efraimsson, Eva
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Fossum, Bjöörn
    Ehrenberg, Anna
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Larsson, Kjell
    Klang Söderkvist, Birgitta
    Nurses’ and patients’ communication in smoking cessation at nurse-led COPD clinics inprimary health care2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 17530.
    Österlund Efraimsson, Eva
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Fossum, Bjöörn
    Ehrenberg, Anna
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Larsson, Kjell
    Klang Söderkvist, Birgitta
    Use of Motivational Interviewing in smoking cessation at nurse-led Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease clinics2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 17531.
    Österlund Efraimsson, Eva
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Fossum, Bjöörn
    Larsson, Kjell
    Ehrenberg, Anna
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Klang, Birgitta
    The content and structure of self management education at nurse-led COPD clinics in primary health care2008In: European Respiratory Society Annual Congress, Berlin, Tyskland, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 17532.
    Österlund Efraimsson, Eva
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Hillervik, Charlotte
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Ehrenberg, Anna
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Effects of COPD self-care management education at a nurse-led primary health care clinic2007In: European Respiratory Society, ERS, Stockholm, 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 17533.
    Österlund Efraimsson, Eva
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Klang, Birgitta
    Larsson, Kjell
    Ehrenberg, Anna
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Fossum, Bjöörn
    Communication and self-management education at nurse-led COPD clinics in primary health care2009In: Patient Education and Counseling, ISSN 0738-3991, E-ISSN 1873-5134, Vol. 77, no 2, p. 209-217Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective. The aim of the study was to explore the structure, content in communication and self-management education in patients’ first consultations at nurse-led chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) clinics in primary healthcare.

    Method. Thirty consultations performed by seven registered nurses were videotaped; structure and content in the consultation was analyzed using Pendleton's Consultation Map. Nurses’ self-management education was assessed from the content of the conversation: whether important and relevant information and self-management education was given, and how investigations were performed.

    Results. Each consultation lasted for a mean time of 37.53 min. Communication about reasons for consultations concerned mainly medical and physical problems and to a certain extent patients’ perceptions. Teaching about self-management and smoking cessation was of an informative nature. Two consultations ended with shared understanding, and none of the patients received an individual treatment-plan.

  • 17534.
    Österlund Efraimsson, Eva
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Olai, Lena
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Zakrisson, Ann-Britt
    Larsson, Kjell
    Inhalation treatment among persons with dementia, asthma and/or COPD: a research idea for further discussion and planning2012In: International Primary Care Respiratory Group, Edinburgh, 2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: There has been insufficient study of the care of persons with diagnosed dementia and the contemporary presence of asthma and/or Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). Inhalation treatment requires active patient participation, which is more difficult for a person who has dementia. A consequence of incorrect inhalation technique will be a lack of benefit of medicine affecting dyspnea, fatigue, sleeping problems, cognitive capability and respiratory infections such as pneumonia. Pneumonia is the most common symptom affecting health and well-being among elderly. Improved care and treatment for asthma and COPD may be of importance to these people’s health, quality of life and to community medical costs. The aim is to describe inhalation treatment among persons with dementia who also have asthma and/or COPD. The aim is also to examine the effects of training in inhalation technique and inhalation aids for nursing staff working in dementia care.

    Research questions: 

    • How is the presence of asthma and/or COPD among persons with dementia related to expected incidence? 
    • What inhalation techniques and levels of inhalation strength occur among patients with asthma, COPD and dementia? 
    • How is the quality of life for persons with dementia and asthma and/or COPD influenced by whether the nursing staff is given training in inhalation technique, inhalation aids and devices?

    Method: The project will be planned in two parts: firstly, a descriptive epidemiological mapping, scrutinizing register and journal data of the diagnoses asthma and COPD among persons with dementia: secondly, an observation of inhalation techniques and a control of inhalation strength among patients in dementia care with asthma and/or COPD. This will be carried out before and after a randomized controlled training intervention in inhalation technique and inhalation aids given to nursing staff in dementia care.

