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  • 2401.
    Brännström, Linnéa
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Nygårdh, Veronica
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Avskaffandet av revisionsplikten i Sverige: Vilka faktorer ligger bakom mikroföretagens numera frivilliga val av revision?2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In November 2010, Swedish micro-enterprises were given the opportunity to either

    resign or ask for audit due to the abolishment of audit requirement for these companies.

    The Government's intention with the removal of the audit requirement for microenterprises

    was to make them more competitive and adapted to the international

    business environment (SOU 2008: 32). The fact that Sweden joined the other EU

    member states that had chosen to make a voluntary audit as late as 2010 makes this a

    highly topical subject. Against this background the purpose of the study is to provide

    explanations and thereby a better understanding of what affects the Swedish microenterprises

    demand for voluntary audit. Existing research on Swedish companies in this

    area are completely lacking or insufficient, and therefore, our study provides the

    necessary knowledge contribution in one, for the Swedish business sector, important

    issues. The method selected holds a quantitative approach, to achieve our purpose a

    comprehensive survey of all limited companies in Sweden were implemented. The

    study is based on companies' financial information that were collected from Business

    Retriever with the financial year of 2013. Based on previous research that has taken

    place in foreign markets and business economics we formulated three hypotheses which

    were tested against empirical data. Our study investigated which variables that can

    explain the choice of audit in the companies which is not required to be audited. The

    results of the study show – in accordance with the first two hypotheses – that a

    company's size as well as a company's leverage has a significant positive impact on the

    micro-enterprises demand for a voluntary audit. Further micro-enterprises operating in

    the manufacturing industry to a significantly less extent chooses voluntary audit. The

    results are contradicting with the expected result and is therefore rejected.

  • 2402. Brännström, Mattias
    et al.
    Westin, Jerker
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Classification of structural timber by decision trees: a comparison to the certified method2009In: Forest products journal, ISSN 0015-7473, Vol. 59, no 3, p. 53-61Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work is an example of how to adapt a classification method, in this case a classification tree, to the present standardized method for the development of settings for strength grading machines. Data from commercially available industrial strength grading equipment were used on a large sample (approximately 1440 pieces) of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L. Karsten)) in various sawn dimensions. The equipment is a multisensor scanning device combining planar X-ray and resonance frequency measurement. Destructive testing was done according to European standard EN408. The goal was to make the classification, based on machine data, as close as possible to the optimum grading, which was done according to standard. Two different approaches for classification by cost-sensitive decision trees were applied to the data and compared to classification accredited according to EN14081. Classification accuracy increased from 64% correctly classified to 73%, and a reduction from 33% False Negative to 23% was achieved. False Positive increased from 3% to 4%. The outcome was an increase in value for the producer by 0.9%–2.1% at 2007 average price level. The improvement came mainly from an in-yield increase in C30 by 10%.

  • 2403.
    Brännvall, Anna
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Sound and Music Production.
    Olika versioner – olika känslor?: - en studie om personers upplevelser av en låt gestaltad i två olika versioner.2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studien ligger inom ramen för Ljud- och musikproduktion. Arbetet har bestått i att skapa ett

    musikaliskt klingande verk i form av en låt, och sedan utforma den i två olika versioner.

    Intentionen med dessa versioner var att se hur lyssnaren upplever samma låt i dess två olika

    gestaltningar, om de upplever dem på olika sätt, och i så fall på vilka sätt, och vad de upplever

    skiljer dem åt. Syftet grundas i att ta reda på om lyssnaren upplever det klingande verket på

    samma sätt som låtskaparen avsett att förmedla med produktionen, samt ytterligare ett syfte

    var att undersöka uppfattningen om musikens relation till sångtexten. Grunden för arbetet

    ligger i att forska genom design, att gestalta musikproduktionen som en fallstudie, där en

    fokusgruppsdiskussion ägde rum. Respondenterna fick då svara på frågor om vilka känslor de

    upplevde av musiken och sångtexten, sedan ingå en diskussion med varandra. Deltagarna

    resonerade i många fall väldigt lika, jag blev delvis förvånad över hur de ibland använde till

    viss del samma ord som varit utgångspunkt vid musikskapandet. Det framfördes också

    synpunkter och reflektioner som i viss mån tillförde nya perspektiv med avseende på

    uppfattningen om musikens uttryck.

  • 2404.
    Bråth, Tobias
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Japanese.
    Analyzing the Translation of Japanese Humor2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to examine the translation of Japanese humor. The goal is to determine how approximate the translation of a comedic work can be to the original and through what strategies. This is accomplished by analyzing seven different verbal jokes in Japanese to their subtitled English translations. First the jokes are transcribed, then a comparison of the similarity between the source joke to the target joke using the knowledge resources from The General Theory of Verbal Humor is attempted. Then the two texts are analyzed line by line to determine which of Peter Newmark’s translation procedures can be identified. The analyzation of the jokes using the General Theory of Verbal Humor showed that similarities in all five of the six knowledge resources can often be achieved. Similarity in the knowledge resource language may need to be sacrificed for a more natural sounding text. The usage of translation procedures proves to be enough to achieve a close approximate between the source joke and the target joke, however the over usage of reductions may prove problematic.

  • 2405.
    Bröchner, Annika
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Swedish as Second Language.
    Genrepedagogik och ämnet svenska som andraspråkinom den gymnasiala vuxenutbildningen2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I den här studien undersöks relationen mellan genrepedagogiken, styrdokument och läromedelmed upplägg enligt genrepedagogiken i kurserna svenska som andraspråk inom den gymnasialavuxenutbildningen. Den teoretiska bakgrunden till genrepedagogiken presenteras meddess för- och nackdelar. Ämnesplanerna och de nationella proven i svenska som andraspråkstuderas för att se om det finns belägg för att använda genrepedagogik inom denna skolform. Istudien framkommer att ordet genrepedagogik inte nämns i styrdokumenten men att det gessignaler som liksom i de nationella proven antyder att modellen med explicit undervisning omgenrer med fördel kan användas. Det finns dock kritik mot genrepedagogik och det finns nästanenbart forskning om genrepedagogik i grundskolan. Utbudet av läromedel för svenskasom andraspråk med genrepedagogikupplägg är än så länge magert.

