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  • 201.
    Li, Chuan-Zhong
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Löfgren, Karl-Gustaf
    Evaluating Projects in a Dynamic Economy: Some New Envelope Results2008In: The German Economic Review, ISSN 1465-6485, E-ISSN 1468-0475, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 1-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is concerned with the modern theory of social cost-benefit analysis in a dynamic economy. The theory emphasizes the role of a comprehensive, forward-looking, dynamic welfare index within the period of the project rather than that of a project's long-term consequences. However, what constitutes such a welfare index remains controversial in the recent literature. In this paper, we attempt to shed light on the issue by deriving three equivalent cost-benefit rules for evaluating a small project. In particular, we show that the direct change in net national product (NNP) qualifies as a convenient welfare index without involving any other induced side effects. The project evaluation criterion thus becomes the present discounted value of the direct changes in NNP over the project period. We also illustrate the application of this theory in a few stylized examples.

  • 202.
    Li, Chuan-Zhong
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Löfgren, K.G.
    A dynamic model of biodiversity preservation1998In: Environment and Development Economics, ISSN 1355-770X, E-ISSN 1469-4395, Vol. 3, no 2, p. 157-172Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 203.
    Li, Chuan-Zhong
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Löfgren, K.G.
    A theory of red pine management for both timber and commercial seeds2000In: Forest Science, ISSN 0015-749X, E-ISSN 1938-3738, Vol. 46, no 2, p. 284-290Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 204.
    Li, Chuan-Zhong
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Löfgren, K.G.
    Comprehensive NNP, social welfare, and the rate of return2006In: Economics Letters, ISSN 0165-1765, E-ISSN 1873-7374, Vol. 90, p. 254-259Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 205.
    Li, Chuan-Zhong
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Löfgren, K.G.
    Red pine management for timber, commercial seeds and amenities: Comparing nested models2000In: Journal of Forest Economics, ISSN 1104-6899, E-ISSN 1618-1530, Vol. 6, p. 153-167Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 206.
    Li, Chuan-Zhong
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Löfgren, K.G.
    Weitzman, Martin
    Harvesting versus Biodiversity: An Occam’s Razor Version2001In: Environmental and Resource Economics, ISSN 0924-6460, E-ISSN 1573-1502, Vol. 18, p. 355-366Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 207.
    Li, Chuan-Zhong
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Mattsson, L.
    et, al
    Recreational Values of Boreal Forest Landscapes and Their Components Resulting From Different Silvicultural Systems2000In: Journal of Environmental Management, ISSN 0301-4797, E-ISSN 1095-8630, Vol. 60, p. , 173-180Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 208.
    Li, Chuan-Zhong
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Mika, R, et al
    Incommensurable preferences in contingent valuation: the case of Finnish Natura 2000 Network2000In: Environmental Conservation, ISSN 0376-8929, E-ISSN 1469-4387, Vol. 2, no 3, p. 260-268Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 209.
    Li, Chuan-Zhong
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Pouta, E
    Rekola, M
    Kuuluvainen, J
    Tahvonen, O
    Using Choice Experiments to Value Natura 2000 Nature Conservation Programs in Finland2004In: Environmental and Resource Economics, ISSN 0924-6460, E-ISSN 1573-1502, Vol. 29, no 3, p. 361-374Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 210.
    Li, Linyu
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Economic growth in Sweden, 2000-2010: The dot-com bubble and the financial crisis2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

        Economic growth is the increase in the inflation-adjusted market value of the goods and services produced by an economy over time. The total output is the quantity of goods or servicesproduced in a given time period within a country. Sweden was affected by two crises during the period 2000-2010: a dot-com bubble and a financial crisis. How did these two crises affect the economic growth?

        The changes of domestic output can be separated into four parts: changes in intermediate demand, final domestic demand, export demand and import substitution. The main purpose of this article is to analyze the economic growth during the period 2000-2010, with focus on the dot-com bubble in the beginning of the period 2000-2005, and the financial crisis at the end of the period 2005-2010. The methodology to be used is the structural decomposition method.

        This investigation shows that the main contributions to the Swedish total domestic output increase in both the period 2000-2005 and the period 2005-2010 were the effect of domestic demand. In the period 2005-2010, financial crisis weakened the effect of export. The output of the primary sector went from a negative change into a positive, explained mainly by strong export expansion. In the secondary sector, export had most effect in the period 2000-2005. Nevertheless, domestic demand and import ratio had more effect during the financial crisis period. Lastly, in the tertiary sector, domestic demand can mainly explain the output growth in the whole period 2000-2010.

