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  • 201.
    Hylén, Torsten
    Dalarna University, School of Education and Humanities, Religious Studies.
    Essentialism in religious education: Some reflections on a didactical problem2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In spite of the fact that essentialist views of religion have been debated for decades in other parts of the world, e.g. in the USA, it is only recently that such ideas have been contested in Sweden. Furthermore, it is mainly in academic circles that non-essentialist ideas of religion have been promoted.

    In this paper I intend to present an outline of an article where I argue that essentialist views on religion are indeed highly problematic, but are still widespread in many parts of Swedish society, not least in religious education in the schools. I will also suggest alternative views of religion and propose a hermeneutical approach to teaching religion that might help to overcome the problem of essentialism.

  • 202.
    Hylén, Torsten
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Religious Studies. Uppsala universitet.
    Husayn, the Mediator: A Structural Analysis of the Karbala Drama according to Abu Ja´far Muhammad b. Jarir al-Tabari (d. 310/923)2007Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study has a twofold purpose: Firstly, it is an analysis of the Karbala´ Drama—i.e. the death of Husayn b. `Ali in the hands of an army which had been sent out by the Umayyad authorities, at Karbala in 60/680—as it is retold by the Muslim jurist and historiographer Abu Ja`far Muhammad b. Jarir al-Tabari (d. 310/923). Despite its importance, especially to Shi`ite Islam, this text as such has received relatively little attention among scholars of Islam. In this study, the Karbala´ Drama is regarded as a myth and the method used to analyze it is inspired by the structuralism of Claude Lévi-Strauss. Lévi-Straussian structuralism has probably never before been ap-plied to early Arabic material to the extent that it is used here. The second purpose of the study, then, is to investigate to what extent and in what mode such a method is applicable to this material. A portion of the text, called the “Text of Reference,” has been selected and thoroughly analyzed. In that analysis, a number of structural features such as codes, oppositions, mediations, and transformations have been identified and made the basis for a more cursory study of the rest of the story. An important structural feature that is detected in this way is the way the argument of the story is forwarded. By the transformation of metaphors into metonyms, the story attempts to make arbitrary relationships look natural and intrinsic. Such a relationship is that between water and blood—two liquids which are at times shed, at times withheld in the story. Husayn takes a mediating position in that he gives his water and his blood. He acts as mediator both in a negative sense (he establishes the basic Islamic opposition of good and evil), and in a positive sense (as religious guide he acts as a bridge between them).

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  • 203.
    Hylén, Torsten
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Religious Studies.
    Mukhtār and the Mahdī: a critical inquiry into the sources2018In: DIN - Tidsskrift for religion og kultur, ISSN 1501-9934, no 1, p. 138-157Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of al-mahdī is one of the most important theological ideas in Shiʿism. Its literary meaning is ‘the rightly guided’, and this is how it was probably used in the first decades after the Prophet Muhammad. In Twelver Shiʿism it has come to denote the hidden Imam, who will one day return to redeem his followers and restore justice on earth, and in that sense it is akin to the Christian idea of the Messiah. Among scholars of early Islam there is near consensus on the view that the transition of meaning, from its literal meaning ‘the rightly guided’ to an eschatological redeemer, occurred with the Shiʿite rebel leader al-Mukhtār b. Abī ʿUbayd (d. 686) when he applied it to Muhammad b. al-Hanafiyya, the son of ʿAlī. In the present study I will contest that view. I will hold that, while it can be established from the sources that Mukhtār probably spoke of Ibn al-Hanafiyya as al-mahdī, they do not support his use of this title in a messianic sense. This eschatological meaning can only be verified soon after his death.

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  • 204.
    Hylén, Torsten
    Dalarna University, School of Education and Humanities, Religious Studies.
    Myter2010In: Människor och makter 2.0: En introduktion till religionsvetenskap / [ed] Svensson, Jonas; Arvidsson, Stefan, Halmstad: Högskolan i Halmstad , 2010, 2, p. 31-36Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I kapitlet diskuteras mytbegreppet på introducerande nivå. En funktionell och dynamisk användning av begreppet föreslås, och två exempel ges på hur en och samma myt kan ges olika tolkningar i skilda kontexter. De exempel som behandlas är den grekiska myten om Herakles och den shi'itiska berättelsen om Husayn ibn Alis död i Karbala.

  • 205.
    Hylén, Torsten
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Religious Studies.
    Myth, ritual, and the early development of Shiite identity2018In: Intellectual History of the Islamicate World, ISSN 2212-9421, Vol. 6, no 3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The developing myth about the events at Karbala, as well as the image of al-Ḥusayn b. ʿAlī and the cult connected with him, were important factors in the shaping of early Shiite identity. In this article, I argue that some of the earliest traces of this process are found in the account of the Tawwābūn, or Penitents, events which took place in the years immediately following the death of al-Ḥusayn at Karbala in 60 AH/680 CE. Important elements of this story originate at least as early as the late first century AH/early eighth century CE. In the story we see the image of al-Ḥusayn in process of transformation from that of someone merely human to someone ascribed traits that transcend the human. In the same process, the story of his death at Karbala is in process of being elevated from a tragic story to a myth with its associated rituals.

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  • 206.
    Hylén, Torsten
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Religious Studies.
    Myth, ritual and the early development of Shīʿite identity2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The story of the killing of Ḥusayn b. ʿAlī at Karbalāʾ is of course one of the most important narratives in Shīʿite Islam. In this paper, a very early phase in the development of this story into a Shīʿite myth will be discussed. It will be argued that in the story of the Tawwābūn (the Penitents) we can see some of the mechanisms of this process at work.