  • 2406.
    Bröms, Anna
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Låås, Mia
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Prevention av stora perinealbristningar vid Sveriges förlossningsavdelningar: En kartläggningsstudie2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: I Sverige ökade prevalensen av rupturer grad IV från 2,6% till 4,2% mellan åren 1994-2004. Årligen är det cirka tretusen kvinnor som drabbas av bristningar av grad III och IV i Sverige. Det är en stor spridning mellan Sveriges olika förlossningsavdelningar. Syfte: Syftet var att beskriva åtgärder för prevention av perinealbristningar av grad III och grad IV vid normal förlossning på samtliga förlossningsavdelningar i Sverige. Metod: Deskriptiv kartläggningsstudie med induktiv ansats. Det är en nationell studie som riktar sig till Sveriges alla förlossningsavdelningar. Endast perinealbristning av grad III och grad IV berördes. Resultat: Totalt deltog 38 av 47 (81%) av Sveriges förlossningsavdelningar i studien. Respondenterna var chefsbarnmorskor, avdelningschefer och enhetschefer. Av deltagande förlossningsavdelningar var det 12 (32%) som har någon form av vårdprogram för perinealskydd, många svarar att barnmorskorna utför perinealskydd på rutin. Dock var det inte vedertaget att alltid hålla perinealskydd vid 8% av avdelningarna. 18 avdelningar svarade JA på frågan om särskilda handgrepp användes och då uppgavs Ritgens handgrepp, det norska handgreppet och det finska handgreppet. 74 % använder sig av även andra metoder än handgrepp, framför allt värme (varma handdukar, dukar, handskar, kompresser) som hålls över perineum. Många tog upp vikten av god kommunikation och att hjälpa kvinnan att krysta i rätt tid. Förlossningsställningar som många använde sig av var sidoläge och knästående, medan andra hävdade att knästående ej användes pågrund av den ökande risken för bristningar. 71% av deltagande avdelningar får kontinuerlig utbildning och då nämndes främst workshops och utbildningsdagar. Slutsats: Metoder för att skydda perineum varierar mellan förlossningsavdelningarna i Sverige. På flera av Sveriges förlossningsavdelningar är det inte vedertaget att alltid använda perinealskydd vid normal förlossning. Vad som orsakar detta tros vara att en del barnmorskor, under utbildningen, fått lära sig att inte hålla perinealskydd. Klinisk implikation: Nationella rikitlinjer angående perinealskydd skulle vara av värde för att kunna erbjuda kvinnan vård på samma villkor landet över. Det är av stor vikt att den förlösande barnmorskan är uppmärksam på riskfaktorerna.

  • 2407.
    Bröms Axelsson, Tilda
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Skottheim, Josefine
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Valet mellan K2 och K3: Vad som kan förklara fastighetsbolagens val2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 2408. Brück, Katharina
    et al.
    Jager, Kitty J
    Dounousi, Evangelia
    Kainz, Alexander
    Nitsch, Dorothea
    Ärnlöv, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Medical Science. Uppsala university.
    Rothenbacher, Dietrich
    Browne, Gemma
    Capuano, Vincenzo
    Ferraro, Pietro Manuel
    Methodology used in studies reporting chronic kidney disease prevalence: a systematic literature review2015In: Nephrology, Dialysis and Transplantation, ISSN 0931-0509, E-ISSN 1460-2385, Vol. 30, no Supp. 4, p. iv6-iv16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Many publications report the prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in the general population. Comparisons across studies are hampered as CKD prevalence estimations are influenced by study population characteristics and laboratory methods.

    METHODS: For this systematic review, two researchers independently searched PubMed, MEDLINE and EMBASE to identify all original research articles that were published between 1 January 2003 and 1 November 2014 reporting the prevalence of CKD in the European adult general population. Data on study methodology and reporting of CKD prevalence results were independently extracted by two researchers.

    RESULTS: We identified 82 eligible publications and included 48 publications of individual studies for the data extraction. There was considerable variation in population sample selection. The majority of studies did not report the sampling frame used, and the response ranged from 10 to 87%. With regard to the assessment of kidney function, 67% used a Jaffe assay, whereas 13% used the enzymatic assay for creatinine determination. Isotope dilution mass spectrometry calibration was used in 29%. The CKD-EPI (52%) and MDRD (75%) equations were most often used to estimate glomerular filtration rate (GFR). CKD was defined as estimated GFR (eGFR) <60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) in 92% of studies. Urinary markers of CKD were assessed in 60% of the studies. CKD prevalence was reported by sex and age strata in 54 and 50% of the studies, respectively. In publications with a primary objective of reporting CKD prevalence, 39% reported a 95% confidence interval.

    CONCLUSIONS: The findings from this systematic review showed considerable variation in methods for sampling the general population and assessment of kidney function across studies reporting CKD prevalence. These results are utilized to provide recommendations to help optimize both the design and the reporting of future CKD prevalence studies, which will enhance comparability of study results.