  • 211.
    Li, Yueying
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Labor Supply and Commuting Time: A Swedish study2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines how the commuting time affects workers’ labor supply in terms of weekly and daily working hours; days worked per week and preferred weekly working hours. I take into account the endogeneity of commuting time by controlling for endogenous changes in time. The empirical results show that commuting time has a slightly positive effect on daily labor supply, but a slightly negative effect on workdays per week and thus, no explicit effect on total weekly labor supply. 

  • 212. Lindberg, Kreg
    et al.
    Fredman, Peter
    Heldt, Tobias
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Facilitating integrated recreation management: assessing conflict reduction benefits in a common metric2009In: Forest Science, ISSN 0015-749X, E-ISSN 1938-3738, Vol. 55, no 3, p. 201-209Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recreation management on public land often involves trade-offs. For example, cross-country skiers may experience conflict with snowmobiles. A potential management response is trail separation, which may lead to gains to skiers but also ecological and financial costs associated with creation of a new trail. If separation involves snowmobile access restrictions, there may be experiential losses for that user group. Management responses are not always based on explicit identification and integration of the gains and losses accruing across diverse stakeholders and dimensions; economics provides a criterion, a metric, and measurement tools to facilitate such integration. A Swedish case study illustrates this approach and assesses values accruing to skiers from reduced snowmobile presence. Cross-country skiers were sampled on-site in the southern Jämtland mountain region, and follow-up mail surveys included choice experiment scenarios. Conditional logit analysis of the 1,468 completed scenarios indicates that skier welfare gains from conflict reduction are substantial and reflect both direct and indirect contact. A change from sharing trails to not seeing, hearing, or smelling snowmobiles leads to gains of 185 kronor (US$23) per skier party.

  • 213.
    Liu, Dong
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Wang, Jing
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    The determinants of international student mobility: An empirical study on U.S. Data2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The increase in foreign students in countries such as the US, the UK and France suggests that the international ‘education industry’ is growing in importance. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the empirical determinants of international student mobility. A secondary purpose is to give tentative policy suggestions to host country, source country and also to provide some recommendations to students who want to study abroad. Using pooled cross-sectional time series data for the US over the time period 1993-2006, we estimate an econometric model of enrolment rates of foreign students in the US. Our results suggest that tuition fees, US federal support of education, and the size of the ‘young’ generation of source countries have a significant influence on international student mobility. We also consider other factors that may be relevant in this context.

  • 214.
    Lu, Yuhao
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Pricing and competition in the Swedish retail market for electricity2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden, together with Norway, Finland and Denmark, have created a multi-national electricity market called NordPool. In this market, producers and retailers of electricity can buy and sell electricity, and the retailers then offers this electricity to end consumers such as households and industries. Previous studies have shown that pricing at the NordPool market is functioning quite well, but no other study has to my knowledge studied if pricing in the retail market to consumers in Sweden is well functioning. If the market is well functioning, with competition and low transaction costs when changing electricity retailer, we would expect that a homogeneous good such as electricity would be sold at the approximately same price, and that price changes would be highly correlated, in this market. Thus, the aim of this study is to test whether the price of Vattenfall, the largest energy firm in the Swedish market, is highly correlated to the price of other firms in the Swedish retail market for electricity. Descriptive statistics indicate that the price offered by Vattenfall is quite similar to the price of other firms in the market. In addition, regression analysis show that the correlation between the price of Vattenfall and other firms is as high as 0.98.

  • 215. Lunander, A
    et al.
    Nilsson, Jan-Eric
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Taking the Lab to the Field: Experimental Tests of Alternative Mechanisms to Procure Multiple Contracts2004In: Journal of Regulatory Economics, ISSN 0922-680x, Vol. 25, no 1, p. 39-58Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 216.
    Lundberg, Magdalena
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Observing the unobservable?: Segmentation of tourism expenditure in Venice usingunobservable heterogeneity to find latent classes2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Consumer segmentation based on expenditure are usually done by using observedcharacteristics, such as age and income. This thesis highlights the problem with negativeexternalities which Venice suffers from, due to mass tourism. This thesis aims to assesswhether unobservable heterogeneity can be used to detect latent classes within tourismexpenditure. Segmenting the tourism market using this approach is valuable for policy making.Segmenting is also useful for the actors in the market to identify and attract high spenders. Inthat way, a destination may uphold a sustainable level of tourism instead of increasing touristnumbers. The method used for this approach is finite mixture modelling (FMM), which is notmuch used within consumer markets and therefore this thesis also contributes to tourismexpenditure methodology. This thesis adds to the literature by increasing the knowledge aboutthe importance of unobserved factors when segmenting visitors.The results show that four latent classes are found in tourism expenditure. Some of thevariables, which are significant in determining tourism expenditure, are shown to affectexpenditure differently in different classes while some are shown not to be significant. Theconclusions are that segmenting tourism expenditure, using unobserved heterogeneity, issignificant and that variables, which are barely significant in determining the expenditure ofthe population, can be strongly significant in determining the expenditure for a certain class.