  • 17535.
    Österlund Efraimsson, Eva
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Smids, Kerstin
    Korsgren, Margaretha
    Göthman, Birgitta
    Patient’s contacts with PHC regarding specific lung-cancer symptoms the year prior to lung cancer diagnosis2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 17536.
    Österlund Efraimsson, Eva
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Ställberg, Björn
    Lisspers, Karin
    Sundh, Josefin
    Kämpe, Marit
    Jansson, Christer
    Asthma in elderly: What is the difference?2012In: European Respiratory Journal 2012: Abstracts, 22nd Annual Congress, Vienna, Austria 1–5 September 2012, European Respiratory Society , 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 17537.
    Österlund Efraimsson, Eva
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Åberg Lennmalm, Eva
    Nyberg, Annika
    COPD care and management at nurse-led COPD-clinics in Swedish primary health care: a literature review2012In: European Respiratory Journal 2012 S56: Abstracts, 22nd Annual Congress, Vienna, Austria 1–5 September 2012, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 17538.
    Österlund-Efraimsson, Eva
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Hillervik, Charlotte
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Ehrenberg, Anna
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Effects of COPD self-care management education at a nurse-led primary health care clinic2008In: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712, Vol. 22, no 2, p. 178-185Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 17539.
    Östklint, Olle
    et al.
    Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, Högskolan i Jönköping, Hållbar utveckling & naturvetenskapens didaktik.
    Johansson, Sverker
    Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, Högskolan i Jönköping, Hållbar utveckling & naturvetenskapens didaktik.
    Anderberg, Elsie
    Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, Högskolan i Jönköping, Hållbar utveckling & naturvetenskapens didaktik.
    Fysik för lärare2012 (ed. 1)Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 17540.
    Östlind, Per
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Mining and Mineral Engineering.
    Flockning och förtjockning i High-Rate-förtjockare – en jämförelse med konventionell förtjockarteknik och lamellsedimentering.2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    In the process laboratory of Metso minerals (Sala) AB, continuous tests have been made with a laboratory unit High-Rate thickener. The tests are made in order to compare three methods of thickening techniques of suspended solids. The three techniques are High-Rate thickening, conventional thickening and lamella thickening. The High-Rate and the conventional trials are based on a continuous method, while the lamella thickener is based on batch trials. Because the lamella thickener is based on batch trials and there were some optimization problems with the adding point of the flocculant at the continuous trials, it was not feasible to compare the lamella thickener with the other two thickener types. On the other hand, since the optimization problems were the same for the other two methods there was no problem comparing them. The result of the comparison between the High-Rate thickener and the conventional thickener, was, that the High-Rate thickener manages to work at a higher rise rate with a lower consumption of flocculant than the conventional thickener. Seeing to the unit area that is needed by each thickener it is apparent that the conventional thickener demands a higher unit area than the High-Rate thickener to achieve the same amount of solids in the underflow. It has also been showed that the High-Rate thickener demands a lesser quantity of flocculant at the same amount of suspended solids in the feed than the conventional thickener.

  • 17541.
    Östling, Lina
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Graphic Arts Technology.
    Grafisk profilering i tatueringsbranschen2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    En väl utformad grafisk profil kan hjälpa ett företag att skapa medvetenhet och kundlojalitet. Den grafiska profilen består bland annat av logotyp, färger, typsnitt och profil- och korrespondensmaterial som allt måste vara enhetligt utformat och anpassat efter företagets kultur, målgrupp och vision. Projektet syftar till att undersöka och beskriva hur tatuerares grafiska profil bör vara utformad för att bäst fylla sitt syfte. En enkätundersökning gjordes med målet att skapa förståelse för tatueringskundernas syn på den grafiska profilen och kompletterades med en intervju med en förtroendeingivande tatuerare som i sina åsikter fick representera tatueringsbranschen. Litteratur i ämnet grafisk profilering och grafisk design kompletterade undersökningen ytterligare. Resultaten från enkätundersökningen stämde inte helt överens med litteraturen vilket gör det svårt att ge ett exakt svar på projektets frågeställningar