  • 2409. Brück, Katharina
    et al.
    Stel, Vianda S
    Gambaro, Giovanni
    Hallan, Stein
    Völzke, Henry
    Ärnlöv, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Medical Science. Uppsala universitet.
    Kastarinen, Mika
    Guessous, Idris
    Vinhas, José
    Stengel, Bénédicte
    CKD prevalence varies across the European general population2016In: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, ISSN 1046-6673, E-ISSN 1533-3450, Vol. 27, no 7, p. 2135-2147Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    CKD prevalence estimation is central to CKD management and prevention planning at the population level. This study estimated CKD prevalence in the European adult general population and investigated international variation in CKD prevalence by age, sex, and presence of diabetes, hypertension, and obesity. We collected data from 19 general-population studies from 13 European countries. CKD stages 1-5 was defined as eGFR<60 ml/min per 1.73 m(2), as calculated by the CKD-Epidemiology Collaboration equation, or albuminuria >30 mg/g, and CKD stages 3-5 was defined as eGFR<60 ml/min per 1.73 m(2). CKD prevalence was age- and sex-standardized to the population of the 27 Member States of the European Union (EU27). We found considerable differences in both CKD stages 1-5 and CKD stages 3-5 prevalence across European study populations. The adjusted CKD stages 1-5 prevalence varied between 3.31% (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 3.30% to 3.33%) in Norway and 17.3% (95% CI, 16.5% to 18.1%) in northeast Germany. The adjusted CKD stages 3-5 prevalence varied between 1.0% (95% CI, 0.7% to 1.3%) in central Italy and 5.9% (95% CI, 5.2% to 6.6%) in northeast Germany. The variation in CKD prevalence stratified by diabetes, hypertension, and obesity status followed the same pattern as the overall prevalence. In conclusion, this large-scale attempt to carefully characterize CKD prevalence in Europe identified substantial variation in CKD prevalence that appears to be due to factors other than the prevalence of diabetes, hypertension, and obesity.

  • 2410.
    Bseiso, Layla
    Dalarna University, School of Languages and Media Studies, English.
    Harold Pinter: A Night Out: A Study in the Political Connotations And the Abuse of Power2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Harold Pinter’s A Night Out is a significant but rarely produced piece of drama. Therefore, there is very little criticism to support or contradict my argument. The reason why I chose to do my essay on this particular play is to open doors for academic research and to try and make it an equal to its sister plays. I will raise questions and topics to prove the play is worth the readers’ time and effort and that A Night Out is a sharp piece of political theatre. Although at first glance it is a simple enough story, a straightforward tale of the nasty consequences of motherly love when it is pushed to the limit, on deeper inspection, a more far reaching and complex analysis of the abuse of power can be observed. The play offers a variety of themes, including: interpersonal power struggles, failed attempts at communication, antagonistic relationships, the threat of impending or past violence, the struggle for survival or identity, domination and submission, politics, lies and verbal, physical, psychological and sexual abuse. The prevailing theme in the play is the abuse of power: powerful parties oppressing weaker ones, and the results of the oppressed party looking for a vent in someone even weaker than themselves.

  • 2411.
    Bseiso, Layla
    Dalarna University, School of Languages and Media Studies, English.
    Oscar Wilde’s “The Happy Prince”: The Hidden Messages and the Debate on the Target Audience2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Oscar Wilde’s fairytales have been read to children for more than a century. Nevertheless, since the time of their publication in 1888 and 1891, the target audience of The Happy Prince and Other Tales and A House of Pomegranates have been the concern of critics. Delving into the context behind the rich and colourful imagery, one can find implications of homosexuality, the Paterian aesthetic and religious connotations. According to Carol Tattersall, The Happy Prince and Other Tales successfully mislead the public that it is innocent of any intention to undermine established standards of living or writing. Tattersall’s argument is based on comparing the first collection to Wilde’s second, A House of Pomegranates, which was perceived as “offensive and immoral” (136). On the other hand, William Butler Yeats states in his introduction to The Complete Works of Oscar Wilde that overall the reviewers of The Happy Prince and Other Tales were hostile because of Wilde’s aesthetic views (ixxvi). But Yeats overlooks the fact that Wilde was very pleased and proud, dashing notes to friends and reviewers and signing copies to many people (Tattersall 129). In general, the reception of Wilde’s first collection was more positive than that of the second because it was milder and more subtle in its controversial themes.

  • 2412. Bubenko, J.
    et al.
    Eriksson, Owen
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    Fernlund, H.
    Lind, M.
    Promote IT 2005: Proceedings of the Fifth Conference for the Promotion of Research in IT at New University and University Colleges in Sweden2005Book (Other academic)
  • 2413.
    Buden, Ivana
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Connett, Louise
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Consumer reactions to different forms of CSR communication2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    Companies around the world are making sizeable investments into CSR

    initiatives, but ensuring appropriate returns on these investments remains

    challenging. Therefore, it is of value to study the communication of corporate

    CSR efforts. The purpose of this study is to investigate how consumers react to

    rational versus emotional message strategies in CSR communication. Two

    categories of consumer reactions were considered: trust and purchase intention.

    Methods

    Qualitative research with four focus groups was conducted. Participants

    discussed three texts regarding a CSR project, utilising a rational, emotional and

    a hybrid rational-emotional message strategy respectively. The conversations

    focused on trust towards the communication and purchase intention.

    Results

    Trust - All of the respondents viewed the rational text over the emotional text as

    more trustworthy, but they most positively reacted to the combined strategy.

    Rational information was viewed as more reliable by many participants, with

    emotional cues adding value by better holding their attention.

    Purchase intention – Participants more positively reacted to the rational CSR

    communication strategy, compared to an emotional strategy. For approximately

    half of respondents, the hybrid strategy targeting both rational and emotional

    cues was the most successful in terms of purchase intention. Upon further

    analysis, it was identified that this division in respondents’ opinions may reflect a

    gender difference, where men portrayed the more task oriented and women the

    socially sensitive consumers.

    Conclusions

    The findings support previous research championing the use of rational strategies

    over emotional strategies in CSR communication. A number of managerial

    implications that can be used by companies in order to better communicate their

    CSR activities and increase returns on CSR-related investments are provided.

