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  • 201.
    Jomaa, Diala
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    The Optimal trigger speed of vehicle activated signs2014Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The thesis aims to elaborate on the optimum trigger speed for Vehicle Activated Signs (VAS) and to study the effectiveness of VAS trigger speed on drivers’ behaviour. Vehicle activated signs (VAS) are speed warning signs that are activated by individual vehicle when the driver exceeds a speed threshold. The threshold, which triggers the VAS, is commonly based on a driver speed, and accordingly, is called a trigger speed. At present, the trigger speed activating the VAS is usually set to a constant value and does not consider the fact that an optimal trigger speed might exist. The optimal trigger speed significantly impacts driver behaviour.

    In order to be able to fulfil the aims of this thesis, systematic vehicle speed data were collected from field experiments that utilized Doppler radar. Further calibration methods for the radar used in the experiment have been developed and evaluated to provide accurate data for the experiment. The calibration method was bidirectional; consisting of data cleaning and data reconstruction. The data cleaning calibration had a superior performance than the calibration based on the reconstructed data.

    To study the effectiveness of trigger speed on driver behaviour, the collected data were analysed by both descriptive and inferential statistics. Both descriptive and inferential statistics showed that the change in trigger speed had an effect on vehicle mean speed and on vehicle standard deviation of the mean speed. When the trigger speed was set near the speed limit, the standard deviation was high. Therefore, the choice of trigger speed cannot be based solely on the speed limit at the proposed VAS location.

    The optimal trigger speeds for VAS were not considered in previous studies. As well, the relationship between the trigger value and its consequences under different conditions were not clearly stated. The finding from this thesis is that the optimal trigger speed should be primarily based on lowering the standard deviation rather than lowering the mean speed of vehicles. Furthermore, the optimal trigger speed should be set near the 85th percentile speed, with the goal of lowering the standard deviation.

  • 202.
    Jomaa, Diala
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Dougherty, Mark
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Yella, Siril
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Triggering Radar Speed Warning signs using Association Rules and Clustering Techniques2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Radar speed warning signs (RSWS) have been used in recent years across Sweden and elsewhere in the world. Such signs measure vehicle speed using radar and are designed to display a message when the driver exceeds a pre-set threshold speed, which is often relative to the speed limit on a particular road segment. RSWS are typically placed on locations which are perceived to be problematic by relevant authorities. Excessive speeding or road accidents are examples of such perceived problems.  Deploying RSWS in many relevant locations is often impractical due to the lack of necessary power supply needed for operation. Battery driven RSWS are an alternative but are less attractive because of limited running time and frequent maintenance (changing batteries etc). Therefore, solar powered RSWS are more desirable. However, these signs are also dependent on batteries that need to be charged. The duration of operation of solar powered RSWS largely depend on how often the sign is triggered. Constant activation of the sign drains the battery. It is desirable to trigger the sign only when necessary. Hence, the main goal of this research is to design a model that optimises the performance of RSWS depending on prevailing conditions i.e traffic flows during different times of the day and so on.  Vehicle speed data had been collected at a test site in Sweden all hours of the day. This paper attempts to use a hybrid system based on Apriori and K-means clustering algorithm. Apriori algorithm is simple and efficient to determine associations’ rules among attributes in particular to discover the most common combination that can occur within the data set.  K-means clustering is basically used to quantize the input variables into smaller clusters that can easily derive the trigger threshold value. The proposed hybrid system indicated that the system was able to trigger solar RWWS efficiently.

  • 203.
    Jomaa, Diala
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Dougherty, Mark
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Yella, Siril
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Edvardsson, Karin
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Effectiveness of vehicle activated signs on mean speed and standard deviation of vehicle speed2014Report (Other academic)
  • 204.
    Jomaa, Diala
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    Yella, Siril
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Automatic trigger speed for vehicle activated signs using Adaptive Neuro fuzzy system and Random ForestIn: International Journal on Advances in Intelligent Systems, ISSN 1942-2679, E-ISSN 1942-2679Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 205.
    Jomaa, Diala
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    Yella, Siril
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Predicting automatic trigger speed for vehicle-activated signs2018In: Journal of Intelligent Systems, ISSN 0334-1860, E-ISSN 2191-026XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vehicle-activated signs (VAS) are speed-warning signs activated by radar when the driver speed exceeds a pre-set threshold, i.e. the trigger speed. The trigger speed is often set relative to the speed limit and is displayed for all types of vehicles. It is our opinion that having a static setting for the trigger speed may be inappropriate, given that traffic and road conditions are dynamic in nature. Further, different vehicle classes (mainly cars and trucks) behave differently, so a uniform trigger speed of such signs may be inappropriate to warn different types of vehicles. The current study aims to investigate an automatic VAS, i.e. one that could warn vehicle users with an appropriate trigger speed by taking into account vehicle types and road conditions. We therefore investigated different vehicle classes, their speeds, and the time of day to be able to conclude whether different trigger speeds of VAS are essential or not. The current study is entirely data driven; data are initially presented to a self-organising map (SOM) to be able to partition the data into different clusters, i.e. vehicle classes. Speed, time of day, and length of vehicle were supplied as inputs to the SOM. Further, the 85th percentile speed for the next hour is predicted using appropriate prediction models. Adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference systems and random forest (RF) were chosen for speed prediction; the mean speed, traffic flow, and standard deviation of vehicle speeds were supplied as inputs for the prediction models. The results achieved in this work show that RF is a reliable model in terms of accuracy and efficiency, and can be used in finding appropriate trigger speeds for an automatic VAS. 

  • 206.
    Jomaa, Diala
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    Yella, Siril
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Dougherty, Mark
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    A comparative study between vehicle activated signs and speed indicator devices2017In: Transportation Research Procedia, ISSN 2324-9935, E-ISSN 2352-1465, Vol. 22, p. 115-123Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vehicle activated signs and Speed indicator devices are safety signs used to warn and remind drivers that they are exceeding the speed limit on a particular road segment. This article has analysed and compared such signs with the aim of reporting the most suitable sign for relevant situations. Vehicle speeds were recorded at different test sites and the effects of the signs were studied by analyzing the mean and standard deviation. Preliminary results from the work indicate that both types of signs have variable effects on the mean and standard deviation of speed on a given road segment. Speed indicator devices were relatively more effective than vehicle activated signs on local roads; in contrast their effectivity was only comparable when tested on highways.

  • 207.
    Jomaa, Diala
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Yella, Siril
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Dougherty, Mark
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Speed prediction for triggering vehicle activated signs2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Accurate speed prediction is a crucial step in the development of a dynamic vehcile activated sign (VAS). A previous study showed that the optimal trigger speed of such signs will need to be pre-determined according to the nature of the site and to the traffic conditions. The objective of this paper is to find an accurate predictive model based on historical traffic speed data to derive the optimal trigger speed for such signs. Adaptive neuro fuzzy (ANFIS), classification and regression tree (CART) and random forest (RF) were developed to predict one step ahead speed during all times of the day. The developed models were evaluated and compared to the results obtained from artificial neural network (ANN), multiple linear regression (MLR) and naïve prediction using traffic speed data collected at four sites located in Sweden. The data were aggregated into two periods, a short term period (5-min) and a long term period (1-hour). The results of this study showed that using RF is a promising method for predicting mean speed in the two proposed periods.. It is concluded that in terms of performance and computational complexity, a simplistic input features to the predicitive model gave a marked increase in the response time of the model whilse still delivering a low prediction error.

