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  • 201.
    Memedi, Mevludin
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Nyholm, Dag
    Neuroscience, Neurology, Uppsala University.
    Johansson, Anders
    Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet.
    Pålhagen, Sven
    Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet.
    Willows, Thomas
    Neurology, Karolinska University Hospital.
    Widner, Håkan
    Neurology, Skåne University Hospital.
    Westin, Jerker
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Self-reported symptoms and motor tests via telemetry in a 36-month levodopa-carbidopa intestinal gel infusion trial2013In: Movement Disorders :  Supplement: Abstracts of the Seventeenth International Congress of Parkinson's Disease and Movement Disorders S1, Wiley-Blackwell, 2013, p. S168-S168Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective

    To investigate if a home environment test battery can be used to measure effects of Parkinson’s disease (PD) treatment intervention and disease progression.

    Background

    Seventy-seven patients diagnosed with advanced PD were recruited in an open longitudinal 36-month study at 10 clinics in Sweden and Norway; 40 of them were treated with levodopa-carbidopa intestinal gel (LCIG) and 37 patients were candidates for switching from oral PD treatment to LCIG. They utilized a mobile device test battery, consisting of self-assessments of symptoms and objective measures of motor function through a set of fine motor tests (tapping and spiral drawings), in their homes. Both the LCIG-naïve and LCIG-non-naïve patients used the test battery four times per day during week-long test periods.

    Methods

    Assessments

    The LCIG-naïve patients used the test battery at baseline (before LCIG), month 0 (first visit; at least 3 months after intraduodenal LCIG), and thereafter quarterly for the first year and biannually for the second and third years. The LCIG-non-naïve patients used the test battery from the first visit, i.e. month 0. Out of the 77 patients, only 65 utilized the test battery; 35 were LCIG-non-naïve and 30 LCIG-naïve. In 20 of the LCIG-naïve patients, assessments with the test battery were available during oral treatment and at least one test period after having started infusion treatment. Three LCIG-naïve patients did not use the test battery at baseline but had at least one test period of assessments thereafter. Hence, n=23 in the LCIG-naïve group. In total, symptom assessments in the full sample (including both patient groups) were collected during 379 test periods and 10079 test occasions. For 369 of these test periods, clinical assessments including UPDRS and PDQ-39 were performed in afternoons at the start of the test periods. The repeated measurements of the test battery were processed and summarized into scores representing patients’ symptom severities over a test period, using statistical methods. Six conceptual dimensions were defined; four subjectively-reported: ‘walking’, ‘satisfied’, ‘dyskinesia’, and ‘off’ and two objectively-measured: ‘tapping’ and ‘spiral’. In addition, an ‘overall test score’ (OTS) was defined to represent the global health condition of the patient during a test period.

    Statistical methods

    Change in the test battery scores over time, that is at baseline and follow-up test periods, was assessed with linear mixed-effects models with patient ID as a random effect and test period as a fixed effect of interest. The within-patient variability of OTS was assessed using intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC), for the two patient groups. Correlations between clinical rating scores and test battery scores were assessed using Spearman’s rank correlations (rho).

    Results

    In LCIG-naïve patients, mean OTS compared to baseline was significantly improved from the first test period on LCIG treatment until month 24. However, there were no significant changes in mean OTS scores of LCIG-non-naïve patients, except for worse mean OTS at month 36 (p<0.01, n=16). The mean scores of all subjectively-reported dimensions improved significantly throughout the course of the study, except ‘walking’ at month 36 (p=0.41, n=4). However, there were no significant differences in mean scores of objectively-measured dimensions between baseline and other test periods, except improved ‘tapping’ at month 6 and month 36, and ‘spiral’ at month 3 (p<0.05). The LCIG-naïve patients had a higher within-subject variability in their OTS scores (ICC=0.67) compared to LCIG-non-naïve patients (ICC=0.71). The OTS correlated adequately with total UPDRS (rho=0.59) and total PDQ-39 (rho=0.59).

    Conclusions

    In this 3-year follow-up study of advanced PD patients treated with LCIG we found that it is possible to monitor PD progression over time using a home environment test battery. The significant improvements in the mean OTS scores indicate that the test battery is able to measure functional improvement with LCIG sustained over at least 24 months.

  • 202.
    Memedi, Mevludin
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering. Örebro University.
    Nyholm, Dag
    Neuroscience, Neurology, Uppsala University.
    Westin, Jerker
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Combined fine-motor tests and self-assessments for remote detection of motor fluctuations2013In: Recent Patents on Biomedial Engineering, ISSN 1874-7647, Vol. 6, no 2, p. 127-135Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A major problem with the clinical management of fluctuating movement disorders, e.g. Parkinson's disease (PD), is the large variability in manifestation of symptoms among patients. In this condition, frequent measurements which account for both patient-reported and objective assessments are needed in order to capture symptom fluctuations, with the purpose to optimize therapy. The main focus of this paper is to present a mobile-based system for enabling remote monitoring of PD patients from their home environment conditions. The system consists of a patient diary section for collecting patient-based self-assessments, a motor test section for collecting fine motor movements through upper limb motor tests, and a scheduler for restricting operation to a multitude of predetermined limited time intervals. The system processes and compiles time series data into different summary scores representing symptom severity. In addition, the paper presents a review of recent inventions which were filed after year 2000 in the field of telemedicine applications. The review includes a summary of systems and methods which enable remote symptom assessments of patients, not necessarily suffering from movement disorders, through repeated measurements and which take into account their subjective and/or objective health indicators. The findings conclude that there are a small number of inventions which collect subjective and objective health measures in telemedicine settings. Consequently, there is a lack of mechanisms that combine these two types of information into scores to provide a more in-depth assessment of the patient's general health, their motor and non-motor symptom fluctuations and treatment effects. The paper also provides a discussion concerning different approaches for analyzing and combining subjective and objective measures, and handling data from longitudinal studies.

  • 203.
    Memedi, Mevludin
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Sadikov, Aleksander
    Faculty of Information Science, Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Groznik, Vida
    Faculty of Information Science, Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Žabkar, Jure
    Faculty of Information Science, Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Možina, Martin
    Faculty of Information Science, Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Bergquist, Filip
    Sahlgrenska Academy, Department of Pharmacology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Johansson, Anders
    Neurology, Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Haubenberger, Dietrich
    NINDS Intramural Research Program, Clinical Trials Unit, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA.
    Nyholm, Dag
    Neurology, Neuroscience, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Automatic spiral analysis for objective assessment of motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease2015In: Sensors, ISSN 1424-8220, E-ISSN 1424-8220, Vol. 15, no 9, p. 23727-23744Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A challenge for the clinical management of advanced Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients is the emergence of fluctuations in motor performance, which represents a significant source of disability during activities of daily living of the patients. There is a lack of objective measurement of treatment effects for in-clinic and at-home use that can provide an overview of the treatment response. The objective of this paper was to develop a method for objective quantification of advanced PD motor symptoms related to off episodes and peak dose dyskinesia, using spiral data gathered by a touch screen telemetry device. More specifically, the aim was to objectively characterize motor symptoms (bradykinesia and dyskinesia), to help in automating the process of visual interpretation of movement anomalies in spirals as rated by movement disorder specialists. Digitized upper limb movement data of 65 advanced PD patients and 10 healthy (HE) subjects were recorded as they performed spiral drawing tasks on a touch screen device in their home environment settings. Several spatiotemporal features were extracted from the time series and used as inputs to machine learning methods. The methods were validated against ratings on animated spirals scored by four movement disorder specialists who visually assessed a set of kinematic features and the motor symptom. The ability of the method to discriminate between PD patients and HE subjects and the test-retest reliability of the computed scores were also evaluated. Computed scores correlated well with mean visual ratings of individual kinematic features. The best performing classifier (Multilayer Perceptron) classified the motor symptom (bradykinesia or dyskinesia) with an accuracy of 84% and area under the receiver operating characteristics curve of 0.86 in relation to visual classifications of the raters. In addition, the method provided high discriminating power when distinguishing between PD patients and HE subjects as well as had good test-retest reliability. This study demonstrated the potential of using digital spiral analysis for objective quantification of PD-specific and/or treatment-induced motor symptoms.