  • 2414. Budh, Erika
    Essays in environmental economics2005Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 2415.
    Budny, Rasmus
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Sound and Music Production.
    Kunskap för kreativitet: En undersökning av kreativitet i teori och praktik2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här studien undersöker teoretiska definitioner av kreativitet, förhållandet mellan kreativitet och kunskap, och låtskrivares strategier för att uppnå kreativitet. Låtskrivande är den skapandeprocess som ska resultera i en färdig musikprodukt. Kreativitet innebär brytande av gamla regler och konventioner för att skapa någonting nytt. Varje musikgenre har specifika regler och konventioner för hur den ska låta och uppfattas, vilket då innebär att man måste ha kunskap om dem för att kunna skriva musik inom den valda genren. Detta kan få låtskrivarprocessen att förefalla som ickekreativ, trots att låtskrivande är känt som en konstnärlig och kreativ uttrycksform. I den här studien användes kvalitativa intervjuer för att ge svar på forskningsfrågorna. Tre erfarna och tre mindre erfarna låtskrivare intervjuades, vilka berättade om sina musikkunskaper, definitioner av kreativitet och skapandeprocesser. Resultaten visade att låtskrivarna inte uppfattade att deras musikkunskap var hämmande för deras kreativitet. Studien visade att låtskrivarna hade utvecklat specifika strategier för hur de skulle kunna skapa på rutin och få tillgång till sin kreativitet. Slutligen definierade låtskrivarna specifika faktorer som påverkade kreativiteten, som till exempel psykiska och fysiska distraktioner.  

  • 2416.
    Buic, Filip
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Österman, Fredric
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Den växande dagligvaruhandeln på internet: En fallstudie om MatHem i Sverige AB2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Customers demand in the online market for fast moving consumer goods (FMCG) has been increasing at a steady rate. The largest actors on a market are recognizing an increase in demand and are aware of the need to expand their sales channels. While, the smaller companies have created the market demand actively, they must also address the issue of customer loyalty and retention in order to not lose market shares when the market situation is changed by the larger actors. The new transformed competitive situation will force the companies to focus on the consumers through strategy and most importantly to establish customer loyalty.

    Aim

    The aim is to increase the knowledge of companies who entered a market early as well as how they keep their customers loyal when the competitive situation changes.

    Methodology

    To accomplish the aim a qualitative study of the company MatHem has been done, to reach a generalized conclusion. Literature and articles have been examined and an interview has been conducted in order to achieve a final conclusion.

    Conclusion

    The investigated company keeps their customers loyal by having a high overall quality. Which means that they have high quality products, well-functioning customer service, exceed customer expectations and a wide assortment. When the competitive situation changes, the company has no special strategies to keep their customers loyal because the company did not see the other actors as competitors. The company is the most expensive actor on the market, but differentiates itself with organic products to obtain loyal customers.

  • 2417.
    Bulmer, Martin
    University of Surrey, Storbritannien.
    Survey research and sociology2009In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 46, no 1, p. 90-95Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2418.
    Bunar, Nihad
    Stockholms universitet.
    Den etnifierade urbana fattigdomen och välfärdsstatens reaktioner2005In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 42, no 4, p. 57-78Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In year 1998 the Swedish government adopted an ambitious urban renewal policy (URP). One of its main elements was to combat social exclusion in a number of housing areas in Stockholm, Gothenburg and Malmö. Between 2002 and 2004 I have been studying implementation of this policy and its ideas in five neighborhoods in Stockholm. Based on previous research I claim that this form of ethnified urban poverty, in popular discourses named urban segregation, is being generated by the structural unemployment and by the so-called ”ethnic factor” embodied in processes of stigmatization and discrimination. URP has been set up to assist the general welfare policy to challenge and ultimately solve this social problem.

    In this article I focus on three problems inherited in the policy implementation: disparity between theory and practice concerning the basic ideas of URP; the anomaly concerning the time aspect and an extreme unwillingness by the state to follow up the implementation process. One of the main conclusions is that URP has failed in its ”mission” to assist the general welfare policy because, firstly, the local analysis of what generates the social exclusion highlighted only the structural unemployment.The impact of discrimination and stigmatization was omitted. Secondly, URP:s practical implementation was particularistic, non-relational and anomalistic.

  • 2419.
    Burawoy, Michael
    Sociologiska institutionen, University of California, Berkeley, USA.
    Sociologförbundet har ordet: Utmaningar för den globala sociologin – från Göteborg till Yokohama2010In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 47, no 4, p. 64-68Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2420.
    Bure Wijk, Helena
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies.
    Stockar och stenar falla där, istället för tårar: en studie av häxprocesserna i Torsåker, Ångermanland 1674-16752014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 2421.
    Burell, Anders
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    På spåret utan gränser2004Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Banverket kan, genom att göra förändringar av verkets systemarkitektur, skapa ett bättre ramverk för system- och tjänsteutveckling inom området för ITS. Detta kan ske genom att lagra och tillgängliggöra järnvägsrelaterad information enligt en enhetlig struktur i ett format som gör det möjligt att utbyta information med andra infrastrukturverk samt aktörer inom transportsektorn. En sådan lagring och ett tillgängliggörande av data förutsätter att alla inblandade parter kommit överens om att använda samma struktur för beskrivning av infrastrukturen. I rapporten föreslås att en nationell järnvägsdatabas upprättas, där informationen lagras med en struktur som följer svensk standard för väg- och järnvägsinformation SS637004 och med kända förhållanden mellan topologi och geometri. Information i databasen föreslås göras tillgänglig för alla i samhället. Information om järnvägen och annan infrastruktur definieras i rapporten som mjuk infrastruktur och är en av de grundläggande förutsättningarna för ITS. Genom att göra föreslagna förändringar blir Banverkets information en del av Sveriges mjuka infrastruktur och kommer på så sätt att skapa ett ramverk för system- och tjänsteutveckling inom området för ITS, till exempel för intermodala transporter.

  • 2422. Burgaz, A.
    et al.
    Byberg, L.
    Rautiainen, S.
    Orsini, N.
    Hakansson, N.
    Ärnlöv, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Medical Science.
    Sundstrom, J.
    Lind, L.
    Melhus, H.
    Michaelsson, K.
    Wolk, A.
    Confirmed hypertension and plasma 25(OH)D concentrations amongst elderly men2011In: Journal of Internal Medicine, ISSN 0954-6820, E-ISSN 1365-2796, Vol. 269, no 2, p. 211-218Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives. The results of experimental studies suggest that vitamin D deficiency activates the renin-angiotensin system and predisposes to hypertension. Results of previous epidemiological studies investigating the association between 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] status and hypertension have not been consistent, perhaps because of their sole reliance on office blood pressure (BP) measurements leading to some misclassification of hypertension status. No previous studies have examined the association between 25(OH)D status and confirmed hypertension assessed with both office and 24-h BP measurements.

