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  • 201. Ahman, Birgitta
    et al.
    Svensson, Kristin
    Rönnegård, Lars
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    High female mortality resulting in herd collapse in free-ranging domesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) in Sweden2014In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, no 10, article id e111509Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reindeer herding in Sweden is a form of pastoralism practised by the indigenous Sami population. The economy is mainly based on meat production. Herd size is generally regulated by harvest in order not to overuse grazing ranges and keep a productive herd. Nonetheless, herd growth and room for harvest is currently small in many areas. Negative herd growth and low harvest rate were observed in one of two herds in a reindeer herding community in Central Sweden. The herds (A and B) used the same ranges from April until the autumn gathering in October-December, but were separated on different ranges over winter. Analyses of capture-recapture for 723 adult female reindeer over five years (2007-2012) revealed high annual losses (7.1% and 18.4%, for herd A and B respectively). A continuing decline in the total reindeer number in herd B demonstrated an inability to maintain the herd size in spite of a very small harvest. An estimated breakpoint for when herd size cannot be kept stable confirmed that the observed female mortality rate in herd B represented a state of herd collapse. Lower calving success in herd B compared to A indicated differences in winter foraging conditions. However, we found only minor differences in animal body condition between the herds in autumn. We found no evidence that a lower autumn body mass generally increased the risk for a female of dying from one autumn to the next. We conclude that the prime driver of the on-going collapse of herd B is not high animal density or poor body condition. Accidents or disease seem unlikely as major causes of mortality. Predation, primarily by lynx and wolverine, appears to be the most plausible reason for the high female mortality and state of collapse in the studied reindeer herding community.

  • 202. Ahmed, Mobyen
    et al.
    Westin, Jerker
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Nyholm, Dag
    Dougherty, Mark
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Groth, Torgny
    A fuzzy rule-based decision support system for Duodopa treatment in Parkinson2006In: 23rd annual workshop of the Swedish Artificial Intelligence Society, Umeå, 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A decision support system (DSS) was implemented based on a fuzzy logic inference system (FIS) to provide assistance in dose alteration of Duodopa infusion in patients with advanced Parkinson’s disease, using data from motor state assessments and dosage. Three-tier architecture with an object oriented approach was used. The DSS has a web enabled graphical user interface that presents alerts indicating non optimal dosage and states, new recommendations, namely typical advice with typical dose and statistical measurements. One data set was used for design and tuning of the FIS and another data set was used for evaluating performance compared with actual given dose. Overall goodness-of-fit for the new patients (design data) was 0.65 and for the ongoing patients (evaluation data) 0.98. User evaluation is now ongoing. The system could work as an assistant to clinical staff for Duodopa treatment in advanced Parkinson’s disease.

  • 203.
    Ahmed, Mohamed Kheyr
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Taylor rule and monetary policy: Does the Taylor rule describe the monetary policy in Sweden?2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In 1993, economist JB Taylor (1993) observed that the monetary policy in the USA is described by a simple rule, which today is known as the Taylor rule. Since then, many studies were conducted to determine whether Taylor rule explains the monetary policy of central banks all over the world. This study aims to investigate whether the Taylor rule can describe monetary policy in Sweden as initially specified by Taylor (1993). Monetary policy in Sweden from 1995: Q1 to 2018: Q2 is compared to the monetary policy of the USA during the Greenspan years ( 1987: Q4 to 2006: Q1). An ordinary least squares regression method (OLS) is used to estimate the reaction function of the monetary policy of both Sweden and the USA. The results of this study show that the Taylor rule does no describe Monetary policy in Sweden. In contrast, the results show that the US monetary policy during the Greenspan years can be described by the Taylor rule.

  • 204.
    Ahmed, Sadeq Mohamed
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Vaziri, Kamran
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Price elasticity of demand for cigarettes: The Case of Sweden2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Due to health problems and the negative externalities associated with cigarette consumption, many governments try to discourage cigarette consumption by increasing its price through taxation. However, cigarette, like the other addictive goods, is viewed as that it is not sensitive to demand rules and the market forces. This study analyses the effect of price increase on cigarette consumption. We used Swedish time series data from 1970 to 2010.

    Our results reveal that though cigarette is addictive substance its demand is sensitive to changes in the price. Estimates from this study indicate short-run price-elasticity of -0.29 and the long run price elasticity of -0.47.

  • 205.
    Ahmed, Salim Saif Saeed
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    Identify the driving behaviour in a parking lot in terms of distance.2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Parking a vehicle can often lead to frustration, air pollution and congestion due to limited availability of parking spaces. With increasing population density this problem can certainly increase unless addressed. Parking lots occupy large areas of scarce land resource therefore it is necessary to identify the driving behaviour in a parking lot to improve it further. This Paper tries study the driving behaviour in the parking lot and for this endeavours it conducted direct observation in three parking lots and used GPS data that was collected prior to this study by the University of Dalarna.

    To evaluate the driving behaviour in the parking lot direct observation was conducted to obtain overall indices of the parking lot vehicles movement. The parking route taken by the driver was compared with the optimal path to identify the driving behaviour in parking lot in terms of distance. The collected data was evaluated, filtered and analysed to identify the route, the distance and the time the vehicle takes to find a parking space.

    The outcome of the study shows that driving behaviour in the parking lots varies significantly among the parking user where most of the observed vehicles took unnecessary long time to complete their parking. The study shows that 56% of the 430 observed vehicles demonstrated inefficient driving behaviour as they took long driving path rather the than the optimal path. The study trace this behaviour to two factors, first, the absent of parking guidance in the parking lots and the second is the selectivity of the drivers when choosing the parking space.

    The study also shows that the ability of GPS data to identify the driving behaviour in the parking lots varies based on the time interval and the type of the device that is being used. The small the time interval the more accurate the GPS data in detecting the driving behaviour in the parking lots.

  • 206.
    Ahmed, Toqeer
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Load balancing solution and evaluation of F5 content switch equipment2006Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Thesis focused on hardware based Load balancing solution of web traffic through a load balancer F5 content switch. In this project, the implemented scenario for distributing HTTPtraffic load is based on different CPU usages (processing speed) of multiple member servers. Two widely used load balancing algorithms Round Robin (RR) and Ratio model (weighted Round Robin) are implemented through F5 load balancer. For evaluating the performance of F5 content switch, some experimental tests has been taken on implemented scenarios using RR and Ratio model load balancing algorithms. The performance is examined in terms of throughput (bits/sec) and Response time of member servers in a load balancing pool. From these experiments we have observed that Ratio Model load balancing algorithm is most suitable in the environment of load balancing servers with different CPU usages as it allows assigning the weight according to CPU usage both in static and dynamic load balancing of servers.