  • 204.
    Memedi, Mevludin
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Sadikov, Aleksander
    Faculty of Information Science, Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Groznik, Vida
    Faculty of Information Science, Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Žabkar, Jure
    Faculty of Information Science, Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Možina, Martin
    Faculty of Information Science, Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Bergquist, Filip
    Sahlgrenska Academy, Department of Pharmacology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Johansson, Anders
    Neurology, Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Haubenberger, Dietrich
    NINDS Intramural Research Program, Clinical Trials Unit, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA.
    Nyholm, Dag
    Neurology, Neuroscience, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Automatic spiral analysis for objective assessment of motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To develop a method for objective quantification of PD motor symptoms related to Off episodes and peak dose dyskinesias, using spiral data gathered by using a touch screen telemetry device. The aim was to objectively characterize predominant motor phenotypes (bradykinesia and dyskinesia), to help in automating the process of visual interpretation of movement anomalies in spirals as rated by movement disorder specialists.

    Background: A retrospective analysis was conducted on recordings from 65 patients with advanced idiopathic PD from nine different clinics in Sweden, recruited from January 2006 until August 2010. In addition to the patient group, 10 healthy elderly subjects were recruited. Upper limb movement data were collected using a touch screen telemetry device from home environments of the subjects. Measurements with the device were performed four times per day during week-long test periods. On each test occasion, the subjects were asked to trace pre-drawn Archimedean spirals, using the dominant hand. The pre-drawn spiral was shown on the screen of the device. The spiral test was repeated three times per test occasion and they were instructed to complete it within 10 seconds. The device had a sampling rate of 10Hz and measured both position and time-stamps (in milliseconds) of the pen tip.

    Methods: Four independent raters (FB, DH, AJ and DN) used a web interface that animated the spiral drawings and allowed them to observe different kinematic features during the drawing process and to rate task performance. Initially, a number of kinematic features were assessed including ‘impairment’, ‘speed’, ‘irregularity’ and ‘hesitation’ followed by marking the predominant motor phenotype on a 3-category scale: tremor, bradykinesia and/or choreatic dyskinesia. There were only 2 test occasions for which all the four raters either classified them as tremor or could not identify the motor phenotype. Therefore, the two main motor phenotype categories were bradykinesia and dyskinesia. ‘Impairment’ was rated on a scale from 0 (no impairment) to 10 (extremely severe) whereas ‘speed’, ‘irregularity’ and ‘hesitation’ were rated on a scale from 0 (normal) to 4 (extremely severe). The proposed data-driven method consisted of the following steps. Initially, 28 spatiotemporal features were extracted from the time series signals before being presented to a Multilayer Perceptron (MLP) classifier. The features were based on different kinematic quantities of spirals including radius, angle, speed and velocity with the aim of measuring the severity of involuntary symptoms and discriminate between PD-specific (bradykinesia) and/or treatment-induced symptoms (dyskinesia). A Principal Component Analysis was applied on the features to reduce their dimensions where 4 relevant principal components (PCs) were retained and used as inputs to the MLP classifier. Finally, the MLP classifier mapped these components to the corresponding visually assessed motor phenotype scores for automating the process of scoring the bradykinesia and dyskinesia in PD patients whilst they draw spirals using the touch screen device. For motor phenotype (bradykinesia vs. dyskinesia) classification, the stratified 10-fold cross validation technique was employed.

    Results: There were good agreements between the four raters when rating the individual kinematic features with intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) of 0.88 for ‘impairment’, 0.74 for ‘speed’, 0.70 for ‘irregularity’, and moderate agreements when rating ‘hesitation’ with an ICC of 0.49. When assessing the two main motor phenotype categories (bradykinesia or dyskinesia) in animated spirals the agreements between the four raters ranged from fair to moderate. There were good correlations between mean ratings of the four raters on individual kinematic features and computed scores. The MLP classifier classified the motor phenotype that is bradykinesia or dyskinesia with an accuracy of 85% in relation to visual classifications of the four movement disorder specialists. The test-retest reliability of the four PCs across the three spiral test trials was good with Cronbach’s Alpha coefficients of 0.80, 0.82, 0.54 and 0.49, respectively. These results indicate that the computed scores are stable and consistent over time. Significant differences were found between the two groups (patients and healthy elderly subjects) in all the PCs, except for the PC3.

    Conclusions: The proposed method automatically assessed the severity of unwanted symptoms and could reasonably well discriminate between PD-specific and/or treatment-induced motor symptoms, in relation to visual assessments of movement disorder specialists. The objective assessments could provide a time-effect summary score that could be useful for improving decision-making during symptom evaluation of individualized treatment when the goal is to maximize functional On time for patients while minimizing their Off episodes and troublesome dyskinesias.

  • 205.
    Memedi, Mevludin
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering. Örebro universitet.
    Thomas, Ilias
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Nyholm, Dag
    Uppsala University Hospital.
    Westin, Jerker
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Senek, Marina
    Uppsala University Hospital.
    Medvedev, Alexander
    Uppsala University.
    Askmark, Håkan
    Uppsala University.
    Aquilonius, Sten-Magnus
    Uppsala University.
    Bergquist, Filip
    University of Gothenburg.
    Constantinescu, Radu
    Ohlsson, Fredrik
    Acreo AB.
    Spira, Jack
    Sensidose AB.
    Lycke, Sara
    Cenvigo AB.
    Ericsson, Anders
    Acreo AB.
    Construction of a levodopa-response index from wearable sensorsfor quantifying Parkinson’s disease motor functions: Preliminary results2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 206.
    Memedi, Mevludin
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Westin, Jerker
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Methods for detection of handwriting/drawing impairment using inputs from touch screens2011In: Recent Patents on Signal Processing, ISSN 2210-6863, Vol. 1, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fine motor dysfunction in patients with movement disorders, such as Parkinson’s disease, is characterized by slowness of movements, decrease of reaction time and involuntary movements. In this article, recent patents on detecting and assessing the said dysfunction are reviewed; their implementation in telemedicine settings, design considerations and ability to assist in dose and time adjustments are discussed. These patents explain application of signal processing techniques in analysis and interpretation of digitized handwriting/drawing information of individuals based on data gathered using touch screens. The study reveals that measures concerning forces, accelerations and radial displacements are the most relevant measurements to detect fine movement anomalies. These findings demonstrate that digitized analysis of handwriting/drawing movements may be useful in clinical trials evaluating fine motor control. This review further depicts the role of employing event-based data acquisition and signal processing techniques suitable for nonstationary signals, such as Wavelet transform, in systems for patient home-monitoring.