  • 217.
    Löwgren, Emil
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Nordström, Andreas
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Att värdera information: En fallstudie på företeelsen bärighet i Nationell vägdatabas2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The cost of the Swedish transport administration to operate and maintain the national road

    database is approximately 40 times greater than the income from it. This has led to an interest

    in the Swedish Transport Administration to evaluate the socioeconomic benefits that generate

    from the information in the road database. The paper aims to do this, however, the fields of

    application of the database are too comprehensive to evaluate in one single study. The study

    is delimitated to evaluate the socioeconomic benefits that the information of road bearing

    capacity generates. The main hypothesis of the paper is that the value of information is the

    difference between the outcome of a decision with or without information. CBA is used to

    compare the two outcomes. The first outcome assumes that information is available and it is

    used at an optimal level. To estimate the second outcome a model is constructed to determine

    the size of the outcome in absence of information. The result shows that the information

    generates a net social benefit, this result is also corroborated by a Monte Carlo simulation.

    The results of the paper suggest that the used method is applicable to the problem of

    evaluating the socioeconomic benefits of information.

  • 218.
    Macuchova, Zuzana
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics. HUI Research.
    Tang, Aili
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Firm growth in the Swedish energy sector: Will large firms become even more dominant?2014In: International Journal of Energy and Statistics, ISSN 2335-6812, Vol. 2, no 4, p. 247-267Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 219.
    Maria, Ingels Lindqvist
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Josephine, Stengård
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Matchad förvärvsgrad i Dalarna och Sverige: Påverkar könsfördelningen i en utbildningsgrupp kvinnors och mäns möjligheter att få ett relevant jobb?2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims at examining the matched employment rate for women and men, in Dalarna and Sweden, as well as explaining possible differences. If a group of individuals within a education group with a graduate degree are employed in a different field of employment than the education provided competence (than the education is meant for), the matched employment rate within the education group is low. The data is obtained from Statistiska centralbyrån (SCB) and is studied through a multiple linear regression analysis.

    Both women and men with university/college education affect the matched degree of employment more comparatively with upper secondary education. The result also shows that if the proportion of women in the education group increases, the proportion of employees with matching gives positive results for women and negative for men; the reverse relationship also applies; the matched male employment rate increases as the proportion of men in the education group increases. This shows that gender discrimination prevails in the Swedish labor market.

  • 220.
    Matsson, Marcus
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Utgifter vid större idrottsevenemang – vilka faktorer påverkar: En fallstudie av Skid-VM i Falun 20152015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna uppsats handlar om vilka faktorer som påverkar hur mycket som spenderas vid Skid-VM i Falun 2015 och om graden av tillfredsställelse har någon påverkan. I samband med evenemanget gjordes en enkätundersökning med frågor som bland annat handlade om hur besökarna uppfattade kvaliteten på servicen, boende, kostnader i samband med evenemanget, tillfredsställelse med besöket som helhet med mera. Frågeformuläret delades ut till besökarna efter en stratifierad slumpmässig urvalsstrategi. Från det insamlade datamaterialet har bland annat en regressionsanalys gjorts.

    Resultatet av denna analys visar att inkomst, totala antalet dagar och nationalitet (utländsk/svensk) är variabler som har en signifikant positiv påverkan på de totala dagliga utgifterna under evenemanget. Undersökningen visar att hypotesen "allt annat givet, en högre grad av tillfredsställelse innebär i genomsnitt högre utgifter", kan förkastas då inget statistiskt signifikant samband kan anses föreligga.

  • 221.
    Melén, Carl Gustav
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    A note on factor prices and technical progress2011In: Technology and Investment, ISSN 2150-4059, Vol. 2, no 3, p. 202-210Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Changes in the factor prices have important impacts on characteristics of investments, such as the expected lifetime, the factor intensity and the factor productivity of new capital goods. Considering both changes in factor prices as well as technical progress, different effects arise at either high substitutability or low substitutability in production. It can be shown that for a production function close to the Cobb-Douglas case, higher interest rates and technical progress will decrease the expected lifetime, the capital intensity and productivity, while the reversed outcome occurs at lower substitutability between factor inputs.