  • 208.
    Jomaa, Diala
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Yella, Siril
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Dougherty, Mark
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Triggering Solar-Powered Vehicle Activated Signs using Self Organising Maps with K-means2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Solar-powered vehicle activated signs (VAS) are speed warning signs powered by batteries that are recharged by solar panels. These signs are more desirable than other active warning signs due to the low cost of installation and the minimal maintenance requirements. However, one problem that can affect a solar-powered VAS is the limited power capacity available to keep the sign operational. In order to be able to operate the sign more efficiently, it is proposed that the sign be appropriately triggered by taking into account the prevalent conditions. Triggering the sign depends on many factors such as the prevailing speed limit, road geometry, traffic behaviour, the weather and the number of hours of daylight. The main goal of this paper is therefore to develop an intelligent algorithm that would help optimize the trigger point to achieve the best compromise between speed reduction and power consumption. Data have been systematically collected whereby vehicle speed data were gathered whilst varying the value of the trigger speed threshold. A two stage algorithm is then utilized to extract the trigger speed value. Initially the algorithm employs a Self-Organising Map (SOM), to effectively visualize and explore the properties of the data that is then clustered in the second stage using K-means clustering method. Preliminary results achieved in the study indicate that using a SOM in conjunction with K-means method is found to perform well as opposed to direct clustering of the data by K-means alone. Using a SOM in the current case helped the algorithm determine the number of clusters in the data set, which is a frequent problem in data clustering.

  • 209.
    Jonsson, Kristoffer
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Sound and Music Production.
    Narrativ i TV- spel: En undersökning av narrativet i tv-spelet Beyond: Two Souls2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I uppsatsen har en narrativ analys av tv-spelet Beyond:Two Souls för att belysa hur filmberättandet har påverkat spelet.

    Olika teorier om narratologi inom tv-spel och film har jämförts för att sedan kunna visa likheter från filmen i tv-spelet.

    Genom en analys av ett kapitel i tv-spelet belyses här att tv-spelet har många likheter till filmens berättande. Det har

    också ökat förståelsen för varför de liknar varandra. Resultatet visade på att den stora skillnaden i spelet och filmen är

    interaktiviteten. Skillnader men framförallt hur tv-spelets narrativ är likt filmens berättarstruktur och på vilka sätt

    berättandet liknar varandra visas i analysen.

  • 210.
    Joona Bergström, Johanna
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Moving Image Production.
    ”Are you watching closely?”2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med uppsatsen är att undersöka hur klippning har bidragit till att förstärka det

    vilseledande narrativet i filmen The Prestige (2006). Tre scener som anses vara

    betydelsefulla för filmens vilseledande narrativ har analyserats, för att fastställa vad

    som händer med berättandet i filmen när olika klipptekniker används och hur

    klippningen bygger upp den här typen av narrativ.

    Med hjälp av Kleckers forskning om vilseledande narrativ, Bordwell och

    Thompsons teori kring hur tid kan manipuleras genom klippning och Corrigan och

    Whites teori om olika klipptekniker, undersöker uppsatsen hur det vilseledande

    narrativet är strukturerat genom klippning.

    Resultatet visar på att det går att konstatera att klippningen i The Prestige har

    bidragit till att framhäva det vilseledande narrativet. Genom användningen av olika

    klipptekniker, har berättandet i filmen lyckats vilseleda publikens uppmärksamhet.

    Tack vare blandningen av de olika teknikerna undanhålls viktig information från

    betraktaren, vilket är avgörande för att ett vilseledande narrativ ska fungera.

  • 211.
    Jusufi, Ilir
    et al.
    Department of Computer Science, University of California Davis, CA, USA.
    Nyholm, Dag
    Neuroscience, Neurology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Memedi, Mevludin
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Visualization of spiral drawing data of patients with Parkinson's disease2014In: IEEE International Conference on Information Visualization, IEEE Press, 2014, p. 346-350Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) need to be frequently monitored in order to assess their individual symptoms and treatment-related complications. Advances in technology have introduced telemedicine for patients in remote locations. However, data produced in such settings lack much information and are not easy to analyze or interpret compared to traditional, direct contact between the patient and clinician. Therefore, there is a need to present the data using visualization techniques in order to communicate in an understandable and objective manner to the clinician. This paper presents interaction and visualization approaches used to aid clinicians in the analysis of repeated measures of spirography of PD patients gathered by means of a telemetry touch screen device. The proposed approach enables clinicians to observe fine motor impairments and identify motor fluctuations of their patients while they perform the tests from their homes using the telemetry device.

  • 212.
    Jäderholm, Matilda
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Moving Image Production.
    Ritzman, Maja
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Moving Image Production.
    Konsten att gestalta en karaktär genom voice-over: Voice-overs narrativa funktion I The Shawshank Redemption.2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna uppsats var att undersöka voice-overs berättarfunktion i The Shawshank

    Redemption. Voice-over är intressant att undersöka på grund av dess negativa rykte. Vi

    undersökte hur den applicerats över bilden för att gestalta karaktären Andy Dufresne samt så

    har vi jämfört med novellen, Rita Hayworth and the Shawshank redemption.

    Detta undersöktes genom Seymour Chatmans och Kamilla Elliots användning av

    begreppet ‘berätta och visa’. I uppsatsen analyserade vi vad filmens voice-over visar och

    novellens berättarröst berättar samt vilka mentala bilder de genererar.

    Resultatet som vi kom fram till var att berättarfunktionen i filmens voice-over var att

    skapa sammanhang, samt komplettera med information till bilderna som visades genom att

    generera mentala bilder. Denna information var vägledande i gestaltningen av Dufresne. De

    mentala bilderna som genererades skiljde sig mellan filmens voice-over och novellens

    berättarröst, men i somliga fall kunde de båda användas för att gestalta samma intryck.

  • 213.
    Jörgensen, Tanja
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Sound and Music Production.
    Den oemotståndliga svetsen mellan ljud och bild: En kvalitativ studie om interaktion i TV- och datorspel2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna undersökning syftar till att studera förhållandet mellan ljud, bild och spelare i en

    TV- och datorspelssituation. Med hjälp av fokusgruppdiskussioner berörs frågor på det

    audiovisuella området, där deltagarna är aktiva spelare som har tillryggalagt ett mycket

    stort antal speltimmar som de bygger sina kunskaper på. Här framkommer att ljud och

    musik fyller viktiga funktioner för spelarens möjlighet att interagera och leva sig in i

    spelet och att varje spel har en unik ljud- eller musikmiljö som spelarna tycks förhålla

    sig till på olika sätt beroende på varför man spelar och om man spelar ensam eller

    tillsammans med andra, det vill säga singelplayer eller multiplayer. Informanternas

    kunskaper utgör styrkan i denna undersökning men det vore önskvärt att utöka studien

    med fler fokusgruppdiskussioner samt djupintervjuer med utvalda informanter för att

    fördjupa materialet. Som förslag på vidare forskning vore det intressant att studera

    användandet av virtuella headsets där en stereoskopisk 3D bild skapas som spårar

    huvudets rörelser, för att undersöka om detta kan ha en inverkan på hur vi uppfattar

    ljudet i ett spel.

  • 214.
    Kalin, Anja
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Sound and Music Production.
    28 sekunder senare: En sociosemiotisk tvärkulturell analys av Ikeas och McDonalds reklamfilmer i Sverige, Ungern, Saudiarabien och Thailand2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna undersökning jämför vilka skillnader och likheter som förekommer mellan

    reklamfilmer producerade inom olika kulturer. Det är en kvalitativ fallstudie av reklamfilmer

    skapade för Ikea och McDonalds i Sverige, Ungern, Saudiarabien samt Thailand. Studien

    utgår från det sociosemiotiska forskningsområdet och kombinerar detta med teorier inom

    interkulturell kommunikation. Metodologiskt används en analysmodell i fem steg i form av

    narrativ beskrivning, semiotisk analys, multimodal diskursanalys, kulturella dimensioner och

    experimentell produktion. Resultatet visar på att det innehållsmässigt, musikaliskt och

    berättartekniskt finns en hel del likheter mellan de olika ländernas reklamfilmer, medan

    filmernas narrativ, mängden information samt de roller som personifieras i filmerna skiljer sig

    åt. Undersökningen pekar på att vissa av dessa skillnader överensstämmer med ländernas

    värden avseende de kulturella dimensionerna, men att det främst är medieproducentens

    immersion i målgruppens vardag som är relevant. Studien ger insikt i de skillnader som

    förekommer mellan de olika regionerna och är väsentlig för den medieproducent som skapar

    reklam för en global marknad eller en kulturell marknad som de själva inte tillhör.