    The paper will begin with a brief discussion of the concept of myth which leads up to a stipulated definition of myth: the term will be used to connote a narrative that is foundational to the world view and identity of a group of people. I will argue that the story of the Tawwābūn, at least the parts that are relevant in this context, date back to the beginning of the 2nd/8th century if not earlier. Finally, I will maintain that, in this early story we see how pre-Islamic stories are re-interpreted, and old rituals are filled with new meaning in accordance with the Karbalāʾ event and the Tawwābūn’s feeling of guilt concerning Ḥusayn’s fate. The story of the Tawwābūn thus testifies to the growing importance of the Karbalāʾ drama and the beginning of its development into a myth in the sense mentioned above.

  • 207.
    Hylén, Torsten
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Religious Studies.
    New Meanings to Old Rituals: The Emergence of Mourning Rituals in Shiʿite Islam2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper will discuss the emergence of Shiʿite mourning rituals around the grave of Husayn b. ʿAli. After the killing of Husayn at Karbala’ in 61/680, a number of men in Kufa feel deep regret for their neglect to come to the help of the grand­son of the Prophet. They gather and discuss how they can best make penitence for this crime. Eventually, they decide to take to arms and go against the Umayyad army – to kill those that killed Husayn, or be killed them­selves in the attempt to find revenge for him. Thus, they are called the Penitents (Ar. Tawwābūn). On their way to the battlefield they stop at Husayn’s tomb at Karbala’, dedicat­ing themselves to remorseful prayer, crying and wailing over the fate of Husayn and their own sin.

    When the Penitents perform certain ritual acts, such as weeping and wailing over the death of Husayn, visiting his grave, asking for God’s mercy upon him on the Day of Judgment, demand blood revenge for him etc., they enter into already existing rituals in the pre-Islamic Arab and early Muslim context. That is, they enter into rituals that were traditionally performed at the death of a person. What is new is that the rituals that the Penitents perform have partially received a new content. As described, the rituals are performed out of loyalty towards Husayn and the family of the Prophet. The lack of loyalty in connection with the death of Husayn is conceived of as a sin that has to be atoned. Blood revenge thus be­comes not only a pure action of revenge to restore honor, but equally an expression for true religious conversion and penitence.

    Humphrey and Laidlaw argue that ritual actions in themselves are not bearers of meaning, but that they are filled with mean­ing by the performer. Accord­ing to them, ritual actions are apprehensible, i.e. they can be, and should be filled with meaning, and the people who perform them try to do so within the context where the ritual is performed. The story of the Penitents is a clear example of mourning rituals as actions that survive from earlier times, but that are now filled with new meaning when they are performed in a new and developing move­ment with a different ideology. In later Shiʿism, these rituals are elaborated and become a main tenet of this form of Islam.

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  • 208.
    Hylén, Torsten
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Religious Studies.
    Praying Aloud or in Silence?: On Conceptual Blending and Emotions in the Analysis of Rituals2011In: Religion, a Human Phenomenon: Xxth World Congress of the International Association for the History of Religions: Proceedings, Toronto: International Association for the History of Religions , 2011, p. 264-Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper I try to apply theories from cognitive linguistics, mainly the idea of "conceptual blending" as outlined by Fauconnier and Turner in their book "The Way We Think" (2002). Arguments and metaphors, they hold, can be analyzed as conceptual blends. In an article from 2005, Edward Slingerland connects this theory with the concept of "somatic markers" or "gut feelings" as developed by the neurologist Antonio Damasio (1994). Slingerland argues that the somatic markers are important when presenting an argument. We do not only rely on the purely rational capacities of our listeners when we argue, but by connecting our arguments to somatic markers we appeal to the feelings of those we try to convince. Two basic arguments in my paper is 1) that rituals can be analyzed as conceptual blends, and 2) that an important function of many rituals is that they reinforce certain basic feelings, thereby disposing the performer of a specific ritual to follow the norms that underlie the current interpretation of that ritual. As an example I use the controversy on the Muslim salat among the Gayo people of Sumatra, that John R. Bowen describes in his works (1984, 1993).

  • 209.
    Hylén, Torsten
    Dalarna University, School of Education and Humanities, Religious Studies.
    Revenge or Martyrdom!: The Story of the Penitents as a Link to the Early Development of Shi'ism2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the story of the Penitents (ar. Tawwābūn) we are told about a group of men in early Islam, who deeply regret that they did not support Husayn b. ‘Alī, the grandson of the Prophet, when he was killed at Karbala in 680 CE. In their remorse, they first discuss the option of committing collective suicide. As this is prohibited in the Qur’ān, however, they decide to seek revenge by going against the Umayyad army. This will certainly lead to their death, and they accept this as martyrdom for true Islam which will cleanse them from their sin.

    As the story most likely is written down as early as the middle of the 8:th century, and probably has earlier roots, it is remarkable that very little attention has been paid to it in academic research. In spite of its old age, it incorporates many elements that later came to be basic in Shi‘ite Islam. At the same time, however, other components in later Shi‘ite theology and ritual, such as the Shi‘ite imamology, that began to develop around the mid-8:th century, are lacking in the story. Thus, it is an important link to the understanding of the development of early Shi‘ism.

    In this paper I will introduce a research project concerning the story of the Penitents that is financed from the Swedish Research Council. In the project, the story will be studied from three perspectives. First, the history of tradition will be focused, and three different versions of the story, i.e. the versions by Ibn A‘tham al-Kūfī, al-Balādhurī and al-Tabarī, will be compared and the relations between them will be analyzed. Second, special attention will be paid to the theological ideas expressed in the text in relation to those that developed later in Shi‘ism. Third, the rituals performed in the story will be studied in connection with rituals in the surrounding culture as well as in later Shi´ism.

