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  • 201.
    Frisk, Liselotte
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Religious Studies.
    Åkerbäck, Peter
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Religious Studies.
    Höllinger, Franz
    Universitetet i Graz, Österrike.
    Size and Structure of the Holistic Milieu: A Comparison of Local Mapping Studies in Austria and Sweden2014In: Journal of Contemporary Religion, ISSN 1353-7903, E-ISSN 1469-9419, Vol. 29, no 2, p. 303-314Article in journal (Refereed)
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  • 202.
    Glad, Sandra
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Religious Studies.
    ”Vi tjejer vi kan ju också!”: En studie som undersöker gymnasieflickors uppfattning om skolans likabehandlingsarbete mot könsdiskriminering.2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 203.
    Gustafsson-Lundberg, Johanna
    Dalarna University, School of Education and Humanities, Religious Studies.
    Kampen om form2007In: Uppdrag Samliv- om äktenskap och samlevnad / [ed] Gustafsson-Lundberg, Johanna; Gustafsson-Lundberg, Johanna, Stockholm: Verbum , 2007, p. 103-132Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 204.
    Gustafsson-Lundberg, Johanna
    Dalarna University, School of Education and Humanities, Religious Studies.
    Kyrka och kön- om könskonstruktioner i Svenska kyrkan 1945-19852001Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 205.
    Gustafsson-Lundberg, Johanna
    Dalarna University, School of Education and Humanities, Religious Studies.
    Kyrka, stat och genus: en diskussion om folkkyrkan i det senmoderna samhället utifrån två kyrkliga modeller2010In: Kyrkan skild från eller av staten?, Sigtuna, 2010Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I presentationen analyseras två samtida kyrkliga modeller; en tjänsteteoretisk respektive en gemenskapsbaserad. Dessa problematiseras avslutningsvis utifrån frågan vad det kan/bör innebära att vara folkkyrka i det senmoderna samhället. Frågan om genus utgör här en viktig aspekt.

  • 206.
    Gustafsson-Lundberg, Johanna
    Dalarna University, School of Education and Humanities, Religious Studies.
    Kyrkan i samhället2010In: Wingrensymposium, Lund, 2010Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I presentationen behandlas folkkyrkans möjligheter i en senmodern tid samt behovet av en förtydligad luthersk identitet utifrån några nyckelpassager i två av Wingrens texter "Predikan" och "Gamla vägar framåt".

  • 207.
    Gustafsson-Lundberg, Johanna
    Dalarna University, School of Education and Humanities, Religious Studies.
    Kyrkan och sexualiteten2004In: Svensk kyrkotidning, ISSN 0346-2153, Vol. 100, no 27-28, p. 373-377Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 208.
    Gustafsson-Lundberg, Johanna
    Dalarna University, School of Education and Humanities, Religious Studies.
    Listiga kvinnor och driftsdrivna män: Sexualitet och kön under 1940- och 50-talen i kyrklig kontext2002In: Stigma, status och strategier : Genusperspektiv i religionsvetenskap / [ed] Raudvere, Catharina, Lund: Studentlitteratur , 2002, p. 127-145Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 209.
    Gustafsson-Lundberg, Johanna
    Dalarna University, School of Education and Humanities, Religious Studies.
    Sex- ett kunskapsområde?2007In: Genusperspektiv i skolan - om kön, kärlek och makt / [ed] Franck, Olof, Lund: Studentlitteratur , 2007, p. 7-28Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 210.
    Gustafsson-Lundberg, Johanna
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education and Humanities, Religious Studies.
    Kurtén, Tage
    Tillit och risktagande i senmoderna relationer: om ungdomar, sexualitet och kärlek2009In: Kärlekens förändrade landskap / [ed] Gustafsson-Lundberg, Johanna; Lindfelt, Mikael, Stockholm: Verbum , 2009, p. 165-193Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 211.
    Gustafsson-Lundberg, Johanna
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education and Humanities, Religious Studies.
    Lindfelt, Mikael
    Inledning2009In: Kärlekens förändrade landskap / [ed] Lindfelt, Mikael; Gustafsson-Lundberg, Johanna, Stockholm: Verbum , 2009, p. 11-22Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 212.
    Gustafsson-Lundberg, Johanna
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education and Humanities, Religious Studies.
    Reinhold Bråkenhielm, Carl
    Lindfelt, Mikalel
    Inledning: Argumentationsmönster i samtida teologiska samlevnadsdiskussioner2007In: Uppdrag Samliv- om äktenskap och samlevnad / [ed] Gustafsson-Lundberg, Johanna; Gustafsson-Lundberg, Johanna, Stockholm: Verbum , 2007, p. 11-29Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 213.
    Göthe, Veronica
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Religious Studies.
    Film som didaktisk resurs i religionsämnet: - Religionskunskapslärares syn på film i undervisningen2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this thesis is to examine how some Swedish teachers use film and movies as a

    resource when they teach religious studies in upper secondary school. Three questions were

    created to define the main focus of the thesis namely how the teachers perceived how they used

    film, how they justified there use and which advantages and disadvantages they see with using

    film in their teaching. To be able to answer them correctly the empirical data was collected by

    two methods; a survey and three interviews. The empirical data was then related to previous

    research in the same field.

    The thesis concludes that the teachers use film in the classroom in many ways, including as a way

    to present facts about religions to the students and as a way to make it easier to understand

    difficult parts of the subject. They also use film as way to make the students better at

    understanding and discussing different perspectives of religion and ethics. The main

    disadvantages film has is that it take a lot of time to show a film and use it in a meaningful way.

    The teachers also sometimes finds it hard to find a film that suits the purpose of showing it.

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  • 214.
    Göthe, Veronica
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Religious Studies.
    Spelfilm i religionsämnet: - En didaktisk utmaning2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this thesis is to examine the research field regarding feature films as a resource in the Swedish school. The main focus is on the education concerning life issues and ethics, a big and sometimes hard field to teach. Three questions were created to grasp the field of research and find a result. The questions regarded how feature films is associated with religious education, what advantages and disadvantages feature film could have in a teaching context, and exactly what can feature films give students that other teaching methods can't.