  • 215.
    Karlmats, Roberg
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    Karlsson, Daniel
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    Att tillämpa återkommande mätning av kundnöjdhet i IT-projekt: En vidareutvecklad modell baserad på modellerna American Customer Satisfaction Index (ACSI) och SERVQUAL2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In today's society, it is increasingly important for companies to retain their existing customers when competition becomes increasingly fierce. This means that companies are trying to take steps to nurture relationships with its customers. This problem is very relevant in the IT industry. In the IT industry, it is common to work agile in IT projects. Our partner has seen an increased need to measure service quality with a regular approach in IT projects, in order to measure the relevant variables that extend beyond the specifications. To measure success regarding this approach would be to measure Customer Satisfaction Index (CSI) of IT projects. As previous research demonstrated the absence of models containing both the measurement of service quality and CSI have literature studied where it emerged that the model SERVQUAL is established for the measurement of service quality and model the American Customer Satisfaction Index (ACSI) is established for the measurement of CSI. This has been the basis of work problem and purpose. The aim is to create an improved model for the measurement of CSI between IT projects and recurring measurement of service quality in IT projects. Creation of this model has been made through research strategy Design and Creation. Interviews have been conducted for requirements capture to the refined model. The result of this research strategy was then a further developed model based on the above models with recurring approach for the measurement of service quality in IT projects and measurement of CSI between IT projects. The resulting model is then verified through further interviews with respondents holding good experience from the customer side of IT projects. From these interviews conclusion could be drawn that this model is considered to be applicable in the empirical data regarding IT projects.

  • 216.
    Karlsson, Carolina
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Sound and Music Production.
    Problematiska ljudkvalitetsskillnader vid liveproduktioner i samma lokal: En studie av upplevd ljudkvalitet vid två DJ-akters framträdanden under Dreamhack Winter 20142015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna undersökning är bidra med förklaringar till varför upplevda

    ljudkvalitetsskillnader kan uppstå mellan olika akters framträdanden vid event och festivaler

    trots att de använder samma utrustning och är i samma lokal och att förklaringarna ska utgöra

    en kunskapskälla för dem som eftersträvar en god ljudkvalité vid liveframträdanden.

    De metoder som har används är fallstudie, webbenkät, intervjuer och egen observation.

    Webbenkäten användes på Dreamhack Winter 2014 där en grupp undersökningsdeltagare

    svarade på frågor om två olika DJ-akter på scenen i D-hallen, Elmia. Fem personer deltog

    som intervjupersoner: scenansvarig från Dreamhack, tre ljudtekniker ifrån olika ställen i

    Sverige och en person som jobbar med ljudteknisk konsultation och ljudmätning. Samtliga

    intervjuer genomfördes via mail. Intervjuerna eftersträvade att ge kunskap om dessa personers

    funderingar kring ljudkvalitetsproblemet och scenansvarig svarade på frågor om scenen på

    Dreamhack. En observation av upplevd ljudkvalitet och ljudteknikernas arbetssätt

    genomfördes av mig själv på Dreamhack Winter 2014.

    Resultatet från såväl enkätundersökningen som den egna observationen visar att inga stora

    upplevda skillnader fanns mellan de två akterna på Dreamhack Winter 2014. De upplevda

    skillnader som observerades var negativa anmärkningar, så som mängden bas och ljudstyrka.

    Intervjuerna visade på flera gemensamma åsikter bland ljudteknikerna angående förklaringar

    till ljudkvalitetsskillnader vid event som Dreamhack Winter 2014 där de ansåg att en kunnig

    och erfaren ljudtekniker, duktiga musiker, väl genomförd soundcheck och bra och rätt

    användande av utrustningen på scen krävs för att uppnå en upplevd god ljudkvalitet live. De

    förklaringar som finns enligt mina analyser och bland ljudteknikerna till negativa

    ljudkvalitetsskillnader inom liveljud i samma lokal är att ljudteknikern och musikerna är olika

    duktiga. Utrustning, soundcheck och akustik påverkar också kvalitén. Undersökningens

    sammantagna resultat tyder på att de upplevda ljudkvalitetetsskillnader som fanns på

    Dreamhack Winter 2014 berodde på bristande kompetens och engagemang hos tjänstgörande

    ljudtekniker och upplevda skillnader i bas- ljudnivå i de två DJ-akternas mixar.

  • 217.
    Karlsson, David
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Moving Image Production.
    Korsgren, Tom
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Moving Image Production.
    Konstruktion av en spegelrigg för stereoskopisk 3D i lågbudgetprojekt: En undersökning kring möjligheter och begränsningar med att konstruera en egen lättviktsrigg för stereoskopisk 3D-film i lågbudgetprojekt.2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Att filma i 3D är en process som kräver mycket kunskap, tid och teknisk utrustning. För att fullständigt behärska detta fält krävs dessutom omfattande praktisk erfarenhet. Denna erfarenhet kan vara svår att få eftersom den ekonomiska investeringen för att filma i 3D ofta är stor.

    I denna uppsats visar vi att det är möjligt att konstruera en egen 3D-rigg och att filma med vanliga konsumentkameror för att skapa 3D-film. Uppsatsen visar på de begränsningar och svårigheter man stöter på då man bygger sin egen rigg och diskuterar den ekonomiska besparing man kan göra i jämförelse med kommersiella lösningar. Att bygga en egen rigg är tidskrävande och oftast inte att rekommendera i professionella sammanhang. För indieproduktioner, hobby-fotografer eller om man har väldigt specifika krav som ej uppfylls av tillgängliga kommersiella 3D-riggar kan det dock vara motiverat att konstruera sin egen rigg.

    Kunskapen som uppsatsen redovisar möjliggör ett resonemang för hur bildkvalitet, funktion och ekonomi kan ställas mot varandra i de avvägningar man ställs inför i konstruktionen av en spegelrigg för att filma i 3D.

  • 218. Karlsson, Eva
    Systemutveckling för riskbaserad tillsyn: Hur verksamhetsanalys på praktikteoretisk grund kan användas för kravfångst2012Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie har utförts vid en myndighet som bedriver statlig tillsyn över det svenska järnvägssystemet. När myndigheten beslutade att deras tillsyn skulle vara riskbaserad uppstod behov att se över och eventuellt förändra myndighetens verksamhetsprocesser utifrån ett riskbaserat synsätt. Arbetet med denna licentiatavhandling, som har skett i form av praktikforskning, har sin grund i två förändringsprojekt som var starkt påverkade av den bärande idén om riskbaserad tillsyn. Av denna anledning fanns ett behov att karaktärisera riskbaserad tillsyn. Detta skedde med hjälp av verksamhetsanalys på praktikteoretisk grund vars resultat formulerades i en verksamhetsteori för riskbaserad tillsyn. På ett övergripande plan handlar riskbaserad tillsyn om att integrera riskhantering i myndighetens tillsynsprocesser.

    Denna licentiatavhandling är skriven inom ämnet informationssystemsutveckling och det problem som undersöks är hur man kan fånga kraven på ett verksamhetsstödjande informationssystem med hjälp av en verksamhetsanalys på praktikteoretisk grund. Tesen för arbetet är att de krav som identifieras i en verksamhetsanalys på praktikteoretisk grund bör kunna användas i det fortsatta kravarbetet. Därför är spårbarhet mellan verksamhetsanalysens dokumentation och den fortsatta kravhanteringen i ett systemutvecklingsprojekt en viktig egenskap. Spårbarheten undersöks genom att två av myndighetens utvecklingsprojekt som var inriktade på att utveckla både verksamheten och nya informationssystem analyseras.

    Att uppnå spårbarhet är en del av tillvägagångssättet när informationssystem utvecklas. I denna licentiatavhandling beskrivs tillvägagångssättet utifrån tre metodegenskaper: arbetssätt (vilka frågor som ställs), notation (hur kraven dokumenteras) och arbetsformer (vilka tekniker för datainsamling som används). Det är alltså inte bara spårbarhet (som ingår i metodegenskapen notation) som är intressant att studera närmare utan hela tillvägagångssättet i verksamhetsanalysen.

