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  • 201. Weicker Frost, Jacob
    Partneringi byggbranschen: En studie avolika aktörers inställning till partnering2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Byggbranschen i Sverige kan ses som ett stafettlopp mellan olika aktörer där juridiken spelar en allt för stor roll. På grund av detta så kom i början på 2000-talet partnering till Sverige som en ny samverkansform. Av de partneringprojekt som utförs i Sverige så står den offentliga sektorn för ungefär 80 %.

    Syftet med detta examensarbete var att kartlägga partnering på Skanska för att se vilka utvecklingsmöjligheter som fanns och vilken inställning olika aktörer har till partnering. För att få ett strukturerat och enkelt syfte så stolpades följande frågeställningar upp:

     Vad kan Skanska göra för att utveckla och förbättra sitt arbetssätt i partnering?

     Vad ä viktigt fö ett lyckat partneringprojekt?

     Vilka för- och nackdelar finns med partnering jämfört med traditionellt samarbete?

     Vad karaktäriserar ett projekt där partnering anses som ett bra arbetssätt?

     Varfö väjer vissa bestälare att inte jobba i partnering?

     Vad kan Skanska göa fö att fåfler bestälare att väja partnering?

    För att arbetet inte skulle bli för tidskrävande utifrån den givna tidsramen som fanns så avgränsades det till att endast behandla åsikter hos produktionschefer, beställare och underentreprenörer. De aktörer som deltog i studien var från Gävle-/Dalaregionen och endast offentliga beställare tillfrågades.

    Arbetet inleddes med en litteraturstudie för att ge en djupare inblick i vad partnering är och hur det fungerar. I denna fas gjordes även litteraturstudier för att finna den mest lämpade metoden för att genomföra arbetet. Dessa studier resulterade i att den halvstrukturerade intervjuformen samt enkäter användes som metod.

    I resultatet redovisas de tillfrågades svar som sedan sammanställs i analysen där de ställs i relation till teoridelen. Analysen mynnar sedan ut i ett antal slutsatser.

     Några slutsatser som kunnat dras av detta arbete är att det inom partnering är viktigt att:

     Se till att endast personal som är engagerad och intresserad av partnering deltar i projekten.

     Läga mycket tid i föstudien.

     Alla aktöer släper täket som finns i traditionellt samarbete.

     Alla parter har bra koll på ekonomin och har en tydlig och öppen redovisning.

     Sätta upp tydliga gemensamma mål där alla i projektet involveras.

  • 202.
    Weiss, Philipp
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy and Environmental Technology.
    Dalarnas byggnadsbestånd: Sammansättning och energianvändning 20082011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Dalarnas byggnadsbestånd kännetecknas av en stor andel bostäder, i synnerhet småhus. Permanentbebodda småhus och fritidshus utgör 60% av den uppvärmda arean i länet och bostäderna uppskattas stå för över 80% av energianvändningen i länets bebyggelse. En stor andel av bebyggelsen är byggt före 1961 och nybyggnationstakten har varit mycket låg sedan mitten av 1990 ‐talet. Detta i kombination med en låg rivningstakt gör att energiomställningen måste ske i den befintliga bebyggelsen, förutsatt att rådande trender inte bryts radikalt. Ägarstrukturen av den befintliga bebyggelsen är mycket fragmenterad på grund av den höga andelen småhus, vilket måste påverka strategin för omställningsarbetet. Tänkbara kommande analyser av bl.a. specialenheterna (skolor, allmänna byggnader, idrottsanläggningar etc.), fritidshusen och socioekonomiska faktorer relaterade till länets bebyggelse skulle kunna förfina problembilden och underbygga det långsiktiga strategiska arbetet för energieffektiviseringen i länet.