    The thesis concludes that feature films can be a good resource in a teaching context thanks to the feature films ability to emotionally affect the viewer, if the resource is used properly. The survey also reveals a need for more research regarding feature films in the field of teaching religious studies as a way to close the gaps in the field and as a way to help teachers use feature films better in their work.

  • 215.
    Haneskär, Marcus
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Religious Studies.
    Studier, sorg och kallelse: En religionsantropologisk studie av konvertiter till den katolska kyrkan2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna religionsantropologiska uppsats ämnar undersöka vad det är som har drivit människor, som i denna uppsats har deltagit i en online-enkät, att konvertera till den katolska kyrkan. Det material som har använts är enkäter som konvertiter har fått fylla i, vilka sedan har bearbetats och analyserats genom bruket av idéanalys med en efterföljande dimensionsuppdelning.

    I uppsatsen behandlas konvertiternas tidigare förhållande till kristendomen, uppfattning om den katolska kyrkan, den personliga förståelsen angående hur intresset för den katolska kyrkan väcktes, vad konversionsbeslutet grundade sig på samt den personliga upplevelsen av konversionen. Uppsatsen behandlar dessa olika faktorer sett till tidigare forskning som pekar på flertalet variabler som driver människor att konvertera till olika samfund vilka då står att finna inom konvertiternas enkätsvar. Undersökningen som har genomförts visar på hur de konverterande har sökt sig till katolska kyrkan oberoende av sin tidigare trostillhörighet. Undersökningen visade även på förändringar inom den medverkande gruppen över tiden då bearbetningen av enkäterna visade på en majoritet av enkäterna menade på att intresset för den katolska kyrkan var grundad i något profant och endast en minoritet upplevde någon form av religiöst kall. Dessa siffror förändras dock över tid och fler av konvertiterna ser sin konversion som spirituellt grundad.

    I enlighet med tidigare forskning så pekar resultaten på betydelsen av bakgrundsfaktorer, social påverkan samt betydelsen av den personliga bakgrundsupplevelsen av behov från barndom/tonåren.

    Jag argumenterar i denna uppsats för att konvertiternas personliga upplevelser går att knyta till den tidigare forskningens konversionsfaktorer, men även att transcendenta upplevelser som ej kan knytas till den tidigare forskningens argumentation spelar in i vissa personliga konversionsprocesser.

  • 216.
    Hansson, Lena
    Dalarna University, School of Education and Humanities, Religious Studies.
    Gudinnan Hathor: en studie ur metallurgiverksamhetens perspektiv som belyser auktoritära strukturer i forna Egypten2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie undersöker gudinnan Hathors funktion i forna Egypten med utgångspunkt från metallurgiverksamheten som Hathor var beskyddare över. Studien undersöker vad för behov som uppstår i metallurgikontexten och hur denna kan ha påverkat och speglats i förställningar kring gudinnan Hathors funktion i forna Egypten. Studien stödjer sig på William Padens teori om religiösa Världar för att därigenom belysa hur behov i en specifik kontext kan spelgas i den Religiösa Världen. Undersökningen baseras på tolkningar av en rad olika forskningsrapporter. Dels etnografiska dokumentationer om metallurgikontexter ifrån Afrika söder om Sahara, arkeologiska utgrävningar från gruvområdet i Timna i Sinai och forskares interpretationer kring gudinnan Hathors funktion i forna Egypten. Ifrån metallurgiverksamheten studerades dels hur den äldre teknologin fungerade och hur den inverkade på religiösa föreställningar och den auktoritära strukturen i Afrika. Därtill vad för sorts belägg som finns för metallurgiverksamhet i Timna i Sinai och hur gudinnan Hathors kults närvaro i gruvområdet kom till uttryck. Dessutom studeras forskares interpretationer som rör gudinnan Hathors kults funktion, auktoritära struktur och kultens förhållande till konungen i forna Egypten. Dessa uppgifter analyserades därefter och studien visar starka indikationer på att gudinnan Hathor skapades och användes i syfte att gagna en begränsad grupps intresse i forna Egypten. Att gudinnan Hathors funktion och de offentliga festivalerna var till för att upprätthålla en auktoritär struktur och vidmakthålla smidessläktets och prästerskapets makt.

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  • 217.
    Hassel, Karl
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Religious Studies.
    Från kristendomsämnen till kristendomsämne: En studie av opinioner kring beslutet om det nationella  kristendomsämnet2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna undersökning var att undersöka kristendomsämnet uppkomst och debatten som fördes mellan olika opinioner i samhället och se hur dessa opinioner försöker påverka utformandet med deras visioner av det nya kristendomsämnet kopplat till katekesens roll i folkskolan och innehållet i 1919 års undervisningsplan.  Till syftet formulerades följande frågeställningar;  • Vilka visioner för kristendomsämnet hade de olika opinionerna? • Hur samverkade debatten angående katekesen med framställningen av 1919 års undervisningsplan? • Hur framträder de didaktiska frågorna i de olika opinionernas visioner för kristendomsämnet? Metoden som användes för att få svar på mina frågeställningar var en komparativ litteraturstudie av tidigare forskning, utifrån frågan om hur opinionsgrupperna presenterade deras visioner kring det moderna kristendomsämnets tillkomst. I arbetet med att strukturera min komparation har jag inspirerats av Sven Thidevalls ramverk för hans undersökning angående Dagens nyheters djävulskampanj år 1909. Inom området jag undersökt är den tidigare forskningen relativt begränsad, detta gör att jag hänvisar till äldre forskning.  Undersökningen behandlar olika opinioner som var framträdande vid 1900-talets början och hur dessa opinioners visioner för ett nytt nationellt kristendomsämne ser ut. Undersökningen behandlar även debatten kring Luthers lilla katekes och hur den debatten kom att påverka framställningen av 1919 års undervisningsplan. De didaktiska frågorna i de olika opinionernas visioner för kristendomsämnet framkommer i diskussionen. De tydligaste argumenten som framkom var av pedagogisk karaktär angående kristendomsämnets reformering. Ytterligare argument som framkom i opinionernas visioner för kristendomsämnet grundade sig i aspekter gällande religionsfriheten och huruvida ämnet skulle fortsätta ha en konfessionell karaktär. Flera av opinionerna önskade att bibeln skulle utgöra grundvalen för kristendomsämnet, innehållet skulle bestå av en kristendomsundervisning byggd på bibeln och dess etiska innehåll. Den didaktiska hur-frågan har en enad linje i denna fråga där alla opinioner utom den kyrkligt konservativa ville att kristendomsundervisningen skulle bedrivas utan läsning av katekesen. Den didaktiska varför-frågan motiverades utifrån sociala, pedagogiska, demokratiska och bildningsargument. Från den kyrkligt konservativa opinionen ansåg de att undervisningens syfte var att eleverna skulle fostras och erhålla den kristna tron och förbereda eleverna för kyrkans konfirmationsundervisning.