  • 210.
    Hylén, Torsten
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Religious Studies.
    Shiitisk islam i vardande: Myt, rit och identitet2015In: En profil i profilen: Vänbok till Bo G Jansson / [ed] Catharina Nyström Höög, Charlotte Lindgren & Sverre Wide, Falun: Högskolan Dalarna, 2015, p. 3-19Chapter in book (Other academic)
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  • 211.
    Hylén, Torsten
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Religious Studies.
    The Date of the Story of the Tawwābūn2017In: Studia Islamica, ISSN 0585-5292, E-ISSN 1958-5705, Vol. 112, no 2, p. 175-205Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The movement of the Tawwābūn (“Penitents”) emerged after the killing of Ḥusayn b. ʿAlī at Karbalāʾ in 61/680. Although several scholars have held that the story of the Tawwābūn is indeed old, it has been little studied. In this article an analysis is made of a central section of the story: the account about the Tawwābūn’s visit at Ḥusayn’s grave. The three versions of this account is analysed by means of tradition- and content critical methods. It is concluded that behind the three versions lie two earlier reports that date back at least to the end of the 1st century AH/the beginning of the 8th century CE. This story is, hence, of importance for the study of the early development of Shīʿite ideas and rituals.

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  • 212.
    Hylén, Torsten
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Religious Studies.
    The hand of God is over their hands (Q. 48:10): on the notion of covenant in al-Ṭabarī’s account of Karbalāʾ2016In: Journal of Qur'anic Studies, ISSN 1465-3591, E-ISSN 1755-1730, Vol. 18, no 2, p. 58-88Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article is an analysis of the story of the killing of Ḥusayn b. ʿAlī at Karbalāʾ in 61/680, as it is presented by Abū Jaʿfar Muḥammad b. Jarīr al-Ṭabarī (d. 310/923). The main argument is that the notion of the divine covenant, which permeates the Qur’an, constitutes a framework through which al-Ṭabarī views this event. The Qur’anic idea of the covenant is read in structural/thematic continuity with the Hebrew Bible account of the covenant between Yahweh and the Hebrew people, which has, in turn, been traced back in its basic form to Late Bronze Era treaties between rulers and their vassals.

     

    The present study focusses on four speeches ascribed to Ḥusayn during the encounter he and his group had with the vanguard of the Kūfan army led by al-Ḥurr. These are analysed in accordance with their use of Qur’anic covenant vocabulary. They are also categorised within the broader framework of the eight standard characteristics of Ancient West Asian and Biblical covenants, as presented by George Mendenhall and Gary Herion, which have recently been developed in a Qur’anic context by Rosalind Ward Gwynne. This article argues that al-Ṭabarī’s Karbalāʾ narrative presents the pact of loyalty to Ḥusayn as a clear extension of the divine covenant.

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  • 213.
    Hylén, Torsten
    Dalarna University, School of Education and Humanities, Religious Studies.
    Är Kerbela-dramat en myt?1997In: Myter och mytteorier: Religionshistoriska diskussioner och teoretiska ansatser / [ed] Svalastog, Anna Lydia; Sundqvist, Olof, Uppsala: Teologiska institutionen, Uppsala Universitet , 1997, p. 55-71Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Artikeln diskuterar begreppet myt i islam. Traditionella definitioner fokuserar berättelsernas innehåll snarare än deras funktion. Detta gör att de flesta berättelser som för muslimer är grundläggande för deras tro utesluts ur katgorin myter. I artikeln analyseras Karbala-myten med hjälp av L. Honkos fyra mytkriterier. Slutsatsen av analysen är att, ur ett funktionellt perspektiv kan denna berättelse betraktas som en myt för shi´itisk islam. Till sist nämns också några andra islamiska berättelser som i funktionell mening kanske också kan räknas som myter.

  • 214.
    Hörberg, Nikolinn
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Religious Studies.
    Apokalyptiska förställningar i Islamiska staten Al-Malhama Al-Kubra: En religionsvetenskaplig uppsats2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna forskningsuppsats riktas fokus på de apokalyptiska föreställningarna som finns i islam och i den Islamiska staten (IS).Apokalyps handlar om vad som händer innan jordens undergång och idéerna om apokalyps finns inom de flesta religionerna, men de skiljer sig dock ifrån varandra.IS tankar om apokalypsen handlar om att man ska upprätta ett nytt kalifat och förbereda inför al-Malhama – al-Kubra. Al-Malhama betyder det hårda kriget och al-Kubra betyder den stora, tillsammans översätts detta till den stora hårda striden.De förbereder inför al-Malhama – al Kubra genom att uppmana alla äkta sunnimuslimer till att vara med och slåss i den stora striden som kommer vid världens slut. Ytterligare en apokalyptisk föreställning är att Jesus ska återuppstå och slåss emot Dajjal (Antikristus).Syftet med denna uppsats är att ta reda på hur apokalyptiska symboler framställs i tidskriften Dabiq jämfört med hur de framställs i litteraturstudierna Apocalypse in Islam och The ISIS Apocalypse, samt hur dessa apokalyptiska symboler används för att skapa en “vi och dem” känsla.Syftet med uppsatsen är att ta reda på hur IS egna tidskrift Dabiq använder sig av apokalyptiska symboler, samt hur de också framställs i två olika böcker som berör ämnet. Målet är då att se om symbolerna används i tidskriften som de framställs i den vetenskapliga litteraturen. Uppsatsen belyser dessutom om de apokalyptiska föreställningarna ligger till grund för att det bildas en “vi och dem” känsla som teorin i uppsatsen framhäver kan förekomma vid val av specifika ord. Teorin menar att aktörer väljer ut och använder vissa ord för att övertyga andra religiösa människor till att få liknande åsikter som de vill framföra. De menar att aktörer försöker skapa ett ”vi” mot ”dem”.Materialet som används i studien är böckerna Apocalypse in Islam, är skriven av Jean- Pierre Filiu och The ISIS Apocalypse. The history, strategy and doomsday vision of the islamic state som är skriven av William McCants. Jag har också använt IS egna tidskrift Dabiq som började att ges ut under 2014 när de apokalyptiska föreställningarna var som störst.De metoder som används i arbetet är; Närläsning, en vetenskaplig analysmetod där syftet är att läsaren ska få en djupare förståelse för texten.Denna metod har använts vid inläsning av materialet.Det används en retorikanalys för att framställningen av analysen i uppsatsen.Även en komparativ, vetenskaplig metod har nyttjats för att beskriva och analysera skillnader genom jämförelser. Denna metod använder jag då jag jämför de apokalyptiska symbolerna i mitt valda material samt i jämförandet mellan tidskriften Dabiq och den utvalda teorin i uppsatsen.Resultatet visade att det används mer typiska apokalyptiska symboler i de två böckerna jämfört med IS egna tidskrift. Böckerna använder symbolerna för att informera läsarna om det apokalyptiska tänkandet inom islam, medan tidskriften använder dessa för att uppmana jihadistiska unga män runtom i världen vilken stor betydelse de själva har vid tidens slut. Det som lockar är att känna sig utvald av gud och att få vara del av någonting större än livet självt.Resultaten visade också att de apokalyptiska symbolerna både i tidskriften och i böckerna leder till en ”vi och dem” känsla.

