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  • 2201.
    Bornhäll, Anders
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics. Örebro University.
    Unseen Job Creators and Seniority Rules: Two essays on firm growth barriers2014Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 2202.
    Bornhäll, Anders
    et al.
    Örebro universitet; HUI Research .
    Daunfeldt, Sven-Olov
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics. HUI Research .
    Mihaescu, Oana
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography. HUI Research.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics. HUI Research.
    Osynliga jobbskapare: En tillväxtpotential för svensk detaljhandel?2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den stora merparten av alla detaljhandelsföretag karakteriseras av ingen eller en marginell tillväxt av antalet anställda. Dessa företag betraktas ofta som en homogen grupp bestående av företag med inga tillväxtambitioner och som näringspolitiken inte bör inriktas gentemot. I denna rapport visar vi dock att de företag som inte växer i själva verket är mycket heterogena. Mer än tio procent av alla detaljhandelsföretag som inte växer under en treårsperiod kännetecknas av en relativt hög lönsamhet. Dessa företag kallar vi för de sovande gasellerna eftersom tidigare studier har visat att hög lönsamhet är en viktig faktor för en långsiktigt hållbar framtida tillväxt av antalet anställda. Andelen sovande gaseller inom detaljhandeln är cirka 1,5 till 2,35 procentenheter fler än i ekonomin som helhet. Hälften av dessa detaljhandelsföretag kommer inte heller att öka antalet anställda i kommande perioder, trots att de fortsätter att ha en hög lönsamhet eller en lönsamhet i paritet med det genomsnittliga företaget. Detta visar att det finns en dold tillväxtpotential inom detaljhandeln i Sverige som inte har realiserat. Resultaten från studien visar också att de sovande gasellerna inom detaljhandeln inte är slumpmässigt dragna ur företagspopulationen, utan att det framförallt är små företag som väljer att inte expandera verksamheten mellan två treårsperioder. De sovande gasellerna är inte heller slumpmässigt fördelade geografiskt i Sverige. De kommuner som har en hög andel sovande gaseller inom detaljhandeln under en tidsperiod tenderar att även ha det i kommande tidsperioder, vilket indikerar att det finns geografiska förklaringar till varför vissa företag inte växer trots att de har en god lönsamhet. Avsaknaden av tillväxt hos dessa företag kan antingen förklaras av att de inte har några tillväxtambitioner, oavsett villkoren för företagande; alternativt att de vill växa, men inte under rådande förutsättningar. Om den senare förklaringen är giltig kan reformer som minskar tillväxtbarriärer för detaljhandelsföretagen generera många nya arbetstillfällen.

  • 2203.
    Bornhäll, Anders
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Daunfeldt, Sven-Olov
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Employment protection legislation and firm growth: Evidence from a natural experiment2017In: Industrial and Corporate Change, ISSN 0960-6491, E-ISSN 1464-3650, Vol. 26, no 1, p. 169-185Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A Swedish reform in 2001 made it possible for firms with less than 11 employees to exclude two from the last-in-first-out principle in case of layoffs. The reform increased employment growth with over 4000 additional jobs per year among firms with five to nine employees. Firms with 10 employees became 3.4 percentage points less likely to increase their workforce, indicating that the introduced threshold kept them from growing. Thus, employment protection legislation seems to act as a growth barrier for small firms.

  • 2204.
    Bornhäll, Anders
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics. Örebro university.
    Daunfeldt, Sven-Olov
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics. HUI.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Employment Protection Legislation and Firm Growth: Evidence from a Natural Experiment2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A natural experiment is used to identify the causal relationship between employment protection legislation and fi…rm growth. The natural experiment occurred in Sweden in 2001, when an exemption made it possible for fi…rms with less than eleven employees to exclude two workers from the last-in-fi…rst-out principle when dismissing personnel. The estimated average treatment effect of the reform show that the number of employees increased with 0.135 percent in fi…rms with 5-9 employees relative to fi…rms with 10-15 employees, which corresponds to over 5,000 additional jobs per year created by the reform. Firms with ten employees, just below the size threshold, became 3.4 percent less likely to increase their workforce to a level surpassing the threshold, indicating that the last-in-…first-out rule prevented these …firms from growing. Thus, employment protection legislation seems to act as a growth barrier for small fi…rms.

  • 2205.
    Bornhäll, Anders
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics. HUI Research.
    Daunfeldt, Sven-Olov
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics. HUI Research.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics. HUI Research.
    Sleeping gazelles: High profits but no growth2014In: Frontiers of Entrepreneurship Research, ISSN 0740-7416, Vol. 34, no 17, p. 1-16, article id 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Among 104,231 limited liability firms in Sweden with at least two employees during 1997- 2010, almost 10% did not hire new employees in any given 3-year period despite having high profits. Nearly half of these firms continued to have high or medium profits in the next threeyear period, but still no growth. Regression analysis indicates that these firms were not randomly distributed; rather they were small and young, did not belong to an enterprise group, and operated in local markets with high profit-opportunities. We conclude that it might be more beneficial to focus policy towards these firms instead of towards a few high-growth firms that, having just grown exponentially, may not be best positioned to grow further.

  • 2206.
    Bornhäll, Anders
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Daunfeldt, Sven-Olov
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Sleeping gazelles: The unseen job creators?2015In: Entrepreneurial growth: Individual, firm, and region / [ed] Corbett, A.C., Katz, J.A., and McKelvie, A, Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2015, p. 161-185Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    High-growth firms have recently received considerable attention in the firm growth literature. These firms might have grown despite the existence of growth barriers, and evidence also suggests that, having already grown exponentially, they may not be in the best position to grow further. Policies targeting high-growth firms may therefore be misdirected. We argue that entrepreneurship researchers should concentrate more on firms that are not hiring, despite having high profits. We call these firms “sleeping gazelles,” and demonstrate that they represented almost 10% of all limited liability firms in Sweden from 1997 to 2010. Nearly half of these firms continued to earn high or moderate profits in subsequent three-year periods, while still displaying no growth. Regression analyses indicate that these firms were significantly smaller, older, more likely to be active in industries with high profit uncertainty, and more likely to be located in less densely populated municipalities than were corresponding growing firms.

  • 2207.
    Bornhäll, Anders
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics. Örebro university.
    Daunfeldt, Sven-olov
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics. HUI.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    The unseen job creators: Growth potential among non-growing …firms2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Among 104,231 limited liability fi…rms in Sweden with at least two employees during 1997-2010, almost 10 % did not hire new employees in any given 3-year period despite having high profi…ts. Nearly half of these …firms continued to have high or medium pro…fits in the next three-year period, but still no growth. Regression analysis indicates that these fi…rms were not randomly distributed; rather they were small and young, did not belong to an enterprise group, and operated in local markets with high profi…t-opportunities. We conclude that it might be more benefi…cial to focus policy towards these …firms instead of towards a few high-growth fi…rms that, having just grown exponentially, may not be best positioned to grow further.

  • 2208.
    Bornhäll, Anders
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics. Örebro universitet; HUI Research.
    Johansson, D.
    Palmberg, J.
    The capital constraint paradox in micro and small family and nonfamily firms2016In: Journal of Entrepreneurship and Public Policy, ISSN 2045-2101, E-ISSN 2045-211X, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 38-62Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate the importance of the entrepreneur’s quest for independence and control over the firm for governance and financing strategies with a special focus on family firms and how they differ from nonfamily firms.

    Design/methodology/approach – The analysis is based on 1,000 telephone interviews with Swedish micro and small firms. The survey data are matched with firm-level data from the Bureau van Dijks database ORBIS.