    Studien har bedrivits i form av praktikforskning och det innebär att tre bidrag har producerats: 1) ett bidrag till den lokala praktiken, dvs. till myndigheten; 2) ett bidrag till den generella praktiken, dvs. till andra verksamheter som bedriver statlig tillsyn men även praktiker som arbetar med verksamhets- respektive systemutveckling inkluderas i den generella praktiken; samt 3) ett bidrag till akademin. Bidraget till den lokala praktiken är genomförandet av utvecklingsprojekten och deras resultat. Bidraget till den generella praktiken inom verksamhetsutveckling är verksamhetsanalysen som resulterar i en verksamhetsteori för riskbaserad tillsyn. Bidraget till praktiker inom systemutveckling är kravanalysen som visar hur en verksamhetsanalys på praktikteoretisk grund kan användas för att fånga krav på ett verksamhetsstödjande informationssystem. Kravanalysen öppnar även för möjligheter att söka efter krav på ett informationssystem utan att verksamhetsanalysen fokuserar informationssystemet. Bidraget till akademin består också av kravanalysen som med hjälp av fyra kravkategorier härleder spårbarhet mellan verksamhetsteorin för riskbaserad tillsyn och kravdokumentation från de studerade projekten. Det andra bidraget till akademin är ett önskvärt tillvägagångssätt för att genomföra en praktikteoretisk verksamhetsanalys för riskbaserad tillsyn.

  • 219.
    Karlsson, Linda
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Sound and Music Production.
    Svenska podcasts och dess innehåll: Viktiga faktorer för populära podcasts enligt enkätundersökning om lyssnarvanor och fokusgruppintervju med medieproduktionsstudenter2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Intresset för att lyssna och skapa podcasts har ökat markant i Sverige sedan 2004 då formatet etablerades. Syftet med arbetet är att undersöka vilka faktorer som gör populära podcasts intressanta för lyssnare. För att ta reda på detta gjordes en enkätundersökning där 422 personer deltog. Sedan genomförde jag, tillsammans med en fokusgrupp med fem medieproduktionsstudenter, en jämförande analys av åtta populära podcasts i Sverige och vägde resultat från enkätundersökning och fokus grupp mot varandra. Tidigare forskning om hur medieteknologiska utvecklingen lett till förändrade lyssnarvanor och rekommendationer för att skapa intressanta podcast presenteras i uppsatsen och för att förstå och beskriva mina resultat har stödteori om musiklyssning använts. Resultat från enkätundersökningen visar att majoriteten av deltagarna anser att ett podcast-avsnitt bör vara runt 60 minuter långt, kategoriseras som Samhälle & Kultur, Nyheter & Politik och/eller Komedi och att lyssnarna helst vill uppleva glädje/underhållning, nyfikenhet/spänning och/eller kunskapsutvecklande/informativt innehåll i podcast. Resultat från den fokuserade gruppintervjun visar att deltagarna ansåg att rösten, språket som används samt ljudkvalitén påverkar huruvida de ansåg att ett avsnitt var värt att lyssna på mer än själva innehållet. Uppsatsen knyter då an till Tagg’s teori om röst-persona och dess betydelse att skapa mening för lyssnare inom populärmusik och film. Deltagarna upplevde även att om personerna som pratar i en podcast är kända sedan tidigare kan detta påverka lyssnarens intresse för innehållet. Genom att framföra lyssnarvanor och preferenser hos lyssnarna kan det bidra med bättre förutsättningar för de som skapar och producerar podcast.

  • 220.
    Karlsson, Linnéa
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Moving Image Production.
    Minimodeller och tiaror: En jämförande fallstudie om unga flickors villkor vid deltagande i reality-tv2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I den här uppsatsen undersöker jag de etiska svårigheterna med att låta barn delta i reality-serier i Sverige och USA. Den centrala frågan är i vems intresse barnens deltagande ligger. Frågan berättigas av att barn saknar juridisk rätt att själv bestämma över sitt deltagande. I den här undersökningen belyses frågan med hjälp av en jämförelse mellan den svenska reality-serien Mammor & Minimodeller och den amerikanska reality-serien Toddlers and Tiaras, där ett antal flickor och deras mammor medverkar. I mitt teorikapitel redogör jag för Pierre Bourdieus teori om kapital, habitus och fältbegrepp samt ett könsperspektiv. Dessa begrepp och perspektiv systematiserar jag till tre markörer som utgör analysen av mitt material. Markörerna som används är ackumulation av kapital, formandet av habitus, samt barnets motstånd. Resultatet av min undersökning visar att det främst ligger i mammornas intresse att deras döttrar medverkar i reality-serierna. Både viljan av att delta och medvetenheten om belöningarna är mer framträdande hos mammorna i jämförelse med döttrarna, samtidigt som barnens motstånd mot vissa delar av deltagandet blir tydligt. Barnens deltagande framträder därmed som ett moraliskt problem som dock förbises av deras ofta framgångsinriktade föräldrar.

  • 221.
    Khan, Saqib Hussain
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Predictive models for chronic renal disease using decision trees, naïve bayes and case-based methods2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Data mining can be used in healthcare industry to “mine” clinical data to discover hidden information for intelligent and affective decision making. Discovery of hidden patterns and relationships often goes intact, yet advanced data mining techniques can be helpful as remedy to this scenario.

    This thesis mainly deals with Intelligent Prediction of Chronic Renal Disease (IPCRD). Data covers blood, urine test, and external symptoms applied to predict chronic renal disease. Data from the database is initially transformed to Weka (3.6) and Chi-Square method is used for features section. After normalizing data, three classifiers were applied and efficiency of output is evaluated. Mainly, three classifiers are analyzed: Decision Tree, Naïve Bayes, K-Nearest Neighbour algorithm. Results show that each technique has its unique strength in realizing the objectives of the defined mining goals. Efficiency of Decision Tree and KNN was almost same but Naïve Bayes proved a comparative edge over others.

    Further sensitivity and specificity tests are used as statistical measures to examine the performance of a binary classification. Sensitivity (also called recall rate in some fields) measures the proportion of actual positives which are correctly identified while Specificity measures the proportion of negatives which are correctly identified. CRISP-DM methodology is applied to build the mining models. It consists of six major phases: business understanding, data understanding, data preparation, modeling, evaluation, and deployment.

  • 222.
    Khan, Taha
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Memedi, Mevludin
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Song, William Wei
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    Westin, Jerker
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    A case study in healthcare informatics: a telemedicine framework for automated parkinson’s disease symptom assessment2014In: Smart Health: International Conference, ICSH 2014, Beijing, China, July 10-11, 2014. Proceedings / [ed] Zheng X. et al., Springer, 2014, p. 197-199Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports the development and evaluation of a mobile-based telemedicine framework for enabling remote monitoring of Parkinson’s disease (PD) symptoms. The system consists of different measurement devices for remote collection, processing and presentation of symptom data of advanced PD patients. Different numerical analysis techniques were applied on the raw symptom data to extract clinically symptom information which in turn were then used in a machine learning process to be mapped to the standard clinician-based measures. The methods for quantitative and automatic assessment of symptoms were then evaluated for their clinimetric properties such as validity, reliability and sensitivity to change. Results from several studies indicate that the methods had good metrics suggesting that they are appropriate to quantitatively and objectively assess the severity of motor impairments of PD patients.