  • 207. Ahnberg, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Lundgren, Mats
    Dalarna University, School of Education and Humanities, Education.
    Messing, Jan
    von Schantz Lundgren, Ina
    Dalarna University, School of Education and Humanities, Education.
    Följeforskning som företeelse och följeforskarrollen som konkret praktik2010In: Arbetsmarknad & Arbetsliv, ISSN 1400-9692, Vol. Nr 16, no 3, p. 55-66Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Med utgångspunkt i fyra följeforskningsprocesser, där vi själva medverkat, diskuterar vi följeforskning som företeelse och rollen som följeforskare. Vår artikel ska ses som ett empiriskt exempel i anslutning till den debatt som Göran Brulin, Karin Sjöberg och Lennart Svensson initierade genom artikeln ”Gemensam kunskapsbildning för regional tillväxt”.

  • 208.
    Ahnberg, Samuel
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work.
    Programmering i bildämnet: En fallstudie om potentialer med programmering i åk 4-62019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 209.
    Ahnberg, Samuel
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work.
    Programmering i bildämnet: En kvalitativ intervjustudie om potentialer med programmering i åk 4-62018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med den här studien är att genom en kvalitativ intervjustudie ta reda på möjligheter och svårigheter med programmering i bildämnet. De frågeställningar min studie ämnar besvara är

    Hur beskriver och förhåller sig läraren till programmering i bildämnet?, Vilka möjligheter och utmaningar ser läraren på skolan med programmering i bildundervisningen? och Hur lägger läraren upp sin undervisning? Studien behandlas utifrån dessa frågeställningar i kombination med det multimodala perspektivet och det designteoretiska perspektivet. Undersökningen visar på de intervjuade lärarnas förhållningssätt till programmering i bildämnet och exempel på hur de använder och arbetar med programmering. Resultatet visar bland annat att de intervjuade lärarna ser positivt på programmering i bildämnet men att den egna kunskapen om programmering är något som måste utvecklas för att kunna bedriva en bra undervisning.

  • 210.
    Ahnberg Åsenius, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies.
    Kostela, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies.
    Messing, Jan
    Metallindustrin i Sverige 2007-20112013Report (Other academic)
  • 211.
    Aho, Erika
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work. Karlstads universitet.
    Språkintroduktion som mellanrum: Nyanlända gymnasieelevers erfarenheter av ett introduktionsprogram2018Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här licentiatuppsatsen behandlar berättade erfarenheter av att vara elev på Språkintroduktion. Programmet är ett av fem introduktionsprogram i den svenska gymnasieskolan och tar emot nyanlända ungdomar i åldrarna 16 till 19 år. Utbildningen på Språkintroduktion har en tyngdpunkt på svenska språket samt andra ämnen som eleverna har behov av att studera. Sålunda ska undervisningen organiseras utifrån varje elevs förutsättningar och behov.

    Studien bygger på intervjuer med språkintroduktionselever. Analysen fokuserar följaktligen 22 elevers berättade erfarenheter av att vara elever på Språkintroduktion. Elevernas berättelser blir ett sätt att förstå hur deras erfarenheter av programmet flätas samman med tidigare skol- och arbetslivserfarenheter liksom med tankar om framtiden.

    I resultaten presenteras tre teman som framträder i berättelserna.  Det första temat gäller samtliga elever och behandlar erfarenheten av att inte kunna svenska. Det andra temat innefattar vissa elever och synliggör två elevidentiteter som särskilt framträder. Den första av dem handlar om att gå från att vara en högpresterande elev till att vara nybörjare och den andra om att gå från att vara en elev med kort eller ingen skolbakgrund till att äntligen vara elev. Slutligen handlar det tredje temat om hur Språkintroduktion tar form som ett mellanrum.

  • 212.
    Aho, Erika
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Institutionen för pedagogiska studier (from 2013).
    Henriksson Persson, Anna
    Karlstads universitet, Institutionen för pedagogiska studier (from 2013).
    Larsson, Maria
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work. Karlstads universitet, Institutionen för pedagogiska studier (from 2013).
    Skolnära – ett skolnära begrepp?2016In: Kapet (avslutad tryckt version), ISSN 1653-4743, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 116-134Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Skolnära kan beskrivas som ett relativt nytt begrepp inom utbildning och forskning med skolanknytning. Det förekommer ofta i sammanhang där det tycks finnas en ambition att knyta skola och forskning närmare varandra. Det kan till exempel handla om olika forskarskolor, skolforskning och skolutvecklingsprojekt. Dock finns ingen enhetlig definition av begreppet utan det används parallellt med och i vissa fall synonymt med begreppen praktiknära och praxisnära. Syftet med denna artikel är att bidra till en problematisering av begreppet skolnära med fokus på såväl innebörder som användningsområden. Utifrån studier av olika typer av texter belyses hur begreppet skolnära används inom skolforskning och i andra utbildningsvetenskapliga sammanhang idag. Begreppet skolnära ser ut att uppkomma i samband med framväxten av forskarutbildningsämnet pedagogiskt arbete men återfinns idag även inom andra forskarutbildningsämnen. Till exempel kan en ”skolnära avhandling” vara skriven inom pedagogik eller något ämnesdidaktiskt ämne. Vad det innebär att forskningen är skolnära tycks ha skiftande innebörd och avgränsning i olika sammanhang. Det kan till exempel handla om huruvida forskningen bedrivs av eller för lärare. Begreppet används också inom skolvärlden i ett vidare perspektiv.

  • 213.
    Aho, Mikaela
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Resource Management.
    Vad är attraktivt arbete för personalen på ett vård-, och omsorgsföretag?2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A common problem in the geriatric care is that it is difficult to recruit staff with the right

    qualifications. The number of unqualified increases in the industry despite a striving to have

    more people who are qualified. Research shows that the need for qualified people in the

    industry is increasing and the number of people studying to be nurses decreases. To attract

    employees requires that the company is considered to be attractive from the employees' point

    of view and also from a prospective employee's point of view. To study the problem, this

    survey has been made on one of the leading companies in the industry and the intention was

    to study whether the employees' view of attractive work was consistent with what their

    managers thought that their employees considered as attractive work.