  • 203.
    Weiss, Philipp
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy and Environmental Technology.
    Vägar till en halverad energianvändning i Dalarnas småhusbebyggelse2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport är en svensk sammanfattning av licentiatavhandlingen med titeln "Simple Question, Complex Answer. Pathways towards a 50% Decrease in Building Energy Use", som publicerades vid Uppsala Universitet i februari 2014. I denna rapport har jag samman-ställt det som jag anser vara de viktigaste resultaten ur ett länsperspektiv och rapporten riktar sig därför i första hand mot aktörer inom byggnadssektorn i Dalarna. Mer omfattande bild-material, diagram, tabeller och hänvisningar till källmaterial återfinns för den intresserade i licentiatavhandlingen. Min förhoppning är att denna sammanfattning kan ligga till grund för diskussioner och beslut om framtiden för Dalarnas småhusbestånd.

  • 204.
    Zhang, Fan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    A hybrid structured deep neural network with Word2Vec for construction accident causes classification2019In: International Journal of Construction Management, ISSN 1562-3599Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    According to the latest fatal work injury rates reported by the Bureau of Labors Statistics, construction sites remain the most hazardous workplaces. In the construction sector, fatality investigation summary reports are available for past accidents and by investigating such reports, valuable insights can be gained. In this study, text mining algorithms are explored for automatic construction accident causes classification. To be more specific, Word2Vec skip-gram model is utilized to learn word embedding from a domain-specific corpus and a hybrid structured deep neural network is proposed by incorporating the learned word embedding for accident reports classification. Dataset from Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) is employed in the experiment to evaluate the performance of the proposed approach. Besides, five baseline models: support vector machine (SVM), linear regression (LR), K-nearest neighbor (KNN), decision tree (DT), Naive Bayes (NB) are employed to compare with the proposed approach. Experiment results show that the proposed model achieves the highest average weighted F1 score among all models considered in this study. The result also proves the effectiveness of applying Word2Vec skip-gram algorithm for semantic information augmentation. As a result, robustness of the model is improved when classifying cases of low support values.

  • 205. Zhang, Sheng
    et al.
    Huang, Pei
    City University of Hong Kong.
    Sun, Yongjun
    A multi-criterion renewable energy system design optimization for net zero energy buildings under uncertainties2016In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 94, p. 654-665Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Net zero energy buildings (NZEBs) are promising to mitigate the increasing energy and environmental problems. For NZEBs, annual energy balance between renewable energy generation and building energy consumption is an essential and fundamental requirement. Conventional RES (renewable energy system) design methods for NZEBs have not systematically considered uncertainties associated with building energy generation and consumption. As a result, either the annual energy balance cannot be achieved or the initial investment of RES is unnecessarily large. Meanwhile, the uncertainties also have significant impacts on NZEB power mismatch which can cause severe grid stress. In order to overcome the above challenges, this study proposes a multi-criterion RES design optimization method for NZEBs under uncertainties. Under the uncertainties, Monte Carlo simulations have been employed to estimate the annual energy balance and the grid stress caused by power mismatch. Three criteria, namely the annual energy balance reliability, the grid stress and the initial investment, are used to evaluate the overall RES design performance based on user-defined weighted factors. A case study has demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed method in optimizing the size of RES under uncertainties.

  • 206. Zhang, Sheng
    et al.
    Sun, Yongjun
    Cheng, Yong
    Huang, Pei
    City University of Hong Kong.
    Oladokun, Majeed Olaide
    Lin, Zhang
    Response-surface-model-based system sizing for Nearly/Net zero energy buildings under uncertainty2018In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 228, p. 1020-1031Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Properly treating uncertainty is critical for robust system sizing of nearly/net zero energy buildings (ZEBs). To treat uncertainty, the conventional method conducts Monte Carlo simulations for thousands of possible design options, which inevitably leads to computation load that is heavy or even impossible to handle. In order to reduce the number of Monte Carlo simulations, this study proposes a response-surface-model-based system sizing method. The response surface models of design criteria (i.e., the annual energy match ratio, self-consumption ratio and initial investment) are established based on Monte Carlo simulations for 29 specific design points which are determined by Box-Behnken design. With the response surface models, the overall performances (i.e., the weighted performance of the design criteria) of all design options (i.e., sizing combinations of photovoltaic, wind turbine and electric storage) are evaluated, and the design option with the maximal overall performance is finally selected. Cases studies with 1331 design options have validated the proposed method for 10,000 randomly produced decision scenarios (i.e., users’ preferences to the design criteria). The results show that the established response surface models reasonably predict the design criteria with errors no greater than 3.5% at a cumulative probability of 95%. The proposed method reduces the number of Monte Carlos simulations by 97.8%, and robustly sorts out top 1.1% design options in expectation. With the largely reduced Monte Carlo simulations and high overall performance of the selected design option, the proposed method provides a practical and efficient means for system sizing of nearly/net ZEBs under uncertainty.