  • 223.
    Khan, Taha
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Westin, Jerker
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Assessment of PD Speech Anomalies @ Home2011In: 15th International Congress of Parkinson's Disease and Movement Disorders, Toronto, Canada, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Voice processing in real-time is challenging. A drawback of previous work for Hypokinetic Dysarthria (HKD) recognition is the requirement of controlled settings in a laboratory environment. A personal digital assistant (PDA) has been developed for home assessment of PD patients. The PDA offers sound processing capabilities, which allow for developing a module for recognition and quantification HKD. Objective: To compose an algorithm for assessment of PD speech severity in the home environment based on a review synthesis. Methods: A two-tier review methodology is utilized. The first tier focuses on real-time problems in speech detection. In the second tier, acoustics features that are robust to medication changes in Levodopa-responsive patients are investigated for HKD recognition. Keywords such as Hypokinetic Dysarthria , and Speech recognition in real time were used in the search engines. IEEE explorer produced the most useful search hits as compared to Google Scholar, ELIN, EBRARY, PubMed and LIBRIS. Results: Vowel and consonant formants are the most relevant acoustic parameters to reflect PD medication changes. Since relevant speech segments (consonants and vowels) contains minority of speech energy, intelligibility can be improved by amplifying the voice signal using amplitude compression. Pause detection and peak to average power rate calculations for voice segmentation produce rich voice features in real time. Enhancements in voice segmentation can be done by inducing Zero-Crossing rate (ZCR). Consonants have high ZCR whereas vowels have low ZCR. Wavelet transform is found promising for voice analysis since it quantizes non-stationary voice signals over time-series using scale and translation parameters. In this way voice intelligibility in the waveforms can be analyzed in each time frame. Conclusions: This review evaluated HKD recognition algorithms to develop a tool for PD speech home-assessment using modern mobile technology. An algorithm that tackles realtime constraints in HKD recognition based on the review synthesis is proposed. We suggest that speech features may be further processed using wavelet transforms and used with a neural network for detection and quantification of speech anomalies related to PD. Based on this model, patients' speech can be automatically categorized according to UPDRS speech ratings.

  • 224.
    Khan, Taha
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Westin, Jerker
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Methods for Detection of Speech Impairment Using Mobile Devices2011In: Recent Patents on Signal Processing, ISSN 2210-6863, Vol. 1, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Speech impairment is an important symptom of Parkinson’s disease(PD). This paper presents a detailed systematic literature review on speech impairment assessment through mobile devices. A two-tier review methodology is utilized. The first tier focuses on real-time problems in speech detection. In the second tier, acoustics features that respond to medication changes in Levodopa responsive PD patients are investigated for recognition of speech symptoms. The investigation of the patents reveals that speech disorder assessment can be made by a comparative analysis between pathological acoustic patterns and the normal acoustic patterns saved in a database. The review depicts that vowel and consonant formants are the most relevant acoustic parameters to reflect PD medication changes. Since consonants have high zero-crossing rate (ZCR) whereas vowels have low ZCR, enhancements in voice segmentation can be done by inducing ZCR. Our synthesis further suggests that wavelet transforms have potential for being useful in real-time voice analysis for detection and quantification of symptoms at home.

  • 225.
    Khan, Taha
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Westin, Jerker
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Motion Cues Analysis for Parkinson Gait Recognition2011In: 15th International Congress of Parkinson's Disease and Movement Disorders, Toronto, Canada, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Previous assessment methods for PG recognition used sensor mechanisms for PG that may cause discomfort. In order to avoid stress of applying wearable sensors, computer vision (CV) based diagnostic systems for PG recognition have been proposed. Main constraints in these methods are the laboratory setup procedures: Novel colored dresses for the patients were specifically designed to segment the test body from a specific colored background. Objective: To develop an image processing tool for home-assessment of Parkinson Gait(PG) by analyzing motion cues extracted during the gait cycles. Methods: The system is based on the idea that a normal body attains equilibrium during the gait by aligning the body posture with the axis of gravity. Due to the rigidity in muscular tone, persons with PD fail to align their bodies with the axis of gravity. The leaned posture of PD patients appears to fall forward. Whereas a normal posture exhibits a constant erect posture throughout the gait. Patients with PD walk with shortened stride angle (less than 15 degrees on average) with high variability in the stride frequency. Whereas a normal gait exhibits a constant stride frequency with an average stride angle of 45 degrees. In order to analyze PG, levodopa-responsive patients and normal controls were videotaped with several gait cycles. First, the test body is segmented in each frame of the gait video based on the pixel contrast from the background to form a silhouette. Next, the center of gravity of this silhouette is calculated. This silhouette is further skeletonized from the video frames to extract the motion cues. Two motion cues were stride frequency based on the cyclic leg motion and the lean frequency based on the angle between the leaned torso tangent and the axis of gravity. The differences in the peaks in stride and lean frequencies between PG and normal gait are calculated using Cosine Similarity measurements. Results: High cosine dissimilarity was observed in the stride and lean frequencies between PG and normal gait. High variations are found in the stride intervals of PG whereas constant stride intervals are found in the normal gait. Conclusions: We propose an algorithm as a source to eliminate laboratory constraints and discomfort during PG analysis. Installing this tool in a home computer with a webcam allows assessment of gait in the home environment.

  • 226.
    Khan, Taha
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Westin, Jerker
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Dougherty, Mark
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Motion cue analysis for parkinsonian gait recognition2013In: The open biomedical engineering journal, ISSN 1874-1207, Vol. 7, p. 1-8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a computer-vision based marker-free method for gait-impairment detection in Patients with Parkinson's disease (PWP). The system is based upon the idea that a normal human body attains equilibrium during the gait by aligning the body posture with Axis-of-Gravity (AOG) using feet as the base of support. In contrast, PWP appear to be falling forward as they are less-able to align their body with AOG due to rigid muscular tone. A normal gait exhibits periodic stride-cycles with stride-angle around 45o between the legs, whereas PWP walk with shortened stride-angle with high variability between the stride-cycles. In order to analyze Parkinsonian-gait (PG), subjects were videotaped with several gait-cycles. The subject's body was segmented using a color-segmentation method to form a silhouette. The silhouette was skeletonized for motion cues extraction. The motion cues analyzed were stride-cycles (based on the cyclic leg motion of skeleton) and posture lean (based on the angle between leaned torso of skeleton and AOG). Cosine similarity between an imaginary perfect gait pattern and the subject gait patterns produced 100% recognition rate of PG for 4 normal-controls and 3 PWP. Results suggested that the method is a promising tool to be used for PG assessment in home-environment.

  • 227.
    Khan, Taha
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Westin, Jerker
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Funk, Peter
    Mälardalen univ.
    Dougherty, Mark
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Quantification of speech impairment in Parkinson's disease2012In: Movement Disorders, ISSN 0885-3185, E-ISSN 1531-8257, Vol. 27, p. S510-S511Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 228.
    Knutas, Micaela
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Moving Image Production.
    Den kvinnliga drivkraften: En jämförande karaktärsanalys av de kvinnliga protagonisterna i Disneys Sleeping Beauty och Maleficent2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med den här uppsatsen är att undersöka vad som driver de kvinnliga protagonisterna i

    två Disneyfilmer från olika tidsperioder. Karaktärerna som undersöks är de tre goda feerna

    från Sleeping Beauty (1959) och Maleficent från Maleficent (2014). Analysen utförs med

    hjälp av en kvalitativ karaktärsanalys som tar stöd av Jens Eders analysmetod och Yvonne

    Hirdmans genusteori.

    Resultatet av undersökningen visar att trots skilda porträtteringar av

    karaktärerna så är det kvinnornas moderskärlek som driver och orsaker deras handlingar. Med

    över femtio år mellan filmernas premiärer så blir det tydligt att den kvinnliga protagonisten

    får en mer mångfacetterad karaktär i den senare filmen. Disney har gått från en svart-vit

    föreställning till en djupare och mer intressant berättelse av samma saga. Men i slutänden är

    det kvinnornas känslor för barnet som gör att de bekämpar det onda och blir hjältar. Ur ett

    genusperspektiv kan detta dock ses som ett problem då kärleken till barn alltför ofta pekar

    starkast mot kvinnan istället för mannen.

  • 229.
    Kogo, Gloria
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    Analyzing automatic cow recordings to detect the presence of outliers in feed intake data recorded from dairy cows in Lovsta farm2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Outliers are a major concern in data quality as it limits the reliability of any data. The

    objective of our investigation was to examine the presence and cause of outliers in the system

    for controlling and recording the feed intake of dairy cows in Lovsta farm, Uppsala Sweden.