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  • 218.
    Hellström, Emma
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Religious Studies.
    Kampen om kristendomsundervisningen i folkskolan: En studie av debatten om kristendomsundervisningen i Svensk Läraretidning under 1880- och 1910-talet.2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna undersökning är att jämföra

    Svensk Läraretidnings tankar och idéer om kristendomens roll i folkskolan under 1880-talet samt 1910-talet. Till syftet formulerades följande frågeställningar;

    • Framträder konkurrerande nyanser och uppfattningar av kristendomen under de olika tidsperioderna?

    • Vilka argument anfördes för kristendomens roll i undervisningen? Hur ville man att den skulle utformas under de olika perioderna? Vilka likheter och skillnader framträder?

    • Hur förhöll sig 1919 års utbildningsplan till debatterna i

    Svensk Läraretidning?

    Undersökningen behandlar

    Svensk Läraretidning från åren 1882-1889 samt 1910-1919. Materialet har granskats enligt en kvalitativ textanalys. Denna undersökning synliggör, med hjälp av den kritik som riktas mot sekulariseringsteorin, olika konfessionaliteter av kristendomen och hur dessa stred om tolkningsföreträde för att få representera den nationella synen på kristendom.

    I resultatdelen presenteras svaret på de olika frågeställningarna och dessa diskuteras sedan i den efterföljande diskussionsdelen. Studien synliggör olika konkurrerande uppfattningar om hur kristendomsundervisningen i folkskolan borde organiseras. Vissa menade att den skulle var konfessionell, medan andra hävdade att den borde ha en icke-konfessionell och objektiv prägel. Detta debatterades i förhållande till religionsfrihet, åskådlighet samt det ökade kravet på medborgerlig/nationell fostran. Det framkommer tydligt, trots den massiva kritiken mot kristendomsundervisningen som bland annat anklagades att vara för abstrakt och själsdödande, att folkskollärarna ansåg att det var ett viktigt identitetsskapande ämne. Därför strävade de efter att omforma det i förhållande till det nya samhällets spelregler.

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  • 219.
    Hellström, Lisa
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Religious Studies.
    "Den du så länge har sökt är på väg": Messianska föreställningar i Astrid Lindgrens text Mio, min Mio utifrån Werblowskys typologi2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Min uppgift och syfte med denna uppsats har varit att undersöka om Zwi RJ Werblowskys teori om messianism kan appliceras på texten

    Mio, min Mio. Den andra uppgiften har varit att pröva om hypotesen att texten Mio, min Mio av författarinnan Astrid Lindgren innehåller messianska föreställningar stämmer. Till min hjälp tog jag religionshistorikern Zwi RJ Werblowskys artikel: "Messiah and Messianic movement". Utifrån hans text kunde åtta typologiseringar utkristalliseras. Dessa var; tiden, messiasfiguren, ledaren, mytologiseringen och de dualistiska delarna visionärt-rationellt, aktiv-passiv, konservativa regler-revolutionära regler och inklusive-exklusive. Jag använde mig av närläsning som metod.

    I arbetet presenteras både slutsatser och en diskussion utifrån tidigare forskning kring dessa.

    Det har varit intressant att blanda olika discipliner i denna uppsats. Jag har använt mig av en religionshistorisk modell på en skönlitterär text, vilket kan ses som fruktbart och utvecklande för framtida forskning.

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  • 220.
    Hemborg, Karl
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Religious Studies.
    Ateism och naturlig tro: Den kognitionsvetenskapliga religionsforskningens teorier om ateism2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 221.
    Hemström, Mårten
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Religious Studies.
    Religionskunskapens förändring: Analys av läroböcker i religionskunskap för gymnasiet2015Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna uppsats är att utreda sambanden mellan den presentation av kristendomens uppfattning i olika etiska frågor som finns i olika läroböcker i religionskunskap för gymnasiet från olika perioder och de läroplaner som var aktuella då. Hur beskrivs kristendomens etik i de olika läroböckerna? Vilka områden betonas och vilka tonas ner? Hur speglar de utvalda läroböckerna den läroplan som var aktuell när den skrevs? Med hjälp av hermeneutisk metod har jag analyserat tre läroböckers presentation av kristendomens etik genom att analysera hur var och en av dem presenterar några valda områden som kan hänföras till kristendomens etik. Mina slutsatser är att det är ganska stor skillnad mellan vad läroböckerna tar upp och att dessa skillnader bara delvis avspeglar skillnader i läroplanerna.

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  • 222.
    Hercules Lindström, Therese
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Religious Studies.
    Filmspråket en kommunikativ handling i det offentliga rummet: Genus inom Amerikansk mainstream film2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Mitt övergripande syfte var att undersöka om genusordning förstärks, genom narration, konvention, språk och karaktärsbeskrivningar, inom klassisk Hollywoodfilm. Vidare ville jag diskutera filmspråket utifrån att det är en kommunikativ handling i det offentliga rummet. Jag ville diskutera hur filmer kan påverka och vad de eventuellt kan ha för mening för människor? Jag ville försöka problematisera den estetiska yttringen och hur det kan påverka publikens självbild. Mina frågeställningar var, kan genusordning förstärkas genom mainstream-film? Vad har film som medie för etiskt ansvar kring genus utifrån att den ingår i det offentliga rummet? Det jag i första hand ville titta på var filmernas språk och hur det språket används i det offentliga rummet, där medier kan ses som en kommunikativ handling i det offentliga samtalet. Cementerar film stereotypiska konventioner om vad som är manligt och kvinnligt.