    Findings – The analysis shows that independence is a prime motive for enterprises, statistically significantly more so for family owners. Family owners are more prone to use either their own savings or loans from family and are more reluctant to resort to external equity capital. Our results indicate a potential “capital constraint paradox”; there might be an abundance of external capital while firm growth is simultaneously constrained by a lack of internal funds.

    Research limitations/implications – The main limitation is that the study is based on cross-section data. Future studies could thus be based on longitudinal data.

    Practical implications – The authors argue that policy makers must recognize independence and control aversion as strong norms that guide entrepreneurial action and that micro- and small-firm growth would profit more from lower personal and corporate income taxes compared to policy schemes intended to increase the supply of external capital.

    Originality/value – The paper offers new insights regarding the value of independence and how it affects strategic decisions within the firm.

  • 2209.
    Bors, Stefan
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Moving Image Production.
    Bildkompositionens verkan på emotion i film: En komparativ analys av hur bildkomposition används för att förstärka den visuella gestaltningen av huvudkaraktärernas emotioner i filmerna Låt den rätte komma in och Let me in. 2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Det primära syftet med den här studien är att ta reda på om bildkomposition har en betydande roll i den visuella gestaltningen av karaktärers emotioner. Studien grundas i en kvantitativt riktad komparativ analys som tittar på hur bildkompositionen används som förstärkande medel för den visuella gestaltningen av huvudkaraktärens emotioner och emotionella tillstånd i den svenska filmen

    Låt den rätte komma in jämfört med den amerikanska versionen av samma berättelse Let me in. Med fokus på de fyra sekvenserna i berättelsen där huvudkaraktären blir utsatt för mobbning. Resultatet visar på att det finns tydliga samband mellan bildkompositionen och den visuella gestaltningen av emotion i båda filmerna. Den svenska versionen visar dock på ett mer gediget bildspråk som skapar fler intressanta associationer mellan bildkompositionen och karaktärens emotioner än den amerikanska versionen. Således blev slutsatsen att bildkomposition är en berättarkomponent som innehar en viktig roll i filmens funktion att beröra.

  • 2210.
    Boskovic, Una
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Sound and Music Production.
    Videoscenografi – en kvalitativ studie om det digitala teknikskiftet inom scenkonstnärliga insitutioner2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I dagens medievana samhälle blir det allt vanligare att använda avancerad digital teknik

    inom scenkonstnärliga institutioner. Modern teknik möjliggör användandet av

    videoscenografi som ett scenografiskt element inom scenkonst. Det vanligaste är att

    projicera en förinspelad video, film eller ljus över scenen. Med djupintervjuer som

    metod var syftet att beskriva hur det digitala teknikskiftet inom olika scenkonstnärliga

    institutioner har sett ut samt att försöka förstå hur denna påverkan tagit sig uttryck.

    Avsikten var även att få reda på vad personer inom branschen kallar sig till yrket då det

    finns oklarheter kring benämningen. Studien har visat på att yrkesbenämningen som

    personer aktiva inom branschen väljer att använda är ett individuellt val som även beror

    på bakgrund och aktuella arbetsuppgifter. Vidare visar studien att användandet av

    videoteknik inom scenkonstnärliga institutioner är vanligare än vad vi tror och att

    branschen är ung och ännu inte har formaliserats. Videoscenografi i kombination med

    traditionella metoder är även något som förhöjer det konstnärliga uttrycket. Slutligen

    visar studien på att trots att tekniken fortfarande är dyr så används den allt mer då den

    underlättar processen i att flytta föreställningar mellan olika arenor då det inte krävs så

    mycket traditionell scenografi och rekvisita, vilket skapar ökad frihet till personer aktiva

    inom branschen. I framtiden kommer mer ny teknik att användas vilket kommer

    innebära att yrken som exempelvis dekormålare inte kommer behövas i samma

    utsträckning som förr.

  • 2211.
    Bossel, Johanna
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work.
    Dahlén, Angelica
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work.
    Tyglad frihet: En studie om pedagogers styrningsstrategier i barnens fria lek inomhus och utomhus2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie är att synliggöra vilka eventuella styrningsstrategier som kan förekomma i pedagogers förhållningssätt i barns fria lek i inomhus- och utomhusmiljön samt synliggöra eventuella skillnader av styrning i dessa miljöer.

    Forskningsfrågorna som låg till grund för studien var:

    ● Vilka styrningsstrategier i den fria leken synliggörs via pedagogernas förhållningssätt i inomhusmiljön och utomhusmiljön?

    ● Vilka skillnader synliggörs via pedagogernas förhållningssätt i inomhusmiljön och utomhusmiljön?

    De strategiska urval som gjorts för att uppnå syftet och besvara forskningsfrågorna är val gällande vilka som skulle ingå i studien och hur materialet skulle kunna skapas. Undersökningen genomfördes på två förskolor under två dagar mellan 9.00- 15.00 genom observation. Det skapade materialet bearbetades och analyserades samt delades in i kategorier med stöd från tidigare forskning. De teoretiska utgångspunkter som använts i denna studie var till underlag för analysen. Michel Foucaults teori om makt genomsyrar denna studie och vidare belyses maktperspektivet av Rantala (2016) och Dolk (2013) där de på olika sätt omskapar Foucaults tankar om makt till dagens förskola. I resultatet framkommer det att i pedagogens förhållningssätt så kan styrningsstrategier uppmärksammas i barns fria lek både i inomhusmiljön och utomhusmiljön. Vidare framkom det att skillnader förekommer i pedagogers förhållningsätt sett till styrningar i inomhus-och utomhusmiljön i barns fria lek. Den slutsats vi kommit fram till är att förskolans verksamhet genomsyras av makt samt att styrning i barns fria lek pågår hela tiden men som dock kan komma att uppfattas tydligare beroende på om barnen vistas i inomhusmiljön eller utomhusmiljön. I pedagogens förhållningssätt förekommer styrningsstrategier gentemot barns fria lek både verbalt och ickeverbalt. Oavsett i vilken utsträckning pedagogers agerande styr barns fria lek är det av stor vikt att dessa styrningsstrategier fås syn på, uppmärksammas och problematiseras eftersom de påverkar barns lek och därmed deras utveckling och lärande. De observationer vi skapat har bearbetats och analyserats och kan komma att användas som inspiration för andra pedagoger som vill arbeta självreflekterande och anta ett mer medvetet förhållningssätt sett till den underliggande makt som förskolan präglas av.

  • 2212.
    Bosson, Emelie
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work.
    Historiebruk – definition, tillämpning och uttryck: En systematisk litteraturstudie av aktuell svensk historiedidaktisk forskning2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie har varit att undersöka hur aktuell historiedidaktisk forskning definierar, tillämpar och utrycker det centrala historiedidaktiska begreppet historiebruk. Resultatet visar att det finns olika sätt att definiera, tillämpa och utrycka begreppet historiebruk på. Detta antas kunna vara en förklaring till den osäkerhet som råder bland lärare hur de skall undervisa om denna centrala förmåga. Den explicita definitionen enligt den studerade forskningen är ett aktivt handlande där man med utgångspunkt i det förflutna använder historia med ett syfte eller motiv för att skapa mening, förstå nutiden och påverka framtiden. En vanlig tillämpning av begreppet är att det är som en sammanhållande länk mellan de centrala historiedidaktiska begreppen historiekultur och historiemedvetande. Begreppet utrycks framförallt i narrativ, genom de berättelser som en individ förmedlar. Svårigheter fanns både vad gäller att se författarnas definitioner och tillämpningar av begreppet. Även om forskarna till stor del var överens om begreppets definition och tillämpningar fanns det forskare som hade en avvikande och otydlig definition av begreppet, varierande tillämpningar och olika manifestationer vilket gjorde en precisering av begreppets innebörd svårare.