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  • 215.
    Jansson, Linus
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Religious Studies.
    Befrielse från friheten: En studie av Islamiska Statens ideologiska diskurser i en musikvideo utifrån religionsbeteendevetenskapliga, media-liseringsteoretiska och kunskapssociologiska perspektiv2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 216.
    Johansson, Anton
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Religious Studies.
    Håll dig borta från skolan, Gud.: En argumentationsanalytisk studie över januariavtalpartiernas deltagande i debatten om religiösa friskolor under valrörelsen 20182019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna text är en argumentationsanalytisk studie som undersöker hur partierna som ingått januariavtalet har debatterat religiösa friskolor under valrörelsen 2018 fram till 30 april 2019. Syftet är analysera de argument som partierna presenterat för och emot religiösa friskolor i Sverige, samt undersöka om och på vilket sätt deras åsikter utvecklats sedan friskolereformens genomförande. Den huvudsakliga metoden som används är argumentationsanalys. 10 debattartiklar från Dagens Nyheter, Svenska Dagbladet, Expressen och Aftonbladet analyseras. För att få en fördjupad förståelse för partiernas ställningstaganden analyseras även centrala åsiktsdokument från tidpunkten av friskolereformens införande och idag. Resultatet visar att det förekommer olika slags argument för att skärpa kontroller och att förbjuda religiösa friskolor. Två saker som är gemensamma för Socialdemokraterna, Liberalerna och Miljöpartiet är att de argumenterar utifrån normativa teser och i deras argumentation mot religiösa friskolor har ett stort fokus på att kritisera fenomen som redan idag är förbjudna. Centerpartiet avstod helt från att debattera frågan på de stora debattsidorna under valrörelsen 2018.  Socialdemokraterna, Liberalerna och Miljöpartiet har formulerat en tydligare kritik gentemot religiösa friskolor jämfört med vid införandet av friskolereformen. Studien visar också på att Socialdemokraterna är det parti som varit mest aktivt i debatten och som framfört skarpast kritik mot religiösa friskolor.

  • 217.
    Johansson, Michaela
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Religious Studies.
    Eleven som resurs i religionsundervisningen: En intervjustudie om lärares användning av elever som resurs i religionsundervisningen2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet är att undersöka om och hur fyra lärare på två skolor, med olika etniska sammansättningar i klassrummen, använder elever som resurs i religionsundervisningen. Metoden i undersökningen har bestått av intervjuer. För att söka svara på syftet har fyra frågeställningar ställts som handlar om hur lärare använder elever som resurs, i vilka syften lärare använder elever som resurs, vilka för- och nackdelar metoden kan ha samt frågeställningen om denna metod kan vara givande för att uppnå styrdokumentens målskrivningar. Resultatet visar på olika sätt att arbeta med metoden, allt ifrån spontana diskussioner och värderingsövningar till elevredovisningar. För- och nackdelar med metoden framkommer i intervjuerna, bland annat genom diskussioner om risken för mobbning och kränkningar men också i form av fördelar som att metoden skapar en förståelse och respekt för andra människor hos eleverna. Vidare dras en slutsats om att detta är en givande metod att använda sig av för att uppnå styrdokumentens målskrivningar eftersom det går att se positiva konsekvenser av metoden som i sin tur kan anses gynnande för elevernas utveckling av styrdokumentens mål.

  • 218.
    Johansson, Michaela
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Religious Studies.
    Läraren och den mångkulturella skolan: En litteraturstudie om lärares förhållningssätt till mångkultur och olika religiösa identiteter i skolkontexten2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Med hjälp av en systematisk litteraturstudie som metodansats och Banks teori om multikulturell utbildning som teoretisk ansats har en undersökning om lärares förhållningssätt och attityder till mångkultur och olika religiösa identitet i klassrummet gjorts. Även möjligheter och hinder i det mångkulturella klassrummet och hur lärare bör hantera en undervisning för att göra den så förenlig med läroplanen som möjligt, har gjorts. Sex avhandlingar har analyserats och diskuterats utifrån Banks teori om multikulturell utbildning. Resultatet visar att majoriteten av lärarna i de analyserade studierna intar positiva förhållningssätt och attityder till olika religiösa identiteter i klassrummet. Möjligheter och hinder i det mångkulturella klassrummet har också identifierats av forskningen och därefter diskuterats mot teorin om multikulturell utbildning. Vidare kan man se att de fem dimensioner som Banks presenterar i sin teori om multikulturell utbildning behöver praktiseras i en skolkontext för att kunna ge alla elever en god och rättvis undervisning, och för att ge alla elever, oavsett kulturell, etnisk och religiös bakgrund samma chans till en lyckad utbildning.