    Design. In this cross-sectional study, we investigated 833 Caucasian men, aged 71 +/- 0.6 years, to determine the association between plasma 25(OH)D concentrations, measured with high-pressure liquid chromatography mass spectrometry, and the prevalence of hypertension. We used both supine office and 24-h BP measurements for classifying participants as normotensive or confirmed hypertensive; participants with inconsistent classifications were excluded.

    Results. In a multivariable adjusted logistic regression model, men with 25(OH)D concentrations < 37.5 nmol L-1 had a 3-fold higher prevalence of confirmed hypertension compared to those with >= 37.5 nmol L-1 25(OH)D (odds ratio = 3.3, 95% CI: 1.0-11.0).

    Conclusions. Our results show that low plasma 25(OH)D concentration is associated with a higher prevalence of confirmed hypertension.

  • 2423. Burholt, Vanessa
    et al.
    Winter, Bethan
    Aartsen, Marja
    Constantinou, Costas
    Dahlberg, Lena
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Social Work.
    de Jong Gierveld, Jenny
    van Regenmortel, Sophie
    Waldegrave, Charles
    An evidence review of exclusion from social relations: From genes to the environment2017Report (Other academic)
  • 2424. Burholt, Vanessa
    et al.
    Winter, Bethan
    Aartsen, Marja
    Constantinou, Costas
    Dahlberg, Lena
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Social Work. Karolinska institutet.
    Feliciano, Villar
    De Jong Gierveld, Jenny
    Van Regenmortel, Sofie
    Waldegrave, Charles
    A critical review and development of a conceptual model of exclusion from social relations for older people2019In: European Journal of Ageing, ISSN 1613-9372, E-ISSN 1613-9380Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Social exclusion is complex and dynamic, and it leads to the non-realization of social, economic, political or cultural rights or participation within a society. This critical review takes stock of the literature on exclusion of social relations. Social relations are defined as comprising social resources, social connections and social networks. An evidence review group undertook a critical review which integrates, interprets and synthesizes information across studies to develop a conceptual model of exclusion from social relations. The resulting model is a subjective interpretation of the literature and is intended to be the starting point for further evaluations. The conceptual model identifies individual risks for exclusion from social relations (personal attributes, biological and neurological risk, retirement, socio-economic status, exclusion from material resources and migration). It incorporates the evaluation of social relations, and the influence of psychosocial resources and socio-emotional processes, sociocultural, social-structural, environmental and policy contextual influences on exclusion from social relations. It includes distal outcomes of exclusion from social relations, that is, individual well-being, health and functioning, social opportunities and social cohesion. The dynamic relationships between elements of the model are also reported. We conclude that the model provides a subjective interpretation of the data and an excellent starting point for further phases of conceptual development and systematic evaluation(s). Future research needs to consider the use of sophisticated analytical tools and an interdisciplinary approach in order to understand the underlying biological and ecopsychosocial associations that contribute to individual and dynamic differences in the experience of exclusion from social relations.

  • 2425.
    Burlin, Sandra
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Melander, Cecilia
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Akupunkturbehandling vid långvarigt smärttillstånd: Litteraturstudie2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna litteraturstudie var att belysa evidens av akupunkturbehandling som smärtlindring vid långvarigt smärttillstånd. Resultatet baserades på 15 kvantitativa empiriska studier från databaserna Cinahl och PubMed. Dessa valdes utifrån relevans för studieområdet och granskades sedan med hjälp av en granskningsmall. Studier med medel eller hög kvalitet utifrån mallen inkluderades i litteraturstudien. En modifierad innehållsanalys användes, som utformade följande kategorier; smärtlindring vid olika akupunkturtekniker, evidens som talar för äkta akupunktur samt smärtlindring över tid. Resultatet visade att akupunkturbehandling ger en tillfredställd effekt vid långvarig smärta oberoende av akupunkturteknik. Shamakupunktur ger dock inte lika effektiv smärtlindring som äkta akupunktur. Effekten av akupunkturbehandling som smärtlindring kvarstår upp till ett år men avtar över tid. Slutsatsen är att smärtlindringen är mest effektiv direkt efter avslutad behandling, och fungerar på de olika smärtlokalisationer som inkluderats i litteraturstudien.

  • 2426.
    Burlin, Tetyana
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Swedish as Second Language.
    "Jag tror att webb-distanskurs SFI är jättebra på mej… det är step by step, varje steg": En studie om hur elever beskriver för-och nackdelar med webbaserad SFI-undervisning och dess påverkan på deras lärande2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Under de senaste åren har mängden webbaserat undervisningsmaterial ökat vilket i sin tur stimulerar informellt lärande. Forskare påpekar att det finns både fördelar och nackdelar med digitala tekniker. Till fördelarna räknas alla möjligheter som ger snabb tillgång till information. Men teknikutvecklingen ställer också höga krav på kommunikativ kompetens hos alla. Samtidigt är det svårt att visa att användningen av datorer/mobiltelefoner i lärandet gör denna process mer effektiv eftersom lärandeprocessen påverkas av många faktorer: på vilket sätt datorer används, vem som använder undervisningsprogrammet och vilket syfte datoranvändningen har i undervisningen.

    Studiens syfte är att visa hur eleverna i SFI-undervisning beskriver för- och nackdelar med distansundervisningen och hur dessa påverkar deras språkinlärning.

