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  • 201.
    Li, Chuan-Zhong
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    What is sustainable transport?2000In: The 3rd KFB Research Conference on Transport Systems - Organization and Planning, Stockholm, 2000Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 202.
    Li, Chuan-Zhong
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Willingness to Pay with Different Policy Planning Methods: An Insight to Respondents Decision Processes2001In: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 40, p. 295-311Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 203.
    Li, Chuan-Zhong
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Budh, Erika
    Environmental Objectives, Cost Efficiency, and Multivariate Stochastic Control2008In: Environmental Modelling and Assessment, ISSN 1420-2026, E-ISSN 1573-2967, Vol. 13, no 2, p. 315-325Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is concerned with the cost efficiency in achieving the Swedish national air quality objectives under uncertainty. To realize an ecologically sustainable society, the parliament has approved a set of interim and long-term pollution reduction targets. However, there are considerable quantification uncertainties on the effectiveness of the proposed pollution reduction measures. In this paper, we develop a multivariate stochastic control framework to deal with the cost efficiency problem with multiple pollutants. Based on the cost and technological data collected by several national authorities, we explore the implications of alternative probabilistic constraints. It is found that a composite probabilistic constraint induces considerably lower abatement cost than separable probabilistic restrictions. The trend is reinforced by the presence of positive correlations between reductions in the multiple pollutants.

  • 204.
    Li, Chuan-Zhong
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    E. Pouta, et al
    Contingent Valuationof the Natura 2000 Nature Conservation Program in Finland2000In: Forestry (London), ISSN 0015-752X, E-ISSN 1464-3626, Vol. 73, no 2, p. 119-128Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper shows how contingent valuation studies can produce relevant information for public nature conservation decisions. The study analyses the preferences of Finnish households for a nature conservation programme, Natura 2000 Network, by applying a dichotomous choice referendum model of the contingent valuation survey. In order to study the influence of attitudes and beliefs on a choice between the status quo and the new conservation project, an attitude-behaviour framework is applied. Beliefs concerning the outcomes of the nature conservation policy and evaluations of their importance describe how attitudes towards the programme are formed. The choices in the referendum are explained using a logit regression model and are found to be a function of attitude and socio-economic variables. The probability of a person supporting the proposed conservation level depends significantly on the income, age and background (urban-rural) of the respondent. The estimated model of choice behaviour is used to calculate the average willingness to pay for the Natura 2000 Network, which is also compared to the costs of the conservation programme.

  • 205.
    Li, Chuan-Zhong
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Hultkrantz, Lars
    A stochastic threshold model for estimating the value of travel time2004In: Traffic and Transportations Studies. Proceedings of ICTTS 2004, Dalian, China, 2004, p. 363-373Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 206. Li, Chuan-Zhong
    et al.
    Isacsson, Gunnar
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Valuing urban accessibility and air quality in Sweden: a regional welfare analysis2012In: Empirical Economics, ISSN 0377-7332, E-ISSN 1435-8921, Vol. 42, no 3, p. 881-898Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article is concerned with the implicit values of urban accessibility and air quality in Sweden. Based on the hedonic wage and rent theory, we construct an econometric model to compute such values, and illustrate their implications for regional welfare analysis. It is shown that for most Swedish cities, welfare has increased from 1986 to 1998 due to improved air quality but the positive effect is partly offset by the deteriorated accessibility in some areas. The results also indicate that the values people place on urban accessibility and air quality vary considerably across regions.

  • 207.
    Li, Chuan-Zhong
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Lofgren, K.G.
    Hanemann, M.
    Real versus Hypothetical Willingness to Accept: The Bishop and Heberlein Model Revisited2002In: Economic Theory for the Environment: Essays in Honour of Karl-Göran Mäler, UK: Edward Elgar , 2002Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 208.
    Li, Chuan-Zhong
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Löfgren, Karl-Gustaf
    Evaluating Projects in a Dynamic Economy: Some New Envelope Results2008In: The German Economic Review, ISSN 1465-6485, E-ISSN 1468-0475, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 1-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is concerned with the modern theory of social cost-benefit analysis in a dynamic economy. The theory emphasizes the role of a comprehensive, forward-looking, dynamic welfare index within the period of the project rather than that of a project's long-term consequences. However, what constitutes such a welfare index remains controversial in the recent literature. In this paper, we attempt to shed light on the issue by deriving three equivalent cost-benefit rules for evaluating a small project. In particular, we show that the direct change in net national product (NNP) qualifies as a convenient welfare index without involving any other induced side effects. The project evaluation criterion thus becomes the present discounted value of the direct changes in NNP over the project period. We also illustrate the application of this theory in a few stylized examples.