  • 2213.
    Bosson, Emelie
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work.
    Historiebruk i skolan: Historielärares tankar och resonemang om historiebruk2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med den här studien har varit att undersöka hur fem lärare uppfattar och ser på begreppet historiebruk samt hur de menar att de tillämpar historiebruk i en undervisning.

    Tidigare forskning visar att begreppet historiebruk definieras, tillämpas och uttrycks på en mängd olika sätt. Skolinspektionen anser att historieundervisningen inte ger elever möjligheten att få träna sig i förmågan att analysera och resonera om historiebruk. Lärare uttrycker också en osäkerhet i hur en undervisning om historiebruk ska se ut. Forskning visar också att elever har svårt att tänka ab-strakt, som att ta sig mellan olika tidsdimensioner, vilket krävs för att kunna genomföra en analys av historiebruk.

    Av ovan nämnda anledningar avsåg denna studie att undersöka vidare på lärarnas förståelse om be-greppet historiebruk och hur de ser på att tillämpa historiebruk i historieundervisningen. Denna stu-die har därför intervjuat fem aktiva historielärare och därefter analyserat deras svar utifrån aktuell litteratur och forskning.

    Det huvudsakliga resultatet är att det finns en osäkerhet i hur man skall förstå själva begreppet histo-riebruk. Av intervjuerna framkommer att lärarna ger olika slags förklaringar till vad det är. Man för-står det till exempel som en förlängning av källkritik, att det är att se spår av det förflutna samt att det är själva syftet med historieundervisningen. På frågan hur lärarna ser på hur man kan tillämpa historiebruk i en undervisning anser lärarna att analys av historiebruk är en svår kognitiv process för elever i årskurs 7-9. Dessutom menar de att det krävs mycket goda förkunskaper för att kunna genomföra en analys om historiebruk.

  • 2214.
    Bostany, Abed
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Political Science.
    Rysslands agerande i Syrienkonflikten: En studie utifrån det neorealistiska perspektivet2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    After about 40 years of dictatorship of the Assad family the people of Syria were fed up and at the time of the Arab Spring 2011 a revolution in Syria started, which later on turned into a civil war which has been going on for seven years. This has led to the civilian population suffering from both the regime and the oppositional side. The UN has repeatedly submitted resolutions but none have gone through when Russia and China have used their veto rights. They point out that other countries should not get involved with Syria's internal affairs without the consent of Syria.

    The question that arises is why Russia prevents the UN from actin in Syria despite the humanitarian disaster that occurs in the country. By analyzing Syria based on the realism theory I will be able to map out the underlying reasons for why the UN are being prevented from acting. The method I will use is intentional analysis to reveal the hidden intentions and motives Russia has in Syria.

    The results of this study are that the action by the Russian side clearly shows that Russia has strategic motives in Syria to preserve its interests and to strengthen its structural position in the international politics. Russia's economic and geopolitical interests in Syria mean that they act according to their interests, thus preventing the UN from acting, as a possible regime change would represent an economical and geopolitical backlash for Russia. This means that realism explains the case best because it stresses that states act according to their own interests and that international organizations are meaningless.

  • 2215.
    Bostedt, Andreas
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Lundberg, Magdalena
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    RUT-avdragets påverkan på löner ochsysselsättning inom sektorn för hushållsnäratjänster2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this thesis has been to study what the introduction of the RUT deduction 2007

    has meant for employees in existing Swedish limited companies in the RUT industry. The

    RUT deduction is a tax subsidy that allows the public to buy household services at a reduced

    price. The study has been conducted by empirically studying how average wages per

    employee and average number of employees in existing Swedish limited companies have

    changed within the RUT industry between 2006 and 2008, ceteris paribus. For this, a

    Difference-in-Difference method was used with fixed effects and robust standard errors. The

    data used for the study was accounting data from companies, collected by PAR. The dataset

    consisted of 2,506 companies in the RUT industry and a total of 74,798 observations. The

    result shows that on average, within the existing companies in the industry, 1.4 new jobs have

    been created per company and the annual salary for employees in these companies has

    increased by an average of SEK 10,931 per employee. In total, 3,065 new jobs have been

    created in these existing limited companies, which can be compared with previous studies

    where the average number of employees on average was approximately 5,700. Previously,

    wage effects resulting from the RUT deduction have not been studied, which means that this

    work contributes to new research in a previously unexplored area.

  • 2216. Bostrom, Anne-Marie
    et al.
    Rudman, Ann
    Ehrenberg, Anna
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Gustavsson, Jens Petter
    Wallin, Lars
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing. Karolinska Inst, Dept Neurobiol Care Sci & Soc, Div Nursing, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Factors associated with evidence-based practice among registered nurses in Sweden: a national cross-sectional study2013In: BMC Health Services Research, ISSN 1472-6963, E-ISSN 1472-6963, Vol. 13, article id 165Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Evidence-based practice (EBP) is emphasized to increase the quality of care and patient safety. EBP is often described as a process consisting of distinct activities including, formulating questions, searching for information, compiling the appraised information, implementing evidence, and evaluating the resulting practice. To increase registered nurses' (RNs') practice of EBP, variables associated with such activities need to be explored. The aim of the study was to examine individual and organizational factors associated with EBP activities among RNs 2 years post graduation.

    Methods: A cross-sectional design based on a national sample of RNs was used. Data were collected in 2007 from a cohort of RNs, included in the Swedish Longitudinal Analyses of Nursing Education/Employment study. The sample consisted of 1256 RNs (response rate 76%). Of these 987 RNs worked in healthcare at the time of the data collection. Data was self-reported and collected through annual postal surveys. EBP activities were measured using six single items along with instruments measuring individual and work-related variables. Data were analyzed using logistic regression models.

    Results: Associated factors were identified for all six EBP activities. Capability beliefs regarding EBP was a significant factor for all six activities (OR = 2.6 - 7.3). Working in the care of older people was associated with a high extent of practicing four activities (OR = 1.7 - 2.2). Supportive leadership and high collective efficacy were associated with practicing three activities (OR = 1.4 - 2.0).

    Conclusions: To be successful in enhancing EBP among newly graduated RNs, strategies need to incorporate both individually and organizationally directed factors.

  • 2217. Boström, Anne-Marie
    et al.
    Ehrenberg, Anna
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Gustavsson, Petter
    Wallin, Lars
    Registered nurses' application of evidence based practice - A national survey2010In: The 2010 Knowledge Utilization Colloquium, Halifax, Kanada, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 2218. Boström, Anne-Marie
    et al.
    Ehrenberg, Anna
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Gustavsson, Petter
    Wallin, Lars
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing. Karolinska Institutet.
    Registered nurses' application of evidence based practice: a national survey2009In: Journal of Evaluation In Clinical Practice, ISSN 1356-1294, E-ISSN 1365-2753, Vol. 15, no 6, p. 1159-1163Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Evidence-based practice (EBP) is a worldwide approach to improving health care. There is, however, a shortage of studies examining whether or not newly graduated health care professionals are actually applying EBP in their daily work.

    Objectives. To examine the application of EBP in clinical practice by registered nurses (RNs) 2 years post graduation and to explore whether the application of EBP differed with regard to the clinical settings where RNs were working.

    Method. A cross-sectional design using a national sample. Data were collected in 2007 from 987 RNs (response rate 76%). Six items measuring respondents' self-reported extent of applying EBP were used.

    Results. Of the 987 RNs, 19% formulated questions and performed searches in data bases, 56% used other information sources, 31% appraised the literature, 30% participated in practice development and 34% participated in evaluating clinical practice. A greater proportion of the RNs working in elder care applied EBP compared with the RNs working in hospitals, psychiatric care and primary care.