  • 207.
    Zhang, Xingxing
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Wang, X.
    Zhao, Xiaoyun
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    Solar System Design and Energy Performance Assessment Approaches2019In: Advanced Energy Efficiency Technologies for Solar Heating, Cooling and Power Generation, Springer, 2019, p. 417-451Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recently, solar system has gained a rapid development in many countries because it is clean and sustainable. Many solar systems including the solar photovoltaic/loop-heat-pipe (PV/LHP), solar loop-heat-pipe (LHP), solar photovoltaic/micro-channel heat pipe (PV/MCHP) system, and solar thermal facade system (STF) have been designed for energy saving. To assess these systems’ performance, there are many approaches such as energy and exergy assessment which is used in this chapter to analyze their performance. Besides the system design, the authors set up dedicated experimental models in combination with computer models to test the systems’ performance. Furthermore, some systems are compared with the conventional system, and the performance of these solar systems is better than the conventional system. In addition, these solar systems are applied in many real buildings and their performance is examined, the results show that the solar systems have more potential to boost the building energy efficiency and create the possibility of solar development in buildings. © 2019, Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

  • 208.
    Zhao, Xiaoyun
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    Carling, Kenneth
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    Håkansson, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    An evaluation of the reliability of GPS-based transportation data2017In: Proceedings of IAC in Vienna 2017, 2017, p. 323-334, article id IAC201711035Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    GPS-based data are becoming a cornerstone for real-time transportation applications. Tracking data of vehicles from GPS receivers are however susceptible to measurement errors. The assessment of the reliability of data from GPS receiver is a neglected issue, especially in a real road network setting and in the phase after data transfer but before information identification. An evaluation method is outlined and carried out by conducting a randomized experiment. We assess the reliability of GPS-based transportation data on geographical position, speed, and elevation from three varied receivers GlobalSat BT-338X, Magellan SporTrak Pro and smart phone for three transportation modes: bicycle, car, and bus. The positional error ranging from 0158 meters, and 74% to 100% with an error within 5 meters depending on the transportation mode and route, there is also a non-negligible risk for aberrant positioning. Speed is slightly underestimated or overestimated with errors around 5km/h except for SporTrak Pro which had an error of -10 km/h. Elevation measurements are unreliable with errors bigger than 100 meters.

  • 209.
    Åkerman, Hampus
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Larsson, Eric
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Lipton - Det smarta trähuset: Energieffektivisering av Dalahus lägenhetskomplex i trä2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Earth's climate is affecting all countries and Sweden is no exception. With agrowing global environmental problem everyone needs to contribute to change.The project's contribution to the environment is to show how energyconsumption of a multi-family apartment block can be reduced. By calculatingUm for the house Lipton's current building envelope and identify the parts whereimprovements could be made, and compile the elements of design which aremost promising for improving the building envelope. Technical measures witch isnot directly related to the building envelope, such as demand controlledventilation, electrically efficient fans and other energy-smart solutions will beutilized to reduce Lipton specific energy consumption.Buildings lose heat through the building envelope but by harnessing the sun'senergy, think carefully about the building's placement, increase insulationthickness and use smart ventilation solutions, the project aims to reduce thehouse Liptons specific energy consumption to at least half of Boverkets energydemands in 2014 for new buildings in climate zone 2 which is set to110 kWh/m2 year.To calculate the specific energy consumption in use phase, a simple calculationprogram, TMF-Energy 2.3, will be used. In the project, the heating system,water/sewer and use of household energy is not to be included.The original design of the house Lipton has a specific energy consumption of56.9 kWh/m2 year which is relatively low and almost half of Boverkets energyrequirementsThe energy consumption of Lipton will be decreased by:• Improving Um for Lipton's building envelope.• Using a double-shell technology.Högskolan Dalarna• Plan where the house is located for favorable outer conditions• Using demand-controlled ventilation with energy efficient fans