  • 209.
    Li, Chuan-Zhong
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Löfgren, K.G.
    A dynamic model of biodiversity preservation1998In: Environment and Development Economics, ISSN 1355-770X, E-ISSN 1469-4395, Vol. 3, no 2, p. 157-172Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 210.
    Li, Chuan-Zhong
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Löfgren, K.G.
    A theory of red pine management for both timber and commercial seeds2000In: Forest Science, ISSN 0015-749X, E-ISSN 1938-3738, Vol. 46, no 2, p. 284-290Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 211.
    Li, Chuan-Zhong
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Löfgren, K.G.
    Comprehensive NNP, social welfare, and the rate of return2006In: Economics Letters, ISSN 0165-1765, E-ISSN 1873-7374, Vol. 90, p. 254-259Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 212.
    Li, Chuan-Zhong
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Löfgren, K.G.
    Red pine management for timber, commercial seeds and amenities: Comparing nested models2000In: Journal of Forest Economics, ISSN 1104-6899, E-ISSN 1618-1530, Vol. 6, p. 153-167Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 213.
    Li, Chuan-Zhong
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Löfgren, K.G.
    Weitzman, Martin
    Harvesting versus Biodiversity: An Occam’s Razor Version2001In: Environmental and Resource Economics, ISSN 0924-6460, E-ISSN 1573-1502, Vol. 18, p. 355-366Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 214.
    Li, Chuan-Zhong
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Mattsson, L.
    et, al
    Recreational Values of Boreal Forest Landscapes and Their Components Resulting From Different Silvicultural Systems2000In: Journal of Environmental Management, ISSN 0301-4797, E-ISSN 1095-8630, Vol. 60, p. , 173-180Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 215.
    Li, Chuan-Zhong
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Mika, R, et al
    Incommensurable preferences in contingent valuation: the case of Finnish Natura 2000 Network2000In: Environmental Conservation, ISSN 0376-8929, E-ISSN 1469-4387, Vol. 2, no 3, p. 260-268Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 216.
    Li, Chuan-Zhong
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Pouta, E
    Rekola, M
    Kuuluvainen, J
    Tahvonen, O
    Using Choice Experiments to Value Natura 2000 Nature Conservation Programs in Finland2004In: Environmental and Resource Economics, ISSN 0924-6460, E-ISSN 1573-1502, Vol. 29, no 3, p. 361-374Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 217.
    Li, Linyu
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Economic growth in Sweden, 2000-2010: The dot-com bubble and the financial crisis2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

        Economic growth is the increase in the inflation-adjusted market value of the goods and services produced by an economy over time. The total output is the quantity of goods or servicesproduced in a given time period within a country. Sweden was affected by two crises during the period 2000-2010: a dot-com bubble and a financial crisis. How did these two crises affect the economic growth?

        The changes of domestic output can be separated into four parts: changes in intermediate demand, final domestic demand, export demand and import substitution. The main purpose of this article is to analyze the economic growth during the period 2000-2010, with focus on the dot-com bubble in the beginning of the period 2000-2005, and the financial crisis at the end of the period 2005-2010. The methodology to be used is the structural decomposition method.

        This investigation shows that the main contributions to the Swedish total domestic output increase in both the period 2000-2005 and the period 2005-2010 were the effect of domestic demand. In the period 2005-2010, financial crisis weakened the effect of export. The output of the primary sector went from a negative change into a positive, explained mainly by strong export expansion. In the secondary sector, export had most effect in the period 2000-2005. Nevertheless, domestic demand and import ratio had more effect during the financial crisis period. Lastly, in the tertiary sector, domestic demand can mainly explain the output growth in the whole period 2000-2010.