    The analyses were made on data recorded as a timestamp of each visit of the cows to

    the feeding troughs from the period of August 2015 to January 2016. A three step

    methodology was applied to this data. The first step was fitting a mixed model to the

    data then the resulting residuals was used in the second step to fit a model based

    clustering for Gaussian mixture distribution which resulted in clusters of which 2.5% of

    the observations were in the outlier cluster. Finally, as the third step, a logistic

    regression was then fit modelling the presence of outliers versus the non-outlier

    clusters. It appeared that on early hours of the morning between 6am to 11.59am, there

    is a high possibility of recorded values to be outliers with odds ratio of 1.1227 and this

    is also the same time frame noted to have the least activity in feed consumption of the

    cows with a decrease of 0.027 kilograms as compared to the other timeframes. These

    findings provide a basis for further investigation to more specifically narrow down the

    causes of the outliers.

  • 230.
    Koski, Lina
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Sound and Music Production.
    Småstadsblues: En kvalitativ studie av gemenskap inom bluesscenen2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna uppsats är att genom deltagande observationer och intervjuer försöka bidra med en förståelse för hur gemenskap konstrueras i ett bluessammanhang. Studien har riktats mot specifikt Hedemora Bluesjam, som idag är väletablerat trots hur liten föreningen är.

    Två genomgående deltagande observationer har utförts. Under den första antecknades allt som gick att observera för att sedan under den andra observationen stämma av om samma mönster och beteenden förekom. Fyra intervjuer har genomförts, varav två var väldigt korta och inte särskilt djupgående, en var lite längre och den fjärde var en utförlig djupintervju.

    Resultaten visar på att det är genom en form av identitetsskapande som sker inom föreningen som automatiskt konstruerar den gemenskap som råder. Musikens roll är som den gemensamma nämnaren för besökarna, men det är den sociala biten som håller föreningen vid liv. Förhållandena mellan musiker och besökare är intima och gränserna mellan de olika rollerna suddas ut.

  • 231.
    Kostic, Petra
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Graphic Arts Technology.
    Bergqvist, Emelie
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Graphic Arts Technology.
    Manliga och kvinnliga kockar: En analys av kokböckers omslagsdesign ur ett genusperspektiv2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the present study was to through a visual content analysis

    examine how cookbooks usually are designed for each gender. The result

    would then be compared to identify similarities and differences between the

    male and female covers to bring a gender perspective on the design, and

    examine whether the design was due to the author or the audiences sex.

    The visual content analysis was preformed on a total of 84 Swedish cookbooks,

    half of which were written by women and half by men.

    The analysis showed that the women had more of a feminine cover design, but

    also that men’s cover design had a more feminine look than masculine. This

    result was both based on the audiences and the authors sex. The covers were

    generally equal to each other in how they were designed and how the model

    was posing, since the market segment is supposed to be everyone with a food

    interest and not based on gender.

  • 232.
    Kristoffersson, Klara
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Sound and Music Production.
    Audiovisuella installationers påverkan: En kvalitativ studie om två audiovisuella installationers påverkan på rumsuppfattning, tidsuppfattning och den mobila åskådaren.2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna studie har syftet varit att undersöka två audiovisuella installationers effekt på

    tiden, rummet och den rörliga åskådaren. Två installationsformer har jämförts, en

    projicerad på ett tredimensionellt objekt samt en som visats på en platt yta.

    Frågeställningen för denna studie var: Hur samverkar ljud och bild i installationerna?

    Hur påverkas rumsuppfattningen av installationerna? Hur påverkar åskådarens

    rörelsefrihet tidsuppfattningen? För att analysera den data som samlats in har

    sammankopplingar gjorts mellan respondenternas svar och Adam Basantas ”Att ta till

    vara på rummet, tiden och den mobila besökaren”, Eliassons ”Fields of Vibrations”

    samt har delar ur Eliassons egen Modell använts. Det har gjorts semistrukturerade

    intervjuer med tre respondenter som alla är verksamma inom det audiovisuella området

    men har varierande erfarenhet. Resultatet visar att beroende på vad som ska förmedlas

    genom installationerna skiljer sig vilken installationsform som är att föredra. Om det

    handlar om narrativt berättande är den platta ytan att föredra. Om det däremot är känslor

    det handlar om är en installation på ett objekt att föredra. Det tredimensionella föremålet

    är även att föredra om man som konstnär vill leka med rummets uppfattning och ge

    åskådaren en känsla av att de själva har kontroll över tiden. Resultatet är användbart för

    fortsatt forskning när det kommer till att undersöka, förstå och utmana tid och

    rumsuppfattning beroende på vilka möjligheter åskådaren har när de upplever

    installationer. Förslag till fortsatt forskning pekar på att utveckla undersökningen med

    andra typer av installationsformer. Exempelvis större skulpturer som man som åskådare

    fysiskt kan kliva in i.

  • 233.
    Laaksonen, Mikael
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Moving Image Production.
    Dödlig Skörd: En komparativ karaktärsanalys mellan The Wicker Man 1973 & 20062016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Två filmer baserade på samma manus borde rimligtvis inte kunna innehålla så stora skillna-der. Trots detta har de mottagits totalt olika. Jag tänker i denna uppsats studera ett av filmers främsta element, nämligen den av karaktären. Genom att göra en komparativ jämförelse mel-lan karaktärerna i The Wicker Man (1973) och The Wicker Man (2006). Med hjälp av Jens Eders Karaktärsklocka och Robert McKees teorier om karaktärsgestaltning undersöker jag vilken skillnaden i karaktärsgestaltningen mellan de två filmerna är och hur det påverkar dem. Svaret är att det spelar en stor roll och har troligtvis varit avgörande i hur filmerna har tagit emot av publiken.

  • 234.
    Lagré, Mårten
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    Varför arbetar vissa utvecklingsteam agilt med kravhantering och vissa inte?: En fallstudie på Lantmäteriet2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Requirements engineering within software development is the foundation of what needs to be developed. Agile methods in software development become more common every day. It has however often been shown that there are certain challenges with how to adopt the requirements engineering to the agile methodology.

    Businesses have different preconditions for agile methods. Lantmäteriet in Gävle had a need to examine why not all the developing teams followed agile methods within the requirements engineering process.

    The purpose with this thesis was thus to examine why some developing teams in an organization worked in an agile manner with the requirements engineering, and some did not. To do this I performed a case study where I collected data through questionnaires and interviews from both developers and people from the business side. The results showed that the reasons for these differences were multiple. Communication and flexibility, and knowledge and understanding for different perspectives were the positive factors. The themes that hindered an agile way of working were, among others, unclear roles, lack of direction, too much reliance on methods and processes, discrepancy between business and IT, prioritizing issues, management plans, attitudes and IT architecture.

  • 235.
    Lander, Sebastian
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Sound and Music Production.
    Filmmusik av James Horner: Instrumenteringens betydelse för filmmusikens berättarfunktioner2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Instrumenteringens klangfärg inom rörliga bilder erhåller en viktig funktionalitet då

    musikaliskt berättande oftast vilja återskapa känslor som speglar berättelsen främst. Det

    är därför som kandidatuppsatsen avser gå in närmare på området och detta för att bidra

    med mer kunskap. Gällande urvalet har denna gjorts på filmmusik komponerad av James

    Horner där en selektion varit på sammanlagt sex filmer med totalt tre regissörer. För att

    kunna utföra undersökningen därav besvara frågeställningarna har metoden varit

    innehållsanalys där resultat visar på likheter inom den instrumentation som används.

    Förutom detta finnas undantag, men att instrumenteringen då möjligtvis vara där för ett

    hastigt beslut. Bortsett från vad som benämnts behandlar uppsatsens teori samt tidigare

    forskning musikvetenskap, men även kompositionslära samt musikpsykologi.

  • 236.
    Larsson, Andreas
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Sound and Music Production.
    Ett audiellt möte med spelvärldens bossar: En kvalitativ studie om hur ljuddesignen hos bossar i tv- och datorspel påverkar spelarens upplevelse2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta arbete syftar till att ta reda på hur ljuddesign till bossar utförs samt hur konsumenter av dator- och tv-spel själva påverkas av ljuddesignen, med hjälp av djupintervjuer från etablerade ljuddesigners samt en fokusgruppintervju med studenter från spelutvecklingsskolan Playground Squad som är aktiva konsumenter av diverse spel. Det lyfts fram viktiga tillvägagångssätt från de som arbetar med ljuddesign och en inblick i deras processer bakom boss fighter. Innebörden av ljuddesignen i boss fighter väger tungt i upplevelsen och är viktig för spelarens möjlighet att anpassa sig och ta sig igenom svåra situationer. Ljuden visar sig därmed vara informativa, men även emotionellt berikande och sticker ut i jämförelse med andra karaktärer i spelen.