  • 17542.
    Östlund, Helena
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Zettergren, Katarina
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Nyutexaminerade sjuksköterskors upplevelser av introduktion vid första anställning på en medicinklinik2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 17543.
    Östlund, Johanna
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, French.
    Abdellah Taïa et le pays de la tolérance: Une étude sur l’auteur Marocain Abdellah Taïa et ses deux oeuvres L’Armée du salut et Le Jour du Roi.2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The goal of this essay is to study how the author Abdellah Taïa portrays homosexuality and class differences in the Moroccan society in his two works L’Armée du Salut (2006) and Le Jour du Roi (2010). The method used in the essay is hermeneutics, which makes it possible to use personal interpretations of the texts for the analysis. The studied texts reveal the difficulties of living in a religious society where homosexuality is condemned as well as forbidden by law and where a person’s future is dependent on his or her social status.

  • 17544.
    Östlund, Linda
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work.
    Läsförståelseundervisning i praktiken: En kvalitativ studie av läsundervisning i svenskämnet för de lägre årskurserna2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie syftar till att undersöka hur lärare i svenskundervisningen i de lägre årskurserna anger att de arbetar med läsförståelse samt om de arbetar systematiskt med mängdträning av skönlitterära texter och i så fall hur de gör.

    För att bli en god läsare med bra läsförståelse krävs mycket övning, men tiden i skolan är begränsad. Detta gör att barn även behöver läsa utanför skoltid. Undersökningar som utförts har visat att elevers intresse för läsning på fritiden har minskat vilket ställer höga krav på undervisningen. Forskning har visat att lässtrategier, motivation och utmaning på rätt nivå är avgörande för att eleverna ska utveckla förståelse och intresse för det lästa.

    En intervjustudie ska genomföras på en F-3-skola där utvalda lärare i årskurs 1–3 får klargöra hur de säger att de arbetar och resonerar kring undervisning i läsförståelse samt om och hur de arbetar med mängdträning av skönlitterära texter. Studien genomförs med sociokulturell teori som utgångspunkt.

  • 17545.
    Östlund Rämgård, Henrik
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Diskonteringsränta vid nedskrivningsprövning av goodwill: En studie av avvikelse mellan rapporterad och teoretisk diskonteringsränta2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studien visar att en större andel av bolagen från båda länder redovisar diskonteringsränta år 2012 jämfört med år 2007. Andelen rapporterade diskonteringsräntor som faller inom ramen för en accepterad avvikelse är något högre för Sverige jämfört med Finland båda jämförelseåren. Andelen accepterade differenser halverades för båda länderna från år 2007 till 2012. År 2012 rapporterades generellt högre diskonteringsräntor än de teoretiskt beräknade vad gäller båda länderna.

  • 17546.
    Östlund, Åsa
    et al.
    Falun Cent Hosp, Neonatal Unit, Falun, Sweden.
    Nordström, Maria
    Falun Cent Hosp, Paediat Unit, Dept Paediat, Falun, Sweden.
    Dykes, Fiona
    Univ Cent Lancashire, Maternal & Infant Nutr & Nurture Unit, Preston PR1 2HE, Lancs, England.
    Flacking, Renée
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing. Univ Childrens Hosp, Dept Womens & Childrens Hlth, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Breastfeeding in preterm and term twins - maternal factors associated with early cessation: a population based study2010In: Journal of Human Lactation, ISSN 0890-3344, E-ISSN 1552-5732, Vol. 26, no 3, p. 235-241Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is an increasing trend in Australia and elsewhere for mothers to express breast milk. The purpose of this study was to explore breastfeeding women’s experiences of expressing breast milk. An anonymous online questionnaire was sent to Victorian members of the Australian Breastfeeding Association via an e-mail link. Response fraction was 903 of 3024 (29.9%). The most common reason for expressing milk was to “store extra breast milk” (57%, 479/836). The most important reason was “not enough milk”/“to make more milk” (15%, 118/771). The majority of women (65%, 666/843) used an electric breast pump, and this method of expressing was preferred by 59% (454/769) of women. Adverse effects of pumps were pain (17%, 126/737) and damage to nipples (11%, 86/737). Breast pumps may have a role in enabling women to extend the duration of breast milk feeding, but further research is needed. J Hum Lact. 26(3):258-265.