  • 222.
    Melén, Carl Gustav
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    The elasticity of substitution and characteristics of new investments2012In: Modern Economy, ISSN 2152-7261, Vol. 3, no 2, p. 150-159Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Changes in the interest rate and the capital cost will influence important characteristics of investments, such as the expected life time, the factor intensity and the factor productivity of new capital goods. When Harrods-neutral technical progress is endogenous and variable, an increased interest rate will lower the lifetime as well as the factor intensity of the capital good in the Cobb-Douglas case, while there will be a reversed outcome when the substitutability between factor inputs is low. The latter outcome can be interpreted in terms of a reswitching process, that is, one identical factor intensity can arise at two different factor price ratios.

  • 223.
    Mihaescu, Oana
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography. HUI Research.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Defining relevant markets for pharmacuticals2017In: Bulletin of Economic Research, ISSN 0307-3378, E-ISSN 1467-8586, Vol. 69, no 4, p. E126-E149Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To identify the relevant product markets for Swedish pharmaceuticals, a spatial econometrics approach is employed. First, we calculate Moran’s Is for different market definitions and then we use a spatial Durbin model to determine the effect of price changes on quantity sold of own and competing products. As expected, the results show that competition is strongest between close substitutes; however, the relevant product markets for Swedish pharmaceuticals extend beyond close substitutes down to products included in the same class on the four-digit level of the Anatomic Therapeutic Chemical system as defined by the World Health Organization. The spatial regression model further indicates that increases in the price of a product significantly lower quantity sold of that product and in the same time increase the quantity sold of competing products. For close substitutes (products belonging to the same class on the seven-digit level of the Anatomic Therapeutic Chemical system), as well as for products that, without being close substitutes, belong to the same therapeutic/pharmacological/chemical subgroup (the same class on the five-digit level of the Anatomic Therapeutic Chemical system), increased competition is also visible after 1 July 2009 when the latest policy changes with regards to pharmaceuticals have been implemented in Sweden.

  • 224.
    Mihaescu, Oana
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography. HUI Research.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics. HUI Research.
    Defining Relevant Product Markets for Pharmaceuticals2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    To identify the relevant product markets for Swedish pharmaceuticals, a spatial econometrics approach is employed. First, we calculate Moran’s Is for different market definitions and then we use a spatial Durbin model to determine the effect of price changes on quantity sold off own and competing products. As expected, the results show that competition is strongest between close substitutes; however, the relevant product markets for Swedish pharmaceuticals extend beyond close substitutes down to products included in the same class on the four-digit level of the Anatomic Therapeutic Chemical system as defined by the World Health Organization. The spatial regression model further indicates that increases in the price of a product significantly lower the quantity sold of that product and in the same time increase the quantity sold of competing products. For close substitutes (products belonging to the same class on the seven-digit level of the Anatomic Therapeutic Chemical system), as well as for products that, without being close substitutes, belong to the same therapeutic/pharmacological/chemical subgroup (the same class on the five-digit level of the Anatomic Therapeutic Chemical system), a significant change towards increased competition is also visible after 1 July 2009 when the latest policy changes with regards to pharmaceuticals have been implemented in Sweden.

  • 225.
    Monika Venerius, Katharina
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Revisiting a destination: A tourist’s choice model: A case study of Sweden2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper documents the design and results of a study on tourists’ decision-making about

    destinations in Sweden. For this purpose, secondary data, available from surveys were used to

    identify which type of individual has the highest probability to revisit a destination and what

    are influencing factors to do so. A binary logit model is applied. The results show that very

    important influencing factors are the length of stay as well as the origin of the individual.

    These results could be useful for a marketing organization as well as for policy, to develop

    strategies to attract the most profitable tourism segment. Therefore, it can also be a great support

    for sustainable tourism development, where the main focus does not has priority on increasing

    number of tourists.

  • 226.
    Mortazavi, Reza
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Endogeneity of satisfaction as a predictor for spending2018In: Annals of Tourism Research, ISSN 0160-7383, E-ISSN 1873-7722, Vol. 72, p. 168-171Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 227.
    Mortazavi, Reza
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    The Right of Public Access in Sweden1997In: Annals of Tourism Research, ISSN 0160-7383, E-ISSN 1873-7722, Vol. 24, no 3, p. 609-623Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 228.
    Mortazavi, Reza
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Three Papers on the Economics of Recreation, Tourism and Property Rights1995Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 229.
    Mortazavi, Reza
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Cialani, Catia
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Factors Influencing International Tourists' Length Of Overnight Stay In Venice2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 230.
    Mortazavi, Reza
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Cialani, Catia
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    International tourists’ length of overnight stay in Venice2017In: Tourism Economics, ISSN 1354-8166, E-ISSN 2044-0375, Vol. 23, no 4, p. 882-889Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study concerns factors influencing international tourists’ length of overnight stay in Venice. The data are from a survey conducted by the Bank of Italy on international tourism. Both zero-truncated negative binomial (ZTNB) and ordinary least squares (OLS) regressions are estimated. In general, the estimates from ZTNB and OLS regressions are similar. The results suggest that age, returning directly to the country of residence and the summer season have a positive influence on the length of stay. On the other hand, international tourist expenditure and visiting other places than Venice have a negative impact on the length of stay. Moreover, the average length of overnight stays differs among nationalities and those who have visited Venice previously tend, on average, to stay longer. One finding is that visitors from North America and Australia stay longer and spend more than visitors coming from neighbouring countries.