    Conclusions. The RNs applied the components of EBP to a rather low extent 2 years post graduation despite EBP being an important objective in Swedish health care and educational programmes since the 1990s. These findings support other studies reporting the implementation of EBP in organizations as a complex and often slow process. The differences in the RNs extent of applying EBP in relation to their workplace indicate that contextual factors and the role of the RN in the organization are of importance for getting EBP into practice.

  • 2219. Boström, Anne-Marie
    et al.
    Kajermo, Kerstin Nilsson
    Nordström, Gun
    Wallin, Lars
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Barriers to research utilization and research use among registered nurses working in the care of older people: does the BARRIERS scale discriminate between research users and non-research users on perceptions of barriers?2008In: Implementation science : IS, ISSN 1748-5908, Vol. 3, p. 24-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: One strategy to enhance research use and change current practice is to identify barriers and then implement tailored interventions to reduce these barriers. In nursing, the BARRIERS scale has been frequently used to identify nurses' perceptions of barriers to research utilization. However, this scale has not been applied to care of older people, and only one study has investigated how identified barriers link to research utilization. Therefore, the purpose of this study was twofold: to describe RNs' perceptions of barriers to and facilitators of research utilization and to examine the validity of the BARRIERS scale in relation to research use.

    METHODS: A cross-sectional survey design was used and registered nurses (RNs) working in the care of older people participated (response rate 67%, n = 140/210). Two questionnaires, the BARRIERS scale and the Research Utilization Questionnaire (RUQ), were used. Data were analyzed using descriptive and bivariate inferential statistics.

    RESULTS: Characteristics of the organization and the presentation of research findings were rated as the most prominent barriers. The three items most frequently reported as barriers were: the nurse is isolated from knowledgeable colleagues with whom to discuss the research (89%); the facilities are inadequate for implementation (88%); and, the relevant literature is not compiled in one place (81%). Surveyed RNs suggested more support from unit managers and better availability of user-friendly reports in Swedish to enhance research use.The RNs reported a modest use of research. A weak but significant correlation was found between the Research Use index in RUQ and the Presentation subscale in the BARRIERS scale (r = -0.289, p < 0.01), suggesting that the RNs reporting more research use were less likely to perceive presentation of research as a barrier. Dividing the sample into research users (n = 29) and non-research users (n = 105), the research users rated significantly lower on the subscales Presentation, Nurse and Research in the BARRIERS scale.

    CONCLUSION: The BARRIERS scale revealed differences in the perception of barriers between research users and non-research users. Thus, methodologically the scale appears useful in identifying some types of barriers to research utilization but not organizational barriers. The identified barriers, however, are general and wide-ranging, making it difficult to design useful specific interventions.

  • 2220. Boström, Anne-Marie
    et al.
    Kajermo, Kerstin Nilsson
    Nordström, Gun
    Wallin, Lars
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Registered nurses' use of research findings in the care of older people2009In: Journal of Clinical Nursing, ISSN 0962-1067, E-ISSN 1365-2702, Vol. 18, no 10, p. 1430-41Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIMS: To describe registered nurses' reported use of research in the care of older people and to examine associations between research use and factors related to the elements: the communication channels, the adopter and the social system.

    BACKGROUND: Research use among registered nurses working in hospital settings has been reported in many studies. Few studies, however, have explored the use of research among registered nurses working in the care of older people.

    DESIGN: A cross-sectional survey.

    METHODS: In eight municipalities, all registered nurses (n = 210) working in older people care were invited to participate (response rate 67%). The Research Utilisation Questionnaire was adopted. Questions concerning the work organisation and research-related resources were sent to the Community Chief Nurse at each municipality. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression were applied.

    RESULTS: The registered nurses reported a relatively low use of research findings in daily practice, despite reporting a positive attitude to research. The registered nurses reported lack of access to research reports at the work place and that they had little support from unit managers and colleagues. Registered nurses working in municipalities with access to research-related resources reported more use of research than registered nurses without resources. The factors 'Access to research findings at work place', 'Positive attitudes to research' and 'Nursing programme at university level' were significantly associated with research use.

    CONCLUSIONS: There is a great potential to increase registered nurses' use of research findings in the care of older people. Factors which were linked to the communication channels and the adopter were associated with research use.

    RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: Strategies to enhance research use should focus on access to and adequate training in using information sources, increased knowledge on research methodology and nursing science and a supportive organisation.

  • 2221. Boström, Anne-Marie
    et al.
    Wallin, Lars
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Estabrooks, Carole A
    Kajermo, Kerstin Nilsson
    Commentary on Brown CE, Ecoff L, Kim SC, Wickline MA, Rose B, Klimpel K and Glaser D (2010) Multi-institutional study of barriers to research utilisation and evidence-based practice among hospital nurses. Journal of Clinical Nursing 19, 1944-1951.2012In: Journal of Clinical Nursing, ISSN 0962-1067, E-ISSN 1365-2702, Vol. 21, no 19-20, p. 2995-6Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2222. Boström, Anne-Marie
    et al.
    Wallin, Lars
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Nordström, Gun
    Evidence-based practice and determinants of research use in elderly care in Sweden2007In: Journal of Evaluation In Clinical Practice, ISSN 1356-1294, E-ISSN 1365-2753, Vol. 13, no 4, p. 665-73Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVE: Evidence-based practice is a strategic ingredient in today's health care. Despite extensive efforts to produce and disseminate clinical guidelines, research uptake is still a difficult task. In Sweden, elderly care (EC) has shifted from hospital care to community-based care, and the major nursing-staff group in EC has no university education. These and other factors make implementation of evidence-based care particularly challenging in EC settings. The purpose of this study was to identify determinants of research utilization in EC.

    METHOD: Two questionnaires that cover research utilization and organizational climate were mailed to all staff (n = 132) working in seven EC units. The response rate was 67%.

    RESULTS: Of all respondents, 28% reported that they used research findings in daily practice (the RU group). Remaining respondents constituted the non-RU group. Significant differences existed between the RU group and the non-RU group as per six individual and six organizational factors. Using logistic regression models, four factors were significantly related to research utilization, namely: attitudes toward research (OR = 5.52, P = 0.004); seeking research that is related to clinical practice (OR = 5.56, P = 0.019); support from unit manager (OR = 4.03, P = 0.044) and access to research findings at work place (OR = 6.65, P = 0.005).

    CONCLUSIONS: Individual and organizational factors were associated with the use of research in EC. Despite distinguishing conditions in EC settings, identified factors reflect well-known determinants of research use that, as in many other health care contexts, should be considered in the endeavours of evidence-based practice.

  • 2223. Boström, Anne-Marie
    et al.
    Wallin, Lars
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Nordström, Gun
    Research use in the care of older people: a survey among healthcare staff2006In: International Journal of Older People Nursing, ISSN 1748-3735, E-ISSN 1748-3743, Vol. 1, no 3, p. 131-40Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background.  Sweden has one of the largest proportions of older people in the world. To manage the healthcare needs of an aging population, there has been an alteration from hospital care to community-based care. In these settings, the majority of staff is enrolled nurses (EN) and nurse aides (NA) without university education. Aim and design.  The overall aim of this cross-sectional survey was to explore staff perceptions of factors related to research utilization in the care of older people. Method.  Questionnaires covering research utilization and demographics were sent to all staff (n = 132) working in seven units in older people care. The response rate was 67% (n = 89). The respondents consisted of ENs/NAs (n = 63), Registered Nurses (RN) and rehabilitation professionals (RP) as physiotherapists and occupational therapists (RN/RP n = 26). Results.  Most of staff reported positive attitudes towards research. The RNs/RPs stated more often than the ENs/NAs that they wanted to base their practice on research (81% vs. 25%; P = 0.001). The RNs/RPs also reported a greater extent of research use in daily practice (54% vs. 17%; P = 0.001). Support from colleagues (77% vs. 22%; P < 0.001) and unit managers (73% vs. 10%; P < 0.001) for implementing research findings was also more frequently reported by the RNs/RPs compared with the ENs/NAs. The majority of the ENs/NAs stated Do not know on many items concerning attitudes towards research, support for research utilization and actual use of research. Conclusions.  Despite overall positive attitudes towards research, the majority of staff did not use research findings in daily practice. This was particularly valid for the EN/NA group. Relevance to clinical practice.  There is an urgent need for managers and others in the care of older people to develop strategies for implementing evidence-based practice that involves the EN/NA group.