  • 207.
    Memedi, Mevludin
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Westin, Jerker
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Spiral drawing during self-rated dyskinesia is more impaired than during self-rated off2011In: 15th International Congress of Parkinson's Disease and Movement Disorders, Toronto, Canada, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: A mobile device test battery, consisting of a patient diary collection section with disease-related questions and a fine motor test section (including spiral drawing tasks), was used by 65 patients with advanced Parkinson's disease (PD)(treated with intraduodenal levodopa/carbidopa gel infusion, Duodopa®, or candidates for this treatment) on 10439 test occasions in their home environments. On each occasion, patients traced three pre-drawn Archimedes spirals using an ergonomic stylus and self-assessed their motor function on a global Treatment Response Scale (TRS) ranging from -3 = very 'off' to 0 = 'on' to +3 = very dyskinetic. The spirals were processed by a computer-based method that generates a "spiral score" representing the PD-related drawing impairment. The scale for the score was based on a modified Bain & Findley rating scale in the range from 0 = no impairment to 5 = moderate impairment to 10 = extremely severe impairment. Objective: To analyze the test battery data for the purpose to find differences in spiral drawing performance of PD patients in relation to their self-assessments of motor function. Methods: Three motor states were used in the analysis; OFF state (including moderate and very 'off'), ON state ('on') and a dyskinetic (DYS) state (moderate and very dyskinetic). In order to avoid the problem of multiple test occasions per patient, 200 random samples of single test occasions per patient were drawn. One-way analysis of variance, ANOVA, test followed by Tukey multiple comparisons test was used to test if mean values of spiral test parameters, i.e. the spiral score and drawing completion times (in seconds), were different among the three motor states. Statistical significance was set at p<0.05. To investigate changes in the spiral score over the time-of-day test sessions for the three motor states, plots of statistical summaries were inspected. Results: The mean spiral score differed significantly across the three self-assessed motor states (p<0.001, ANOVA test). Tukey post-hoc comparisons indicate that the mean spiral score (mean ± SD; [95% CI for mean]) in DYS state (5.2 ± 1.8; [5.12, 5.28]) was higher than the mean spiral score in OFF (4.3 ± 1.7; [4.22, 4.37]) and ON (4.2 ± 1.7; [4.17, 4.29]) states. The mean spiral score was also significantly different among individual TRS values of slightly 'off' (4.02 ± 1.63), 'on' (4.07 ± 1.65) and slightly dyskinetic (4.6 ± 1.71), (p<0.001). There were no differences in drawing completion times among the three motor states (p=0.509). In the OFF and ON states, patients drew slightly more impaired spirals in the afternoon whereas in the DYS state the spiral drawing performance was more impaired in the morning. Conclusion: It was found that when patients considered themselves as being dyskinetic spiral drawing was more impaired (nearly one unit change in a 0-10 scale) compared to when they considered themselves as being 'off' and 'on'. The spiral drawing at patients that self-assessed their motor state as dyskinetic was slightly more impaired in the morning hours, between 8 and 12 o'clock, a situation possibly caused by the morning dose effect.

  • 208.
    Memedi, Mevludin
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Westin, Jerker
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Nyholm, Dag
    Department of Neuroscience, Neurology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Spiral drawing during self-rated dyskinesia is more impaired than during self-rated off2013In: Parkinsonism & Related Disorders, ISSN 1353-8020, E-ISSN 1873-5126, Vol. 19, no 5, p. 553-556Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective. The purpose of this study was to examine repeated measures of fine motor function in relation to self-assessed motor conditions in Parkinson's disease (PD).

    Methods. One-hundred PD patients, 65 with advanced PD and 35 patients with different disease stages have utilized a test battery in a telemedicine setting. On each test occasion, they initially self-assessed their motor condition (from ‘very off’ to ‘very dyskinetic’) and then performed a set of fine motor tests (tapping and spiral drawings).

    Results. The motor tests scores were found to be the best during self-rated On. Self-rated dyskinesias caused more impaired spiral drawing performance (mean = 9.8% worse, P < 0.001) but at the same time tapping speed was faster (mean = 5.0% increase, P < 0.001), compared to scores in self-rated Off.

    Conclusions. The fine motor tests of the test battery capture different symptoms; the spiral impairment primarily relates to dyskinesias whereas the tapping speed captures the Off symptoms.

  • 209.
    Memedi, Mevludin
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Westin, Jerker
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Nyholm, Dag
    Dougherty, Mark
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Groth, Torgny
    A web application for follow-up of results from a mobile device test battery for Parkinson's disease patients2011In: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine, ISSN 0169-2607, E-ISSN 1872-7565, Vol. 104, no 2, p. 219-226Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes a web-based system for enabling remote monitoring of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and supporting clinicians in treating their patients. The system consists of a patient node for subjective and objective data collection based on a handheld computer, a service node for data storage and processing, and a web application for data presentation. Using statistical and machine learning methods, time series of raw data are summarized into scores for conceptual symptom dimensions and an "overall test score" providing a comprehensive profile of patient's health during a test period of about one week. The handheld unit was used quarterly or biannually by 65 patients with advanced PD for up to four years at nine clinics in Sweden. The IBM Computer System Usability Questionnaire was administered to assess nurses' satisfaction with the web application. Results showed that a majority of the nurses were quite satisfied with the usability although a sizeable minority were not. Our findings support that this system can become an efficient tool to easily access relevant symptom information from the home environment of PD patients. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 210.
    Memedi, Mevludin
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Westin, Jerker
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Nyholm, Dag
    Dougherty, Mark
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Groth, Torgny
    A web application for follow-up of results from a mobile device test battery for parkinson’s disease patients2010In: European Journal of Neurology, ISSN 1351-5101, E-ISSN 1468-1331Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: A test battery consisting of self-assessments and motor tests (tapping and spiral drawing) was developed for a hand computer with touch screen in a telemedicine setting.

    Objectives: To develop and evaluate a web-based system that delivers decision support information to the treating clinical staff for assessing PD symptoms in their patients based on the test battery data. Methods: The test battery is currently being used in a clinical trial (DAPHNE, EudraCT No. 2005-002654-21) by sixty five patients with advanced Parkinson’s disease (PD) on 9991 test occasions (four tests per day during in all 362 week-long test periods) at nine clinics around Sweden. Test results are sent continuously from the hand unit over a mobile net to a central computer and processed with statistical methods. They are summarized into scores for different dimensions of the symptom state and an ‘overall test score’ reflecting the overall condition of the patient during a test period. The information in the web application is organized and presented graphically in a way that the general overview of the patient performance per test period is emphasized. Focus is on the overall test score, symptom dimensions and daily summaries. In a recent preliminary user evaluation, the web application was demonstrated to the fifteen study nurses who had used the test battery in the clinical trial. At least one patient per clinic was shown.

    Results: In general, the responses from nurses were positive. They claimed that the test results shown in the system were consistent with their own clinical observations. They could follow complications, changes and trends within their patients.

    Discussion: In conclusion, the system is able to summarise the various time series of motor test results and self-assessments during test periods and present them in a useful manner. Its main contribution is a novel and reliable way to capture and easily access symptom information from patients’ home environment. The convenient access to current symptom profile as well as symptom history provides a basis for individualized evaluation and adjustment of treatments.

  • 211. Meng, Xiangli
    et al.
    Carling, Kenneth
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    Håkansson, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    Rebreyend, Pascal
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    How do administrative borders affect accessibility to hospitals? The case of Sweden2018In: International Journal of Health Planning and Management, ISSN 0749-6753, E-ISSN 1099-1751, Vol. 33, no 3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An administrative border might hinder the optimal allocation of a given set of resources by restricting the flow of goods, services, and people. In this paper, we address the question: Do administrative borders lead to poor accessibility to public service? In answering the question, we have examined the case of Sweden and its regional administrative borders and hospital accessibility. We have used detailed data on the Swedish road network, its hospitals, and its geo-coded population. We have assessed the population's spatial accessibility to Swedish hospitals by computing the inhabitants' distance to the nearest hospital. We have also elaborated several scenarios ranging from strongly confining regional borders to no confinements of borders and recomputed the accessibility. Our findings imply that administrative borders are only marginally worsening the accessibility.

  • 212.
    Meng, Xiangli
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Carling, Kenneth
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Håkansson, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems. Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Rebreyend, Pascal
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    On administrative borders and accessibility to public services:: The case of hospitals in Sweden.2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    An administrative border might hinder the optimal allocation of a given set of resources by restricting the flow of goods, services, and people. In this paper we address the question: Do administrative borders lead to poor accessibility to public service such as hospitals? In answering the question, we have examined the case of Sweden and its regional borders. We have used detailed data on the Swedish road network, its hospitals, and its geo-coded population. We have assessed the population’s spatial accessibility to Swedish hospitals by computing the inhabitants’ distance to the nearest hospital. We have also elaborated several scenarios ranging from strongly confining regional borders to no confinements of borders and recomputed the accessibility. Our findings imply that administrative borders are only marginally worsening the accessibility.

  • 213.
    Meng, Xiangli
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Rebreyend, Pascal
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    From the road network database to a graph for localization purposes2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The problems of finding best facility locations require complete and accurate road network with the corresponding population data in a specific area. However the data obtained in road network databases usually do not fit in this usage. In this paper we propose our procedure of converting the road network database to a road graph which could be used in localization problems. The road network data come from the National road data base in Sweden. The graph derived is cleaned, and reduced to a suitable level for localization problems. The population points are also processed in ordered to match with that graph. The reduction of the graph is done maintaining most of the accuracy for distance measures in the network.