    The survey was made on four different units through a questionnaire that employees have

    responded and the unit’s managers have been interviewed. The results of the survey showed

    that the manager’s view of attractive work was consistent with the employees' view of

    attractive work to a certain extent. Regional manager and assistant regional manager had a

    deeper understanding of what parts fail to appear as attractive employers

  • 214.
    Aho, Petra
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work.
    Cultural Deficit Perspective in the EFL Classroom: Teachers’ choice of Perspective in Swedish grades 4-6 Multilingual Classrooms2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 215.
    Ahola, Malin
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Social Work.
    Sundell, Annika
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Social Work.
    "Vi jobbar inte med själva barnen": En kvalitativ intervjustudie av socialsekreterares beaktande av barnperspektivet i ekonomiskt bistånd2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the essay is to investigate how the child perspective is taken into consideration in the social services' management of financial assistance. The method used is a qualitative interview study. Six social workers within financial assistance have been interviewed. The study is based on the theory of discretion, and is of relevance to social work since children in families who receive financial assistance constitute a vulnerable group who is at risk of ending socially vulnerable even in adulthood.

    The results of the study show that most of the social workers perceive the child perspective as unclear. The study also shows that children tend to be invisible in financial assistance, and that the social workers perceive that they do not have sufficient conditions to work from a child perspective. The study further shows that most of the social workers have a request to work more from a child perspective.

  • 216.
    Ahonen, Ann- charlotte
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Hellstöm, Maria
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Varför lämnar medlemmarna a-kassan?: En undersökning bland två yrkesgrupper inom den kommunala sektorn i Borlänge2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna uppsats är att ta reda på hur många som har lämnat a-kassorna, inom ett par utvalda yrkesgrupper, inom den kommunala sektorn i Borlänge och vad orsaken/orsakerna till utträdet är, samt att ta reda på hur många som har funderat på att lämna a-kassan och orsaken/orsakerna till det För att kunna ta reda på det, har en enkätundersökning gjorts. Enkäten skickades ut till två yrkesgrupper inom den kommunala sektorn i Borlänge, barnskötare och lärare för årskurs 1-3. Resultatet av denna undersökning, redovisas i diagram och till viss del skriftligen. Resultaten visar på att det, procentuellt, sett var fler lärare än barnskötare som lämnat a-kassan, samt att det var fler barnskötare än lärare som funderat på att lämna a-kassan. De främsta orsakerna till att medlemmarna lämnat, eller funderar på att lämna, a-kassan är närmande till pension och den förhöjda avgiften.

  • 217.
    Ahonen, Esa
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Trnavac, Dino
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    The influence of employee empowering on service interface and on employee performance in service organizations 2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 218.
    Ahrman, Gudrun
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work.
    Variera mera- om Learning study i grundsärskolans matematikundervisning2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Det här arbetet syftade till att undersöka om det är fruktbart att använda Learning study som undervisningsmetod i grundsärskolans matematikundervisning. Learning study bygger på va-riationsteorin som betyder att lärares undervisning ska varieras för att eleven ska kunna ur-skilja det läraren vill visa. Det är en kvalitativ fallstudie där jag genomfört lektioner varav några videofilmats. Elever i grundsärskolan har en medfödd eller förvärvad utvecklingsstör-ning och kan därför behöva längre tid eller fler upprepningar för att lära. Det är därmed inte är sagt att undervisningen behöver vara enformig eller utan variation. Jag har genom litteratur-studier och analyser av lektionerna funnit att Learning study är en metod som kan fungera.

  • 219.
    Ahrne, Göran
    Stockholms universitet.
    Delvis människa, delvis organisation1993In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 30, no 1, p. 59-78Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Partly human, partly organization

    In this article the phenomenon of organization is discussed and its consequences for the understanding of human actions and human choices are examined. Affiliation to organizations are found to be both restrictions on and preconditions for most human action. In this connection families are regarded as organizations as well as enterprises, voluntary associations and states. Human action is primarily action on behalf of organizations where individuals are partly human, partly organization. To understand the meaning of action on behalf of organization it is important to realize that people rarely choose their organizational affiliation. People are selected. This means that actions on behalf of organizations cannot be regarded as expressions of individual choices. Actions on behalf of organizations are generally characterized by a dual involvement.

  • 220.
    Ahrne, Göran
    Stockholms universitet.
    Organiseringen av det civila samhället1994In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 31, no 2, p. 38-45Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The organization of civil society

    The three societal spheres state, market and civil society are compared from an organizational perspective. A state is a certain kind of organization with compulsory affiliation. The state is an empirical category that is fairly easy to describe. A market is made up of the interaction of several organizations in exchange. Most actors on a market are people acting on behalf of organizations. Also states are present in markets buying arms for example, or as employers on the labour market. There are several kinds of organization mentioned in connection with civil society such as voluntary associations, social movements and networks. It is concluded that the organizations of civil society are not very persistent. Moreover the notion of civil society is not more incompatible with the state than with other organizational arrangements. As a conclusion it is argued that it is more relevant to understand social processes in terms of types of organization that in terms of states, markets and civil society.

  • 221.
    Ahrne, Göran
    SCORE; Stockholms universitet.
    Sociologin kommer igen2014In: Det personliga är sociologiskt: 14 professorer om svensk sociologi / [ed] Gunnar Andersson, Thomas Brante, Christofer Edling, Sverre Wide, Sveriges Sociologförbund , 2014, , p. 280p. 251-264Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 222. Ahrne, Göran
    Sociologisk Forskning för femtio år sedan2013In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 50, no 1, p. 69-74Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 223.
    Ahrne, Göran
    Stockholms universitet.
    Upptäckten av det globala2007In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 44, no 1, p. 68-76Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 224. Ahrne, Göran
    Vad hände på åttiotalet?1997In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 34, no 1-2, p. 269-282Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 225.
    Ahrne, Göran
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet.
    Papakostas, Apostolis
    Södertörns högskola.
    Behövs medlemmarna?2003In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 40, no 3, p. 3-10Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 226. Ahrne, Malin
    et al.
    Adan, Aisha
    Schytt, Erica
    Andersson, Ewa
    Small, Rhonda
    Flacking, Renée
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Byrskog, Ulrika
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Antenatal care for Somali born women in Sweden – perspectives from mothers, fathers and midwives2018In: European Journal of Public Health, Volume 28, Issue suppl_1, May 2018, 2018, Vol. 28Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 227. Ahrne, Malin
    et al.
    Schytt, Erica
    Andersson, Ewa
    Small, Rhonda
    Adan, Aisha
    Essén, Birgitta
    Byrskog, Ulrika
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Antenatal care for Somali-born women in Sweden: Perspectives from mothers, fathers and midwives2019In: Midwifery, ISSN 0266-6138, E-ISSN 1532-3099, Vol. 74, p. 107-115Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To explore Somali-born parents' experiences of antenatal care in Sweden, antenatal care midwives´ experiences of caring for Somali-born parents, and their respective ideas about group antenatal care for Somali-born parents.