  • 210.
    Åkerström, Johan
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Blomqvist, Andreas
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Tillbyggnad av miljonprogramsvilla: Olika tillbyggnader anpassade för miljonprogramsvillor2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Many villas built under the "miljonprogram" is in need of extension due to being too narrow in addition of being worn out. For this reason, many families chose to move out of these villas in favor of buying a bigger and more modern house. This means that the "miljonprogram" villas are in need of refurbishment to not lose too much value and popularity. Refurbishment of these villas can be done in many ways. One being a extension of the house, changing the truss or just a flat overall refurbishment. The method varies depending on the build of the house, as most if not all houses are constucted in different ways. A purpose of this report is to present a variety of how these villas can be rebuilt in favor of higher standards and a bigger living area. Various proposals will be presented where each development is made in different ways. Another purpose of the report is to compile the material costs for the various additions.

    This is done in order to gain an economic perception of the various additions and which add-on option is most economically sustainable

    The test object used in the report is stationed in Falun. The building is a typical miljonprograms villa with a pitched roof. The façade material for the villa consists of non-bearing façade pointers. The various additions to the project are based on the test object's original drawings. The new blueprints for the villa is drawn in the architectureprogram Revit.

    In the results section, various supplementary proposals are presented and finally an economic comparison is made.

    This is made to get an economic view of the various additions proposed in this report. Where the prices are compared in SEK per square meter.

    The discussion section discusses, among other things, the various additions suggested earlier.

    How the surfaces of the test object are trying to be preserved and the though process behind the new additions.

    Finally, economic aspects are discussed in the results part of the report. Four different conclusions are included in the report.

    One conclusion is that a mansard chair creates many new surfaces upstairs, and that it is also economically advantageous from a material cost perspective.

  • 211.
    Öhrèn, Rasmus
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Tekniskt samråd: Studie av likvärdighet i utförandet2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A new planning- and building act was applied the 2nd may 2011. The intention was to simplify the planning- and building process as the control of constructing where tightened. In the new act there has been introduced a deadline for the building permits of ten weeks. To be allowed to begin the constructing you will need a starting clearance. The clearance is preceded by a technical consultation.

    The purpose of this study was to survey if the technical consultation is performed equivalent between different municipalities in the county of Dalarna. Other purposes was:

     To create a basis for improvement regarding the technical consultation.

     Examine how to facilitate or improve the consultation.

     Illustrate why the technical consultation is so important in the building process.

     Clarify the differences in the new and the old act regarding the consultation.

    To understand what a technical consultation is and how it should be performed the work began with a literature study. A literature study was also performed to pick a method for the work. These studies resulted in a method based on the semi-structured interview form. A number of interviews were conducted in five building committees in Dalarnas County. To study the technical consultation in practice a visit during a consultation were conducted at Mora – Orsa and Falun municipalities.

    This thesis was delimited to examining how technical consultation is performed and works in various building committees in Dalarnas county. The work was delimited to only process opinions from building inspectors and a control manager.

    The results have been compiled and are reported in the results chapter. All respondents in this thesis have the opinion that complete documentation is essential to carry out a technical consultation. The developer should be well-informed and familiar with the project and an experienced developer could simplify the building process. A technical consultation is of great importance to ensure that the society’s conditions upholds. It is particularly important to hold a consultation when the developer is inexperienced.

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