  • 2224.
    Boström, Elin
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Holmström, Beatrice
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Samband mellan mammans BMI relaterat till amningsduration och mammans skattning av barnets hälsa: En enkätstudie2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I ett internationellt perspektiv har Sverige hög amningsfrekvens, men under 2000-talet har amningsfrekvensen sjunkit och stora regionala skillnader ses. Kvinnorna rekommenderas att helamma sex månader. Mödravårdcentralen (MVC) informerar om bröstmjölkens hälsoeffekter som till exempel att bröstmjölken skyddar barn mot allergier. Forskning visar att överviktiga och feta kvinnor har kortare amningsduration, men få studier behandlar svenska förhållanden. Syfte: Syfte med fördjupningsarbetet är att studera samband mellan mammans BMI relaterat till amningsduration och mammans skattning av barnets hälsa de tre första levnadsåren. Metod: Studien är en kvantitativ retrospektiv tvärsnittstudie. Data insamlades via enkäter, 418 deltagare inkluderades. Data har analyserats med Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS). För deskriptiv och jämförande analys har parametriska och icke-parametriska analyser genomförts. Resultat: De kvinnor som inte ammade skattade sitt barns hälsa sämre vid tre års ålder i jämförelse med kvinnor som ammat någon period. Vid tre års ålder skattade kvinnor med övervikt och fetma sitt barns hälsa sämre. Slutsats: Det är viktigt att kunna identifiera kvinnor som är behov av stöd för att initiera amning och kunna bidra till anpassat stöd till dem. Abstract Sweden reports high duration of breastfeeding compared to international findings. During the last century, the frequency of breastfeeding duration has decreased in Sweden, with large regional differences. Recommendation for exclusive breastfeeding is six months. Midwives provide information about healthy benefits of breast milk, such as breast milk protecting baby´s against allergies. Research has presented associations between obesity and short duration of breastfeeding. However, there is a lack of knowledge regarding women in a Swedish context. Aim: To investigate the relation between mothers BMI, duration of breastfeeding and maternal valuation of the baby´s health during the first three year of life. Method: The study is a quantitative retrospective cross-sectional study. Data was collected through questionnaires, 418 participants were included. Data was analyzed using the SPSS. For descriptive and comparative analysis parametric and nonparamateric statistics have been used. Results: Women who did not breastfed perceived their baby´s health worse at three years compared with women who did breastfeed. Women with overweight and obesity also perceived the health of their three year old worse than the other maternal group. Conclusions: It´s important to identify women who need support to initiate breastfeeding and give them customized support.

  • 2225.
    Boström, Erik
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Resource Management.
    Ebberstein, Rebecka
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Resource Management.
    Generationsanpassad Employer branding?: Uppfattningar om attraktiva faktorer hos arbetsgivare enligt millennials2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study was based on a need to increase the knowledge regarding what the Millennial generation consider constitutes an attractive employer. To be specific, the purpose was to examine the generation’s opinions about attractive factors in employers. Previous research and theory of attractiveness, employer branding and generations for example were used for the base as well as analysis. In order to answer the purpose a quantitative method was used in the shape of a survey distributed to a total of 152 construction engineering students that were Millennials, divided into two universities. The survey resulted in a total of 72 participants.

    The result showed that the highest valued factors were to work in a happy and fun environment, to have good relationships with colleagues, opportunity to learn new skills, to gain careerenhancing experience, to work in an exciting environment and that the organization produces high-quality products and services. A categorization of these revealed that all the highest valued factors were other than economic aspects of the employer brand, in fact the majority were psychological.

    Furthermore, possible differences in estimations were examined based on work experience and gender. The result showed, among other things, that the group with shorter work experience valued the majority of the most important factors higher while women valued all of them higher. This study’s result also demonstrated that none of the examined factors were valued remarkably low, which could indicate that an employer also should pay attention to other factors than the ones the participants regarded as the most important.

  • 2226.
    Boström, Jessica
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Svedlund, Beatrice
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Det nya hotet mot användarens integritet: En studie om individanpassad reklam på Facebook2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Problem:

    Accepting the term of use for cookies and Facebook, gives companies information about each user of Facebook so they can create personalized advertising.

    Purpose:

    The purpose of the paper is to analyze and describe the user´s behavior and further knowledge of personalized advertising, through cookies, on Facebook.

    Theory:

    The theoretical frame includes information about Facebook, cookies and personalized advertisements. The theory is based on how companies use Facebook, cookies and personalized advertisements to promote their products and services.

    Method:

    The study has used a deductive approach with a web questionnaire as a data collection tool. The questionnaire was sent to 3318 students at Högskolan Dalarna, with Swedish as the language of instruction.

    Results:

    The results of the study is based on collected data from the survey. The data was compiled in bar charts, histograms and a table with descriptive statistics and mean.

    Conclusion:

    The user does not have knowledge of what they accept when they approve Facebook's Terms of Service and do not feel worried about the personal information Facebook delivers for commercial purposes.

  • 2227.
    Boström, Lena
    Mittuniversitetet.
    Hur lär sig elever på sex olika yrkesprogram? En studie om skillnader och likheter i lärstilar2013In: Utbildning och Lärande / Education and Learning, ISSN 2001-4554, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 48-65Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vocational programs are facing educational challenges. Many students leave secondary school in Sweden without completed grades, and this is problematic in many ways, e.g. in terms of equivalence and skill segregation. This study tries to see learning through students’ eyes and examined learning styles in six different vocational programs. The research questions have addressed which general learning styles traits dominates and which differentiates. The study involved 244 students. The Productivity Environmental Preference Survey (PEPS) learning styles assessment was used to identify 17 different traits. Sex groups were compared with descriptive statistics and analysed by using F-test and analysis of variance, ANOVA. The tendencies were low motivation and conformity, a high need for structure and routine, multimodal dominance, and a need for intake and movements. The most productive time of day was in the afternoon. The statistical analysis revealed that six of 17 elements differed; light, temperature, conformity, persistence, intake, time-of –day (early morning and morning). This study shows similarities and differences concerning learning styles preferences in vocational program, which can be a basis for further insights in didactics issues. This study highlights the importance of finding pedagogical model that is suitable for vocational education, expanded educational strategies and in-depth didactic discussions. The results are valuable for people involved in the planning of vocational education and for the students themselves

  • 2228.
    Boström, Maria
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Education.
    Gustafsson, Ann
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Education.
    Hur ger man lärare och studenter bästa möjliga stöd och support2014In: NU2014, Umeå 8-10 oktober, Abstracts, 2014, p. 34-34Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Högskolan Dalarna har i tre år arbetat med att bygga upp en gemensam supportorganisation både för administrativa och tekniska frågor. Projektet kallades ”En väg in”, vilket var vad vi ville uppnå. Alla, både studenter och lärare ska bara ha en väg in till supporten; ett telefonnummer, en e-postadress, ett mötesrum på nätet för onlinesupport och en reception för personliga besök. I mitten av februari i år driftssattes den nya supportorganisationen. Vägen har varit lång och krokig, men vi tror på detta som ett vinnande koncept, inte bara för våra studenter och lärare, utan även för den personal som arbetar i supportorganisationen, Vi har fått en större gemenskap och förståelse för varandra mellan avdelningarna, vilket både underlättar vårt dagliga arbete och ökar trivseln bland personalen.