    DESIGN: Eight focus group discussions with 2-8 participants in each were conducted, three with Somali-born mothers, two with fathers and three with antenatal care midwives. The transcribed text was analysed using Attride-Stirling´s tool "Thematic networks".

    SETTING: Two towns in mid-Sweden and a suburb of the capital city of Sweden.

    PARTICIPANTS: Mothers (n = 16), fathers (n = 13) and midwives (n = 7) were recruited using purposeful sampling.

    FINDINGS: Somali-born mothers and fathers in Sweden were content with many aspects of antenatal care, but they also faced barriers. Challenges in the midwife-parent encounter related to tailoring of care to individual needs, dealing with stereotypes, addressing varied levels of health literacy, overcoming communication barriers and enabling partner involvement. Health system challenges related to accessibility of care, limited resources, and the need for clear, but flexible routines and supportive structures for parent education. Midwives confirmed these challenges and tried to address them but sometimes lacked the support, resources and tools to do so. Mothers, fathers and midwives thought that language-supported group antenatal care might help to improve communication, provide mutual support and enable better dialogue, but they were concerned that group care should still allow privacy when needed and not stereotype families according to their country of birth.

    KEY CONCLUSIONS: ANC interventions targeting inequalities between migrants and non-migrants may benefit from embracing a person-centred approach, as a means to counteract stereotypes, misunderstandings and prejudice. Group antenatal care has the potential to provide a platform for person-centred care and has other potential benefits in providing high-quality antenatal care for sub-groups that tend to receive less or poor quality care. Further research on how to address stereotypes and implicit bias in maternity care in the Swedish context is needed.

  • 228.
    Aida Niendorf, Mariya
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Japanese.
    Bastu i vått och torrt2017Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 229.
    Aida Niendorf, Mariya
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Japanese.
    Cross-cultural analysis of Finnish vs. Japanese politeness strategies2018Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 230.
    Aida Niendorf, Mariya
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Japanese.
    Cross-Cultural Analysis of Swedish vs. Japanese Politeness Strategies2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Japanese politeness discourse varies in complexity according to social distance, relative power between speakers, and social situations. However, the attitude surveys I conducted over the past eight years indicate that Swedish learners of Japanese often do not see the necessity of learning polite discourse and often view such forms negatively. Intentionally or unintentionally, Swedish students often fail to use appropriate politeness strategies as Sweden is one of the most egalitarian societies in the world, with the elimination of the second person plural form ni to indicate a higher level of politeness reflecting this change. However, it is important to point out to foreign language learners that cultural and social norms are not cross-culturally interchangeable and that speakers must often adapt to the language they are learning and the culture they find themselves in.

    Cross-cultural data on polite discourse shows that the politeness strategies differ considerably across cultures. While politeness, respect, and formality are closely associated in Japanese (e.g., Ide 1989, 2006; Matsumoto 1988, 1989, 1993) Swedish speakers perceive respect and politeness as separate matters (Björk 2014; Brumark 2006; Utrzén 2011; Norrbom 2006). Studies have also found that while Japanese speakers are inclined to use verbal politeness strategies, Swedish speakers tend to express respect through non-verbal actions or behaviors (Norrbom 2006; Pizziconi 2008; Utrzén 2011).

    Language and identity are closely related, and language use is based on culture and society. Understanding both one’s own politeness strategies as well as foreign norms can help learners realize how culture, language, and their own identity are intertwined. Learners of Japanese should therefore consider polite discourse as part of the rules of the language rather than as something that can be modified based on one’s opinion.

    Based on an analysis of cross-cultural differences in politeness strategies between Japanese and Swedish seen from both cultural and linguistic viewpoints, this study investigates politeness strategies used by Swedish and Japanese speakers by conducting attitude surveys and by analyzing the types of pragmatic errors made by Swedish learners of Japanese along with possible reasons for such errors.

    Teaching communicative competence is extremely important in language instruction. Speakers can avoid embarrassing situations and conflicts caused by misunderstandings if they are aware of differences in inter-cultural pragmatics. Studies have shown that pragmatics can be taught effectively by using appropriate methods and tools (Cohen & Ishihara 2005, Bardovi-Harlig & Mahan-Taylor 2003). By demonstrating the use of the Japanese honorific system more systematically and contrasting it with Swedish politeness strategies, I aim to motivate students to learn honorific expressions, thus enabling them to communicate more successfully in Japanese.

    In this presentation, I will first offer various definitions and views of politeness in Japan and Sweden suggested by previous studies and discuss the reasons why these came to be viewed as they are today. Second, Swedish speakers’ attitudes toward the use of Japanese polite forms will be examined using data from the surveys and error analyses I conducted. Finally, various methods for overcoming cross-cultural miscommunication caused by differences in politeness strategies will be discussed.

     

  • 231.
    Aida Niendorf, Mariya
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Japanese.
    Cross-cultural pragmatics: Challenges and implications of teaching Japanese politeness strategies to learners of L2 Japanese2019Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Japanese politeness discourse varies in complexity according to social distance, relative power between speakers, and social situations. Yet Swedish learners of Japanese often do not see the necessity of learning polite discourse and often view such forms negatively. Intentionally or otherwise, Swedish learners often fail to use appropriate politeness strategies in large part because Sweden is one of the most egalitarian societies in the world. However, it is important to point out to foreign language learners that cultural and social norms are not cross-culturally interchangeable and that speakers must often adapt to the language they are learning and to the culture they find themselves in.