  • 17547.
    Östlund, Åsa
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Sundvik, Eva
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Myhr, Agneta
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Föräldrars delaktighet under vistelsen på neonatalavdelning.: En systematisk litteraturstudie2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie var att beskriva föräldrars erfarenhet av delaktighet i vården av sitt nyfödda barn på neonatalavdelning samt att beskriva hur sjuksköterskan hade möjlighet att främja föräldrars delaktighet. Metoden som användes var en deskriptiv litteraturstudie där 29 artiklar användes. Litteratursökningen gjordes i databaserna Blackwell Synergy, CINAHL, PubMed och Elin@dalarna. Resultatet har visat på positiva erfarenheter för föräldrar att bli delaktiga genom hud-mot-hudkontakt, amning, kommunikation med sjuksköterskan och genom olika omvårdnadsmodeller. Negativa erfarenheter av delaktighet upplevdes vid separationen när mor och barn inte fick möjlighet att bo tillsammans och att föräldrarna inte fick tillåtelse av personalen att vara med i omvårdnaden av sitt barn. Sjuksköterskan hade stort inflytande på föräldrarnas delaktighet i vården av sitt barn och det var viktigt att låta föräldrarna vara med i den praktiska omvårdnaden för att lättare hitta sin föräldraroll och skapa känslan av att det var deras barn.

  • 17548.
    Östman, Annica
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Redovisning av den kommunala pensionsskulden: Resultatredovisning med fullfonderingsmodellen2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The municipal pension liability is debated since this according to law is to be accounted for in a way that in several respects is contrary to generally accepted accounting principles by removing a large debt from the balance sheet and instead account this as a contingent liability. Some municipalities have chosen to go against the law and instead report the entire pension liability in the balance sheet. These municipalities claim that they do this in order to give a more accurate picture of the municipality's financial position. However, previous studies speculate that a transition has been made to conceal a high result. Previous studies have also shown that artificial reporting occur in municipalities and that there are links between this and the design of the balance sheet. The purpose of this study has been to gain an understanding of how the municipalities that use the full funding model reason about accounting for the pension liability. The focus of the study has been on the 3 reporting of earnings. The method used has been a qualitative method. On the other hand, municipalities ' annual reports have been studied and interviews with municipalities have been conducted. The study shows that municipalities that use the full funding model use different results when it brings out the balance requirement results. The explanations given differ depending on how the municipalities have chosen to report the results. The municipalities that follow the results of the full funding model even in the balance requirement result make this a more accurate picture, while those who use the mixed model's results in the balance requirement result also want to try to follow the law.

  • 17549. Östman, C
    et al.
    Nilsson, U
    Carlsson, H
    Andersson, Ing-Marie
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Occupational science.
    Fahlgren, L
    Polycykliska aromatiska föreningar (PAC) i arbetsmiljö I - PAC i Stockholms gatumiljö: en inledande studie1991Report (Other academic)
  • 17550. Östman, C
    et al.
    Nilsson, U
    Carlsson, H
    Andersson, Ing-Marie
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Occupational science.
    Fahlgren, L
    Polycykliska aromatiska föreningar (PAC) i arbetsmiljö III – PAC i Stockholms gatumiljö. Halter av PAH före och efter en trafikomläggning1992Report (Other academic)
348349350351352353354 17501 - 17550 of 17686
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