    Utifrån min närläsning och utifrån utgångspunkten att verkligheten skapas diskursivt så kunde jag se och förstå hur filmskapandet och populärkulturen talar om för oss hur vi ska vara. Det faktum att det inte finns nog med förebilder gör att jag tror att detta kan påverka unga människor att fortsätta att reproducera stereotypiskt manligt och kvinnligt beteende. Berättandet används för att beskriva allt synligt och hörbart som finns närvarande för oss i filmen. Filmens genre är som ett landmärke som förmedlar information snabbt. Publiken förväntar sig att genrefilmen ska erbjuda något bekant. Form kan vara det övergripande systemet som vi uppfattar i film. Publiken måste ha en förförståelse och få de ledtrådar de behöver för att förstå det de ser. Genom de sociala värderingar vi har så förstår vi filmens uttryck eller det som är underförstått, det är den symptomatiska meningen. Många betydelser i filmer är ideologiska, våra kulturellt specifika system av föreställningar om världen, är avgörande hur vi tolkar det vi ser. De fyra filmer jag närläst reproducerar karaktärer, både manliga och kvinnliga stereotypiskt. Alla skådespelare är enligt idealnorm, smala, vackra, nästintill felfria, muskulösa och glamouriserade. Filmerna har en tydlig orsak och verkan som talar om att heteronormativ kärlek är norm. Och eftersom filmerna ingår i det offentliga rummet så bär de alla på budskap, medvetet eller omedvetet. Ingen homosexuell person representeras och det finns ingen huvudkaraktär som har en annan hudfärg än vit.

    Jag kom fram till att genusordning inte bara kan förstärkas genom mainstream-film, den gör det systematiskt. Om film som medie har ett etiskt ansvar kring genus utifrån att den ingår i det offentliga rummet drog jag slutsatsen att den har det i egenskap av att vara en kommunikativ handling i detta rum. Men som det offentliga rummet har utvecklats så bär film inte ensamt ansvar. Det offentliga rummet kollektivt, har ett gemensamt ansvar för hur det ser ut. Numer försiggår i stor utsträckning den offentliga debatten som scenisk underhållning där publikens funktion reduceras till att applådera eller bua där ingen förväntar sig någon öppen och resonerande hållning. Offentligheten är därmed inte längre primärt ett rum där åsikter bildas, utan den har blivit ett rum där åsikter och makt visas upp efter att de formats i slutna rum.

  • 223.
    Hildorsson, Lina
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Religious Studies.
    Etiska resonemang på särskilda ungdomshem: En kvalitativ studie om behandlingspersonals tankar om sitt agerande och etiska resonemang2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 224.
    Hill, Karolina
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Religious Studies.
    Leda eller förleda?: En studie om undervisningsmetoder och lärares positionering i arbetet med kontroversiella frågor2020Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Målet med denna litteraturstudie är att få en överblick över forskningsfältet för undervisning om kontroversiella frågor och lärares positionering i klassrummet. Genom hermeneutisk metod för att analysera och sammanställa resultatet har studien funnit flera förespråkade metoder samt för- och nackdelar med dessa. Det mest utmärkande resultatet av studien är att forskning inte är överens om en specifik metod eller positionering, utan förespråkar ofta sitt eget förhållningssätt. Målet är inte att välja den mest fördelaktiga metoden, utan att få en överblick över förespråkade metoder inom forskningsfältet. Det svenska skolsystemets värderingar står för demokrati, mångfald och att arbeta mot att förstå varandra. Detta inkluderar bland annat förståelse för andra personers åsikter, sätt att leva och deras religiösa tankar. Undervisningen i Sverige är icke-konfessionell, men frågan om lärares positionering kan fortfarande diskuteras i förhållande till hur de bör presentera olika perspektiv av kontroversiella frågor i klassrummet.

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  • 225.
    Hjelm, Matilda
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Religious Studies.
    Ett intersektionellt perspektiv av undervisningsserien: Från Sverige till himlen2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Uppsatsen syftar till att undersöka tv-serien Från Sverige till himlen (2012) utifrån en intersektionellt perspektiv. Med hjälp av en kvalitativ filmanalys har materialet analyserats utifrån de sociala kategorierna genus, etnicitet, sexualitet och klass. Under senare resultatdiskussion analyserades resultatet även med de religiösa framställningarna och relationerna mellan de sociala kategorierna. Studien har kommit fram till följande: de tydligaste relationerna mellan de olika sociala kategorierna är mellan etnicitet och religion, etnicitet, religion och genus samt mellan religion, genus och sexualitet. Men även att tv-seriens framställning förfrämligar religionerna hinduism, thaibuddhism och shiaislam. Analysen visade också en dominans av en heterosexuell norm, kvinnans underlägsenhet, etniciteten som jämförbar med religiösa tillhörigheter och den svenska kulturens hegemoniska dominans, vilket kan ses strida mot Skolverkets värdegrund (2011:1, A) som tydligt betonar att skolor ska arbeta mot diskriminering och främlingsfientlighet.

  • 226.
    Hultin, Eva
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education and Humanities, Education.
    Bartholdsson, Åsa
    Dalarna University, School of Education and Humanities, Social Anthropology.
    Gustafsson Lundberg, Johanna
    Dalarna University, School of Education and Humanities, Religious Studies.
    Constructions of social and emotional abilities in textbooks2012In: the 40th Annual Congress of the Nordic Educational Research Association: Abstract book, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 227.
    Hydén, Anna
    Dalarna University, School of Education and Humanities, Religious Studies.
    Indianerna - om att bära sitt hjärta.2004Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
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  • 228.
    Hydén, Anna
    Dalarna University, School of Education and Humanities, Religious Studies.
    Änglamöten i vår tid.2004Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
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  • 229.
    Hylén, Torsten
    Dalarna University, School of Education and Humanities, Religious Studies.
    A Structuralist Reading of the Karbala Drama2007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper I will argue that the theoretical and methodological apparatus of the French structuralist Claude Lévi-Strauss, with good results can be applied to much of early Islamic historiography. I will suggest that when this method is applied to the story of the death of Husayn b. `Alī at Karbalā’ in 680, one can deduce that the function of the character of Husayn in the text is that of a “mediator” in structuralist terms. This means that he acts both to keep polar oppositions apart, and that he allows for a bridging from one opposite to the other.