  • 218.
    Li, Yueying
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Labor Supply and Commuting Time: A Swedish study2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines how the commuting time affects workers’ labor supply in terms of weekly and daily working hours; days worked per week and preferred weekly working hours. I take into account the endogeneity of commuting time by controlling for endogenous changes in time. The empirical results show that commuting time has a slightly positive effect on daily labor supply, but a slightly negative effect on workdays per week and thus, no explicit effect on total weekly labor supply. 

  • 219. Lindberg, Kreg
    et al.
    Fredman, Peter
    Heldt, Tobias
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Facilitating integrated recreation management: assessing conflict reduction benefits in a common metric2009In: Forest Science, ISSN 0015-749X, E-ISSN 1938-3738, Vol. 55, no 3, p. 201-209Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recreation management on public land often involves trade-offs. For example, cross-country skiers may experience conflict with snowmobiles. A potential management response is trail separation, which may lead to gains to skiers but also ecological and financial costs associated with creation of a new trail. If separation involves snowmobile access restrictions, there may be experiential losses for that user group. Management responses are not always based on explicit identification and integration of the gains and losses accruing across diverse stakeholders and dimensions; economics provides a criterion, a metric, and measurement tools to facilitate such integration. A Swedish case study illustrates this approach and assesses values accruing to skiers from reduced snowmobile presence. Cross-country skiers were sampled on-site in the southern Jämtland mountain region, and follow-up mail surveys included choice experiment scenarios. Conditional logit analysis of the 1,468 completed scenarios indicates that skier welfare gains from conflict reduction are substantial and reflect both direct and indirect contact. A change from sharing trails to not seeing, hearing, or smelling snowmobiles leads to gains of 185 kronor (US$23) per skier party.

  • 220.
    Lindgren, Charlie
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Huq, Asif
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    Li, Yujiao
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    Elbe, Jörgen
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Carling, Kenneth
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    Current practices of CSR around the globe: An exploratory text mining study2019Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 221.
    Liu, Dong
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Wang, Jing
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    The determinants of international student mobility: An empirical study on U.S. Data2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The increase in foreign students in countries such as the US, the UK and France suggests that the international ‘education industry’ is growing in importance. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the empirical determinants of international student mobility. A secondary purpose is to give tentative policy suggestions to host country, source country and also to provide some recommendations to students who want to study abroad. Using pooled cross-sectional time series data for the US over the time period 1993-2006, we estimate an econometric model of enrolment rates of foreign students in the US. Our results suggest that tuition fees, US federal support of education, and the size of the ‘young’ generation of source countries have a significant influence on international student mobility. We also consider other factors that may be relevant in this context.

  • 222.
    Lu, Yuhao
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Pricing and competition in the Swedish retail market for electricity2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden, together with Norway, Finland and Denmark, have created a multi-national electricity market called NordPool. In this market, producers and retailers of electricity can buy and sell electricity, and the retailers then offers this electricity to end consumers such as households and industries. Previous studies have shown that pricing at the NordPool market is functioning quite well, but no other study has to my knowledge studied if pricing in the retail market to consumers in Sweden is well functioning. If the market is well functioning, with competition and low transaction costs when changing electricity retailer, we would expect that a homogeneous good such as electricity would be sold at the approximately same price, and that price changes would be highly correlated, in this market. Thus, the aim of this study is to test whether the price of Vattenfall, the largest energy firm in the Swedish market, is highly correlated to the price of other firms in the Swedish retail market for electricity. Descriptive statistics indicate that the price offered by Vattenfall is quite similar to the price of other firms in the market. In addition, regression analysis show that the correlation between the price of Vattenfall and other firms is as high as 0.98.