  • 219.
    Johansson, Sverker
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation.
    Evolutionsförnekarna avklädda sin intelligent designade maskering: Recension av Kornhall ’Skapelsekonspirationen’2008In: Folkvett, ISSN 0283-0795, no 2, p. 52-56Article, book review (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
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  • 220.
    Johansson, Sverker
    Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, Högskolan i Jönköping, HLK, Ämnesforskning.
    Kreationismen kritiskt granskad: Recension av Scott ’Evolution vs. Creationism’2005In: Folkvett, ISSN 0283-0795, Vol. 4Article, book review (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 221.
    Johansson, Sverker
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation.
    Seriös kristen geologi: Recension av The Bible, Rocks and Time: Geological Evidence for the Age of the Earth av Davis A. Young & Ralph F. Stearley2009In: Folkvett, ISSN 0283-0795, no 1, p. 57-61Article, book review (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
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  • 222.
    Johansson, Sverker
    Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, Högskolan i Jönköping, HLK, Ämnesforskning.
    Är kreationismen vetenskapligt hållbar?1993In: Folkvett, ISSN 0283-0795, no 1, p. 4-15Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 223.
    Johansson, Sverker
    Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, Högskolan i Jönköping, HLK, Ämnesforskning.
    Är kreationismen vetenskapligt hållbar?1992In: Svensk Teologisk Kvartalsskrift, no 68, p. 19-28Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 224.
    Johansson, Sverker
    Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, Högskolan i Jönköping, HLK, Ämnesforskning.
    Är kreationismen vetenskapligt hållbar?2005In: Vetenskap eller villfarelse, Stockholm: Leopard förlag , 2005Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 225.
    Johansson, Sverker
    Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, Högskolan i Jönköping, HLK, Ämnesforskning.
    Årsringarna i kunskapens träd1994In: Tro och Vetenskap, Högskolan i Jönköping , 1994Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 226.
    Johansson, Viktor
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work.
    Difficulties of the Will: Philosophy of education through children's literature2016In: Philosophy and Theory in Educational Research: Writing in the Margin / [ed] Amanda Fulford, Naomi Hodgson, London: Routledge, 2016, p. 74-82Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 227.
    Johansson, Viktor
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work.
    Entangling Education: Messy Knowledge, Philosophical Perplexity, and Learning to Be in Early Childhood2016In: PESA CONFERENCE Conference Proceedings 8 Dec - 12 Dec 2016: Knowledge Ecologies, 2016, p. 121-138Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper begins by reading Gunilla Bergström’s picture book How far can Alfons Reach? Abouta child who is perplexed by the beginning and end of personhood. Alfons’ perplexities about hispersonhood leads him to a realization of his intimate entanglement with the world. This story is usedto explore perplexities and entanglements of pre-school children participating in a philosophicalresearch project. Reading Alfons provides ways to understand how these pre-school children’s playinvolves them with philosophical perplexities that shows how they are deeply entangled in the world,and how they use their immediate environment and local practices to philosophize. The children’splays and entanglements are further explored as forms of philosophical exercises that demonstrateddifferent versions of Plato’s cave metaphor. The paper problematizes Badiou’s hyper-translation ofcave metaphor by suggesting Ibsen’s play The Wild Duck as an alternative translation of themetaphor to demonstrate that philosophical perplexities of childhood can serve as both exercises insearch of truth as well as life-lies. The difficulties in children’s philosophizing these readings of thecave illustrate are dissolved in remarks from Wittgenstein where the cave metaphor’s clear cut truthsand falsities merge into a form of messy “knowledge” of ordinary life. Exploring children’sphilosophizing through Alfon’s perplexities, play, and the cave metaphor lead to a philosophicalpedagogy that messes with our understanding of ontology, epistemology and ethics. In our engagementwith these children ontology, epistemology, and ethics becomes an intimate entanglement with theworld, not as a doctrine or a theory, but as a practice of being in the world by turning to the ordinary.In such a practice ontology, epistemology, and ethics, merge into a form of being as acting entangledwith the world and others, a lived philosophy, a philosophical pedagogy that becomes a practice ofliving entangled with children.

  • 228.
    Johansson, Viktor
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work.
    Imaginative Learning: Play, Picture Books and Philosophy in Early Childhood2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper (or presentation) is centred on a project in Scandinavian pre-schools and studies ways in which young children brings philosophical themes from picture books into their own play. The paper explores three aspects of learning that goes on in these contexts: First, how children, like recent literary humanist (Harrison 2015, Gaskin 2014, Gibson 2007), can use fiction, as an extra- realistic space, to engage in philosophical investigations and create philosophical experiences about life. Second, the paper account for the role of the non-instrumental ways in which children’s play with themes from the picture books. Third, the paper accounts for ways in which the children in the project play with rather than discuss or systematically explore philosophical themes. This way of philosophizing by playing in fictitious spaces is related to Wittgenstein’s ways of “imagining possibilities” through fictitious examples as a method of making philosophy a form of grammatical investigations (Savickey 2011, 2015). The paper concludes in a discussion of what an epistemology of learning philosophy can consist in by sketching out an epistemology of play emerging in the encounter with children’s play with fictitious themes. Moreover, this epistemological sketch demonstrate how philosophy can inform pedagogical encounters with children’s play readings of literature at the same time as children play with philosophical themes in fictitious spaces transforms the same philosophical accounts. The paper shows how childhood speaks back to philosophy (Kohan 2014).

  • 229.
    Johansson, Viktor
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work.
    Passionate Immediacy: Wittgenstein and Cavell on Desire in Children’s Philosophizing and Early Childhood Education2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the philosophy of young children’s. How can philosophy happen

    in early childhood (education)? What can philosophy look like in early childhood

    education? What does it mean to hear philosophy in young children’s expression?

    What kind of listening does it require? In order to explore such questions I will turn

    to the ordinary language philosophy of Austin, Wittgenstein and Stanley Cavell. In

    Cavell’s discussion of Austin’s elaboration on the notion of performative utterances

    he suggest a passionate dimension of philosophizing that involves not just “the

    responsibility of implication”, as Cavell puts it, but also “the rights of desire”. I shall

    suggest that in order to see the philosophical aspects of children’s questions and

    expressions we need to look beyond mere words, look at how children’s expressions

    are used and the several uses they have, involving understanding the context, the

    place, and the body as expressions used for philosophical inquiry. Going on from

    Cavell, I will suggest that there are passionate dimensions of children’s philosophical

    expressions that call for improvisatory responses, a pedagogy of immediacy.