  • 230.
    Hylén, Torsten
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Religious Studies.
    Al-Mukhtār and the Aesthetics of Persuasion2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The first Shiʿi leader with true political power – although it was limited in space and time – after the death of ʿAli b. Abī Ṭālib was al-Mukhtār b. Abī ʿUbayd (d. 67/687). In this paper, I will argue that one reason why he succeeded in his political ambitions was that he legitimized his endeavor by deferring to ʿAli. In doing this he set a precedent for all future Shiʿi leadership. Al-Mukhtār gained authority by convincing his followers about his function as mediator between the people and the deceased ʿAli, who was still supposed to be alive and active in one way or another by many Shiʿis. As a tool of analysis I use the notion of religious aesthetics as it has been developed by Birgit Meyer and others. Meyer regards religion as a practice of mediation between the temporal and the perceived transcendental worlds, a mediation that is performed by appealing to all human senses through various media. The person in control of these media has the power to distribute and withhold religious sensations generated in the devotees; what Meyer calls “the aesthetics of persuasion”. In the paper, I will investigate three instruments of mediation used by al-Mukhtār: a living human being, a religio-political action, and an artefact. The first is his claim to act on behalf of ʿAli’s son Ibn al-Ḥanafiyya, whom he called al-mahdī, “the rightly guided”; the second, his call to revenge for ʿAli’s son al-Ḥusayn; and the third, his claim that he was in possession of an ʿAlid relic, a chair that had belonged to ʿAli. I will briefly argue that the accounts of these three instruments most probably reflect a historical reality. Of these three, in particular the designation of a mahdī was a feature that became influential in shaping Shiʿite patterns of authority in the centuries to follow.

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  • 231.
    Hylén, Torsten
    Dalarna University, School of Education and Humanities, Religious Studies.
    An attempt at structural analysis of the Karbala drama according to al-Tabari2007In: Al-Tabari's History: Interpretations and Challenges / [ed] Rydving, Håkan, Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2007, p. 25-55Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 232.
    Hylén, Torsten
    Dalarna University, School of Education and Humanities, Religious Studies.
    Berätta om Husayns död så att jag tror att jag var där2011In: Perspektiv på islam: En vänbok till Christer Hedin / [ed] Olsson, Susanne; Sorgenfrei, Simon, Stockholm: Dialogos , 2011, p. 23-28Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I artikeln behandlas nödvändigheten av att ta i beaktande de litterära och retoriska grepp som används i den tidiga islamiska historiografin för att rätt förstå den. Jag visar där vilka problem som kan uppstå om man läser den historiografiska litteraturen från denna tid alltför okritiskt.

  • 233.
    Hylén, Torsten
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Religious Studies.
    Closed and open concepts of religion: The problem of essentialism in teaching about religion2014In: Textbook Gods: Genre, Text and Teaching Religious Studies / [ed] Bengt-Ove Andreassen, James R. Lewis, Sheffield: Equinox Publishing, 2014, p. 16-42Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Essentialist concepts of religion are common in the teaching of religion in schools and to a certain extent also in the academic discipline of religious studies. In this article, a number of problems with essentialist perceptions of religion are discussed. In the first part of the article a thesis is maintained, according to which essentialist conceptions of religion or specific religions are too limited to be of value in the teaching of religion. This is done through examples of essentialist expressions on religion. The examples are grouped according to a typology of different kinds of essentialism. Two main categories, each with two sub-categories are identified. Thus, the category of essentialism regarding the substance of religion is divided into transcendental or theological essentialism (which presupposes the existence of a sacred power of some kind, the experience of which is the basis for religion), and core essentialism (where it is presupposed that certain ideas or concepts constitute religion as a general category or specific religions). Likewise, the category of essentialism regarding the function of religion has two sub-categories: positive and negative essentialism. These kinds of essentialism presuppose that religion or specific religions are inherently good or harmful respectively to human be-ings. Examples from each of these categories are given and discussed. In the second part of the article, Benson Saler’s open concept of religion is presented as an alternative to essentialist or bounded perceptions. It is based on Ludwig Wittgenstein’s idea of family resemblances and on prototype theory. In connection with this, it is argued that a certain kind of conscious ethnocentrism is needed as a point of departure in the study and teaching of religion. The metaphor of education as a journey from the familiar out into the unfamiliar and back again is suggested as a possible pattern for such teaching.

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  • 234.
    Hylén, Torsten
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Religious Studies.
    'Conversion' and 'Religion': Two Troublesome Concepts in the Study of Islam in Africa2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 235.
    Hylén, Torsten
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Religious Studies.
    Dating versions of the Karbala' Story2017In: "Shii Studies: State of the Art." International Conference held at the Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton NJ (December 7‐9, 2017), 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite its importance for Shīʿites and other Muslims, the story of the death of Ḥusayn b. ʿAlī at Karbala in 61/680 is clearly under-researched. So, for example, except for Borrut (2015) hardly any of the previous studies made have compared different versions of the story and attempted to set a relative date to them. Such a study is necessary in order to map the development of the Karbalāʾ story and the image of Ḥusayn in the emergence of Shīʿite ideology. In this paper I will discuss the relative date of two important versions of the Karbala story related by Ṭabarī: one, relatively short and lacking in detail, is ascribed to Imam al-Bāqir (d. 114/732); the other, much longer and more detailed, is compiled by Abū Mikhnaf (d. 157/774). Studies in other fields, such as “historical Jesus-studies,” have shown that brevity and lack of details is not a certain criterion for old age of a version of a story; in order to ascertain the relative age of two versions, detailed studies have to be made and conclusions drawn from case to case. By comparing three passages in the two versions of the Karbalāʾ story: Ḥusayn’s encounter with al-Ḥurr; Ḥusayn’s attempt to negotiate with the enemy; and the killing of Ḥusayn’s baby boy, I hope to demonstrate that the version ascribed to al-Bāqir is indeed the older of the two, although its authorship cannot be established with certainty. I will also share some thoughts about the historicity of the events described in the three passages analyzed.