  • 231.
    Mortazavi, Reza
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Heldt, Tobias
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Analysis of Visitor Expenditures at World Ski Championships 2015 in Falun - Sweden2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 232.
    Mortazavi, Reza
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Heldt, Tobias
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Economic valuation of events: combining methods based on revealed, stated and subjective preference data2017In: The Value of Events / [ed] Erik Lundberg, John Armbrecht, Tommy D. Andersson, Donald Getz, Routledge, 2017Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 233.
    Mortazavi, Reza
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Johansson, Jerry
    Road Transport Vehicles for Hauling Uncomminuted Forest Energy Products in Sweden2013In: International Journal of Forestry Research, ISSN 1687-9368, E-ISSN 1687-9376Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Forestry residues as a renewable energy source are becoming increasingly competitive to fossil fuels. An important issue, however, is effective transportation solutions for this type of material. In this paper we describe and discuss several alternative vehicle systems which have been used in Sweden. We describe and discuss a specialized vehicle for the transportation of loose residues, bundled residues, and tree sections; a specialized stump hauling vehicle; a recently developed vehicle for the transportation of bundled residues; a container system vehicle for stump transportation. All these different machineries have their merits and shortcomings depending on the type of forest energy product.

  • 234.
    Mortazavi, Reza
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Nerhagen, Lena
    De anställdas färdsätt till några store arbetsplatser i Dalarna – en kartläggning2000Report (Other academic)
  • 235.
    Mortazavi, Reza
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Nerhagen, Lena
    Multiple Determinants of Modal Choice and the Value of Time for Recreational Travel.1997Report (Other academic)
  • 236.
    Muusha, Takura Witness
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    “Is the forward exchange rate the most essential forecaster of the future spot exchange rate?” USD vis-à-vis SEK & NZD 2004 - 20052006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper will examine the empirical power of the forward exchange rate as the ultimate predictor of future spot exchange rate. The paper intend to illustrate this process of focusting future spot rate using three exchange rate models the 1. Unbiased forward rate estimator, 2. Random walk and 3. Weighted average. The paper will analyse the period between January 2004 and January 2005 for the United States dollar vis-à-vis Swedish kronor and New Zealand dollar using daily, three months, Six months and twelve months intervals. The paper will also consider three months as the short run period and the period of six months - twelve months as the long run period for the whole period under examination. The aim of this paper is to study the predicting power of the three empirical exchange rate models using United States dollar vis-à-vis Swedish kronor and the New Zealand dollar and compare their performance. Since there is no general agreement as to which model is the best estimator of future spot exhange rates. The paper will analyse which model is better predictor of future spot exchange rate over the different time periods of three months, six months and twelve months in two markets.

  • 237.
    Nerhagen, Lena
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Health costs of transport air pollution in urban areas in Sweden2003In: ECE/WHO Pan-European Program on Transport Health and Environment: Workshop on Economic Valuation of Health Effects due to Transport, Stockholm, 2003Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 238.
    Nerhagen, Lena
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Johansson, Christer
    Lövenheim, Boel
    Luftföroreningarnas externa kostnader: förslag på beräkningsmetod för trafiken utifrån granskning av ExternE-beräkningar för Stockholm och Sverige2005Report (Other academic)
  • 239.
    Nerhagen, Lena
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Johansson, H
    Estimation of the Cost due to Air Pollution of Transport in Sweden2003In: The 12th International Symposium Transport and Air Pollution, Avignon, France, 2003Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 240.
    Nerhagen, Lena
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Johansson, H
    Variations in the external cost of transport air pollution: the case of Sweden2003Report (Other academic)
  • 241.
    Nerhagen, Lena
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Li, Chuan-Zhong
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Measuring the Health Cost of Traffic Emissions with the Impact Pathway Approach: A Conceptual Framework2005In: EAERE, European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, Bremen, 2005Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we investigate the importance of exposure calculations for the health cost estimation of traffic emissions with the impact pathway approach. We focus on particles and the effect they have on chronic mortality since this have been shown to impose the largest costs to society. Up to now particles have been treated as a homogeneous type of pollutant though research in recent years indicates that in an urban area there is at least three different kinds of particles that are likely to impose impacts on the population exposed. The problem is that the harmfulness and the dispersion differ between different particles. This, together with population density, will make the exposure to particles vary between different areas and hence the cost. In this paper, we develop a model for exposure and cost calculations. With simulations we also investigate the importance on costs of various assumptions used in exposure calculations. The implication of our findings is that the current limit values based on PM10 do not target the emissions that give rise to the largest cost. The current limit values may result in reduction measures that have a small impact on the total cost of the emissions from traffic.