  • 223. Lunander, A
    et al.
    Nilsson, Jan-Eric
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Taking the Lab to the Field: Experimental Tests of Alternative Mechanisms to Procure Multiple Contracts2004In: Journal of Regulatory Economics, ISSN 0922-680x, Vol. 25, no 1, p. 39-58Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 224.
    Lundberg, Magdalena
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Observing the unobservable?: Segmentation of tourism expenditure in Venice usingunobservable heterogeneity to find latent classes2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Consumer segmentation based on expenditure are usually done by using observedcharacteristics, such as age and income. This thesis highlights the problem with negativeexternalities which Venice suffers from, due to mass tourism. This thesis aims to assesswhether unobservable heterogeneity can be used to detect latent classes within tourismexpenditure. Segmenting the tourism market using this approach is valuable for policy making.Segmenting is also useful for the actors in the market to identify and attract high spenders. Inthat way, a destination may uphold a sustainable level of tourism instead of increasing touristnumbers. The method used for this approach is finite mixture modelling (FMM), which is notmuch used within consumer markets and therefore this thesis also contributes to tourismexpenditure methodology. This thesis adds to the literature by increasing the knowledge aboutthe importance of unobserved factors when segmenting visitors.The results show that four latent classes are found in tourism expenditure. Some of thevariables, which are significant in determining tourism expenditure, are shown to affectexpenditure differently in different classes while some are shown not to be significant. Theconclusions are that segmenting tourism expenditure, using unobserved heterogeneity, issignificant and that variables, which are barely significant in determining the expenditure ofthe population, can be strongly significant in determining the expenditure for a certain class.

  • 225.
    Löwgren, Emil
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Nordström, Andreas
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Att värdera information: En fallstudie på företeelsen bärighet i Nationell vägdatabas2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The cost of the Swedish transport administration to operate and maintain the national road

    database is approximately 40 times greater than the income from it. This has led to an interest

    in the Swedish Transport Administration to evaluate the socioeconomic benefits that generate

    from the information in the road database. The paper aims to do this, however, the fields of

    application of the database are too comprehensive to evaluate in one single study. The study

    is delimitated to evaluate the socioeconomic benefits that the information of road bearing

    capacity generates. The main hypothesis of the paper is that the value of information is the

    difference between the outcome of a decision with or without information. CBA is used to

    compare the two outcomes. The first outcome assumes that information is available and it is

    used at an optimal level. To estimate the second outcome a model is constructed to determine

    the size of the outcome in absence of information. The result shows that the information

    generates a net social benefit, this result is also corroborated by a Monte Carlo simulation.

    The results of the paper suggest that the used method is applicable to the problem of

    evaluating the socioeconomic benefits of information.

  • 226.
    Macuchova, Zuzana
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics. HUI Research.
    Tang, Aili
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Firm growth in the Swedish energy sector: Will large firms become even more dominant?2014In: International Journal of Energy and Statistics, ISSN 2335-6812, Vol. 2, no 4, p. 247-267Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 227.
    Maria, Ingels Lindqvist
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Josephine, Stengård
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Matchad förvärvsgrad i Dalarna och Sverige: Påverkar könsfördelningen i en utbildningsgrupp kvinnors och mäns möjligheter att få ett relevant jobb?2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims at examining the matched employment rate for women and men, in Dalarna and Sweden, as well as explaining possible differences. If a group of individuals within a education group with a graduate degree are employed in a different field of employment than the education provided competence (than the education is meant for), the matched employment rate within the education group is low. The data is obtained from Statistiska centralbyrån (SCB) and is studied through a multiple linear regression analysis.

    Both women and men with university/college education affect the matched degree of employment more comparatively with upper secondary education. The result also shows that if the proportion of women in the education group increases, the proportion of employees with matching gives positive results for women and negative for men; the reverse relationship also applies; the matched male employment rate increases as the proportion of men in the education group increases. This shows that gender discrimination prevails in the Swedish labor market.

  • 228.
    Matsson, Marcus
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Utgifter vid större idrottsevenemang – vilka faktorer påverkar: En fallstudie av Skid-VM i Falun 20152015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna uppsats handlar om vilka faktorer som påverkar hur mycket som spenderas vid Skid-VM i Falun 2015 och om graden av tillfredsställelse har någon påverkan. I samband med evenemanget gjordes en enkätundersökning med frågor som bland annat handlade om hur besökarna uppfattade kvaliteten på servicen, boende, kostnader i samband med evenemanget, tillfredsställelse med besöket som helhet med mera. Frågeformuläret delades ut till besökarna efter en stratifierad slumpmässig urvalsstrategi. Från det insamlade datamaterialet har bland annat en regressionsanalys gjorts.