  • 230.
    Johansson, Viktor
    Stockholms universitet.
    Perfectionist Philosophy as a (an Untaken) Way of Life2014In: The Journal of Aesthetic Education, ISSN 0021-8510, E-ISSN 1543-7809, Vol. 48, no 3, p. 58-72Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    I am honored to respond to Paul Guyer’s elaboration on the role of examples of perfectionism in Cavell’s and Kant’s philosophies. Guyer’s appeal to Kant’s notion of freedom opens the way for suggestive readings of Cavell’s work on moral perfectionism but also, as I will show, for controversy.

    There are salient aspects of both Kant’s and Cavell’s philosophy that are crucial to understanding perfectionism and, let me call it, perfectionist education, that I wish to emphasize in response to Guyer. In responding to Guyer’s text, I shall do three things. First, I shall explain why I think it is misleading to speak of Cavell’s view that moral perfectionism is involved in a struggle to make oneself intelligible to oneself and others in terms of necessary and sufficient conditions for moral perfection. Rather, I will suggest that the constant work on oneself that is at the core of Cavell’s moral perfectionism is a constant work for intelligibility. Second, I shall recall a feature of Cavell’s perfectionism that Guyer does not explicitly speak of: the idea that perfectionism is a theme, “outlook or dimension of thought embodied and developed in a set of texts.” Or, as Cavell goes on to say, “there is a place in mind where good books are in conversation. … [W]hat they often talk about … is how they can be, or sound, so much better than the people that compose them.” This involves what I would call a perfectionist conception of the history of philosophy and the kinds of texts we take to belong to such history. Third, I shall sketch out how the struggle for intelligibility and a perfectionist view of engagement with texts and philosophy can lead to a view of philosophy as a form of education in itself.

    In concluding these three “criticisms,” I reach a position that I think is quite close to Guyer’s, but with a slightly shifted emphasis on what it means to read Kant and Cavell from a perfectionist point of view.

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  • 231.
    Johansson, Viktor
    Stockholms universitet.
    Questions from the Rough Ground: Teaching, Autobiography and the Cosmopolitan ‘‘I’’2015In: Studies in Philosophy and Education, ISSN 0039-3746, E-ISSN 1573-191X, Vol. 34, no 5, p. 441-458Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article I explore how cosmopolitanism can be a challenge for ordinary language philosophy. I also explore cosmopolitan aspects of Stanley Cavell’s ordinary language philosophy. Beginning by considering the moral aspects of cosmopolitanism and some examples of discussions of cosmopolitanism in philosophy of education, I turn to the scene of instruction in Wittgenstein and to Stanley Cavell’s emphasis on the role of autobiography in philosophy. The turn to the autobiographical dimension of ordinary language philosophy, especially its use of “I” and “We”, becomes a way to work on the tension between the particular and the universal claims of cosmopolitanism. I show that the autobiographical aspects of philosophy and the philosophical significance of autobiographical writing in ordinary language philosophy can be seen as a test of representativeness—a test of the ground upon which one stands when saying “I”, “We” and “You.”

  • 232.
    Johansson, Viktor
    Stockholms universitet, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    The Philosophy of Dissonant Children: Stanley Cavell's Wittgensteinian Philosophical Therapies as an Educational Conversation2010In: Educational Theory, ISSN 0013-2004, E-ISSN 1741-5446, Vol. 60, no 4, p. 469-486Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Education is often understood as a process whereby children come to conform to the norms teachers believe should govern our practices. This picture problematically presumes that educators know in advance what it means for children to go on the way that is expected of them. In this essay Viktor Johansson suggests a revision of education, through the philosophy of Stanley Cavell, that can account for both the attunement in our practices and the possible dissonance that follows when the teacher and child do not go on together. There is an anxiety generated by the threat of disharmony in our educational undertakings that may drive teachers toward philosophy in educational contexts. Here Johansson offers a philosophical treatment of this intellectual anxiety that teachers may experience when they, upon meeting dissonant children, search for epistemic justifications of their practices—a treatment whereby dissonant children can support teachers in dissolving their intellectual frustrations.

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  • 233.
    Johansson, Viktor
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work.
    The State of the Learning Soul: An essay on Literature and Humanities in and as Educational Research2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 234.
    Johansson, Viktor
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work.
    The Weight of Dogmatism: Investigating "Learning" in Dewey's Pragmatism and Wittgenstein's Ordinary Language Philosophy2017In: A Companion to Wittgenstein and Education: Pedagogical Investigations / [ed] Michael A. Peters & Jeff Stickney, Singapore: Springer, 2017, p. 339-352Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    What is it to learn something? This essay is an attempt to give a treatment of our expectations and wants from an answer to that question by placing Dewey’s pragmatism and Wittgenstein’s ordinary language philosophy in conversation with each other. Both Dewey and Wittgenstein introduce philosophical visions and methods that are meant to avoid dogmatic responses to such questions. Dewey presents a vision of learning based on the view of the human organism transacting in its environment and in that way being involved with education without any other end than continual growth. By suggesting possible results of a Wittgensteinian investigation of our use of the word “learning ”, the essay also proposes a twist on Dewey’s theory of learning, which dissolves our need for a theory of learning as an answer to the question. This gives the child a voice in contexts where the word “learn” is used. An investigation of the use of “learn” becomes a method of releasing us from the dogmatic requirements that determine what learning is. Further, Dewey’s terminology comes to comprise examples of possible uses rather than being a statement as to what learning is.