  • 214.
    Meng, Xiangli
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Rebreyend, Pascal
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    On transforming a road network database to a graph for localization purpose2016In: International Journal of Web Services Research, ISSN 1545-7362, E-ISSN 1546-5004, Vol. 13, no 2, p. 46-55Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The problems of finding best facility locations require complete and accurate road networks with the corresponding population data in a specific area. However the data obtained from road network databases usually do not fit in this usage. In this paper we propose a procedure of converting the road network database to a road graph which could be used for localization problems. Several challenging problems exist in the transformation process which are commonly met also in other data bases. The procedure of dealing with those challenges are proposed. The data come from the National road data base in Sweden. The graph derived is cleaned, and reduced to a suitable level for localization problems. The residential points are also processed in ordered to match the graph. The reduction of the graph is done maintaining the accuracy of distance measures in the network.

  • 215. Meszyński, Sebastian
    et al.
    Nyberg, Roger G.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    Yella, Siril
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Agent-based modelling and simulation of insulin-glucose subsystem2016In: Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Intelligent Systems and Applications, 2016, p. 63-68Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mathematical analytical modeling and computer simulation of the physiological system is a complex problem with great number of variables and equations. The objective of this research is to describe the insulin-glucose subsystem using multi-agent modeling based on intelligence agents. Such an approach makes the modeling process easier and clearer to understand; moreover, new agents can be added or removed more easily to any investigations. The Stolwijk-Hardy mathematical model is used in two ways firstly by simulating the analytical model and secondly by dividing up the same model into several agents in a multiagent system. In the proposed approach a multi-agent system was used to build a model for glycemic homeostasis. Agents were used to represent the selected elements of the human body that play an active part in this process. The experiments conducted show that the multi-agent model has good temporal stability with the implemented behaviors, and good reproducibility and stability of the results. It has also shown that no matter what the order of communication between agents, the value of the result of the simulation was not affected. The results obtained from using the framework of multi-agent system actions were consistent with the results obtained with insulin-glucose models using analytical modeling.

  • 216.
    Mohammed, Sirajuddin
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    PERFORMANCE EVOLUTION OF PEER TO PEER NETWORKS2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis work concerns about the Performance evolution of peer to peer networks, where we used different distribution technique’s of peer distribution like Weibull, Lognormal and Pareto distribution process. Then we used a network simulator to evaluate the performance of these three distribution techniques. During the last decade the Internet has expanded into a world-wide network connecting millions of hosts and users and providing services for everyone. Many emerging applications are bandwidth-intensive in their nature; the size of downloaded files including music and videos can be huge, from ten megabits to many gigabits. The efficient use of network resources is thus crucial for the survivability of the Internet. Traffic engineering (TE) covers a range of mechanisms for optimizing operational networks from the traffic perspective. The time scale in traffic engineering varies from the short-term network control to network planning over a longer time period. Here in this thesis work we considered the peer distribution technique in-order to minimise the peer arrival and service process with three different techniques, where we calculated the congestion parameters like blocking time for each peer before entering into the service process, waiting time for a peers while the other peer has been served in the service block and the delay time for each peer. Then calculated the average of each process and graphs have been plotted using Matlab to analyse the results

  • 217.
    Mohsin, Farrukh
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    A web based decision support system for status assessment in advanced parkinson2006Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this work is to develop a web based decision support system, based on fuzzy logic, to assess the motor state of Parkinson patients on their performance in onscreen motor tests in a test battery on a hand computer. A set of well defined rules, based on an expert’s knowledge, were made to diagnose the current state of the patient. At the end of a period, an overall score is calculated which represents the overall state of the patient during the period. Acceptability of the rules is based on the absolute difference between patient’s own assessment of his condition and the diagnosed state. Any inconsistency can be tracked by highlighted as an alert in the system. Graphical presentation of data aims at enhanced analysis of patient’s state and performance monitoring by the clinic staff. In general, the system is beneficial for the clinic staff, patients, project managers and researchers.

  • 218.
    Mondal, Chandra Shekhar
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    QoS Evaluation of Bandwidth Schedulers in IPTV Networks Offered SRD Fluid Video Traffic2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Internet protocol TV (IPTV) is predicted to be the key technology winner in the future. Efforts to accelerate the deployment of IPTV centralized model which is combined of VHO, encoders, controller, access network and Home network. Regardless of whether the network is delivering live TV, VOD, or Time-shift TV, all content and network traffic resulting from subscriber requests must traverse the entire network from the super-headend all the way to each subscriber's Set-Top Box (STB).IPTV services require very stringent QoS guarantees When IPTV traffic shares the network resources with other traffic like data and voice, how to ensure their QoS and efficiently utilize the network resources is a key and challenging issue. For QoS measured in the network-centric terms of delay jitter, packet losses and bounds on delay. The main focus of this thesis is on the optimized bandwidth allocation and smooth data transmission. The proposed traffic model for smooth delivering video service IPTV network with its QoS performance evaluation. According to Maglaris et al [5] First, analyze the coding bit rate of a single video source. Various statistical quantities are derived from bit rate data collected with a conditional replenishment inter frame coding scheme. Two correlated Markov process models (one in discrete time and one in continuous time) are shown to fit the experimental data and are used to model the input rates of several independent sources into a statistical multiplexer. Preventive control mechanism which is to be include CAC, traffic policing used for traffic control. QoS has been evaluated of common bandwidth scheduler( FIFO) by use fluid models with Markovian queuing method and analysis the result by using simulator and analytically, Which is measured the performance of the packet loss, overflow and mean waiting time among the network users.

  • 219.
    Monori, Akos
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Task assignment optimization in SAP Extended Warehouse Management2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Nowadays in the world of mass consumption there is big demand for distribution centers of bigger size. Managing such a center is a very complex and difficult task regarding to the different processes and factors in a usual warehouse when we want to minimize the labor costs. Most of the workers’ working time is spent with traveling between source and destination points which cause deadheading. Even if a worker knows the structure of a warehouse well and because of that he or she can find the shortest path between two points, it is still not guaranteed that there won’t be long traveling time between the locations of two consecutive tasks. We need optimal assignments between tasks and workers. In the scientific literature Generalized Assignment Problem (GAP) is a wellknown problem which deals with the assignment of m workers to n tasks considering several constraints. The primary purpose of my thesis project was to choose a heuristics (genetic algorithm, tabu search or ant colony optimization) to be implemented into SAP Extended Warehouse Management (SAP EWM) by with task assignment will be more effective between tasks and resources. After system analysis I had to realize that due different constraints and business demands only 1:1 assingments are allowed in SAP EWM. Because of that I had to use a different and simpler approach – instead of the introduced heuristics – which could gain better assignments during the test phase in several cases. In the thesis I described in details what ware the most important questions and problems which emerged during the planning of my optimized assignment method.

  • 220.
    Moroney, Gerard
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Utveckling av en ny modul i WM-datas arbetsorderhanteringssystem för registrering av snöröjning respektive sandning2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    WM-data tillhandahåller en lösning för mobil arbetsorderhantering. Lösningen innehåller planeringsverktyg med ärenden, personal och karta och möjlighet att leverera arbetsorder till fältpersonal. Den innehåller dessutom handhållna mobilenheter, vilka fältpersonalen använder för att ta emot aktuella arbetsorder. Vissa kunder önskar ytterligare en modul i denna mobila lösning. Den nya modulen skall användas för att kontinuerligt rapportera in genomförda åtgärder i snöröjningssammanhang. Detta examensarbete går ut på att utveckla den här modulen för att registrera snöröjning respektive sandning. Applikationen exekveras på en PDA, en så kallad Pocket PC med Windows Mobile 5.0. Anledningen till att just Windows Mobile 5.0 skall användas är att detta operativsystem har inbyggt stöd för GPS-positionering. Ett önskemål av WM-data var att detta inbyggda stöd skulle undersökas, rapporteras och användas i applikationen. Resultatet blev en applikation där man via en Pocket PC kontinuerligt sparar undan fordons GPS-position, arbetsåtgärd samt tidpunkterna när GPS-positionerna togs. Denna information är sedan anpassad för att kunna skickas vidare via GPRS till en befintlig databasserver under vissa tidsintervaller. Applikationen utvecklades med hjälp av programmeringsspråket C Sharp (C#) i Visual Studio 2005.