  • 242.
    Nilsson, Helena
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    The impact of big-boxes on local retail: What happens when IKEA comes to town?2015Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of large discount retailers, or big-boxes as they are sometimes referred to, are often subject to heated debate and their entry on a market is greeted with either great enthusiasm or dread. For instance, the world’s largest retailer Wal-Mart (Forbes 2014) has a number of anti- and pro-groups dedicated to its being and the event of a Wal-Mart entry tends to be met with protests and campaigns (Decamme 2013) but also welcomed by, for instance, consumers (Davis & DeBonis 2013). Also in Sweden, the entry of a big box is a hot topic and before IKEA’s opening i Borlänge 2013, the first in Sweden in more than five years, great expectations were mixed with worry (Västerbottens-Kuriren 2011).The presence of large scale discount retailers is not, however, a novel phenomenon but a part of a long-term change in retailing that has taken place globally over the past couple of decades (Taylor & Smalling, 2005). As noted by Dawson (2006), the trend in Europe has over the past few decades gone towards an increasing concentration of large firms along with a decrease of smaller firms.This trend is also detectable in the Swedish retail industry. Over the past decade, the retailing industry in Sweden has increased by around 190 Billion SEK, and its share of GDP has risen from 2,7% to 2,9%, while the number of employees have increased from 200 000 to 250 000 (HUI 2013). This growth, however, has not been distributed evenly but rather it has been oriented mainly towards out-of-town retail clusters. Parallel to this development, the number of large retailers has risen at the expense of market shares of smaller independent firms (Rämme et al 2010). Thereby, the presence of large scale retailers is simply part of a changing retail landscape.The effects of this development, where large scale retailing agents relocate shopping to out-of-town shopping areas, have been heavily debated. On the one hand, the big-boxes are accused of displacing independent small retail businesses in the city-centers and the residential areas, resulting in, to some extent, reduced employment opportunities and less availability for the consumers - especially the elderly (Ljungberg et al 2006). In addition, as access to shopping now tends to require some sort of a motorized vehicle, environmental aspects to the discussion have emerged. Ultimately these types of concerns have resulted in calls for regulations against this development (Olsson 2010). On the other hand, the proponents of the new shopping landscape argue that this evolution implies productivity gains, the benefits of lower prices and an increased variety of products (Maican & Orth 2012). Moreover it is argued that it leads to, for instance, better services (such as longer opening hours) and a creative destruction transformation pressure on retailers, which brings about a renewal of city-centerIIretail and services, increasing their attractivity (Bergström 2010). The belief in benefits of a big box entry can be exemplified by the attractivity of IKEA, and the fact that municipalities are prepared to commit to expenses amounting up to hundreds of millions in order to attract the entry of this big-box. Borlänge municipality, for instance, agreed to expenses of about 350 million SEK in order to secure the entry of IKEA, which opened in 2013 (Blomgren 2009).Against this backdrop, the overall effects of large discount retailers become important: Are the economic benefits enough to warrant subsidies or are there, on the contrary, some very compelling grounds for regulations against these types of establishments? In other words; how is overall retail in a region where a store like IKEA enters affected? And how are local retail firms affected?In order to answer these questions, the purpose of this thesis is to study how entry of a big-box retailer affects the entry region. The object of this study is IKEA - one of the world’s largest retailers, with 345 stores, active in over 40 countries and with profits of about 3.3 billion (IKEA 2013; IKEA 2014). By studying the effects of IKEA-entry, both on an aggregated level and on firm level, this thesis intends to find indications of how large discount retail establishments in general can be expected to affect the economic development both in a region overall, but also on the local firm level, something which is of interest to both policymakers as well as the retailing industry in general.The first paper examines the effects of IKEA on retail revenues and employment in the municipalities that IKEA chose to enter between 2000 and 2011; Gothenburg, Haparanda, Kalmar and Karlstad. By means of a matching method we first identify non-entry municipalities that have a similar probability of IKEA entry as the true entry municipalities. Then, using these non-entry municipalities as a control group, the causal effects of IKEA entry can be estimated using a treatment-control approach. We also extend the analysis to examine the spatial impact of IKEA by estimating the effects on retail in neighboring municipalities. It is found that a new IKEA store increases revenues in durable goods trade with 20% in the entry municipality and the number of employees with 17%. Only small, and in most cases statistically insignificant, negative effects were found in neighboring municipalities.It appears that there is a positive net effect on durables retail sales and employment in the entry municipality. However, the analysis is based on data on an aggregated municipality level and thereby it remains unclear if and how the effects vary within the entry municipalities. In addition, the data used in the first study includes the sales and employment of IKEA itself, which could account for the majority of the increases in employment and retail. Thereby the potential spillover effects on incumbent retailers in the entry municipalities cannot be discerned in the first study.IIITo examine effects of IKEA entry on incumbent retail firms, the second paper in this thesis analyses how IKEA entry affects the revenues and employment of local retail firms in three municipalities; Haparanda, Kalmar and Karlstad, which experienced entry by IKEA between 2000 and 2010. In this second study, we exclude Gothenburg due to the fact that big-box entry appears to have weaker effects in metropolitan areas (as indicated by Artz & Stone 2006). By excluding Gothenburg we aim to reduce the geographical heterogeneity in our study. We obtain control municipalities that are as similar as possible to the three entry municipalities using the same method as in the previous study, but including a slightly different set of variables in the selection equation. Using similar retail firms in the control municipalities as our comparison group, we estimate the impact of IKEA entry on revenues and employment for retail firms located at varying distances from the IKEA entry site.The results generated in this study imply that entry by IKEA increases revenues in incumbent retail firms by, on average, 11% in the entry municipalities. In addition, we do not find any significant impact on retail revenues in the city centers of the entry municipalities. However, we do find that retail firms within 1 km of the IKEA experience increases in revenues of about 26%, which indicates large spillover effects in the area nearby the entry site. As expected, this impact decreases as we expand the buffer zone: firms located between 0-2 km experiences a 14% increase and firms in 2-5 km experiences an increase of 10%. We do not find any significant impacts on retail employment.