    Resultatet av denna analys visar att inkomst, totala antalet dagar och nationalitet (utländsk/svensk) är variabler som har en signifikant positiv påverkan på de totala dagliga utgifterna under evenemanget. Undersökningen visar att hypotesen "allt annat givet, en högre grad av tillfredsställelse innebär i genomsnitt högre utgifter", kan förkastas då inget statistiskt signifikant samband kan anses föreligga.

  • 229.
    Melén, Carl Gustav
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    A note on factor prices and technical progress2011In: Technology and Investment, ISSN 2150-4059, Vol. 2, no 3, p. 202-210Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Changes in the factor prices have important impacts on characteristics of investments, such as the expected lifetime, the factor intensity and the factor productivity of new capital goods. Considering both changes in factor prices as well as technical progress, different effects arise at either high substitutability or low substitutability in production. It can be shown that for a production function close to the Cobb-Douglas case, higher interest rates and technical progress will decrease the expected lifetime, the capital intensity and productivity, while the reversed outcome occurs at lower substitutability between factor inputs.

  • 230.
    Melén, Carl Gustav
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    The elasticity of substitution and characteristics of new investments2012In: Modern Economy, ISSN 2152-7261, Vol. 3, no 2, p. 150-159Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Changes in the interest rate and the capital cost will influence important characteristics of investments, such as the expected life time, the factor intensity and the factor productivity of new capital goods. When Harrods-neutral technical progress is endogenous and variable, an increased interest rate will lower the lifetime as well as the factor intensity of the capital good in the Cobb-Douglas case, while there will be a reversed outcome when the substitutability between factor inputs is low. The latter outcome can be interpreted in terms of a reswitching process, that is, one identical factor intensity can arise at two different factor price ratios.

  • 231.
    Mihaescu, Oana
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography. HUI Research.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Defining relevant markets for pharmacuticals2017In: Bulletin of Economic Research, ISSN 0307-3378, E-ISSN 1467-8586, Vol. 69, no 4, p. E126-E149Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To identify the relevant product markets for Swedish pharmaceuticals, a spatial econometrics approach is employed. First, we calculate Moran’s Is for different market definitions and then we use a spatial Durbin model to determine the effect of price changes on quantity sold of own and competing products. As expected, the results show that competition is strongest between close substitutes; however, the relevant product markets for Swedish pharmaceuticals extend beyond close substitutes down to products included in the same class on the four-digit level of the Anatomic Therapeutic Chemical system as defined by the World Health Organization. The spatial regression model further indicates that increases in the price of a product significantly lower quantity sold of that product and in the same time increase the quantity sold of competing products. For close substitutes (products belonging to the same class on the seven-digit level of the Anatomic Therapeutic Chemical system), as well as for products that, without being close substitutes, belong to the same therapeutic/pharmacological/chemical subgroup (the same class on the five-digit level of the Anatomic Therapeutic Chemical system), increased competition is also visible after 1 July 2009 when the latest policy changes with regards to pharmaceuticals have been implemented in Sweden.

  • 232.
    Mihaescu, Oana
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography. HUI Research.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics. HUI Research.
    Defining Relevant Product Markets for Pharmaceuticals2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    To identify the relevant product markets for Swedish pharmaceuticals, a spatial econometrics approach is employed. First, we calculate Moran’s Is for different market definitions and then we use a spatial Durbin model to determine the effect of price changes on quantity sold off own and competing products. As expected, the results show that competition is strongest between close substitutes; however, the relevant product markets for Swedish pharmaceuticals extend beyond close substitutes down to products included in the same class on the four-digit level of the Anatomic Therapeutic Chemical system as defined by the World Health Organization. The spatial regression model further indicates that increases in the price of a product significantly lower the quantity sold of that product and in the same time increase the quantity sold of competing products. For close substitutes (products belonging to the same class on the seven-digit level of the Anatomic Therapeutic Chemical system), as well as for products that, without being close substitutes, belong to the same therapeutic/pharmacological/chemical subgroup (the same class on the five-digit level of the Anatomic Therapeutic Chemical system), a significant change towards increased competition is also visible after 1 July 2009 when the latest policy changes with regards to pharmaceuticals have been implemented in Sweden.