    Bakgrunden till projektet var att det i olika sammanhang framkommit att studenter, lärare och övrig personal upplevde att det fanns en otydlighet om vart man skulle vända sig med olika frågor, så hösten 2011 inleddes samtal mellan IT-avdelningen, Avdelningen för studentservice, NGL-centrum och Lokal- och Försörjningsavdelningen och en förstudie startades.

    Hösten 2012 tillsattes två projektledare som fick till uppgift att driva och samordna projektet Ny supportorganisation.

    Personal från de fyra ingående avdelningarna engagerades i varje delprojektgrupp, för att få en bred förankring.

    Den stora utmaningen i projektet har varit att få med sig all personal. Vi upptäckte en hel del skillnader i arbetssätt, rutiner, öppettider mm. Vi har bla arbetat med informationsmöten, dialogmöten och gruppdiskussioner. Vi har även tagit in en extern resurs som behandlat förändringsarbete och gruppdynamik. Vi ser nu efter tre år att inställningen har förändrats, från att ha varit avvaktande hos många, till att nu se fördelarna. Denna förändring i inställning var en förutsättning för att den gemensamma supportorganisationen skulle kunna driftssättas.

    Vi vill gärna dela med oss av våra erfarenheter samt ta del av hur andra lärosäten arbetar med stöd och support för sina lärare och studenter. Högskolan Dalarna har sett detta som en oerhört viktig och central del för att lärarna ska få det stöd de behöver med tekniska och administrativa frågor, för att då kunna fokusera på sin roll, att skapa förutsättningar för lärande. Lika viktigt är att studenterna ska uppleva att de snabbt och effektivt får rätt hjälp i rätt tid.

  • 2229.
    Boström, Maria
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Persson, Marie
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Web-baserat stöd i astmavården – en randomiserad kontrollerad studie2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Objective

    The aim of this study was to examine the impact on asthma control and lung function of a web-based support program for asthma patients in primary care.

    Method

    The study was a quantitative, parallel, 2-arm, randomized controlled trial over a 6-month period.

    Both groups received asthma care based on how it was conducted at the health centers and the intervention group also gained access to a newly created web-based support program (Astmakollen) for asthma patients. In total, 83 participants completed the study, of whom 39 were in the intervention group and 44 in the control group.

    Results

    This study has showed significant improvement in asthma management in the sample group who had access to the web-based support program for 6 months. The mean score for asthma control test in the intervention group increased by 2,23 points while the score in the control group remained almost the same. The effect size for this change measured in Cohens

    d was 0,57. The mean score of lungfunction in the intervention group increased by 0,3% during the study period, while it deteriorated in the control group and the effect size amounted to 0,45. The difference between the groups were significant.

    Conclusions

    In this study, it appears that eHealth can provide improved asthma control and maintained lung function and be a complement in today's asthma care by increasing accessibility of personalized and evidence-based care.

  • 2230.
    Boström, Susanne
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education and Humanities, Educational Work.
    Bergström, Carina
    Dalarna University, School of Education and Humanities, Educational Work.
    En enkätundersökning om lärares syn på hur de arbetar med mål i grundskolan: A survey of teacher´s views on how they work with the goal in elementary school2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta är en uppsats om lärares syn på målstyrningen vid två skolor samt hur de uppfattar att eleverna uppnår de uppsatta målen. Undersökningen utfördes som en kvalitativ enkätstudie. Resultatet visar att många lärare uppfattar att målen är otydliga vilket resulterar i att de tolkas olika. Angående hur man mäter att eleverna uppnår målen blev resultatet att det finns en mängd olika metoder att tillgå som till exempel loggbok och observation. En tydlig skillnad fanns i svaren bland dem som hade lång arbetslivserfarenhet gentemot den som hade minst arbetslivserfarenhet. Skillnaderna kan bland annat bottna i osäkerhet på sin yrkesroll samt bristande kunskaper i och med kort arbetslivserfarenhet.

  • 2231.
    Boström, Ulrika
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier.
    ”När man kollar på bilden tänker man så här”: en receptionsstudie av gymnasieelevers uppfattning om bilder som kunskapskällor i historieundervisningen2014Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Images are used in history education for a variety of reasons, not least to generate interest through a better understanding of historical events and people. The aim of this study was to investigate how historical pictures, either illustrated or documentary/photographic, can be used as a resource for activating and improving pupils' historical empathy, in the way described by Stéphane Lévasque.

    I conducted a reception study on five different focus groups consisting of pupils from different upper secondary schools in Sweden. The pupils varied with regard to number of credits for admission to upper secondary school. A sixth group of pupils was interviewed as a contrasting control group in order to add perspective to the results. The discussions were based on the pupils' interpretations of 34 selected pictures, all of which were taken from the most common history textbooks. Each pupil was asked to choose the picture he/she felt was the most representative historical image. On the basis of the strategies used by the pupils when interpreting the pictures and discussing them, the material was analysed in accordance with Lévesque's categories: imagination, historical contextualisation and morals. The last category, morals, was further divided into three sub-categories: sense of justice, sympathy and progression.

    The reflections of the pupils and the degree of contextualisation varied. It appeared that the pupils were less inclined to discuss assumptions about the persons in the pictures; instead they chose to discuss the historical context in question. The pictures in this study did not seem to trigger the pupils to fabricate anachronistic reasoning about history; when they did produce lengthy reasoning, it was contextual, structural and metahistorical. In this context, the pupils who belonged to the group with the highest average of credits showed some signs of reflection on the basis of historical context and some criticism about the historical sources. On no occasion did any of the pupils choose a picture as a concrete expression of injustice.

    One of the questions this study aimed to explore was whether a lack of historical context affects how pictures trigger emotions and reasoning on the basis of moral aspects. Some of the pupils displayed moral standpoints, primarily the degree of morals concerning injustice. One possible interpretation could be that the feeling of being unfairly treated and subjected to insulting behaviour and social injustice was something the pupils could relate to. The group of pupils who had not yet studied history at upper secondary school, the control group, generally made reflections using this sort of reasoning when they discussed the historical aspects of the pictures.

  • 2232.
    Botes, Elana
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, English.
    I Shall, We Shall, All the Others Will: Shall and Will in the Short-Stories of Doyle & Poe2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Traditional prescriptive rules for shall and will state that with first person subjects shall should

    be used to express prediction and will to express volition, while with second and third person

    subjects will should be used to express prediction and shall to express volition. The aim of this

    study was to ascertain to what extent two 19th century authors, Scotsman Sir Arthur Conan

    Doyle and American Edgar Allen Poe, followed these traditional shall and will rules in their

    short stories. To this end a selection of short stories written by these authors were collected, and

    analysed with respect to usage of shall and will to express volition and prediction, and with

    respect to the frequency with which shall and will collocate with first, second and third person

    subjects. Results showed that shall as used by both Poe and Doyle favoured a first person

    subject and will a third person subject. Results also showed that Doyle followed the shall rules

    for first person shall about 50% of the time while Poe followed them about 60% of the time,

    and that Doyle followed the shall rules for third and second person shall about 60% of the time

    while Poe followed them about 55% of the time. Results further showed that Doyle followed

    the will rules for first person will about 40% of the time while Poe followed them about 30% of

    the time, and that Doyle followed the will rules for third and second person will about 70% of

    the time while Poe followed them about 80% of the time. It was concluded that neither Poe nor

    Doyle followed the rules very strictly, that first, second and third person shall was used by both

    authors to express prediction and volition in almost equal proportions, and that first, second and

    third person will was mostly used to express prediction by both authors.