  • 243.
    Nilsson, Jan-Eric
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Pricing the use of Sweden’s railways. Are charges in line with marginal costs?: Marginal costs pricing of airport use. The case for using a market mechanism for slot pricing2003Report (Other academic)
  • 244.
    Nilsson, Jan-Eric
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Restructuring Sweden's railways: The unintentional deregulation2002In: Swedish Economic Policy Review, ISSN 1400-1829, Vol. 9, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 245.
    Nilsson, Jan-Eric
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Johansson, P
    An Economic Analysis of Track Maintenance Costs2004In: Transport Policy, ISSN 0266-4577, Vol. 11, no 3, p. 277-286Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 246.
    Nordström, Sandra
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Monetär värdering av fritid: En skattning av den genomsnittliga betalningsviljan för fritid i Sverige2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper was conducted with the purpose of estimating a monetary value of leisure (VL) time for the population in Sweden. The model used is developed by Jara-Diaz et. al. (2008). Due to the lack of studies of the value of leisure time for the Swedish population parameter values for Germany and Switzerland was used. This since their population characteristics is most like the Swedish population characteristics and represents both higher and lower levels of taxes and wage rates. The parameter values stand for an average benefit of having leisure time from a study in Karlsruhe, Germany, and Thurgau, Switzerland, and was used in a combination with Swedish statistics to obtain a value of leisure time. Results from Jara-Díaz et. al. (2008) shows that the population in Thurgau has a higher value of leisure time, most likely since they have a higher wage rate and a lower tax than the population in Germany, but the parameters from Germany are higher. The results therefore show a higher value of leisure time with estimates from Karlsruhe. The value of leisure time represents 35%-208% of the wage rate after tax with parameter values from Karlsruhe, and 23%-137% of the wage rate after tax with parameter values from Thurgau. The value of leisure time correlates with income and the result show that to have a positive value one need to have a yearly income closer to 200 000 SEK after tax. For people under 200 000 SEK the value of leisure was negative, in other words, they are unwilling to pay for an hour of leisure time. The results from the model is a form of willingness to pay for one additional hour of leisure time. A Monte Carlo simulation was conducted on the average value of parameter α (average individual preferences of sparing time for consumption) and β (average individual preferences of sparing time for activities). The author assumes that the population in Sweden would be most likely to have an average benefit that is located between the estimates of the average benefit for Karlsruhe and Thurgau. The analysis shows that for people of age 20-64 years the median of leisure time is 165 SEK, and for the younger ones, 16- 19 years, the median value of leisure time is 4 SEK.