  • 235.
    Johansson, Viktor
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work. Örebro universitet.
    Wildly wise in the terrible moment: Kant, Emerson, and Improvisatory Bildung in Early Childhood Education2017In: Educational Philosophy and Theory, ISSN 0013-1857, E-ISSN 1469-5812Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims to show how Emerson provides a reworking of Kantian understandings of moral education in young children’s Bildung. The article begins and ends by thinking of Emersonian self-cultivation as a form of improvisatory or wild Bildung. It explores the role of Bildung and selfcultivation in preschools through a philosophy that accounts for children’s ‘Wild wisdom’ by letting Emerson speak to Kant. The paper argues that Kant’s vision of Bildung essentially involves reason’s turn upon itself andthat Emerson, particularly in how he is taken up by Cavell, shows that such a turn is already present in the processes of children inheriting, learning, and improvising with language. This improvisatory outlook on moral education is contrasted with common goals of moral education prescribed in early childhood education where the Swedish Curriculum for the Preschool Lpfö 98 is used as an example.

  • 236.
    Jonsson, Jonas
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Religious Studies.
    Kristna som kristna? – Religionsattityder hos kristna minoriteter2020Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 237.
    Jöhnemark, Shirin
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Religious Studies.
    "Varför ska man göra sig till, varför ska inte jag räcka till som jag är?": En diskursanalytisk studie av filmerna Porrskadad – Tjejer och Porrskadat 2.0 – Killar rörande de medverkandes förhållande till pornografi utifrån könsroller, makt, identitet och sexualitet2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Pornografikonsumtionen och dess lättillgänglighet påverkar ungdomars syn på könsroller, makt, identitet och sexualitet. Utifrån detta är syftet med denna studie att undersöka vilka diskurser som uppstår i det valda materialet när ungdomar talar om sina erfarenheter av pornografi. Således utgår studien från frågeställningar om vilka diskurser som finns rörande könsroller, makt, identitet och sexualitet i relation till pornografi. Genom att utgå från genusvetenskapens teoribildning kring begreppen; genusstruktur; hegemonisk maskulinitet; jagidentitet och kropp; könsroll; makt samt rena relationen och plastisk sexualitet, utförs en diskursanalys på två kortfilmer (cirka 15 minuter vardera) bestående av intervjuer med unga killar och tjejer. Resultatet visar att flertalet diskurser går att finna samt att dessa skiljer sig åt beroende kön och sexuell läggning.

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  • 238.
    Jönsson, Runa
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Religious Studies.
    Vägen in och ut: En kvalitativ studie om kristna homosexuella personers berättelser om sin process att komma ut med sin sexualitet för sig själva, sina nära och sin församling2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med uppsatsen är att identifiera gemensamma teman och mönster i fem livsberättelser som kristna hbtq-personer från olika trossamfund skrivit i sin process att komma ut med sin sexuella identitet, både för sig själva och för sin omgivning. Vilka likheter och mönster går att finna i livsberättelserna? Studien genomförs utifrån en kvalitativ, tematisk innehållsanalys med efterföljande analys utifrån ett religionsociologiskt och ett teologihistoriskt perspektiv.

    Livsberättelserna hämtade från Lundholm, Anton, (2017). Välkommen in i min garderob – en självbiografisk berättelse om att vara gay och kristen. Libris.

    Voionmaa, Inkaliisa, (2018). Nu hade vi ju varandra – berättelser från 40 år av ekumeniskt arbete för och av kristna hbtq-personer, Riksförbundet EKHO samt

    Gyll, Erik, Ohlsson Sandahl, Frida (2018). Så att jag kan komma in – kristen tro och hbtq. Författarna och Riksförbundet EKHO

    Kyrkan har två synsätt på homosexuell läggning, orätt och fel, vilket grundas av tradition och tolkning i förvetenskapliga bibliska texter. Den andra, att gamla synsätt får ge vika för ett modernt samhälle och en modern kyrka där mänskliga värden såsom demokrati och rätten till sin egen sexualitet är viktigare än judiska lagar och regler som skrevs i en tid då samhället hade andra värderingar, dessa utifrån den kontext som rådde.

    Flera av berättelserna visar på gemensamma drag som ensamhet, lögn och dubbelliv innan personerna kom ut med sin sexuella läggning.

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  • 239.
    Kadora, Nadia
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Religious Studies.
    Kan religionsundervisningen skapa broar mellan människor?: Gymnasielevers syn på religionskunskapsämnets mening i skolan och undervisningen i det2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The overall aim of this study is divided into two parts, firstly to analyze the view of

    four swedish upper secondary school students on what the meaning with religious

    education in Sweden should be. Secondly, to analyze how these four students experience

    their education in religion and compare it with their teachers view on the meaning

    of religious education and how she conducts the teaching. It is an empirical

    study and the results are based on semistructural interviews made individually with

    each participant. The analytical approach is a hermeneutic analysis with interpretation

    as the main focus.

    The findings and the result of the study indicates that the swedish students view the

    religious education as an important subject to understand and explore their own

    worldviews, other peoples views, traditions and differences. The students and the

    teacher have similar thoughts on what the meaning with religious education should

    be, but in practise the students lack an inside perspective of religions, a meeting with

    people who identify themselves as religious. The teacher however does not include

    this in her education, nor does she speak of this during the interviews.

    The results also show that the swedish students thoughts about religious education is

    very similiar to what previous research has shown is lacking in the swedish education

    in religion. In summary, both the students and previous research points out that the

    inside perspective in religious education is very important to be able to reach the

    goals of the curriculom in the subject, which include a development of understanding

    different religions and people.

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  • 240.
    Kadora, Nadia
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Religious Studies.
    Vad är meningen med religionskunskapsämnet?: Fyra svenska forskares syn på ämnets mening i jämförelsemed fem engelska religionsdidaktiska modeller2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this literature study is to find out how four Swedish scholars identify themeaning of the subject religious education in Sweden. Thereafter the result of theSwedish scholars interpretation is to be compared with British theories on how religiouseducation may be applied in schools through different strategies and principlesdeveloped by five different RE scholars.The method used in this thesis is a systematic literature study with a qualitative hermeneuticmethod. The empirical literature is analyzed and interpreted by me and thereafterplaced in the right context to read how the scholars view the subject. Accordingto the scholars and the Swedish curriculum, the results showed that the Swedishscholars have a similar view on what they think is the meaning with RE. The fundamentalidea is that the education should be child-centered and evolve around pupilsknowledge, background and abilities to attain the purpose of the subject. Which willlead to an immersed knowledge, understanding, respect and tolerance for different religiouspositions.Both the British and the Swedish scholars agreed that the dominating secular and atheistpoint of view in the classrooms and in the society, constitutes challenges for theteachers to apply the different strategies to achieve the meaning of RE. The Swedishscholars opine that the RE needs to contribute to learning about and learning fromreligions through different perspectives that show religions from the inside perspectiveand the outside perspective.