  • 221.
    Muhammad, Imran
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Colorizing Grey Scale Images2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this thesis is to develop a working methodology to color a grey scale image. This thesis is based on approach of using a colored reference image. Coloring grey scale images has no exact solution till date and all available methods are based on approximation. This technique of using a color reference image for approximating color information in grey scale image is among most modern techniques. Method developed here in this paper is better than existing methods of approximation of color information addition in grey scale images in brightness, sharpness, color shade gradients and distribution of colors over objects. Color and grey scale images are analyzed for statistical and textural features. This analysis is done only on basis of luminance value in images. These features are then segmented and segments of color and grey scale images are mapped on basis of distances of segments from origin. Then chromatic values are transferred between these matched segments from color image to grey scale image. Technique proposed in this paper uses better mechanism of mapping clusters and mapping colors between segments, resulting in notable improvement in existing techniques in this category.

  • 222.
    Mumtaz, Al Hasanat Rasul Mujahid Bin
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Adaptive Colour Segmentation for Traffic Sign Recognition using SOM2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report proposed a new adaptive approach for segmentation of traffic signs in different conditions and countries for the Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) using Kohonen’s Self-Organizing Maps (SOM). HSV colour space, which is considered as stable, is used for the training of the SOM network. The main concentration of the report is red, blue and yellow colours. Search boundary values for these colours are obtained after research on the traffic sign images in different conditions. The dynamic segmentation is done by BMU’s obtained with SOM for the test image close to the desired colours in the search boundary in traffic sign images and discarding the unwanted areas. The image segmented by Adaptive Segmentation Algorithm is passed to the Region Growing Algorithm (RGA) which removes additional unwanted areas from the segmented region. Multistage Median Filter is then applied to remove the salt and pepper noise from the segmented image to give the final segmented image. The Adaptive algorithm designed is giving promising results for the segmentation of these colours in the traffic signs for different environmental conditions such as fog, highlight, bad lighting, rainfall, snowfall and other conditions such as faded and blurred images. A good improvement of 73% is observed in the faded signs as compared to 53.3 % of the Shadow and Highlight Invariant Algorithm. The adaptability of the system is evident from the segmentation of the traffic sign images from various countries where the result is 100 % for 6 out of 9 countries. The algorithm is giving very good results for the blue and yellow colours of traffic signs as well reflecting its powerful nature.

  • 223.
    Murugan, Anandaraj Soundarya Raja
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    University Timetabling using Genetic Algorithm2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The field of automated timetabling and scheduling meeting all the requirements that we call constraints is always difficult task and already proved as NP Complete. The idea behind my research is to implement Genetic Algorithm on general scheduling problem under predefined constraints and check the validity of results, and then I will explain the possible usage of other approaches like expert systems, direct heuristics, network flows, simulated annealing and some other approaches. It is observed that Genetic Algorithm is good solution technique for solving such problems. The program written in C++ and analysis is done with using various tools explained in details later.

  • 224.
    Mustafa, Golam
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    User interest modelling and recommendation algorithm for the future interactive television2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The goal of this research is to develop effective learning algorithms that will predict the viewers viewing pattern, retrieve the related tv-event on the basis of viewer viewing pattern that could be useful for recommender system of interactive TV. An efficient data model for electronic program guide (EPG) has been proposed which will be beneficial for overall system. We have performed some experiments to show the validity of our system.

  • 225.
    Noor, Muhammad Asif
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Frequency Assignment Problem in Cellular Networks2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
  • 226.
    Nordström, Ernst
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    A new MDP model for CAC of self-similar call traffic2005In: Knowledge Foundation Conference, Karlstad, 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 227.
    Nordström, Ernst
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    An embedded link MDP model with application to call admission control2005In: Knowledge foundation conference, Borlänge, 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 228.
    Nordström, Ernst
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    CAC and routing of self-similar call traffic based on Markov decision theory2003In: The KK conference, Visby, 2003Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 229.
    Nordström, Ernst
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Communication research at Dalarna University2005In: Second Swedish National Computer Networking Workshop, Karlstad, 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 230.
    Nordström, Ernst
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Carlström, Jakob
    Communication networks: a new reward model for MDP state aggregation with application to CAC and routing2005In: European transactions on telecommunications, ISSN 1124-318X, E-ISSN 2161-3915, Vol. 16, no 6, p. 495-508Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An optimal solution of the call admission control and routing problem in multi-service loss networks, in terms of average reward per time unit, is possible by modeling the network behavior as a Markov decision process (MDP). However, even after applying the standard link independence assumption, the solution of the corresponding set of link problems may involve considerable numerical computation. In this paper, we study an approximate MDP framework on the link level, where vector-valued MDP states are mapped into a set of aggregate scalar MDP states corresponding to link occupancies. In particular, we propose a new model of the expected reward for admitting a call on the network. Compared to Krishnan's and Hübner's method [11], our reward model more accurately reflects the bandwidth occupancy by different call categories. The exact and approximate link MDP frameworks are compared by simulations, and the results show that the proposed link reward model significantly improves the performance of Krishnan's and Hübner's method.

  • 231.
    Nordström, Ernst
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Dziong, Zbigniew
    CAC and routing for multi-service networks with blocked wide-band calls delayed, part I: exact link MDP framework2006In: European transactions on telecommunications, ISSN 1124-318X, E-ISSN 2161-3915, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 21-36Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we study the call admission control (CAC) and routing issue in multi-service networks. Two categories of calls are considered: a narrow-band (NB) with blocked calls cleared and a wide-band (WB) with blocked calls delayed. The objective function is formulated as reward maximisation with penalty for delay. The optimisation is subject to quality of service (QoS) constraints and, possibly, grade of service (GoS) constraints. A suboptimal solution is achieved by applying Markov decision process (MDP) theory together with a two-level approximation. First, the network is decomposed into a set of links assumed to have independent Markov and reward processes respectively. Second, the dimensions of the link Markov and reward processes are reduced by aggregation of the call classes into call categories. The CAC and routing policy is computed by the policy iteration algorithm from MDP theory. The numerical results show that the proposed CAC and routing method, based on the exact link MDP framework, is able to find an efficient trade-off between reward loss and average call set-up delay, outperforming conventional methods such as the least loaded routing (LLR).

  • 232.
    Nordström, Ernst
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Dziong, Zbigniew
    CAC and routing for multi-service networks with blocked wide-band calls delayed, Part II: approximative link MDP framework2007In: European transactions on telecommunications, ISSN 1124-318X, E-ISSN 2161-3915, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 13-33Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we study the call admission control (CAC) and routing issue in multi-service networks. Two categories of calls are considered: a narrow-band with blocked calls cleared and a wide-band with blocked calls delayed. The optimisation is subject to several quality of service (QoS) constraints, either on the packet or call level. The objective function is formulated as reward maximisation with penalty for delay. A suboptimal solution is achieved by applying Markov decision process (MDP) theory together with a three-level approximation. First, the network is decomposed into a set of links assumed to have independent Markov and reward processes respectively. Second, the dimensions of the link Markov and reward processes are reduced by aggregation of the call classes into call categories. Third, by applying decomposition of the link Markov process, the link MDP tasks are simplified considerably. The CAC and routing policy is computed by the policy iteration algorithm from MDP theory. The numerical results show that the proposed CAC and routing method, based on the approximate link MDP framework, is able to find an efficient trade-off between reward loss and average call set-up delay, outperforming conventional methods such as least loaded routing (LLR).