  • 233.
    Monika Venerius, Katharina
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Revisiting a destination: A tourist’s choice model: A case study of Sweden2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper documents the design and results of a study on tourists’ decision-making about

    destinations in Sweden. For this purpose, secondary data, available from surveys were used to

    identify which type of individual has the highest probability to revisit a destination and what

    are influencing factors to do so. A binary logit model is applied. The results show that very

    important influencing factors are the length of stay as well as the origin of the individual.

    These results could be useful for a marketing organization as well as for policy, to develop

    strategies to attract the most profitable tourism segment. Therefore, it can also be a great support

    for sustainable tourism development, where the main focus does not has priority on increasing

    number of tourists.

  • 234.
    Mortazavi, Reza
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Endogeneity of satisfaction as a predictor for spending2018In: Annals of Tourism Research, ISSN 0160-7383, E-ISSN 1873-7722, Vol. 72, p. 168-171Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 235.
    Mortazavi, Reza
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    The Right of Public Access in Sweden1997In: Annals of Tourism Research, ISSN 0160-7383, E-ISSN 1873-7722, Vol. 24, no 3, p. 609-623Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 236.
    Mortazavi, Reza
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Three Papers on the Economics of Recreation, Tourism and Property Rights1995Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 237.
    Mortazavi, Reza
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Cialani, Catia
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Factors Influencing International Tourists' Length Of Overnight Stay In Venice2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 238.
    Mortazavi, Reza
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Cialani, Catia
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    International tourists’ length of overnight stay in Venice2017In: Tourism Economics, ISSN 1354-8166, E-ISSN 2044-0375, Vol. 23, no 4, p. 882-889Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study concerns factors influencing international tourists’ length of overnight stay in Venice. The data are from a survey conducted by the Bank of Italy on international tourism. Both zero-truncated negative binomial (ZTNB) and ordinary least squares (OLS) regressions are estimated. In general, the estimates from ZTNB and OLS regressions are similar. The results suggest that age, returning directly to the country of residence and the summer season have a positive influence on the length of stay. On the other hand, international tourist expenditure and visiting other places than Venice have a negative impact on the length of stay. Moreover, the average length of overnight stays differs among nationalities and those who have visited Venice previously tend, on average, to stay longer. One finding is that visitors from North America and Australia stay longer and spend more than visitors coming from neighbouring countries.

  • 239.
    Mortazavi, Reza
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Heldt, Tobias
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Analysis of Visitor Expenditures at World Ski Championships 2015 in Falun - Sweden2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 240.
    Mortazavi, Reza
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Heldt, Tobias
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Economic valuation of events: combining methods based on revealed, stated and subjective preference data2017In: The Value of Events / [ed] Erik Lundberg, John Armbrecht, Tommy D. Andersson, Donald Getz, Routledge, 2017Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 241.
    Mortazavi, Reza
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Johansson, Jerry
    Road Transport Vehicles for Hauling Uncomminuted Forest Energy Products in Sweden2013In: International Journal of Forestry Research, ISSN 1687-9368, E-ISSN 1687-9376Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Forestry residues as a renewable energy source are becoming increasingly competitive to fossil fuels. An important issue, however, is effective transportation solutions for this type of material. In this paper we describe and discuss several alternative vehicle systems which have been used in Sweden. We describe and discuss a specialized vehicle for the transportation of loose residues, bundled residues, and tree sections; a specialized stump hauling vehicle; a recently developed vehicle for the transportation of bundled residues; a container system vehicle for stump transportation. All these different machineries have their merits and shortcomings depending on the type of forest energy product.