  • 2233.
    Botman, H Russel
    University of Stellenbosch.
    Human Dignity and Economic Globalization2003In: Building a Human Rights Culture: South African and Swedish Perspectives / [ed] Karin Sporre & H Russel Botman, Falun: Högskolan Dalarna, 2003, p. 20-34Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 2234.
    Botolfs, Tobias
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Graphic/Arts Technology.
    Olsson, Jonas
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Graphic/Arts Technology.
    Inkzine: Redesignandet av en tatuerings- och piercingcommunity2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Our employer, Gaddad, is a tattoo and piercing community that was created in 2006 with the basic idea to make it easier for people to get in touch with the tattoo artists and piercers from all over Sweden. With the homepage’s popularity at 2009 they decided to expand with the news page Inkzine. 2011 they contacted us with a plan to expand the homepage to Europe and then merge their two sites under the name Inkzine. The goal of this project was to create design suggestions for Gaddad / Inkzine that both the administration and the current users liked and would consider implementing on the website. In order to evaluate the current design and our suggestions we decided to use two questionnaires . The first questionnaire evaluated the current design to provide us with information for the redesign. The second questionnaire evaluated our new suggestions. With these questionnaire we also carried out an analysis to see the differences in opinions among the users and also between the administration and the users. We also investigated other community homepages, company homepages that had been internationalized, and other tattoo homepages. To see what others had done to adapt to the international market and to investigate the design of tattoo homepages. We also did literary studies in redesign and internationalization, in order to obtain a theoretical foundation for our work. The results of the investigation of other homepages showed that in order to perform an internationalization of a web site no major changes to the looks were necessary, only linguistic changes. The results of our questionnaires showed that users had in most cases put the majority of their votes on

  • 2235.
    Botström, Elin
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Graphic/Arts Technology.
    Conqueror för Indigo2003Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Conqueror for Indigo is production treated with an active chemical to maximize the ink adhesion. ArjoWiggins has found that another chemical, the candidate compound, would improve the properties of the paper. ArjoWiggins therefore wish to replace the current compound. To strengthen the patent requirements for ink adhesion needs to be determined. A theory is developed to why chemicals with certain properties maximize the ink adhesion. Experiments are performed but the results are inaccurate. The reason for ink adhesion is still unknown. Paper treated with the candidate compound is produced in a production trial and the paper evaluated. The paper shows decreased ink adhesion compared to paper treated with current compound but gives higher whiteness, longer shelf life and the formulation is preferred by the mill due to health and safety reasons.

  • 2236.
    Bouguetaia, Sabria
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Analysis and Evaluation of Endpoint Security Solutions2006Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The main objective for this degree project was to analyze the Endpoint Security Solutions developed by Cisco, Microsoft and a third minor company solution represented by InfoExpress. The different solutions proposed are Cisco Network Admission Control, Microsoft Network Access Protection and InfoExpress CyberGatekeeper. An explanation of each solution functioning is proposed as well as an analysis of the differences between those solutions. This thesis work also proposes a tutorial for the installation of Cisco Network Admission Control for an easier implementation. The research was done by reading articles on the internet and by experimenting the Cisco Network Admission Control solution. My background knowledge about Cisco routing and ACL was also used. Based on the actual analysis done in this thesis, a conclusion was drawn that all existing solutions are not yet ready for large-scale use in corporate networks. Moreover all solutions are proprietary and incompatible. The future possible standard for Endpoint solution might be driven by Cisco and Microsoft and a rude competition begins between those two giants.

  • 2237.
    Bouvier, Jean-Louis
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Environmental Engineering.
    Evaluation of the impact of the PV electrification of islands on the Titicaca Lake and its reproducibility2005Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Lots of countries are now running projects in order to increase their electrification rate. One of the means used to achieve this goal is the Solar Home System, SHS. It is with this intention that a project was born in Peru. The concept was to sell a SHS which includes roughly a PV panel, a battery, one regulator and lamps with the help of a loan. This project has been carried out from 1996 to 1999 with the installation of 421 SHS. An evaluation is now necessary for the authorities to realize on the finality of those kinds of PV projects and more merely to prevent the same errors in the following SHS. This evaluation has taken into account the standard technical and economical points of view but also the social and environmental effects of those installations. It has been achieved by observations and by a survey performed in 49 families. Moreover the investigation has also lead me to meet different actors like school teacher, mayor etc. Although the social results is ambivalent (there are good and bad aspects of the electrification of a community), economically and environmentally it is success.

  • 2238.
    Bouwmann, Svenja
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Schnieder, Ilona
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    The relationship of internal, social and external determinants towards the green purchase intention of German Generation Y for fast moving consumer goods2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    – The purpose of this thesis is to test the relationship of internal and social determinants (environmental attitude, social/subjective norms and perceived behavioural control) as well as external determinants (green marketing tools) towards the green purchase intention of German Generation Y for fast moving consumer goods (FMCGs).

    Design/methodology/approach

    – An online questionnaire was distributed to people of the German Generation Y (aged between 21 and 37) using non-probability sampling by means of volunteer and convenient sampling. Results of 401 completed questionnaires were analysed using correlation, multiple linear regression and moderated regression analysis.

    Findings

    – Significant and positive relationships were found between environmental attitude, social/subjective norms, perceived behavioural control and eco-labelling towards the green purchase intention of German Generation Y for FMCGs. A significantly negative relationship was detected between price sensitivity and green purchase intention. Eco-labelling and price sensitivity were not moderating the relationship between environmental attitude and green purchase intention. Demographic factors had hardly any influence on the green purchase intention.

    Practical implications

    – German Generation Y depicts good potential as key market for green FMCGs. Those consumer goods especially when eco-labelled should be included in producers’ and retailers’ portfolios. Internal, social and external factors are considerable for the marketing strategy by addressing environmental concerns, social norms, responsibility towards society and emphasising customer’s own control of purchasing green while pricing green FMCGs rather not higher than 10% than conventional product prices.

    Originality/value

    – This paper contributes to the under-researched field of determining factors for the green purchase intention of Generation Y in Europe, while closing the gap for the unexplored context of Generation Y in Germany.

  • 2239.
    Bouzoula, Athina
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, English.
    Roland Barthes in Julian Barnes’ Flaubert’s Parrot 2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 2240. Bozkurt Ahman, H
    et al.
    Giedraitis, V
    Cedervall, Y
    Berglund, L
    McKee, Kevin
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Social Work.
    Rosendahl, E
    Ingelsson, M
    Åberg, Anna Cristina
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Medical Science.
    Correlations Between Dual-Task Performance and Alzheimer’s Disease Cerebrospinal Fluid Biomarkers2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 2241. Bozkurt Åhman, H
    et al.
    Cedervall, Y
    Giedraitis, V
    Berglund, L
    McKee, Kevin
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Social Work.
    Rosendahl, E
    Ingelsson, M
    Åberg, Anna Cristina
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Medical Science.
    Combining Two Dual-Task Tests to Discriminate Between People with Dementia Disorder, Mild Cognitive Impairment, Subjective Cognitive Impairment, and Healthy Controls2019Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 2242. Bozkurt Åhman, H
    et al.
    Giedraitis, V
    Cedervall, Y
    Berglund, L
    McKee, Kevin
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Social Work.
    Rosendahl, E
    Ingelsson, M
    Åberg, Anna Cristina
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Medical Science.
    Correlations Between Dual-Task Performance and Alzheimer’s Disease Cerebrospinal Fluid Biomarkers2019Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 2243.
    Boëthius, Simon
    Dalarna University, Information Technology Engineering.
    Att utveckla en effektiv webbsida med avseende på marknadsföring och säljstöd.2001Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Internet är ett mycket kraftfullt media för marknadsföring och säljstöd. Genom modern teknologi kan man skaffa sig viktig information om webbsidans besökare och vad dessa finner bra och mindre bra på webbsidan. Ett korrekt nyttjande av informationen ger en bra grund till långsiktiga kundrelationer och målgruppsanpassning, allt enligt relationsmarknadsföringens principer. Syftet med arbetet har varit att utreda vad som gör en webbsida effektiv ur ett marknadsförings- och säljstödsperspektiv och att också skapa en sådan webbsida för Flexibla Kontor i Säter. Detta har utförts genom en nulägesanalys tillsammans med en konsult, studier av litteratur, intervjuer med säljare på Flexibla Kontor samt en fasindelning av arbetet. Flexibla kontor har mycket goda förutsättningar för att effektivt kunna använda en sådan webbsida. Man bör jobba för att ta fram optimala texter till webbsidan och utreda vilka besökare sidan har och vad dessa gör under sitt besök.