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  • 236.
    Hylén, Torsten
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Religious Studies.
    Emerging Patterns of Authority in Early Shiʿism: Mukhtar’s Use of the Aesthetics of Persuasion2019In: Shii Studies Review, ISSN 2468-2470, Vol. 3, p. 1-32Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study the author examines some aspects of authority in the movement of theShiʿite leader al-Mukhtār (d. 67/687). The notion of religious aesthetics as developedby Birgit Meyer is used as an analytical tool. It is argued that al-Mukhtār accomplishedhis political endeavour partly by introducing and controlling three “aesthetic forms”which functioned as “media” between the people and the deceased ʿAlī b. Abī Ṭālib:his claim to act on behalf of ʿAlī’s son Ibn al-Ḥanafiyya, whom he called al-mahdī, “therightly guided”; his call to revenge for the killing of ʿAlī’s son Ḥusayn; and his exhibitingof a chair that he claimed had belonged to ʿAlī. The accounts of these three media,the author furthermore argues, have an historical foundation. Finally he holds thatthrough these media al-Mukhtār was able to channel the needs and aspirations ofmany of the Shiites of Kufa into political action.

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  • 237.
    Hylén, Torsten
    Dalarna University, School of Education and Humanities, Religious Studies.
    Essentialism i religionsundervisningen: Ett religionsdidaktiskt problem2012In: Nordidactica - Journal of Humanities and Social Science Education, ISSN 2000-9879, no 2, p. 106-137Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Essentialist concepts of religion are common in the teaching of religion in schools and to a certain extent also in the academic discipline of religious studies. In this article, a number of problems with essentialist perceptions of religion are discussed. In the first part of the article a thesis is maintained, according to which essentialist conceptions of religion or specific religions are too limited to be of value in the teaching of religion. This is done through examples of essentialist expressions about religion. The examples are grouped according to a typology of different kinds of essentialism. Two main categories, each with two sub-categories are identified. Thus, the category of essentialism regarding the substance of religion is divided into transcendental or theological essentialism (which presupposes the existence of a sacred power of some kind, the experience of which is the basis for religion), and core essentialism (where it is presupposed that certain ideas or concepts constitute religion as a general category or specific religions). Likewise, the category of essentialism regarding the function of religion has two sub-categories: positive and negative essentialism. These kinds of essentialism presuppose that religion or specific religions are inherently good or harmful respectively to human beings. Examples from each of these categories are given and discussed. In the second part of the article, Benson Saler’s open concept of religion is presented as an alternative to essentialist or bounded perceptions. It is based on Ludwig Wittgenstein’s idea of family resemblances and on prototype theory. In connection with this, it is argued that a certain kind of conscious ethnocentrism is needed as a point of departure in the study and teaching of religion. The metaphor of education as a journey from the familiar out into the unfamiliar and back again is suggested as a possible pattern for such teaching. Finally,some examples of non-essentialist ways to introduce religions are offered.

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    Essentialism i religionsundervisningen
  • 238.
    Hylén, Torsten
    Dalarna University, School of Education and Humanities, Religious Studies.
    Essentialism in religious education: Some reflections on a didactical problem2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In spite of the fact that essentialist views of religion have been debated for decades in other parts of the world, e.g. in the USA, it is only recently that such ideas have been contested in Sweden. Furthermore, it is mainly in academic circles that non-essentialist ideas of religion have been promoted.

    In this paper I intend to present an outline of an article where I argue that essentialist views on religion are indeed highly problematic, but are still widespread in many parts of Swedish society, not least in religious education in the schools. I will also suggest alternative views of religion and propose a hermeneutical approach to teaching religion that might help to overcome the problem of essentialism.

  • 239.
    Hylén, Torsten
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Religious Studies. Uppsala universitet.
    Husayn, the Mediator: A Structural Analysis of the Karbala Drama according to Abu Ja´far Muhammad b. Jarir al-Tabari (d. 310/923)2007Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study has a twofold purpose: Firstly, it is an analysis of the Karbala´ Drama—i.e. the death of Husayn b. `Ali in the hands of an army which had been sent out by the Umayyad authorities, at Karbala in 60/680—as it is retold by the Muslim jurist and historiographer Abu Ja`far Muhammad b. Jarir al-Tabari (d. 310/923). Despite its importance, especially to Shi`ite Islam, this text as such has received relatively little attention among scholars of Islam. In this study, the Karbala´ Drama is regarded as a myth and the method used to analyze it is inspired by the structuralism of Claude Lévi-Strauss. Lévi-Straussian structuralism has probably never before been ap-plied to early Arabic material to the extent that it is used here. The second purpose of the study, then, is to investigate to what extent and in what mode such a method is applicable to this material. A portion of the text, called the “Text of Reference,” has been selected and thoroughly analyzed. In that analysis, a number of structural features such as codes, oppositions, mediations, and transformations have been identified and made the basis for a more cursory study of the rest of the story. An important structural feature that is detected in this way is the way the argument of the story is forwarded. By the transformation of metaphors into metonyms, the story attempts to make arbitrary relationships look natural and intrinsic. Such a relationship is that between water and blood—two liquids which are at times shed, at times withheld in the story. Husayn takes a mediating position in that he gives his water and his blood. He acts as mediator both in a negative sense (he establishes the basic Islamic opposition of good and evil), and in a positive sense (as religious guide he acts as a bridge between them).