    In this presentation, I will first offer various definitions and views of politeness in Japan, Sweden, and the US as well as other English-speaking countries as suggested by previous studies, and I will discuss the reasons why these came to be viewed as they are today. Second, Swedish learners’ attitudes toward the use of Japanese polite forms will be examined using data from surveys and error analyses. Finally, various methods for overcoming cross-cultural miscommunication caused by differences in politeness strategies will be proposed, which may be applied to learners of other languages.

  • 232.
    Aida Niendorf, Mariya
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Japanese.
    Finland and Japan: A peek into shared histories through tango's migration, transformation, and assimilation2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 233.
    Aida Niendorf, Mariya
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Japanese.
    Finrando to nihon no tango būmu kara kaimamiru ryōkoku kyōtsū no rekishiteki, shakaiteki haikei2019In: Nihon to finrando no deai to tsunagari: / [ed] Juha Saunavaara, Ojiro Suzuki, Okayama: Daigaku Kyoiku Shuppan , 2019, p. 197-209Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 234.
    Aida Niendorf, Mariya
    Dalarna University, School of Languages and Media Studies, Japanese.
    From Buenos Aires to Finland and Japan: The tango's unusual migration2014In: List of Abstracts for Conference Transcultural Identity Constructions in a Changing World, Dalarna University, Sweden, April 2-4, 2014, 2014, p. 19-20Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Finland, thousands of miles away from Buenos Aires, people crowd the dance floors of restaurants and dance halls nightly to dance to tango music, while the tango has also caught the heart of the people on the other side of the world in Japan. The popularity of the tango in both Finland and Japan, however, is not very well known to the outside world.

    Though some scholars have stated that the tango reflects the personality, mentality and identity of the Finnish and Japanese people, this may only be partially true. Moreover, it is difficult to generalize what the Finnish or Japanese personality is. I argue that the tango's success in these two countries also has significant connections to historical and social factors. As being a dancer myself, I also believe that the 'liminality' (originally a term borrowed from Arnold van Gennep's formulation of rites de passage) of tango dancing plays an important role in these two nations that went through difficult struggles to recover from the damage caused by the war. “The liminal phase is considered sacred, anomalous, abnormal and dangerous, while the  pre- and post-liminal phases are normal and a profane state of being (Selänniemi 1996) and “the regular occurrence of sacred-profane alternations mark important periods of social life or even provide the measure of the passage of time itself”(Leach 1961).

    In this paper, I will discuss motives and paths of how a culture travels, settles and shapes into a new form, using the tango as an example.

  • 235.
    Aida Niendorf, Mariya
    Dalarna University, School of Languages and Media Studies, Japanese.
    Improving Intercultural Competence for the Distance Students in Sweden through Online Joint-Seminars in Japanese with University Students from the United States2014In: Next Generation Learning Conference, March 19–20 2014, Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden: Book of abstracts, Falun: Högskolan Dalarna, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There have been quite a few studies (Helm 2009, Chun 2011, Schenker 2012, Kitade 2012, etc.) regarding the development of intercultural competence through online exchanges. Most of these exchanges, however, are between native speakers and learners of that language. The benefit of such exchanges can be maximized if both parties are learning each other’s language and they both have the opportunity to utilize the languages they are learning during the exchange, but often times, this is not the case.  Byram (1997) suggests that intercultural competence can be assessed using the following components: knowledge, skills, attitudes, and critical awareness.  If ‘intercultural competence’ means not just learning about the target culture, but also about becoming aware of one’s own culture (Liaw 2006), connecting students from different countries who are studying the same target language and culture would be an ideal setting in order for the students to evaluate both their own and target cultures critically. Having learners of a target language from different countries in a virtual classroom also helps create an environment which mimics the language classroom in the target country enabling them to experience studying abroad without leaving their home countries.

    It is often said to be difficult or almost impossible for students in distance courses to develop intercultural competence because of the lack of opportunity to study abroad or the lack of an international atmosphere in the classroom (Tyberg 2009). Thus, the goal of this study is to provide opportunities for all students, regardless of their circumstances, to develop intercultural competence.  In this study, a group of intermediate/advanced level Japanese students from a university in Sweden (all distance students) and a group from a university in the U.S. were brought together in a virtual classroom using an online video conferencing system.  Through their interactions and post-seminar reflections, I examined how students develop intercultural competence.

     

    The results from this study show that through interactions with university students from other countries who study Japanese at the same level, the students can gain not only Japanese skills, but expand their horizons and deepen their understanding of another culture as well as of the topics discussed during the meetings thus satisfying each of the criteria in Byram's model. Not everyone has the opportunity to study abroad, but today's technology allows every student to be a part of the internationalization process, develop his/her cultural-literacy and reflect on his/her identity.

  • 236.
    Aida Niendorf, Mariya
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Japanese.
    Intercultural communicative competence: the challenges and implications of teaching Japanese politeness strategies to Swedish learners of Japanese2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Teaching communicative competence is extremely important in language instruction. One can avoid embarrassing situations and conflicts caused by misunderstandings if she/he understands the differences in intercultural pragmatics. Politeness discourse varies in complexity according to social distance, relative power between the speakers, and situations. The data I have collected during the past 6 years indicates that Swedish learners of Japanese often do not see the necessity of learning the polite/honorific discourse and often view these negatively as Swedish society is one of the most egalitarian in the world. As a consequence, Swedish students often fail to utilize appropriate politeness strategies when speaking in Japanese. However, it is important to point out to foreign language learners that cultural and social norms are not interchangeable and that one must adapt to the language one is using and the culture one is in. Thus Swedish Learners of Japanese should consider politeness discourse as a part of the rules of the language rather than something that can be modified based on one’s opinion.

    The current study investigates the differences in politeness strategies between Swedish and Japanese discourse. Student surveys and analysis of students’ errors have revealed clear differences in the use of politeness strategies in Swedish and in Japanese context. While the politeness, respect, and formality are closely intertwined in Japanese; the Swedes perceive respect and politeness as separate matters. It is also found that while the Japanese are inclined to using verbal politeness strategies, the Swedes express their respect more through non-verbal actions or behaviors. Various Japanese and Swedish utterances have also been examined to determine the Discourse Politeness Default suggested by Usami (2006) in order to systematize the politeness strategies in ways similar to grammatical rules.