  • 237.
    Larsson, Christian
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Sound and Music Production.
    Adaptiv spelmusik: En studie om musikens funktion och kompositörens roll i datorspel2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna undersökning studerar jag hur adaptiv musik påverkar spelarens immersion i ett datorspel, samt undersöker hur ens roll och arbetsprocess påverkas som kompositör vid adaptiv musikkomponering. Genom att ha varit med och skrivit musik till ett datorspel som gjorts från grunden har jag getts unika inblickar i den processen. En fokusgruppundersökning i form av ett speltest på detta spel har även det gett feedback som eventuellt inte hade kunnat fås av ett spel som redan finns tillgängligt på marknaden.

    Det har framkommit att adaptiv musik fyller en viktig roll, medvetet och omedvetet, hos spelaren. Samtliga deltagare i fokusgruppundersökningen hade gemensamma drag och åsikter. Som kompositör ställs man även inför utmaningar som man annars inte stöter på under komponering under mer konventionella omständigheter som t.ex. till film.

  • 238.
    Larsson, Henrik
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Sound and Music Production.
    “Vi håller aldrig på med realism...”: En kvalitativ undersökning om ljudets funktioner för en autentisk filmupplevelse2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Uppsatsen ämnar att ge en djupare förståelse för ljud i film och dess funktioner för en

    autentisk och realistisk filmupplevelse. Ljudet är sällan något man som åskådare lägger aktivt

    fokus på under en film med undantaget att man tycker att något inte stämmer. Så vad är det

    som krävs för att man inte ska ifrågasätta ljudet? Kvalitativa intervjuer med två personer

    yrkesaktiva inom ljudläggning samt en forskare inom ämnet har utförts för att kunna redovisa

    ingående tankar och åsikter om vad de anser vara ljudets viktigaste funktioner i modern film.

    Synkro nise ring och klang är centrala begrepp i undersökningen . De är exempel på faktorer

    som kan påverka hur man uppfattar kopplingen mellan ljud och bild. Med hjälp av uppsatsens

    insamlade data samt dess teoriavsnitt har dessa faktorer vidare konkretiserats genom en kort

    analys av tre utvalda scener från filmen Star Wars (1977). Uppsatsens mest centrala resultat

    baserar sig i idéen om samverkan mellan ljud och bild. Bilden klassas som det mest centrala i

    en film och ljud finns till för att förstärka eller berätta saker som bilden inte kan. Vad gäller

    realism inom filmljud så existerar det nästan inte. Det vi uppfattar som realistiskt behöver inte

    ha något med faktisk realism att göra. Uppsatsens diskussionsavsnitt berör studiens styrkor,

    svagheter samt förslag till fortsatt forskning.

  • 239.
    Larsson, Jenny
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Graphic Arts Technology.
    Kreativ svacka ur en grafisk designers perspektiv2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A definition of creativity can be described as an ability to find solutions to

    problems that do not yet have an answer. To provide an ability is to know how

    to go about it and such can be developed through practice and training, you only

    must know how. A problem usually appears while in a process and in a state of

    ignorance, it may even seem that no solution is good enough. Graphic designers

    are dependent on their creative thinking and it would be damaging, career wise,

    if this ability would disappear. The question then is how graphic designers takes

    themselves out of a creative dip? When the ability to find a solution is not

    sufficient and when the creative way of thinking is blocked, how do you handle

    it, when in doubt, and what general proceedings is there to embrace? These are

    questions answered in my work based on collected facts. The interviews and

    analyzes carried out from the basis for the results and are presented here in form

    of 6 different themes: Training, Time, Pause, Help, Fight and Self-awareness.

  • 240.
    Laryea, Rueben
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    A data-driven decision support system for coherency of experts’ judgment in complex classification problems: The case of food security as a UN sustainable development goal2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Everyday humans need to make individual or collective decisions. Often the decisions aim at achieving multiple goals (thus involving multiple criteria) and rely on the decision maker(s)’ intuition, internal data, as well as external sources of data. Faced with a complex decision problem of this kind, it is a great challenge to decisionmakers to be logically coherent over time with regard to their preferences. To aid in achieving coherency, operation researchers and decision analysts have developed formal methods to support decision makers. One such method is the UTADIS method that serves as the workhorse for this thesis. I received the request from UN officials who had to manage the sustainable development goals while addressing the issue of food security. They wished for a decision support system (DSS) that could aid in their classification of countries to mitigate the risk of failing on food security. The virtue of the DSS should be that their expert judgment was complemented by formal methods for better risk classification. The UTADIS method was fitting for the purpose, but it lacked implementability. In particular, it required an iterative approach engaging the experts multiple times, while not readily lending itself to making use of external data, making it inefficient as a DSS. The fundamental contribution of this thesis is that I have solved these shortcomings of the UTADIS method, such that it now readily can be used in a functionally efficient way for the desired purpose of the UN. In solving these problems, it is also more broadly implementable as a DSS, as I have validated the artifact to a DSS, by use of several demonstrations and exposed it to sensitivity analysis.

  • 241.
    Laryea, Rueben
    Stockholm University.
    Project outcome classification with imprecise criteria information2013In: International Journal of Applied Decision Sciences, ISSN 1755-8077, E-ISSN 1755-8085, Vol. 6, no 4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A case in which managers have to make project outcome classification decisions with uncertainty in independently related criteria values is considered in this paper. A multi-criteria decision model is developed in this paper by selecting methods which delved into data analysis to help managers make informed classification decisions. Uncertainty in the criteria values is resolved using linear programming which enables managers to know the profit outcome of their projects for efficient resource allocation. The classification scheme from the linear programming process is used as predefined classification inputs for use in the UTilités Additives DIScriminantes (UTADIS) method, which further produces a classification model. The analysis presented a no misclassification error in the predefined classifications from the linear programming and the classifications in the UTADIS method thus further boosting the confidence managers can entrust in the resulting classification model.

  • 242.
    Laryea, Rueben
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    Farsari, Ioanna
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Nyberg, Roger G.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    A Decision Tool Approach to Sensitivity Analysis in a Risk Classification Model2018In: Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A Decision Analytical tool capable of handling numerically imprecise data for decision making is used in this paper to analyze the risk of the effect of data alteration in the ranking positions of country alternatives for food price volatility. Unguided decision making processes would lead to non-optimal decisions with it’s dire consequences on the resources of organizations. The paper is thus guided by the use of an accurate risk classification model to implement uncertainty and imprecision which are essential part of real life decision making processes with computer based tools to overcome the problem of possibilities uncertain and imprecise input data of criteria and alternatives. A ranking of the alternatives is conducted after imprecision is considered in the input data and a further analysis is carried out to determine which criteria is sensitive enough to alter the position of a country in the rankings.

  • 243.
    Li, Boyan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    A comparison of hurdle method and universal kriging for predicting spatially correlated count response with excessive zeros2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A hurdle model combined with Bernoulli part and truncated Poisson part can be used to predict zero-inflated geographic count response. To get the prediction with a hurdle model, the estimation of fixed effects can be easily solved as generalized linear model (GLM) does. An ad-hoc method, which re-fits the hurdle model to compute the predicted random effect for geographic IDs with missing response, is applied. However, no study has examined the performance of this prediction method for hurdle model, especially for the spatially correlated count responses with excessive zeros. This paper aims to check how well the hurdle predictors perform in ideal and real situations, by means of cross validation. The performance of the hurdle model based prediction is compared with the performance of the predictors from the universal kriging which is most widely used on spatial predictions. The simulation result shows that hurdle performs better than universal kriging based on mean absolute errors. The ideal situation is generated by using Monte-Carlo simulation. In order to examine the comparative performance with real data situations, two real data examples are presented. The results show that, in prediction using single observation per location (e.g. one year’s spatial observation) with excessive zeros, hurdle model does not perform well, while universal kriging also failed in the same situations especially for those non-zero points.