    Utifrån teoretisk orientering kan min undersökning betraktas som en tolkande process där resultatet kan påverkas av komplexa samspel mellan psykologiska, kulturella och sociala faktorer eftersom personlig utveckling är beroende av faktorer som bakgrund, familj, arbete, sociala kontakter och ansvar. Jag har valt att göra en kvalitativ studie för att få svar på mina frågor eftersom jag vill undersöka elevernas tankar och upplevelser och deras sätt att resonera kring undersökningens område och jämföra deras åsikter med tidigare resultat av liknande forskning/studier. Min datainsamling består av videoinspelade intervjuer och informella samtal med elever. Jag har använt semistrukturerade intervjuer, dvs. intervjuer där jag utgått från frågeområden i stället för detaljerade frågor.

    Som nackdelar med webbaserad undervisning beskrev eleverna de problem de hade med sin muntliga kommunikativa utveckling, både hörförståelse och tal. Som positivt med webbaserad SFI-undervisning beskrev eleverna uppbyggnaden av undervisningen: den var både individanpassad och kontinuerlig. Eleverna poängterade att den webbaserade undervisningsformen gav dem möjlighet att genomföra sina studier även då de inte haft möjlighet att komma till lektionerna.

    De frågor som ställdes till informanterna gav mig möjlighet att inte bara få reda på hur de beskriver för- och nackdelar med webbaserad undervisning som bedrivs på min skola utan också få några förslag till förbättring av webbaserad undervisning. Jag är medveten om att resultatet av min studie inte kan generaliseras, eftersom jag studerade elevernas uttalanden om webbaserad undervisning och dessa uttalanden kunde påverkas av kulturella attityder till skolan som maktinstitution. Men det är det första steget i utvärdering och problembeskrivning av webbaserad SFI-undervisning.

  • 2427.
    Burlin, Toivo
    Dalarna University, School of Languages and Media Studies, Sound and Music Production.
    Att kalla på Echo: Musiken och rummet2012In: På tal om musikproduktion. Elva bidrag till ett nytt kunskapsområde / [ed] Ternhag, Gunnar; Wingstedt, Johnny, Göteborg: Bo Ejeby Förlag , 2012, p. 123-139Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 2428.
    Burlin, Toivo
    Dalarna University, School of Languages and Media Studies, Sound and Music Production.
    Det imaginära rummet.: Inspelningspraxis och produktion av konstmusikfonogrami Sverige 1925-19832008Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 2429.
    Burlin, Toivo
    Dalarna University, School of Languages and Media Studies, Sound and Music Production.
    Listening to Recorded Sound and Music as Representations of Room-Time2010In: Listening and Technology seminar, Köpenhamn, 2010Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There is no fixed limit where sound ceases to be only “sound” and will be “music". In different kind of sound-art or electro-acoustic music, we see this clearly, but in a different way also in other music. Nevertheless, from a western musicological perspective there are certain types of sounds that are musical. Even if we, for example in Frank Zappa’s recorded works, often find long sections with clean dialogues we could hardly consider dialogues to be musical if they were isolated. They become music only when they are part of a musical context. What is it that conceptually creates music? Of course, such things as melodic, rhythmic, polytonal, polyphonic or other harmonic, instrumental or vocal structures. Although the limits between sound and music, music and non-music, will always be problematic, a specific element can be said to give a specific key to which organized sound is perceived as musical structures: The virtual, imaginary roominess, the spatiality. The importance of the spatial roominess has been underestimated in musicology as a symbolic, sounding and compositional component of music. Before the days of recording technology, it was obvious that music was always played in real places and premises. On the other hand, it is obvious that in recorded music the spatial roominess will be different from live music roominess. In the same way as the drum-beats on a disc with jazz or rock music not mainly is there to serve as a simple metronome for the other musicians, but fulfils an essential musical function, the virtual roominess on a music recording is not only the residue of music reflections against the walls of the recording room. The place and the roominess have real meanings. The represented, recorded three-dimensional spatiality may in particular have a real musical importance when connected to the fourth dimension, namely the flow of time. This musical room-time can be homogenous but also heterogenous, it may contain unity-rooms or multi-rooms. The imaginary rooms may represent the acoustic room in which music sounds, but also a resident internal, mental place, or combinations of these. Thus, in recorded music it is possible to use parts of representations of physical and/or imaginary positions of the listening subject in the room or use the internal awareness of a musical thinking subject in room-time. In the same way as music can be embodied, the imaginary spatiality and roominess of musical recordings can be seen as an expression – both for represented embodiment and for a represented internal awareness – and its positions in the room-time. The presentation will contain sounding examples from various genres.