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  • 240.
    Hylén, Torsten
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Religious Studies.
    Mukhtār and the Mahdī: a critical inquiry into the sources2018In: DIN - Tidsskrift for religion og kultur, ISSN 1501-9934, no 1, p. 138-157Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of al-mahdī is one of the most important theological ideas in Shiʿism. Its literary meaning is ‘the rightly guided’, and this is how it was probably used in the first decades after the Prophet Muhammad. In Twelver Shiʿism it has come to denote the hidden Imam, who will one day return to redeem his followers and restore justice on earth, and in that sense it is akin to the Christian idea of the Messiah. Among scholars of early Islam there is near consensus on the view that the transition of meaning, from its literal meaning ‘the rightly guided’ to an eschatological redeemer, occurred with the Shiʿite rebel leader al-Mukhtār b. Abī ʿUbayd (d. 686) when he applied it to Muhammad b. al-Hanafiyya, the son of ʿAlī. In the present study I will contest that view. I will hold that, while it can be established from the sources that Mukhtār probably spoke of Ibn al-Hanafiyya as al-mahdī, they do not support his use of this title in a messianic sense. This eschatological meaning can only be verified soon after his death.

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  • 241.
    Hylén, Torsten
    Dalarna University, School of Education and Humanities, Religious Studies.
    Myter2010In: Människor och makter 2.0: En introduktion till religionsvetenskap / [ed] Svensson, Jonas; Arvidsson, Stefan, Halmstad: Högskolan i Halmstad , 2010, 2, p. 31-36Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I kapitlet diskuteras mytbegreppet på introducerande nivå. En funktionell och dynamisk användning av begreppet föreslås, och två exempel ges på hur en och samma myt kan ges olika tolkningar i skilda kontexter. De exempel som behandlas är den grekiska myten om Herakles och den shi'itiska berättelsen om Husayn ibn Alis död i Karbala.

  • 242.
    Hylén, Torsten
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Religious Studies.
    Myth, ritual, and the early development of Shiite identity2018In: Intellectual History of the Islamicate World, ISSN 2212-9421, Vol. 6, no 3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The developing myth about the events at Karbala, as well as the image of al-Ḥusayn b. ʿAlī and the cult connected with him, were important factors in the shaping of early Shiite identity. In this article, I argue that some of the earliest traces of this process are found in the account of the Tawwābūn, or Penitents, events which took place in the years immediately following the death of al-Ḥusayn at Karbala in 60 AH/680 CE. Important elements of this story originate at least as early as the late first century AH/early eighth century CE. In the story we see the image of al-Ḥusayn in process of transformation from that of someone merely human to someone ascribed traits that transcend the human. In the same process, the story of his death at Karbala is in process of being elevated from a tragic story to a myth with its associated rituals.

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  • 243.
    Hylén, Torsten
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Religious Studies.
    Myth, ritual and the early development of Shīʿite identity2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The story of the killing of Ḥusayn b. ʿAlī at Karbalāʾ is of course one of the most important narratives in Shīʿite Islam. In this paper, a very early phase in the development of this story into a Shīʿite myth will be discussed. It will be argued that in the story of the Tawwābūn (the Penitents) we can see some of the mechanisms of this process at work.

    The paper will begin with a brief discussion of the concept of myth which leads up to a stipulated definition of myth: the term will be used to connote a narrative that is foundational to the world view and identity of a group of people. I will argue that the story of the Tawwābūn, at least the parts that are relevant in this context, date back to the beginning of the 2nd/8th century if not earlier. Finally, I will maintain that, in this early story we see how pre-Islamic stories are re-interpreted, and old rituals are filled with new meaning in accordance with the Karbalāʾ event and the Tawwābūn’s feeling of guilt concerning Ḥusayn’s fate. The story of the Tawwābūn thus testifies to the growing importance of the Karbalāʾ drama and the beginning of its development into a myth in the sense mentioned above.

  • 244.
    Hylén, Torsten
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Religious Studies.
    New Meanings to Old Rituals: The Emergence of Mourning Rituals in Shiʿite Islam2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper will discuss the emergence of Shiʿite mourning rituals around the grave of Husayn b. ʿAli. After the killing of Husayn at Karbala’ in 61/680, a number of men in Kufa feel deep regret for their neglect to come to the help of the grand­son of the Prophet. They gather and discuss how they can best make penitence for this crime. Eventually, they decide to take to arms and go against the Umayyad army – to kill those that killed Husayn, or be killed them­selves in the attempt to find revenge for him. Thus, they are called the Penitents (Ar. Tawwābūn). On their way to the battlefield they stop at Husayn’s tomb at Karbala’, dedicat­ing themselves to remorseful prayer, crying and wailing over the fate of Husayn and their own sin.

    When the Penitents perform certain ritual acts, such as weeping and wailing over the death of Husayn, visiting his grave, asking for God’s mercy upon him on the Day of Judgment, demand blood revenge for him etc., they enter into already existing rituals in the pre-Islamic Arab and early Muslim context. That is, they enter into rituals that were traditionally performed at the death of a person. What is new is that the rituals that the Penitents perform have partially received a new content. As described, the rituals are performed out of loyalty towards Husayn and the family of the Prophet. The lack of loyalty in connection with the death of Husayn is conceived of as a sin that has to be atoned. Blood revenge thus be­comes not only a pure action of revenge to restore honor, but equally an expression for true religious conversion and penitence.

    Humphrey and Laidlaw argue that ritual actions in themselves are not bearers of meaning, but that they are filled with mean­ing by the performer. Accord­ing to them, ritual actions are apprehensible, i.e. they can be, and should be filled with meaning, and the people who perform them try to do so within the context where the ritual is performed. The story of the Penitents is a clear example of mourning rituals as actions that survive from earlier times, but that are now filled with new meaning when they are performed in a new and developing move­ment with a different ideology. In later Shiʿism, these rituals are elaborated and become a main tenet of this form of Islam.