  • 244.
    Li, Jun
    et al.
    Zhejiang University.
    Zheng, Xiaolin
    Zhejiang University.
    Chen, Deren
    Zhejiang University.
    Song, William Wei
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    Trust based service selection in service oriented environment2012In: International Journal of Web Services Research, ISSN 1545-7362, E-ISSN 1546-5004, Vol. 9, no 3, p. 23-42Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a service-oriented environment, it is inevitable and indeed quite common to deal with web services, whose reliability is unknown to the users. The reputation system is a popular technique currently used for providing a global quality score of a service provider to requesters. However, such global information is far from sufficient for service requesters to choose the most qualified services. In order to tackle this problem, the authors present a trust based architecture containing a computational trust model for quantifying and comparing the trustworthiness of services. In this trust model, they firstly construct a network based on the direct trust relations between participants and rating similarity in service oriented environments, then propose an algorithm for propagating trust in the social network based environment which can produce personalized trust information for a specific service requester, and finally implement the trust model and simulate various malicious behaviors in not only dense but also sparse networks which can verify the attack-resistant and robustness of the proposed approach. The experiment results also demonstrate the feasibility and benefit of the approach.

  • 245.
    Li, Jun
    et al.
    College of Physics and Electronic Information Engineering, Wenzhou University, China, College of Computer Science, Zhejiang University, China.
    Zheng, Xiao-Lin
    College of Computer Science, Zhejiang University, China.
    Chen, Song-Tao
    College of Computer Science, Zhejiang University, China.
    Song, William Wei
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    Chen, De-Ren
    College of Computer Science, Zhejiang University, China.
    An efficient and reliable approach for quality-of-service-aware service composition2014In: Information Sciences, ISSN 0020-0255, E-ISSN 1872-6291, Vol. 269, p. 238-254Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With the rapidly increasing number of independently developed Web services that provide similar functionalities with varied quality of service (QoS), service composition is considered as a problem in the selection of component services that are in accordance with users' QoS requirements; a practice known as the QoS-aware service composition problem. However, current solutions are unsuitable for most real-time decision-making service composition applications required to obtain a relatively optimal result within a reasonable amount of time. These services are also unreliable (or even risky) given the open service-oriented environment. In this paper, we address these problems and propose a novel heuristic algorithm for an efficient and reliable selection of trustworthy services in a service composition. The proposed algorithm consists of three steps. First, a trust-based selection method is used to filter untrustworthy component services. Second, convex hulls are constructed to reduce the search space in the process of service composition. Finally, a heuristic global optimization approach is used to obtain the near-optimal solution. The results demonstrate that our approach obtains a close-to-optimal and reliable solution within a reasonable computation time.

  • 246.
    Li, Yujiao
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    Fleyeh, Hasan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Twitter Sentiment Analysis of New IKEA Stores Using Machine Learning2018In: 2018 International Conference on Computer and Applications, ICCA 2018, 2018, p. 4-11, article id 8460277Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studied public emotion and opinion concerning the opening of new IKEA stores, specifically, how much attention are attracted, how much positive and negative emotion are aroused, what IKEA-related topics are talked due to this event. Emotion is difficult to measure in retail due to data availability and limited quantitative tools. Twitter texts, written by the public to express their opinion concerning this event, are used as a suitable data source to implement sentiment analysis. Around IKEA opening days, local people post IKEA related tweets to express their emotion and opinions on that. Such “IKEA” contained tweets are collected for opinion mining in this work. To compute sentiment polarity of tweets, lexiconbased approach is used for English tweets, and machine learning methods for Swedish tweets. The conclusion is new IKEA store are paid much attention indicated by significant increasing tweets frequency, most of them are positive emotions, and four studied cities have different topics and interests related IKEA. This paper extends knowledge of consumption emotion studies of prepurchase, provide empirical analysis of IKEA entry effect on emotion. Moreover, it develops a Swedish sentiment prediction model, elastic net method, to compute Swedish tweets’ sentiment polarity which has been rarely conducted.  

  • 247.
    Liao, G.
    et al.
    Jiangxi University of Finance and Economics.
    Song, William Wei
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    Shu, L.
    Jiangxi University of Finace and Economics.
    Wan, C.
    Jiangxi University of Finace and Economics.
    Using Real-Time Event Stream Framework to Develop RFID-based Retailer Supermarket Systems2011In: Information Systems Development, Springer Science+Business Media B.V., 2011, p. 429-440Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With the increasing mature of hardware technology and the continuous reduction of RFID production cost, the technology has been widely used in many fields. This paper proposes a real-time event stream framework for RFID system and develops a retail supermarket management system for the purpose of commodity monitoring and tracing. An event-centric architecture for the RFID real-time is designed, which can support both real-time event queries over event streams and history event queries on event databases. Event types of retail supermarkets are analyzed in details, and the event relation diagram among them is given. Based on the framework, an event filtering method using a hash table to remove redundant data and an improved SASE method to process complex events are presented.

  • 248.
    Lidén, Gunnar
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, statistik och informatik.
    Avdic, Anders
    Örebro universitet, Handelshögskolan vid Örebro universitet.
    Democracy functions of information technology2003Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 249.
    Lindberg, Jesper
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    Reyier, Andreas
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    Utformningen av en utvärderingsmodell för utbildningsverktyg: Till hjälp för en tillämpning av Game Design Based Learning inom utbildning2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Digital games in today's society are becoming more common and have in the past few years been used in education and teaching around the world. Using games and technology in an education has both positive and negative impact on the students as well as the school. The positive aspects of technology lead to increased motivation and commitment among the students, but at the same time can lead to more negative factors, such as social isolation, expensive costs or a distraction that may adversely affect other courses in education.

    This report aims to be a support in selecting educational tools to be used for Game Design Based Learning (GDBL). This support consists of an evaluation model that can be used, for example, by teachers who wish to apply GDBL in their education. The work has been carried out with the support of the research strategy design and creation, where the development and the production of an artefact has taken place. The evaluation model has been designed using the current research strategy. The data collection for the work has been done by searching for training tools, including the search engine Google Search, along with relevant terms for the work, such as drag & drop.

    When applying GDBL and the choice of training tools, it takes into account both the opportunities offered by GDBL, but also the negative risks that exist. The evaluation model has also been tested on five different training tools to validate the evaluation model. These five training tools are Scratch, Kodu Game Lab, Kahoot, Quizizz and Twine. Finally, we found that two of the training tools are the most suitable for educational purposes. These were Kahoot and Quizizz, which are simple quiz games, that is, they do not require education or programming to be used in a classroom. This was based on an established scenario, which was to find a training tool for a program that focuses on graphic design.

  • 250.
    Lindbom, Axel
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Sound and Music Production.
    Musikstreamingtjänster: Vilka egenskaper lockar lyssnare?2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Följande studie undersöker vilka egenskaper konsumenter letar efter vid val av musikstreamingtjänst och huruvida det skiljer sig mellan konsumenter med musikalisk bakgrund och de utan musikalisk bakgrund. Studien undersöker musikkonsumentens nyttjande av musikstreamingtjänster, vilka egenskaper de värderar högst hos sina musikstreamingtjänster och vilka egenskaper de saknar. Studien har genom en kvantitativ metod, där en enkätundersökning har legat till grund för empiriinsamlingen, kommit fram till slutsatsen att musikkonsumenter letar efter ett stort och brett musikbibliotek, ett bra användargränssnitt, låg kostnad, exklusivt material, teknologiska funktioner, social interaktion och ljudkvalitet. Studien har även kommit till slutsatsen att lyssnarvanor skiljer sig mellan olika konsumenter, vi kan se att konsumenter med musikalisk bakgrund lyssnar mer frekvent och aktivt på musik. I uppsatsen används bland annat Lars Lilliestam teori om aktiv och passiv lyssning (Lilliestam, Lars, 2009, s. 93). Lars redogör för innebörden av aktiv lyssning, det är när man ger sin fulla koncentration och uppmärksamhet till musiken.

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