  • 242.
    Mortazavi, Reza
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Lundberg, Magdalena
    Expenditure-based segmentation of tourists taking into account unobserved heterogeneity: The case of Venice2019In: Tourism Economics, ISSN 1354-8166, E-ISSN 2044-0375Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Visitors to big tourist cities are very likely heterogeneous and can be classified into different segments, for example, low and high spenders. Previous studies on visitor expenditure-based segmentation seem to have only taken into account observed heterogeneity, usually segmenting tourists based on observed characteristics. In the present study, however, the visitors to Venice, Italy, are segmented with respect to their spending into different groups based on both observed and unobserved heterogeneity using a finite mixture model. The results indicate that the visitors belong to three latent classes with respect to their expenditure. Interestingly, different variables affect expenditure differently depending on the latent class belonging. The overall conclusion is that segmenting tourists into different classes based on unobserved heterogeneity with respect to their spending is preferable and more informative than treating the visitors as one homogeneous group. The approach is also more useful for different types of policymaking.

  • 243.
    Mortazavi, Reza
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Nerhagen, Lena
    De anställdas färdsätt till några store arbetsplatser i Dalarna – en kartläggning2000Report (Other academic)
  • 244.
    Mortazavi, Reza
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Nerhagen, Lena
    Multiple Determinants of Modal Choice and the Value of Time for Recreational Travel.1997Report (Other academic)
  • 245.
    Muusha, Takura Witness
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    “Is the forward exchange rate the most essential forecaster of the future spot exchange rate?” USD vis-à-vis SEK & NZD 2004 - 20052006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper will examine the empirical power of the forward exchange rate as the ultimate predictor of future spot exchange rate. The paper intend to illustrate this process of focusting future spot rate using three exchange rate models the 1. Unbiased forward rate estimator, 2. Random walk and 3. Weighted average. The paper will analyse the period between January 2004 and January 2005 for the United States dollar vis-à-vis Swedish kronor and New Zealand dollar using daily, three months, Six months and twelve months intervals. The paper will also consider three months as the short run period and the period of six months - twelve months as the long run period for the whole period under examination. The aim of this paper is to study the predicting power of the three empirical exchange rate models using United States dollar vis-à-vis Swedish kronor and the New Zealand dollar and compare their performance. Since there is no general agreement as to which model is the best estimator of future spot exhange rates. The paper will analyse which model is better predictor of future spot exchange rate over the different time periods of three months, six months and twelve months in two markets.

  • 246.
    Nerhagen, Lena
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Health costs of transport air pollution in urban areas in Sweden2003In: ECE/WHO Pan-European Program on Transport Health and Environment: Workshop on Economic Valuation of Health Effects due to Transport, Stockholm, 2003Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 247.
    Nerhagen, Lena
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Johansson, Christer
    Lövenheim, Boel
    Luftföroreningarnas externa kostnader: förslag på beräkningsmetod för trafiken utifrån granskning av ExternE-beräkningar för Stockholm och Sverige2005Report (Other academic)
  • 248.
    Nerhagen, Lena
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Johansson, H
    Estimation of the Cost due to Air Pollution of Transport in Sweden2003In: The 12th International Symposium Transport and Air Pollution, Avignon, France, 2003Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 249.
    Nerhagen, Lena
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Johansson, H
    Variations in the external cost of transport air pollution: the case of Sweden2003Report (Other academic)
  • 250.
    Nerhagen, Lena
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Li, Chuan-Zhong
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Measuring the Health Cost of Traffic Emissions with the Impact Pathway Approach: A Conceptual Framework2005In: EAERE, European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, Bremen, 2005Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we investigate the importance of exposure calculations for the health cost estimation of traffic emissions with the impact pathway approach. We focus on particles and the effect they have on chronic mortality since this have been shown to impose the largest costs to society. Up to now particles have been treated as a homogeneous type of pollutant though research in recent years indicates that in an urban area there is at least three different kinds of particles that are likely to impose impacts on the population exposed. The problem is that the harmfulness and the dispersion differ between different particles. This, together with population density, will make the exposure to particles vary between different areas and hence the cost. In this paper, we develop a model for exposure and cost calculations. With simulations we also investigate the importance on costs of various assumptions used in exposure calculations. The implication of our findings is that the current limit values based on PM10 do not target the emissions that give rise to the largest cost. The current limit values may result in reduction measures that have a small impact on the total cost of the emissions from traffic.

23456 201 - 250 of 285
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