  • 247. Nordvall, Anders
    et al.
    Heldt, Tobias
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Competition and festival failure: Societal costs and benefits related to the rise and fall of Swedish music festivals2017In: 26th Nordic Symposium of Tourism and Hospitality Research, Book of abstract, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 248.
    Nordvall, Anders
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University.
    Heldt, Tobias
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Understanding hallmark event failure: A case study of a Swedish music festival2017In: International Journal of Event and Festival Management, ISSN 1785-2954, Vol. 8, no 2, p. 172-185Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    Hallmark events can be very beneficial for host communities, not least due to their potential in attracting tourists. The Peace & Love music festival was the hallmark event of the Swedish city Borlänge. In 2013, the event organization declared bankruptcy and canceled the forthcoming festival. The purpose of this paper is to identify and discuss the factors that caused the failure of the 2013 Peace & Love festival.

    Design/methodology/approach

    The case of the Peace & Love festival is analyzed using three data sources: interviews with the former members of the event organization; secondary data describing the Swedish festival industry; and festival visitors’ perspectives represented by comments on social media. An organizational ecology perspective frames the analysis.

    Findings

    The results of the study reveal that the failure of the event can be understood by a combination of three components: an organization in a vulnerable position, a strong new competitor entering the Swedish festival market, and uncertain visitors searching for the new place to be.

    Originality/value

    Very few studies have researched event failure, although the subject is a recommended priority within the field of festival studies. This study presents a thorough examination of a hallmark event failure, which contributes to this area of knowledge and provides relevant information for organizations and host cities.

  • 249.
    Olofsson, Mattias
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Government spending and unemployment: An empirical study on Sweden, 1994-20122013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to see if any relationship between government spending andunemployment could be empirically found. To test if government spending affectsunemployment, a statistical model was applied on data from Sweden. The data was quarterlydata from the year 1994 until 2012, unit-root test were conducted and the variables wheretransformed to its first-difference so ensure stationarity. This transformation changed thevariables to growth rates. This meant that the interpretation deviated a little from the originalgoal. Other studies reviewed indicate that when government spending increases and/or taxesdecreases output increases. Studies show that unemployment decreases when governmentspending/GDP ratio increases. Some studies also indicated that with an already largegovernment sector increasing the spending it could have negative effect on output. The modelwas a VAR-model with unemployment, output, interest rate, taxes and government spending.Also included in the model were a linear and three quarterly dummies. The model used 7lags. The result was not statistically significant for most lags but indicated that as governmentspending growth rate increases holding everything else constant unemployment growth rateincreases. The result for taxes was even less statistically significant and indicates norelationship with unemployment. Post-estimation test indicates that there were problems withnon-normality in the model. So the results should be interpreted with some scepticism.

  • 250.
    Poppi, Stefano
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology. KTH.
    Bales, Chris
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Heinz, Andreas
    Hengel, Franz
    Cheze, David
    Mojic, Igor
    Cialani, Catia
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Analysis of system improvements in solar thermal and air source heat pump combisystems2016In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 173, p. 606-623Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A solar thermal and heat pump combisystem is one of many system alternatives on the market for supplying domestic hot water (DHW) and space heating (SH) in dwellings. In this study a reference solar thermal and air source heat pump combisystem was defined and modelled based on products available on the market. Based on the results of an extensive literature survey, several system variations were investigated to show the influence of heat pump cycle, thermal storage and system integration on the use of electricity for two houses in the climates of Zurich and Carcassonne. A singular economic cash flow analysis was carried out and the “additional investment limit” of each system variation was determined for a range of economic boundary conditions. This is the maximum extra investment cost for the system variant compared to the reference system that will give a break even result for a 10 year period. The results show that variations in electricity price affects the additional investment limit far more than the other economic parameters. Several of the variants show potential for achieving a cost benefit, but the potential varies a lot depending on load and climate boundary conditions. For all variants, the biggest difference in electricity savings was found for Zurich rather than in Carcassonne, which is explained by the larger heating load. However, in three cases the largest savings were for the SFH45 house despite the fact that the annual electricity use of the system is much lower than that for the SFH100 house, 3581 kW h/year compared to 8340 kW h/year. This was attributed to the fact that, in these cases, the operating level of the space heating circuit played a significant role, the SFH45 house being supplied with a 35/30 °C heating system while the SFH100 was supplied with a 55/45 °C heating system.

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