  • 2244.
    Boëthius, Simon
    Dalarna University, Information Technology Engineering.
    Att utveckla en effektiv webbsida med avseende på marknadsföring och säljstöd2005Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Internet är ett mycket kraftfullt media för marknadsföring och säljstöd. Genom modern teknologi kan man skaffa sig viktig information om webbsidans besökare och vad dessa finner bra och mindre bra på webbsidan. Ett korrekt nyttjande av informationen ger en bra grund till långsiktiga kundrelationer och målgruppsanpassning, allt enligt relationsmarknadsföringens principer. Syftet med arbetet har varit att utreda vad som gör en webbsida effektiv ur ett marknadsföringsoch säljstödsperspektiv och att också skapa en sådan webbsida för Flexibla Kontor i Säter. Detta har utförts genom en nulägesanalys tillsammans med en konsult, studier av litteratur, intervjuer med säljare på Flexibla Kontor samt en fasindelning av arbetet. Flexibla kontor har mycket goda förutsättningar för att effektivt kunna använda en sådan webbsida. Man bör jobba för att ta fram optimala texter till webbsidan och utreda vilka besökare sidan har och vad dessa gör under sitt besök.

  • 2245.
    Bradel, Anna
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, English.
    The use of and attitudes towards English as Lingua Franca among multilingual upper secondary pupils at international schools in Sweden2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years both the number of multilingual children and the number of international schools with English as the language of instruction have grown and continue to grow in Sweden. The aim of this study is to see how Swedish multilingual upper secondary students at international schools in Sweden use and perceive English as their language of communication. A questionnaire was used to investigate the students’ use of and attitudes towards ELF.

    The questions were divided into categories having to do with the importance of English, the students’ use of English, their attitudes towards English and effects on identity. The results showed that the English language plays an important role in the life of the majority of the participating students. They use English on a daily basis both for school and leisure activities and see the English language as an important, valued and natural part of their identities.

  • 2246.
    Bragesjö, Fredrik
    et al.
    Institutionen för idéhistoria och vetenskapsteori, Göteborgs universitet.
    Hallberg, Margareta
    Institutionen för idéhistoria och vetenskapsteori, Göteborgs universitet.
    Forskning med juridiska förvecklingar: Om tolkningsflexibilitet i kontroversen om mässlingsvaccination och autism2009In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 46, no 1, p. 5-27Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Medical research with jurisdictional consequences: interpretative flexibility in the controversy over MMR vaccination and autism

    Based on the empirical case of the controversy of MMR vaccination and autism around the turn of the millennium, this paper argues for the analytical importance of the concept of “interpretative flexibility”. As shown, this concept is useful not only for the small subfield of sociology of scientific knowledge (SSK) but also for the broader social sciences. First we analyse, by reference to interpretative flexibility, the initial dispute within medical research concerning evidence for and against a possible link between the measles component of the MMR vaccine and autism. In a second step we move beyond this traditional application of the concept, showing how the interpretative flexibility of the research results remains in society although consensus has been reached in the medical community. This further step is exemplified by two legal events, in Sweden and the US respectively. In both these cases the difficulties in providing uncontested evidence affected institutions and practices at great distance and with different outcomes. Our findings suggest the importance of not only applying the concept of interpretative flexibility to classical scientific laboratory disputes, but also connecting it to its societal manifestations.

  • 2247. Braghin, Caterina
    et al.
    Cotroneo, Emanuela
    Giglio, Alessandra
    Le tecnologie didattiche nella classe di lingua italiana per stranieri. Il caso degli apprendenti cinesi del Progetto Marco Polo.2008In: TD Tecnologie Didattiche, Vol. 2, no TD44, p. 62-70Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reflection on how educational technologies foster communication between teachers and learners of languages and cultures. Describes a project aimed at promoting mobility 'between China and Italy of Chinese students and researchers, reflecting on its possible uses of technology to facilitate communication between teacher and student belonging to language groups and cultures.

  • 2248. Braghin, Caterina
    et al.
    Cotroneo, Emanuela
    Giglio, Alessandra
    Le tecnologie per la didattica nei corsi di lingua italiana per studenti cinesi: il Progetto Marco Polo a Genova.2011In: La didattica dell’italiano a studenti cinesi e il progetto Marco Polo, Pavia University Press , 2011Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 2249.
    Brandberg, Oscar
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Moving Image Production.
    Ljungberg, Thomas
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Moving Image Production.
    Blicken i fokus: En ögonrörelsestudie om alternativ fokusanvändning2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet för den här studien är att ta reda på hur och till vilken grad filmskapare kan styra tittarens perception genom skärpeanvändning utan att tittaren upplever sig kontrollerad. Metoden för studien har varit att genomföra ett experiment med eye-tracking för att ta reda på studiens problemställning och om våra hypoteser stämmer överens med verkligheten. Problemet vi ser och vill ta reda på är att kamerans fokus är olik människans, och hur man som filmskapare kan utveckla användandet av fokus i bildproduktion. Resultatet är att skärpan har en tydlig roll i hur vi ser på rörliga bilder och att den kan styra tittaren till en viss grad. Vår slutsats är att man kan styra tittaren med hjälp av fokusförändringar, men att vi behöver gå vidare med studien för att till exempel söka svar på var gränsen går för att kunna leda tittarens uppmärksamhet genom alternativ skärpeanvändning; utan att få personen att känna sig styrd.

  • 2250.
    Brandshage, Stefan
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Swedish.
    Genrepedagogik i forskning och läroplan: En systematisk litteraturstudie kring genrepedagogikens framväxt, teoretiska grund, pedagogiska tillämpning och inflytande på den svenska skolan.2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Genre pedagogy and the curriculum cycle is commonly applied in schools in Sweden today. Genre pedagogy aims to develop students’ abilities to write texts in different social contexts. The curriculum cycle (or teaching-learning cycle) is the pedagogical model most commonly used in Swedish schools to achieve this aim. This model has many advantages but often tends to become static and prescriptive. This study aims to examine scientific research concerning genre pedagogy and further on how it has influenced the Swedish curriculum. This study shows that genre pedagogy classifies texts into different genres with common features and that both context and language of each text should be analyzed. In school, genre pedagogy is often taught through the four steps of the curriculum cycle. According to some research the curriculum cycle fails to include critical analysis and creative development of genres, aspects that are included in the Swedish curriculum. One of the articles presents two additional steps to the curriculum cycle which might supplement the first four steps including critical analysis and creative writing. The conclusion of this study states that the Swedish curriculum is clearly influenced by genre pedagogy and the curriculum cycle. It also states that the curriculum cycle needs to be supplemented by the two additional steps to match the curriculum of the Swedish school better.

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