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  • 245.
    Hylén, Torsten
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Religious Studies.
    Praying Aloud or in Silence?: On Conceptual Blending and Emotions in the Analysis of Rituals2011In: Religion, a Human Phenomenon: Xxth World Congress of the International Association for the History of Religions: Proceedings, Toronto: International Association for the History of Religions , 2011, p. 264-Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper I try to apply theories from cognitive linguistics, mainly the idea of "conceptual blending" as outlined by Fauconnier and Turner in their book "The Way We Think" (2002). Arguments and metaphors, they hold, can be analyzed as conceptual blends. In an article from 2005, Edward Slingerland connects this theory with the concept of "somatic markers" or "gut feelings" as developed by the neurologist Antonio Damasio (1994). Slingerland argues that the somatic markers are important when presenting an argument. We do not only rely on the purely rational capacities of our listeners when we argue, but by connecting our arguments to somatic markers we appeal to the feelings of those we try to convince. Two basic arguments in my paper is 1) that rituals can be analyzed as conceptual blends, and 2) that an important function of many rituals is that they reinforce certain basic feelings, thereby disposing the performer of a specific ritual to follow the norms that underlie the current interpretation of that ritual. As an example I use the controversy on the Muslim salat among the Gayo people of Sumatra, that John R. Bowen describes in his works (1984, 1993).

  • 246.
    Hylén, Torsten
    Dalarna University, School of Education and Humanities, Religious Studies.
    Revenge or Martyrdom!: The Story of the Penitents as a Link to the Early Development of Shi'ism2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the story of the Penitents (ar. Tawwābūn) we are told about a group of men in early Islam, who deeply regret that they did not support Husayn b. ‘Alī, the grandson of the Prophet, when he was killed at Karbala in 680 CE. In their remorse, they first discuss the option of committing collective suicide. As this is prohibited in the Qur’ān, however, they decide to seek revenge by going against the Umayyad army. This will certainly lead to their death, and they accept this as martyrdom for true Islam which will cleanse them from their sin.

    As the story most likely is written down as early as the middle of the 8:th century, and probably has earlier roots, it is remarkable that very little attention has been paid to it in academic research. In spite of its old age, it incorporates many elements that later came to be basic in Shi‘ite Islam. At the same time, however, other components in later Shi‘ite theology and ritual, such as the Shi‘ite imamology, that began to develop around the mid-8:th century, are lacking in the story. Thus, it is an important link to the understanding of the development of early Shi‘ism.

    In this paper I will introduce a research project concerning the story of the Penitents that is financed from the Swedish Research Council. In the project, the story will be studied from three perspectives. First, the history of tradition will be focused, and three different versions of the story, i.e. the versions by Ibn A‘tham al-Kūfī, al-Balādhurī and al-Tabarī, will be compared and the relations between them will be analyzed. Second, special attention will be paid to the theological ideas expressed in the text in relation to those that developed later in Shi‘ism. Third, the rituals performed in the story will be studied in connection with rituals in the surrounding culture as well as in later Shi´ism.

  • 247.
    Hylén, Torsten
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Religious Studies.
    Shiitisk islam i vardande: Myt, rit och identitet2015In: En profil i profilen: Vänbok till Bo G Jansson / [ed] Catharina Nyström Höög, Charlotte Lindgren & Sverre Wide, Falun: Högskolan Dalarna, 2015, p. 3-19Chapter in book (Other academic)
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  • 248.
    Hylén, Torsten
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Religious Studies.
    The Date of the Story of the Tawwābūn2017In: Studia Islamica, ISSN 0585-5292, E-ISSN 1958-5705, Vol. 112, no 2, p. 175-205Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The movement of the Tawwābūn (“Penitents”) emerged after the killing of Ḥusayn b. ʿAlī at Karbalāʾ in 61/680. Although several scholars have held that the story of the Tawwābūn is indeed old, it has been little studied. In this article an analysis is made of a central section of the story: the account about the Tawwābūn’s visit at Ḥusayn’s grave. The three versions of this account is analysed by means of tradition- and content critical methods. It is concluded that behind the three versions lie two earlier reports that date back at least to the end of the 1st century AH/the beginning of the 8th century CE. This story is, hence, of importance for the study of the early development of Shīʿite ideas and rituals.

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  • 249.
    Hylén, Torsten
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Religious Studies.
    The hand of God is over their hands (Q. 48:10): on the notion of covenant in al-Ṭabarī’s account of Karbalāʾ2016In: Journal of Qur'anic Studies, ISSN 1465-3591, E-ISSN 1755-1730, Vol. 18, no 2, p. 58-88Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article is an analysis of the story of the killing of Ḥusayn b. ʿAlī at Karbalāʾ in 61/680, as it is presented by Abū Jaʿfar Muḥammad b. Jarīr al-Ṭabarī (d. 310/923). The main argument is that the notion of the divine covenant, which permeates the Qur’an, constitutes a framework through which al-Ṭabarī views this event. The Qur’anic idea of the covenant is read in structural/thematic continuity with the Hebrew Bible account of the covenant between Yahweh and the Hebrew people, which has, in turn, been traced back in its basic form to Late Bronze Era treaties between rulers and their vassals.

     

    The present study focusses on four speeches ascribed to Ḥusayn during the encounter he and his group had with the vanguard of the Kūfan army led by al-Ḥurr. These are analysed in accordance with their use of Qur’anic covenant vocabulary. They are also categorised within the broader framework of the eight standard characteristics of Ancient West Asian and Biblical covenants, as presented by George Mendenhall and Gary Herion, which have recently been developed in a Qur’anic context by Rosalind Ward Gwynne. This article argues that al-Ṭabarī’s Karbalāʾ narrative presents the pact of loyalty to Ḥusayn as a clear extension of the divine covenant.

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  • 250.
    Hylén, Torsten
    Dalarna University, School of Education and Humanities, Religious Studies.
    Är Kerbela-dramat en myt?1997In: Myter och mytteorier: Religionshistoriska diskussioner och teoretiska ansatser / [ed] Svalastog, Anna Lydia; Sundqvist, Olof, Uppsala: Teologiska institutionen, Uppsala Universitet , 1997, p. 55-71Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Artikeln diskuterar begreppet myt i islam. Traditionella definitioner fokuserar berättelsernas innehåll snarare än deras funktion. Detta gör att de flesta berättelser som för muslimer är grundläggande för deras tro utesluts ur katgorin myter. I artikeln analyseras Karbala-myten med hjälp av L. Honkos fyra mytkriterier. Slutsatsen av analysen är att, ur ett funktionellt perspektiv kan denna berättelse betraktas som en myt för shi´itisk islam. Till sist nämns också några andra islamiska berättelser som i funktionell mening kanske också kan räknas som myter.

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