  • 233.
    Norouzi, Foad
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Measuring Application Availability, Usage and Performance: Implementation of EnView System2006Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The main objective for this degree project is to implement an Application Availability Monitoring (AAM) system named Softek EnView for Fujitsu Services. The aim of implementing the AAM system is to proactively identify end user performance problems, such as application and site performance, before the actual end users experience them. No matter how well applications and sites are designed and no matter how well they meet business requirements, they are useless to the end users if the performance is slow and/or unreliable. It is important for the customers to find out whether the end user problems are caused by the network or application malfunction. The Softek EnView was comprised of the following EnView components: Robot, Monitor, Reporter, Collector and Repository. The implemented system, however, is designed to use only some of these EnView elements: Robot, Reporter and depository. Robots can be placed at any key user location and are dedicated to customers, which means that when the number of customers increases, at the same time the amount of Robots will increase. To make the AAM system ideal for the company to use, it was integrated with Fujitsu Services’ centralised monitoring system, BMC PATROL Enterprise Manager (PEM). That was actually the reason for deciding to drop the EnView Monitor element. After the system was fully implemented, the AAM system was ready for production. Transactions were (and are) written and deployed on Robots to simulate typical end user actions. These transactions are configured to run with certain intervals, which are defined collectively with customers. While they are driven against customers’ applications automatically, transactions collect availability data and response time data all the time. In case of a failure in transactions, the robot immediately quits the transaction and writes detailed information to a log file about what went wrong and which element failed while going through an application. Then an alert is generated by a BMC PATROL Agent based on this data and is sent to the BMC PEM. Fujitsu Services’ monitoring room receives the alert, reacts to it according to the incident management process in ITIL and by alerting system specialists on critical incidents to resolve problems. As a result of the data gathered by the Robots, weekly reports, which contain detailed statistics and trend analyses of ongoing quality of IT services, is provided for the Customers.

  • 234.
    Nosa, Ogbewi
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Signal Processing and pattern recognition algorithm for monitoring Parkinson’s disease.2006Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This masters thesis describes the development of signal processing and pattern recognition in monitoring Parkison’s disease. It involves the development of a signal process algorithm and passing it into a pattern recogniton algorithm also. These algorithms are used to determine , predict and make a conclusion on the study of parkison’s disease. We get to understand the nature of how the parkinson’s disease is in humans.

  • 235.
    Nyberg, Mattias
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Changing to a Biometric Access System: and Its Effect on the Work Environment2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 236.
    Nyberg, Roger G.
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering. Edinburgh Napier University.
    Gupta, Narendra K.
    Edinburgh Napier University.
    Yella, Siril
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Dougherty, Mark
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Machine vision for condition monitoring vegetation on railway embankments2015In: 6th IET Conference on Railway Condition Monitoring (RCM 2014), The Institution of Engineering and Technology (IET) , 2015, p. 3.2.1-3.2.1Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    National Railway Administrations in Northern Europe do not employ systematic procedures in monitoring the current state of vegetation to form the basis of maintenance decision making. Current day vegetation maintenance is largely based on human visual estimates. This paper investigates a machine vision (MV) approach to be able to automatically quantify the amount of vegetation on a given railway section. An investigation assessing the reliability of human estimates is also conducted along the same railway section.A machine vision algorithm was developed and implemented. Initially, the algorithm determines a region of interest (ROI), i.e. the desired monitored area in each collected image. This ROI is dependent on fixed objects in the image, namely the two rails. When the rails are found the algorithm will compute the ROI, which is predetermined by e.g. the railway administrator. After this, a perspective projection correction will be made, and the vegetation will be segmented. Cover is reported as a percentage of the total ROI for each image. Results: The machine vision algorithm is capable of processing 98% of the images. Failure in the remaining 2% of cases is attributed to the algorithms' inability in find the rails within the image. Analysis of variance tests were conducted to compare the observers cover assessments in sample plots. Upon comparing the observers plot wise mean estimates with the machine vision output, results show that the human visual estimates do not correlate with the results reported by the machine vision output. As such, the result indicates that it is very hard to fit human estimates by regression with the machine vision result. Additionally the results show that humans are not in agreement with each other, and often are exaggerating the extent of vegetation cover compared to the machine vision output.The investigation shows that one should be very careful when trusting/interpreting human visual estimates. In conclusion, based on the results, the automated machine vision solution is proposed as complementing, or replacing, manual human inspections serving as a base for vegetation control decisions. Impact: By objectively measuring the quantity of vegetation, the maintenance planning and procurement can be effectively improved over time. A machine vision approach for condition monitoring of vegetation will enable condition based maintenance with prior consideration on issues mainly relevant to vegetation type, quantity and biodiversity.

  • 237.
    Nyberg, Roger G.
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering. School of Engineering and the Built Environment, Edinburgh Napier University, EH10 5DT Edinburgh, UK.
    Gupta, Narendra K.
    School of Engineering and the Built Environment, Edinburgh Napier University, EH10 5DT Edinburgh, UK.
    Yella, Siril
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Dougherty, Mark
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Monitoring vegetation on railway embankments: supporting maintenance decisions2013In: Proceedings of the 2013 International Conference on Ecology and Transportation, 2013, p. 1-18Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The national railway administrations in Scandinavia, Germany, and Austria mainly resort to manual inspections to control vegetation growth along railway embankments. Manually inspecting railways is slow and time consuming. A more worrying aspect concerns the fact that human observers are often unable to estimate the true cover of vegetation on railway embankments. Further human observers often tend to disagree with each other when more than one observer is engaged for inspection. Lack of proper techniques to identify the true cover of vegetation even result in the excess usage of herbicides; seriously harming the environment and threating the ecology. Hence work in this study has investigated aspects relevant to human variationand agreement to be able to report better inspection routines. This was studied by mainly carrying out two separate yet relevant investigations.First, thirteen observers were separately asked to estimate the vegetation cover in nine imagesacquired (in nadir view) over the railway tracks. All such estimates were compared relatively and an analysis of variance resulted in a significant difference on the observers’ cover estimates (p<0.05). Bearing in difference between the observers, a second follow-up field-study on the railway tracks was initiated and properly investigated. Two railway segments (strata) representingdifferent levels of vegetationwere carefully selected. Five sample plots (each covering an area of one-by-one meter) were randomizedfrom each stratumalong the rails from the aforementioned segments and ten images were acquired in nadir view. Further three observers (with knowledge in the railway maintenance domain) were separately asked to estimate the plant cover by visually examining theplots. Again an analysis of variance resulted in a significant difference on the observers’ cover estimates (p<0.05) confirming the result from the first investigation.The differences in observations are compared against a computer vision algorithm which detects the "true" cover of vegetation in a given image. The true cover is defined as the amount of greenish pixels in each image as detected by the computer vision algorithm. Results achieved through comparison strongly indicate that inconsistency is prevalent among the estimates reported by the observers. Hence, an automated approach reporting the use of computer vision is suggested, thus transferring the manual inspections into objective monitored inspections

  • 238.
    Nyberg, Roger G.
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering. Edinburgh Napier University, Scotland, UK.
    Gupta, Narendra
    Edinburgh Napier University, Scotland, UK.
    Yella, Siril
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Dougherty, Mark
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Detecting Plants on Railway Embankments2013In: Journal of Software Engineering and Applications, ISSN 1945-3116, E-ISSN 1945-3124, Vol. 6, no 3B, p. 8-12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates problems concerning vegetation along railways and proposes automatic means of detecting ground vegetation. Digital images of railway embankments have been acquired and used for the purpose. The current work mainly proposes two algorithms to be able to achieve automation. Initially a vegetation detection algorithm has been investigated for the purpose of detecting vegetation. Further a rail detection algorithm that is capable of identifying the rails and eventually the valid sampling area has been investigated. Results achieved in the current work report satisfactory (qualitative) detection rates.