                                                                                                                                                                          

                                                                          

                                                                                                                                                                          

  • 237.
    Aida Niendorf, Mariya
    Dalarna University, School of Languages and Media Studies, Japanese.
    Internationalization at home: Effectiveneess of online joint-seminars with overseas university students: Results from a pilot study2013In: INTED2013 Proceedings: 7th International Technology, Education and Development Conference, Valencia, Spain. 4-5 March, 2013 / [ed] International Association of Technology, Education and Development, IATED , 2013, p. 5242-5247Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the recent years, both the Swedish National Agency for Higher Education or Högskoleverket (HSV) and individual universities in Sweden have been promoting “internationalization at home.” In an attempt to make it possible for all the students to be part of internationalization regardless of their financial, family and other situations that prevent them from studying abroad, I have brought a virtual international classroom to the students studying Japanese. The initial pilot study was conducted to examine the interactions during online joint-seminars with overseas students. In order to eventually create an ideal virtual classroom environment in an international setting, I focused on finding answers to the following three questions: (1) How do the students from different countries interact during on-line video conferencing seminars? (2) What can teachers do to make the students feel comfortable in such seminars and maximize learning? (3) Do functions such as ‘Chat’ that are available in the video-conferencing system Adobe® Connect™ help improve communication between students from both countries? In the study conducted during the spring 2012 term, I examined the students’ interactions during the joint-seminars using a video conferencing system. I analyzed not only the conversation during the online-seminars but also the chat during the seminars and blog entries as well as comments outside the class to see how they compliment the verbal communication. The positive feedback from the participating students indicates that, through interactions with university students from other countries who study Japanese at the same level, the students can gain not only Japanese skills, but also expand their horizons and deepen their understanding of another culture as well as the topics discussed during the meetings. The success of the initial pilot study implies a great potential in internet-based university education contributing to ‘internationalization at home’.

  • 238.
    Aida Niendorf, Mariya
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Japanese.
    Internationalization at home: effectiveness of online joint-seminars with overseas university students - results from a pilot study2013In: 7th International technology, education and development conference (INTED2013), 2013, p. 5242-5247Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the recent years, both the Swedish National Agency for Higher Education or Hogskoleverket (HSV) and individual universities in Sweden have been promoting "internationalization at home." In an attempt to make it possible for all the students to be part of internationalization regardless of their financial, family and other situations that prevent them from studying abroad, I have brought a virtual international classroom to the students studying Japanese. The initial pilot study was conducted to examine the interactions during online joint-seminars with overseas students. In order to eventually create an ideal virtual classroom environment in an international setting, I focused on finding answers to the following three questions: (1) How do the students from different countries interact during online video conferencing seminars? (2) What can teachers do to make the students feel comfortable in such seminars and maximize learning? (3) Do functions such as 'Chat' that are available in the video-conferencing system Adobe (R) Connect (TM) help improve communication between students from both countries? In the study conducted during the spring 2012 term, I examined the students' interactions during the joint-seminars using a video conferencing system. I analyzed not only the conversation during the online-seminars but also the chat during the seminars and blog entries as well as comments outside the class to see how they compliment the verbal communication. The positive feedback from the participating students indicates that, through interactions with university students from other countries who study Japanese at the same level, the students can gain not only Japanese skills, but also expand their horizons and deepen their understanding of another culture as well as the topics discussed during the meetings. The success of the initial pilot study implies a great potential in internet-based university education contributing to 'internationalization at home'.

  • 239.
    Aida Niendorf, Mariya
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Japanese.
    Issues on cross-cultural pragmatics: Swedish learners' attitudes regarding the learning of Japanese politeness strategies2016In: Abstracts, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Teaching communicative competence is considered extremely important in today’s language instruction. One can avoid embarrassing situations and conflicts caused by misunderstandings if one understands the differences in intercultural pragmatics. This study investigates the differences in politeness strategies between Swedish and Japanese discourse and how Japanese politeness strategies can be taught effectively to the Swedish learners of Japanese. Politeness discourse varies in complexity according to social distance, relative power between the speakers, and situations. It has been indicated in the course evaluations and comments from the students that Swedish learners of Japanese often do not see the necessity of learning the polite/honorific discourse and they often view these negatively as Swedish society is one of the most egalitarian in the world. As a consequence, Swedish students often fail to utilize appropriate politeness strategies when speaking in Japanese. However, it is important to point out to foreign language learners that cultural and social norms are not interchangeable and that one must adapt to the language one is using and the culture one is in. Thus Swedish Learners of Japanese should consider politeness discourse as a part of the rules of the language rather than something that can be modified based on one’s opinion. Student surveys and analysis of students’ errors I have complied during the past six years have revealed clear differences in the use of politeness strategies in Swedish and in Japanese context. While politeness, respect, and formality are closely intertwined in Japanese; the Swedes perceive respect and politeness as separate matters. It is also found that while the Japanese are inclined to use verbal politeness strategies, the Swedes express respect more through non-verbal actions or behaviors. This paper suggests ways in which learners of Japanese may overcome these differences.

  • 240.
    Aida Niendorf, Mariya
    Dalarna University, School of Languages and Media Studies, Japanese.
    Language education and identity: Discussing identity in the Sweden-U.S. online joint seminars2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 241.
    Aida Niendorf, Mariya
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Japanese.
    Migration, transformation, and the homecoming of a culture: Tango in Finland and Japan as an example2016In: Migration, transformation, and the homecoming of a culture: Tango in Finland and Japan as an example, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Finland, a great distance away from Buenos Aires, people crowd dance floors nightly to dance to tango music, while the tango has also captured the hearts of the people on the other side of the world in Japan. The popularity of the tango in both Finland and Japan, however, is not so familiar to the outside world.

     

    In this paper, I will discuss the motives and the paths by which a culture travels, settles and shapes itself into a new form, using the tango as an example. First, the tango’s relationship to society and history in each of these countries are explored using archives and literature. Then such aspects as inner emotion, solitude, illusion, and liminality are analyzed through data collected from surveys, interviews, and forum discussions in the SNS.

     

    Some scholars suggest that the tango reflects the personality, mentality, and identity of the Finnish and Japanese peoples. Though this may be partially true, it is difficult to generalize about the Finnish or Japanese personality. It is argued, rather, that the tango's prosperity in these two countries has significant connections to some shared historical and social factors. I also propose that the 'liminality' of tango dancing plays an important role in both nations that went through difficult struggles to recover from the damage caused by war. “The liminal phase is considered sacred, anomalous, abnormal and dangerous, while the pre- and post-liminal phases are normal and a profane state of being” (Selänniemi 1996). Tango dancing can be considered an escape or a vacation from the hardship of everyday life as well as a fuel which enables the people to keep moving forward.