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  • 241.
    Karlsson, Fredrik
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Religious Studies.
    Anthropomorphism and mechanomorphism2012In: Humanimalia - a journal of human/animal interface studies, ISSN 2151-8645, E-ISSN 2151-8645, Vol. 3, no 2, p. 107-122Article in journal (Refereed)
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  • 242. Karlsson, Fredrik
    Assessment of farm animals, and intersubjectivity2010In: Global food security: Ethical and legal challenges / [ed] Carlos M. Romeo Casabona, Leire Escajedo San Epifanio & Aitziber Emaldi Cirión, Wageningen: Wageningen Academic Publishers, 2010Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 243.
    Karlsson, Fredrik
    Uppsala universitet.
    Care ethics and the moving animal: The roles of love and sympathy in encountering the animal being2011In: Animal movements - Moving animals: Essays on direction, velocity and agency in humanimal encounters / [ed] Jacob Bull, Uppsala: Uppsala universitet, 2011Chapter in book (Refereed)
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  • 244.
    Karlsson, Fredrik
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Religious Studies.
    Critical anthropomorphism and animal ethics2012In: Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics, ISSN 1187-7863, E-ISSN 1573-322X, Vol. 25, no 5, p. 707-720Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Anthropomorphism has long been considered a cardinal error when describing animals. Ethicists have feared the consequences of misrepresenting animals in their reasoning. Recent research within human-animal studies, however, has sophisticated the notion of anthropomorphism. It is suggested that avoiding anthropomorphism merely creates other morphisms, such as mechanomorphism. Instead of avoiding anthropomorphism, it is argued that it is a communicative strategy that should be used critically. Instances of anthropomorphism in animal ethics are analyzed in this paper. Some analogies made between people and non-human animals in present theories of animal ethics are clear instances of psychological anthropomorphism. Other analogies are implicit cases of cultural anthropomorphism. It is argued that animal ethics needs to take the wider discourse of critical anthropomorphism into account in order to sophisticate the understanding and use of anthropomorphic projections. Anthropomorphism is an efficient tool of communication, and it may be made an adequate one as well.

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  • 245.
    Karlsson, Fredrik
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Religious Studies.
    Mobility, animals, and the virtue of justice2019In: Mobilities, mobility justice and social justice / [ed] Nancy Cook & David Butz, New York: Routledge, 2019Chapter in book (Refereed)
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  • 246.
    Karlsson, Fredrik
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Religious Studies.
    Trygga rum och utlämnande berättelser: Communitykonst i Gävle2019In: DRAMA: Nordisk dramapedagogisk tidsskrift, ISSN 0332-5296, no 2, p. 24-29, article id 7Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
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  • 247. Karlsson, Fredrik
    Weighing animal lives: A Critical Assessment of Justification and Prioritization in Animal-Rights Theories2009Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 248.
    Karlsson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Religious Studies.
    Toivio, Michael
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Religious Studies.
    Är klassens ljus en intelligent hemsida?2018In: Religion & Livsfrågor, ISSN 0347-2159, no 4, p. 8-9Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 249.
    Kjellin, Linus
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Religious Studies.
    Toleransbegreppets mångtydighet: En analys av läroplansbegreppet tolerans inom kontexten för ämnet religionskunskap2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This litterature study is an analysis of the concept of tolerance, as it is a central value in the

    curriculum for the Swedish upper secondary school (Gy11) and therefore an important part of

    interpreting the specific curriculum for religious studies. The scientific approach is drawn from

    curriculum theory and the method of analysis is hermeneutic. Four different understandings of the

    concept are presented from academic literary sources. To further problematize the understandings of

    the concept, critique against a ”pedagogy of tolerance” as expressed by normcritical pedagogical

    writers and scholars is presented and analyzed. Implications regarding didactical practice are

    discussed in the light of previous analysis. Two main criteria for tolerance were found in all four

    understandings. These criterias outline the necessary components of an act of tolerance. The critique

    mainly focuses on said act, as it is an act of power and differentiation. This implies the didactical

    importance of awareness regarding the complexity of an act of tolerance.

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  • 250.
    Kjellin, Linus
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Religious Studies.
    ”Vi kan vistas i samma rum men jag tänker inte prata med dig”: Religionskunskapslärares tolkning av begreppet tolerans samt dess betydelse och funktion i undervisningen2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This is a qualitative interview study aiming to examine the concept of tolerance as it is a core value in the curriculum for the Swedish upper secondary school and high school. The concept of tolerance is linked to the subject of religious studies. A total of six teachers were interviewed regarding their understanding and interpretation of the concept, as well as its place in their teaching. The method of analysis was hermeneutic and the statements made by the teachers were further analyzed in the light of normcritical pedagogy and didactical awareness. The results show a diversified understanding of the concept, manifested in a broad scale of attitudes to it, ranging from negative to positive, though all were based on a reflective approach. This affected the teachers' tendency to include, or focus on, the concept of tolerance in their teaching, varying from active inclusion to exclusion. The discussion focuses on the differences and difficulties associated with acts of tolerance versus attitudes of tolerance. The teachers define religious studies as a subject with heavy focus on interpersonal relations. Acts of tolerance are therefore problematic as they are also acts of power between individuals and groups. This shows the didactical importance of discussing the concept of tolerance, mainly in relation to attitudes and acts, between teachers as well as in the classroom.

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