  • 239.
    Nyberg, Roger G.
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    Yella, Siril
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Gupta, Narendra K.
    Edinburgh Napier University.
    Dougherty, Mark
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Inter-rater reliability in determining the types of vegetation on railway trackbeds2015In: Web Information Systems Engineering – WISE 2015: 16th International Conference, Miami, FL, USA, November 1-3, 2015, Proceedings, Part II / [ed] Wang, J., Cellary, W., Wang, D., Wang, H., Chen, S.-C., Li, T., Zhang, Y., Springer, 2015, Vol. 9419, p. 379-390Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vegetation growing on railway trackbeds and embankments can present several potential problems. Consequently, such vegetation iscontrolled through various maintenance procedures. In order to investigate the extent of maintenance needed, one of the first steps in anymaintenance procedure is to monitor or inspect the railway section in question. Monitoring is often carried out manually by sending out inspectorsor by watching recorded video clips of the section in question.To facilitate maintenance planning, the ability to assess the extent of vegetation becomes important. This paper investigates the reliability ofhuman assessments of vegetation on railway trackbeds.In this study, five maintenance engineers made independent visual estimates of vegetation cover and counted the number of plant clusters fromimages.The test results showed an inconsistency between the raters when it came to visually estimating plant cover and counting plant clusters. The resultsshowed that caution should be exercised when interpreting individual raters’ assessments of vegetation.

  • 240.
    Ogeskär, Tobias
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Forensisk analys av volatilt minne från operativsystemet OS X2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The need to analyze volatile memory on Macintosh computers with OS X has become increasingly important due to the fact that their computers have become more popular and volatile memory analysis has become a more important part of an IT-forensics work. The reason volatile memory analysis has become more important is that it's possible to find information that’s not stored permanently on the computer’s hard drive. The problem that formed the basis for this thesis was that it was obvious there was a lack of methods of investigation of the volatile memory for Macs running OS X.The aim of this work was therefore to investigate the possibility of extracting information from a volatile memory from a Mac computer with OS X by identifying and assessing different methods of investigation. To do this investigation, literature studies, informal interviews, own knowledge and practical attempts have been conducted.It was concluded that the ability to extract information from the volatile memory from a Mac-computer with OS X is relatively limited. The biggest problem is the dumping of the memory. Many of the available dumping methods require administrative rights. When analyzing a memory dump you should never rely on one analyze method since different analyze methods give different results that can be useful for further investigation of a Mac-computer.

  • 241.
    Olsson, Jonas
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Android file browsing: Comparing file explorer features andforensic artefacts2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The goal of this work was to determine what kind of traces of user activity is left by the most popular filemanagers available on Android. This was determined by investigating their functionality, deciding onappropriate data and actions to test them and then go through them one app at a time, saving the state of filescreated by the app in-between different actions.Investigating the files that were generated by apps showed that there is a wide variety of traces depending onwhich app it was and what features it had. Some apps focus on device information while others are moreaimed at the files themselves, some even cataloguing all of the files, their sizes and location on the device.Many of them save thumbnails of pictures the user has viewed, which are kept even when that picture itselfis deleted.Not all information used in the app features was able to be gathered since the exact location they are storedwas not determined before the end of the work. However the information that was gathered was enough tostate that there is potential value in including this kind of application during a forensics investigation.

  • 242.
    Paidi, Vijay
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    Fleyeh, Hasan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Parking Occupancy Detection Using Thermal Camera2019In: Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Vehicle Technology and Intelligent Transport Systems - Volume 1: VEHITS, 2019, p. 483-490Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Parking a vehicle is a daunting task during peak hours. The search for a parking space leads to congestion and increased air pollution. Information of a vacant parking space would facilitate to reduce congestion and subsequent air pollution. This paper aims to identify parking occupancy in an open parking lot which consists of free parking spaces using a thermal camera. A thermal camera is capable of detecting vehicles in any weather and light conditions based on emitted heat and it can also be installed in public places with less restrictions. However, a thermal camera is expensive compared to a colour camera. A thermal camera can detect vehicles based on the emitted heat without any illumination. Vehicles appear bright or dark based on heat emitted by the vehicles. In order to identify vehicles, pre-trained vehicle detection algorithms, Histogram of Oriented Gradient detectors, Faster Regional Convolutional Neural Network (FRCNN) and modified Faster RCNN deep learning networks were implemented in this paper. The detection rates of the detectors reduced with diminishing of heat in the vehicles. Modified Faster RCNN deep learning network produced better detection results compared to other detectors. However, the detection rates can further be improved with larger and diverse training dataset.

  • 243.
    Paidi, Vijay
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    Fleyeh, Hasan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Håkansson, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    Nyberg, Roger G.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    Smart parking sensors, technologies and applications for open parking lots: a review2018In: IET Intelligent Transport Systems, ISSN 1751-956X, E-ISSN 1751-9578, Vol. 12, no 8, p. 735-741Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Parking a vehicle in traffic dense environments often leads to excess time of driving in search for free space which leads to congestions and environmental pollution. Lack of guidance information to vacant parking spaces is one reason for inefficient parking behaviour. Smart parking sensors and technologies facilitate guidance of drivers to free parking spaces thereby improving parking efficiency. Currently, no such sensors or technologies is in use for open parking lot. This paper reviews the literature on the usage of smart parking sensors, technologies, applications and evaluate their applicability to open parking lots. Magnetometers, ultrasonic sensors and machine vision were few of the widely used sensors and technologies on closed parking lots. However, this paper suggests a combination of machine vision, convolutional neural network or multi-agent systems suitable for open parking lots due to less expenditure and resistance to varied environmental conditions. Few smart parking applications show drivers the location of common open parking lots. No application provided real time parking occupancy information, which is a necessity to guide them along the shortest route to free space. To develop smart parking applications for open parking lots, further research is needed in the fields of deep learning and multi-agent systems.

  • 244.
    Paidi, Vijay
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    Fleyeh, Hasan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Håkansson, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    Nyberg, Roger G.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    Smart Parking Tools Suitability for Open Parking Lots: A Review2018In: Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Vehicle Technology and Intelligent Transport Systems, Madeira, 2018, p. 600-609Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Parking a vehicle in traffic dense environments is a common issue in many parts of the world which oftenleads to congestion and environmental pollution. Lack of guidance information to vacant parking spaces isone of the reasons for inefficient parking behaviour. Smart parking sensors and technologies facilitateguidance of drivers to free parking spaces thereby improving parking efficiency. Currently, no such sensorsor technologies are in use for the common open parking lot. This paper reviews the literature on the usage ofsmart parking sensors, technologies, applications and evaluate their suitability to open parking lots. Suitabilitywas made in terms of expenditure and reliability. Magnetometers, ultrasonic sensors and machine vision werefew of the widely used sensors and technologies used in closed parking lots. However, this paper suggests acombination of machine vision, fuzzy logic or multi-agent systems suitable for open parking lots due to lessexpenditure and resistance to varied environmental conditions. No application provided real time parkingoccupancy information of open parking lots, which is a necessity to guide them along the shortest route tofree space. To develop smart parking applications for open parking lots, further research is needed in the fieldsof deep learning.

  • 245.
    Paidi, Vijay
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    Fleyeh, Hasan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Nyberg, Roger G.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    Deep learning-based vehicle occupancy detection in an open parking lot using thermal camera2019In: Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Parking vehicle is a daunting task and a common problem in many cities around the globe. The search for parking space leads to congestion, frustration and increased air pollution. Information of a vacant parking space would facilitate to reduce congestion and subsequent air pollution. Therefore, aim of the paper is to acquire vehicle occupancy in an open parking lot using deep learning. Thermal camera was used to collect the data during varying environmental conditions such as; sunny, dusk, dawn, dark and snowy conditions. Vehicle detection with deep learning was implemented where image classification and object localization were performed for multi object detection. The dataset consists of 527 images which were manually labelled as there were no pre-labelled thermal images available. Multiple deep learning networks such as Yolo, ReNet18, ResNet50 and GoogleNet with varying layers and architectures were evaluated on vehicle detection. Yolo, GoogleNet and ResNet18 are computationally efficient detectors which took less processing time while Resnet50 produced better detection results compared to other detectors. However, ResNet18 also produced minimal miss rates and is suitable for real time vehicle detection. The detected results were compared with a template of parking spaces and IoU value is used to identify vehicle occupancy information.