    The tango’s transformation in Finland and Japan, and its homecoming back to Argentina are also examined. The results reveal some of the unusual paths a culture can travel.

  • 242.
    Aida Niendorf, Mariya
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Japanese.
    Politeness as a part of intercultural competence2015In: Japanese Language Education in Europe, ISSN 1745-7165, Vol. 20, p. 395-396Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Teaching communicative competence is extremely important in language instruction. While politeness discourse varies in complexity according to social distance, relative power between the speakers, and situations, Swedish learners of Japanese often do not see the necessity of learning the polite/honorific discourse and often view these negatively as Swedish society is one of the most egalitarian in the world. However, it is important to point out to foreign language learners that cultural/social norms are not modifiable based on one’s opinion and that one must adapt to the language one is using and the culture one is in. The current study investigates the differences in politeness strategies between Swedish and Japanese discourse. Student surveys and analysis of students’ errors have revealed clear differences in the use of politeness strategies. While politeness, respect, and formality are closely intertwined in Japanese; the Swedes perceive respect and politeness as separate matters. It is also found that while the Japanese are inclined to use verbal politeness strategies, the Swedes express their respect more through non-verbal actions/behaviors. Various Japanese and Swedish utterances have also been examined to determine the DP default (Usami 2006) in order to systematize the politeness strategies in ways similar to grammatical rules.

  • 243.
    Aida Niendorf, Mariya
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Japanese.
    Review Understanding Intercultural Communication (Second Edition) Stella Ting-Toomey and Leeva C. Chung (2012)2015In: Sociolinguistic Studies, ISSN 1750-8649, E-ISSN 1750-8657, Vol. 9, no 4, p. 507-513Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 244.
    Aida Niendorf, Mariya
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Japanese.
    Tangon huumaa: Musiikki ja tanssi mielenmaisemien siltana2019In: Suomi ja Japani: Kaukaiset mutta läheiset / [ed] Juha Saunavaara, Laura Ipatti, Helsinki: Edita Publishing Oy, 2019, p. 190-199Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 245.
    Aida Niendorf, Mariya
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Japanese.
    The Development of Identity and Intercultural Communicative Competence in NNS-NNS Online Interaction2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As demonstrated in recent studies of Computer-assisted language learning (CALL), authentic intercultural contexts can be created by using online exchanges to enhance students’ foreign language learning and identity. While research on telecollaboration and identity has mainly focused on NS-NNS interactions, this study examines NNS-NNS telecollaborative interactions.

    The study examines two sets of NNSs with different L1 backgrounds, namely NNSs of Japanese from universities in the US and Sweden. The project combines telecollaborative activities consisting of both asynchronous written (blogs) and synchronous verbal (online discussions).

    The Intercultural Dialogue (ID) model (Houghton, 2012) was used to evaluate the outcome. The model consists of five stages: 1) Analysis of Self; 2) Analysis of Other; 3) Critical analysis of value similarities (or differences) between Self and Other; 4) Critical evaluation of the values of Self and Other relative to a standard; and 5) Identity development.

    Results indicate that through their written and oral discussions, the students’ choice of words constructed images of the person they are or wished to be perceived as while building an understanding of their own identities. This shows that language use does not necessarily reflect who one is but is used to contribute to the construction of one’s identities. We also observed that there exists a stage prior to the first stage in the ID-model, namely a “no-awareness” stage. Furthermore, our findings indicate that Stage 1 “Awareness of Self” occurs as two sub-stages: 1-a) Awareness of single identity; and 1-b) Awareness of having multiple identities. Our data also suggest that at one point, several students were offering different critical evaluations of Self and Other as a result of their own and the Japanese cultural standard not fitting the standard identity development model, suggesting that the multicultural nature of NNS-NNS interactions involving different L1 backgrounds can accelerate identity development.

  • 246.
    Aida Niendorf, Mariya
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Japanese.
    Yuge no nakae, hi-nichijō no sekai e (Into the steam, into the dream): Tsūka girei to shite no finrando no sauna to nihon no furo (The Finnish sauna and the Japanese furo as rite of passage)2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [ja]

    湯気の中へ、非日常の世界へ:

    通過儀礼としてのフィンランドのサウナと日本の風呂

     

    遠く離れた北欧フィンランドと極東日本。気候もそこに暮らす人々も一見全く異なるこのふたつの国に共通する熱い湯気の文化がある。フィンランド人が長い歴史の中で大切にしてきた「サウナ」、そして多くの日本人にとって欠かせない「風呂」。どちらも身体を清潔にする場所というだけではなく、宗教的・文化的意味合いや、癒し、儀礼とも深く関係していると考えられている。1998年にはフィンランドのユヴァスキュラで風呂とサウナに関するエキシビションも催されている。

    本発表では、フィンランドと日本での過去20年間のフィールドワークの結果をもとに、サウナと風呂が、それぞれどのようにそこに暮らす人々の人生や日々の生活の節目に行われる通過儀礼(van Gennep 1909)として機能しているのかを明らかにし、サウナと風呂文化に共通して見られるリミナリティー (Turner 1974)を「マクロモデルとマイクロモデル」(Niendorf 2000)を用いて文化人類学的観点から検証する。

  • 247.
    Aida Niendorf, Mariya
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Languages and Media Studies, Japanese.
    Inose, Hiroko
    Dalarna University, School of Languages and Media Studies, Japanese.
    Investigating the use of the verbs ”naru” in Japanese and ”bli” in Swedish through translation2013In: Nordic Association of Japanese and Korean Studies (NAJAKS): Abstracts for 2013, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates how use of the Swedish verb “bli” corresponds to the Japanese verb “naru” using translated materials as a corpus.  

     

    Japanese is said to be a situation-oriented language, while English is person-oriented.

              e.g., Mariko wa kekkon surukotoni NARImashita.

                       (It became so that Mariko will be married.)

                       ‘Mariko will get married’ in English.

     

    The Swedish verb ”bli” usually means ’to become’ or ’to be (as an auxiliary verb),’ yet is used more widely than these English meanings.

              e.g., Det blir 100 kronor, tack.

                       (100 kr ni NARI-masu.)

                       ’It makes/will be 100kr.’