  • 2430.
    Burlin, Toivo
    Dalarna University, School of Languages and Media Studies, Sound and Music Production.
    Recension: C Symes (2004): Setting the record straight: a material history of classical recording2008In: Svensk tidskrift för musikforskning, ISSN 0081-9816, Vol. 90, p. 156-158Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 2431.
    Burlin, Toivo
    Dalarna University, School of Languages and Media Studies, Sound and Music Production.
    Recension: H Lagher & L Ermalm (2007): De legendariska åren - Metronome Records2008In: Svensk tidskrift för musikforskning, ISSN 0081-9816, Vol. 90, p. 136-138Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 2432.
    Burlin, Toivo
    Dalarna University, School of Languages and Media Studies, Sound and Music Production.
    Recension: Stump, P 2005. Gentle Giant: Acquiring the taste. London: SAF Publishing2010In: Svensk tidskrift för musikforskning, ISSN 0081-9816, no 92, p. 182-184Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 2433.
    Burlin, Toivo
    Dalarna University, School of Languages and Media Studies, Sound and Music Production.
    Recension: Ternhag, G 2009. Vad är det jag hör? Analys av musikinspelningar. Göteborg: Ejebys2010In: Svensk tidskrift för musikforskning, ISSN 0081-9816, Vol. 92, p. 194-196Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 2434.
    Burlin, Toivo
    Dalarna University, School of Languages and Media Studies, Sound and Music Production.
    Skyskrapornas och de röda stugornas musik: Ett försök till förståelse av fusionen av jazz och svensk folkmusik2000In: STM Online, ISSN 1403-5718, Vol. 3Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2435.
    Burlin, Toivo
    Dalarna University, School of Languages and Media Studies, Sound and Music Production.
    Spatialitet och temporalitet i Hugo Alfvéns musik: Analys av gestaltning utifrån inspelningar.2010In: Hugo Alfvén-symposium, Stockholm, 2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 2436.
    Burlin, Toivo
    Dalarna University, School of Languages and Media Studies, Sound and Music Production.
    Svunna rum: Produktion av konstmusikfonogram i Sverige 1925-19832010In: Kulturhistorisk medieforskning 2.0, Vadstena, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Fonogrammet är i flera avseenden det glömda mediet. Trots att en av de viktigaste kanalerna för bevarande, utveckling och spridning av musik i de flesta genrer under 1900-talet och därefter skedde genom 78-varvsskivor, LP-skivor, EP-skivor, rullband, kassetter och CD-skivor, glöms detta medium ofta bort i mer generella diskussioner om medierna och deras betydelse. Likaså glöms fonogrammet inte sällan i motsvarande diskussioner om 1900-talets musiksamhälle. Men detta medium satte på ett avgörande sätt sin prägel på all musik under 1900-talet. I Sverige spelade t.ex. skivbolagen och Sveriges Radio en avgörande roll för hela musiksamhället som producenter av fonogram långt före det ”Svenska musikundret”, som kan sägas ha grundlagts redan under första världskrigets dagar och som tog ordentlig fart i slutet av det andra världskriget. Intressant nog var det periodvis inte inom populärmusikproduktionen som den mest innovativa tekniska och fonogramspecifika utvecklingen utspelade sig, utan snarare inom produktionen av konstmusikfonogram. Det producerades under 1950-, 60- och 70-talen i Sverige av svenska skivbolag tekniskt och auditivt avancerade inspelningar på tusentals LP-skivor, med ett stort antal verk av svenska tonsättare, där inspelningarna kopplades till ett grafiskt nytänkande där multimediala estetiska strategier präglade konvolut och konvolutkommentarer. Ett antal viktiga inspelningar och fonogram, liksom en analysmodell för fonogrammet som Multimedial Musikprodukt, kommer att presenteras under föredraget.

  • 2437.
    Burlin, Toivo
    Dalarna University, School of Languages and Media Studies, Sound and Music Production.
    "Så fick vi med en flicka till": Spatialitet, temporalitet och identitet i Hugo Alfvéns inspelningar av Midsommarvaka och Bergakungen 19542012In: Hugo Alfvén - liv och verk i ny belysning / [ed] Gunnar Ternhag & Joakim Tillman, Möklinta: Gidlund , 2012, p. 239-272Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 2438.
    Burlin, Toivo
    Dalarna University, School of Languages and Media Studies, Sound and Music Production.
    "The Art of Record Production", London, den 17-18 september 2005: Konferensrapport2006In: STM Online, ISSN 1403-5718, Vol. 9Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2439.
    Burlin, Toivo
    Dalarna University, School of Languages and Media Studies, Sound and Music Production.
    The Imaginary Room: Recording Practice and Production of Art Music Phonograms in Sweden 1925-19832009In: The Art of record Production, Cardiff, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 2440.
    Burlin, Toivo
    Dalarna University, School of Languages and Media Studies, Sound and Music Production.
    Tukkipoika: Some Comments on recordings of North Swedish Folk Music2013In: Nordisk forskarkonferens inom Ljud- och musikproduktion Falun 13-14 november 2013: Conference proceedings / [ed] Berk Sirman, Falun, 2013, p. 8-8Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 2441.
    Burlin, Toivo
    Dalarna University, School of Languages and Media Studies, Sound and Music Production.
    Tukkipoika: Some comments on recordings of North Swedish Folk Music2013In: The 17th Finnish Music Researchers’ Symposium, Turku March 13–15, 2013The Cultural Memory of Sound and Space : Abstracts / [ed] Maija Leino, Turku/Åbo: Åbo Akademi , 2013, p. 24-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden has a long and rich tradition of folk music recorded. During the 1970s, the genre flourished and got a new boost in the 1990s.

    In the regions Norrbotten and Västerbotten a number of artists as Norrlåtar (”North Songs”), JP Nyströms and Burträskara (among others) on numerous recordings produced a well-crafted folk music. The music material was taken from the Swedish, Finnish and Sami music cultures in the region, for example, the yoik.

    The recordings were often musically and technically well-crafted and designed an "authentic" sound, recorded in the studio or in a real environment outside the recording studio, for example a dance barn or in a kitchen.

    The recorded music was part of a cultural project, that was both to make visible a peripheral region in Sweden and one in the folk world unknown music culture, and simultaneously problematize the concept of folk music. In the recorded music, it’s cultural and geographical ”space”, was expressed in the roominess of the recording.

    In this lecture the recordings with Northern Swedish folk music is discussed as studio productions and cultural artifacts. A few analytical models and concept pairs, that describe music recordings as both representations and spatial and temporal design, is presented and applied to the material: the Representation model and the Room Model.

  • 2442. Burman, Hanna
    Hur elever och deras behov framställs i åtgärdsprogram: En kritisk granskning av tolv åtgärdsprogram2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Genom en kritisk granskning av sammanlagt tolv åtgärdsprogram från tre skolor redovisas hur elever och dess problematik framställs. Hermeneutiken är metodteoretisk referensram, vilket har som syfte att genom att tolka intentioner och avsikter, uttryckta genom språket, förstå människors livssituation.

    Det är ett individfokuserat synsätt som synliggörs, vilket följer tidigare forskning på området. Maktaspekter, där elevernas åsikter och tankar inte alltid synliggörs eller får gehör, blir intressanta. Det är även tydligt att normalitet och avvikelse finns närvarande när åtgärdsprogram formuleras, både hos elever och i undervisning.

    Ett kritiskt perspektiv saknas ofta och leder till att organisation och miljö inte i lika stor utsträckning blir fokus för åtgärder. Istället är det åtgärder med individfokus, det vill säga ett kompensatoriskt perspektiv på specialpedagogik, som är det vanligaste. Hur lyckade åtgärdsprogrammen är beror till stor del på huruvida eleverna ställer sig positiva till åtgärderna samt om åtgärderna som formulerats faktiskt kan tolkas vara rätt för problemen.