    The full text will be freely available from 2019-10-31 21:26
  • 246.
    Peng, Qiu
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Characters Extraction for Traffic Sign Destination boards in video and still images2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Traffic Control Signs or destination boards on roadways offer significant information for drivers. Regulation signs tell something like your speed, turns, etc; Warning signs warn drivers of conditions ahead to help them avoid accidents; Destination signs show distances and directions to various locations; Service signs display location of hospitals, gas and rest areas etc. Because the signs are so important and there is always a certain distance from them to drivers, to let the drivers get information clearly and easily even in bad weather or other situations. The idea is to develop software which can collect useful information from a special camera which is mounted in the front of a moving car to extract the important information and finally show it to the drivers. For example, when a frame contains on a destination drive sign board it will be text something like "Linkoping 50",so the software should extract every character of "Linkoping 50", compare them with the already known character data in the database. if there is extracted character match "k" in the database then output the destination name and show to the driver. In this project C++ will be used to write the code for this software.

  • 247.
    Pettersson, Kim
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Android Messaging Investigator: Forensic text analysis tool for SMS, Kik and Hangouts conversations2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    With increasing usage of smartphones and text messaging through SMS and instant messaging applications, comes an increased need to be able to effectively analyze textual content in a forensic manner. Many of the common forensic applications relies on simple key word searching and regular expressions to find potential evidence in smartphones.

    In this report a forensic analysis application for Android SMS, Kik and Hangouts conversations named Android Messaging Investigator (AMINV) is proposed.

    The application aims to make the forensic analysis more effective by providing the forensic investigator with sentiment analysis technology. A message written with a negative mood might contain threats or harassments that may be of interest during a forensic investigation.

    Visualization is offered to make it possible for the forensic investigator to gain an extensive visual overview over conversation and sentiment data. Common forensic software features as being able to create forensic cases, search and filter data, save evidence, validate input data through hash-sums and generating forensic reports are also provided.

    The report covers the whole software implementation process. The final results are the developed forensic application, performance measurements of the sentiment analysis tool, a general performance analysis and an extensive stress-test.

  • 248.
    Pettersson, Mattias
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Detektering av långsam portskanning i realtidssystem2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this report I describe my investigation of a method for slow port scanning detec-tion in a real-time analysis system. Port scanning is used as a reconnaissance technique used by perpetrators in the IT world. It is used to form an idea of any vulnerabilities that may exist in a network. Slow port scanning is used to try to bypass detection systems and thus able to per-form a scan without being detected. Slow port scanning detection may be resource-intensive for the computer memory since a large buffer is traditionally established to analyze network traffic over a longer period of time. There are also solutions that analyze netflow data, which provides less information and is unable to detect port scanning in real time. I have created a detection system where I investigate the possibility of using data-base in order to detect slow port scanning. The method is part of a system that ana-lyzes real-time packages. The result is a program is capable of doing just that. It detects regular port scan attacks in real time and slow attacks through presentation of the database.

  • 249.
    Podder, Tanmay
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    ANALYSIS & STUDY OF AI TECHNIQUES FOR AUTOMATIC CONDITION MONITORING OF RAILWAY TRACK INFRASTRUCTURE: Artificial Intelligence Techniques2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Since the last decade the problem of surface inspection has been receiving great attention from the scientific community, the quality control and the maintenance of products are key points in several industrial applications.The railway associations spent much money to check the railway infrastructure. The railway infrastructure is a particular field in which the periodical surface inspection can help the operator to prevent critical situations. The maintenance and monitoring of this infrastructure is an important aspect for railway association.That is why the surface inspection of railway also makes importance to the railroad authority to investigate track components, identify problems and finding out the way that how to solve these problems. In railway industry, usually the problems find in railway sleepers, overhead, fastener, rail head, switching and crossing and in ballast section as well. In this thesis work, I have reviewed some research papers based on AI techniques together with NDT techniques which are able to collect data from the test object without making any damage. The research works which I have reviewed and demonstrated that by adopting the AI based system, it is almost possible to solve all the problems and this system is very much reliable and efficient for diagnose problems of this transportation domain. I have reviewed solutions provided by different companies based on AI techniques, their products and reviewed some white papers provided by some of those companies. AI based techniques like machine vision, stereo vision, laser based techniques and neural network are used in most cases to solve the problems which are performed by the railway engineers. The problems in railway handled by the AI based techniques performed by NDT approach which is a very broad, interdisciplinary field that plays a critical role in assuring that structural components and systems perform their function in a reliable and cost effective fashion. The NDT approach ensures the uniformity, quality and serviceability of materials without causing any damage of that materials is being tested. This testing methods use some way to test product like, Visual and Optical testing, Radiography, Magnetic particle testing, Ultrasonic testing, Penetrate testing, electro mechanic testing and acoustic emission testing etc. The inspection procedure has done periodically because of better maintenance. This inspection procedure done by the railway engineers manually with the aid of AI based techniques. The main idea of thesis work is to demonstrate how the problems can be reduced of this transportation area based on the works done by different researchers and companies. And I have also provided some ideas and comments according to those works and trying to provide some proposal to use better inspection method where it is needed. The scope of this thesis work is automatic interpretation of data from NDT, with the goal of detecting flaws accurately and efficiently. AI techniques such as neural networks, machine vision, knowledge-based systems and fuzzy logic were applied to a wide spectrum of problems in this area. Another scope is to provide an insight into possible research methods concerning railway sleeper, fastener, ballast and overhead inspection by automatic interpretation of data. In this thesis work, I have discussed about problems which are arise in railway sleepers, fastener, and overhead and ballasted track. For this reason I have reviewed some research papers related with these areas and demonstrated how their systems works and the results of those systems. After all the demonstrations were taking place of the advantages of using AI techniques in contrast with those manual systems exist previously. This work aims to summarize the findings of a large number of research papers deploying artificial intelligence (AI) techniques for the automatic interpretation of data from nondestructive testing (NDT). Problems in rail transport domain are mainly discussed in this work. The overall work of this paper goes to the inspection of railway sleepers, fastener, ballast and overhead.

  • 250.
    Påhls, Jonny
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Implementera en guide för allmänna transporter med buss på mobiltelefoner med Java 2 Micro Edition2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta examensarbete går ut på att ta fram en applikation, avsedd för mobiltelefoner, där man på ett enkelt sätt kan få reda på avgångarna för Dalarnas kollektivtrafik. Det stigande bensinpriset och bilåkningens negativa miljöpåverkan ligger som grund till att Etex AB och Balanz AB vill undersöka om det går att få människor att välja bussen framför personbilen. Om man genom denna applikation kan underlätta planeringen av människors dagliga resor, hur påverkas då valet av fortskaffningsmedel? Resultatet blev en applikation där man, via sin mobiltelefon, bland annat kan ta reda på avgångar för utvalda linjer av Dalatrafiks bussar, hantera linjekartor och synkronisera avgångar med telefonens kalender. Alla tidtabeller sparas i telefonen för att minska nätverkstrafiken och för att informationen enkelt ska kunna återanvändas. Dalatrafik är det företag som ansvarar för kollektivtrafiken i Dalarna. Det finns i dagsläget ingen möjlighet att få reda på avgångarna för deras bussar om man inte har tillgång till en tidtabell eller ringer till deras kundservice. Vissa kommuner har redan lösningar för tidtabellshantering i mobiltelefonen och nu vill Etex AB och Balanz AB, som är två företag som bl.a. arbetar med trådlösa applikationer, att även Dalarna ska få ta del av detta praktiska hjälpmedel. De flesta mobiltelefoner som säljs idag har stöd för att köra applikationer, eller MIDlets som de också kallas, gjorda i J2ME (Java 2 Platform, Micro Edition). Denna teknik har tagits fram av Sun för att göra applikationer som kan köras på mindre mobila enheter såsom mobiltelefoner och handdatorer. Kombinerar man J2ME med den ökande prestandan i dagens mobiltelefoner kan avancerade applikationer t.ex. spel med 3D-grafik, webbläsare och andra nyttiga program tillverkas.

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