     

    Examples like this lead to the observation that ”bli” is used in a context more similar to the Japanese verb ”naru.” than English verb “become.” Comparison of some translated materials also shows that “bli” is often translated into Japanese as “naru” while it is more likely to be replaced by a transitive or intransitive verb in English.

     

    However, erros such as

               *okoru ni NARU (verb ‘to be upset’+naru)

                  [okoru: a verb]

               *annshin ni NARU (noun ‘feeling at ease’ +naru)   

                  [annshin suru: a verb derived from a noun]

    which are made by Swedish learners of Japanese indicate that the translation of “bli” into Japanese is not so straight forward.

     

    In this study, we examined the following questions:

    1. How is ”bli” translated into Japanese/English?
    2. If ”bli” is translated into ”naru” in Japanese, in what grammatical context(s) does it occur?
    3. How are these variations related to the errors students make in translating ”bli” into  Japanese?

     

    In order to examine the above research questions, we conducted two separate studies:

     

    Study I: Examining how Swedish bli is translated into Japanese in literature translation

     

    Using children´s novels “Sommerboken” by Tove Jansson and “Pippi Långstrump” by Astrid Lindgren as the data source, all the sentences that contain bli were extracted along with their translations into English and Japanese. The extracted sentences were, then, categorized according to the various types of usage of the verb bli, and the translation into Japanese for each of those categories was analyzed.

     

    Study II: The translation of various uses of bli into Japanese by Swedish students

     

    Study I above showed usages of the verb bli in various context. In Study II, we tried to see if some of these usages cause more problems than the others for the Swedish students. The students in the Japanese-English translation course at Högskolan Dalarna (Sweden) were given 7 Swedish sentences containing various usages of bli, and were asked to translate them into Japanese. Then the accuracy of the translation and the translation techniques used were analyzed.

     

    The results from Study I showed that there were numerous usages of the verb bli, such as describing conditions, describing the changes of conditions, indicating certain emotional status, and so on, which naturally led to the variety in Japanese translation. Furthermore,  apart from the most literal translation, which is to use the verb naru, various types of compound verbs (main verb – help verb combinations) were used in order to express different nuances.

     

    In some of the usages identified above, translation shifts were obligatory when translated into Japanese; i.e. the literal translation was impossible, and the translator has to make minor changes from the ST (source text) to the TT (target text), such as changes of grammatical categories or of voice (e.g. passive to active).

     

    The results from the Study II show that the sentences which require more complicated translation shifts tend to cause more errors when students translate them into Japanese.

     

    Clarifying how the use of “bli” correlates with the use of “naru” will not only help Swedish students understand the use of the somewhat difficult concept of “naru,” but also help translators deal with this issue. Finding a more systematic way to translate “bli” into Japanese using more tokens from various genres would be necessary in order to achieve this.

     

  • 248.
    Aida Niendorf, Mariya
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Japanese.
    Saito, Rieko
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Japanese.
    Creating an effective environment for development of intercultural competence through online Japanese Language exchanges: How it is done and what it takes2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Developing intercultural competence has been an important focal point of university education especially in the area of foreign language instruction. In order to incorporate intercultural competence in our Japanese language instruction, we have brought together students studying Japanese from the U.S., Korea and China to join our students studying Japanese in Sweden for online exchanges. In order to create an ideal virtual classroom environment in an international setting, we have examined how students from different countries interact during the online exchanges in Japanese. In this presentation, we will discuss the process, strength, difficulties and potential of such exchanges.

  • 249.
    Aida Niendorf, Mariya
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Japanese.
    Takamiya, Yumi
    University of Alabama at Birmingham, USA.
    Beikoku to sueeden no nihongo gakushusha wo tsunaida jissen: aidentiti wo teemanishita torikumi2016In: : , 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [ja]

    言語教育におけるソーシャルネットワーキングアプローチ(以下 SNA)では、「他者の発見、自己の発見、つながりの実現」を理念に、従来の「わかる」「できる」能力に加え、新たに「つながる」能力を 重要視する(當作 2013)。SNAに基づいてことばと文化を学ぶことで、学習者の人間的成長が促され、社会力も獲得される。  本発表では、上記の教育理念を念頭に、異なる文化圏で学ぶ日本語学習者をオンラインでつないだ取り組みについて紹介する。実践には米国とスウェーデンの大学で中上級レベルの日本語を学ぶ学習者10名が参加した。1学期間、アイデンティティをテーマに授業を行い、非同期型ツールであるブログ、同期型ツールであるビデオ会議システムを利用して双方を継続的につないだ。  アンケート、インタビュー、観察データを分析した結果、学習者はこのようなオンラインでの交流により、言語面だけでなく、自己・他者のアイデンティティや文化について肯定的な視点を持つようになるという変化が見られた。これは自己・他者の新たな発見といえる。また、参加者は、日本に興味があるという共通点があるため、様々なトピックについて積極的に探求し、互いに教え学びあう関係を築くことが容易にできた。さらに「つながり」が形成されていくに従い、日本だけでなく米国やスウェーデンについてもより知りたいと考えるようになり、好奇心の幅が広がった。これはつながりの理想的な実現であるといえよう。  通常、海外の日本語学習者は、日本の英語学習者と交流するケースが多いが、この場合、母語話者に教えてもらうという一方向的な形のコミュニケーションをとりやすい。一方、異なる場所で学ぶ日本語学習者同士の交流の場合、対等な形でのコミュニケーションがとれ、場所によって日本の捉え方も違うことに気づくことで、多元的な視点で日本を捉え直すきっかけにもなる。これは学習者の言語・文化面、精神面での成長にとって大きな意義がある。発表では、学習者、教師だけでなく、教室内外の多くの人たちをつなぐことを可能にするオンラインツールについて紹介し、その効果的な使い方や交流を成功させるための具体的な提案も行う。

  • 250.
    Aida Niendorf, Mariya
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Japanese.
    Takamiya, Yumi
    University of Alabama at Birmingham.
    Identity (re)construction and improvement in intercultural competence through synchronous and asynchronous telecollaboration: Connecting Japanese language learners in the United States and Sweden2019In: Technology-supported Learning In and Out of the Japanese Language Classroom: Advances in Pedagogy, Teaching and Research / [ed] E. Zimmerman & A. McMeekin, Multilingual Matters, 2019, p. 111-145Chapter in book (Refereed)
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