    Att skriva ett åtgärdsprogram är allt annat än enkelt. Det kräver ett värderingsfritt formulerat språk, vilket i sin tur kräver att problematik och åtgärder diskuteras ur ett kritiskt perspektiv, där en uppfattad verklighet ifrågasätts och problematiseras.

  • 2443. Burns, M
    et al.
    Johansson, Sverker
    Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, Högskolan i Jönköping, HLK, Ämnesforskning.
    Physics aspects of the DELPHI vertex detector1988Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 2444.
    Burns, Tom R.
    Department of Sociology, Uppsala University/Woods Institute for the Environment, Stanford University.
    The sustainability revolution: A societal paradigm shift - ethos, innovation, government transformation2011In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 48, no 3, p. 93-108Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Sustainability revolution: A societal paradigm shift – ethos, innovation, governance transformation

    This paper identifies several key mechanisms that underlie major paradigm shifts. After identifying four such mechanisms, the article focuses on one type of transformation which has a prominent place in the sustainability revolution that the article argues is now taking place. The transformation is piecemeal, incremental, diffuse – in earlier writings referred to as ”organic”. This is a more encompassing notion than grassroots, since the innovation and transformation processes may be launched and developed at multiple levels through diverse mechanisms of discovery and development. Major features of the sustainability revolution are identified and comparisons made to the industrial revolution.

  • 2445.
    Bursell, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Elverson, Susanna
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Faktorer som påverkar patienters upplevelse av omvårdnad under sin vistelse på akutmottagning.: - En litteraturstudie2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: To an emergency department people arrives with various states and needs. It

    is the nurse who often do the initial assessments and therefore it is of great importance that the

    response from the nurse is positive, to provide a feeling of security for the patient. Increased

    patient flow and long waits are a few factors that are proven to influence patients´ experience

    of their stay at the emergency department.

    Purpose: The purpose of the literature review is to describe factors that influence patients’

    experience of care at the emergency department.

    Methods: The study was conducted as a literature review. CINAHL and PubMed databases

    were used to search for articles.

    Results: The analysis led to six subcategories: the encounter, participation, information,

    waiting time, communication and continuity, the Registered Nurse knowledge and skills.

    The results showed that many patients felt that the nurse was skilled with the nursing

    assignments and were happy with the response from the nurse, but the long waiting time and

    lack of information affected the experience of the nursing care at the emergency department.

    There was a clear desire from the patients to receive more information about their wait time,

    treatment and examination. Shortcomings of this, created insecurity and a feeling of being

    forgotten for the patients.

    Conclusion: Nurses at an emergency department need to possess great communication

    skills. To be able to give patients the best experience as possible at the emergency department.

    Conclusions of the results have shown the need for improvement in several areas, to increase

    a better experience for the patients during their stay at the emergency department.

  • 2446.
    Burzynski, Jaroslaw
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, English.
    Victims or Abusers?: Re-defining African-American patriarchy and masculinity in Alice Walker's The Color Purple 2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 2447.
    Busiakiewicz, Aggi
    Dalarna University, School of Education and Humanities, Social and Political Studies.
    En resa som gör skillnad: En undersökning om hur svenska unga människor, som varit volontärer i sydländer, förstår volontärverksamheten.2005Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna undersökning var att studera den förståelse som svenska unga människor, som varit iväg som volontärer till länder i syd, har av den svenska volontärverksamhetens funktion. För att kunna besvara syftet intervjuades sex unga kvinnor som varit iväg på en volontärresa med organisationen Internationellt Kulturutbyte (IKU) någon gång sedan år 2000. Intervjuerna kretsade kring fyra teman som syftade till att ringa in synen på verksamhetens funktion: motiv, förväntningar, påverkan och allmän förståelse av verksamhetens funktion. Resultatet visade att alla informanterna la stor vikt vid själva resan och den ”unika” upplevelse den givit dem. Tack vare volontärverksamheten fick de möjligheten att uppfylla sina drömmar och göra det där ”annorlunda” som många unga människor drömmer om. Det framkom också att det fanns en ganska stark vilja att hjälpa till och göra någon nytta, men eftersom organisationerna inte vill tala om bistånd blir detta en tyst funktion. Resultatet visade också på den utvecklings- och förändringspotential som denna verksamhet har eftersom informanterna sprider information, erfarenheter och kunskaper när de kommer hem till Sverige. Dessutom så var alla informanterna engagerade i något som anknyter till det globala. Att informanterna vill engagera sig, och att de vill berätta om sina erfarenheter, får konsekvenser för Sveriges bistånd, men som studien också visade behövs en större uppföljning av de hemkomna volontärerna ifall verksamhetens funktion ska vara att skapa handlings- och förändringskraft. Slutligen visade studien att informanterna inte åkte med motivet att de ville uppnå personlig utveckling, något som var fallet för många ungdomar i en liknande studie i Australien.

  • 2448.
    Busk, Ulrica
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Edvall, Anne
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Omvårdnadsåtgärder som kan lindra smärta i palliativ vård: En litteraturöversikt2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background:

    Pain was seen as only a physical problem but in the 1950’s pain began to be seen as a multidimensional problem. For patients in palliative care multidimensional pain is common. The key elements of palliative care should be a focus on: symptom relief, teamwork, continuity and communication as well as support for relatives.

    Aim:

    The aim is to compile research about which nursing measures can relieve pain in palliative care.

    Method:

    The study was conducted as a literature review and was based on 13 articles where quantitative and qualitative methods where reported.

    Result:

    The result is a number of complementary nursing measures that can alleviate pain in patients in palliative care. Knowledge of the pain's dimensions and pain assessment is a prerequisite for achieving optimal pain relief. Teamwork, psychosocial support and good communication between the patient and the careteam are important in palliative care.

    Conclusion:

    Patients should receive basic pharmacological pain relief together with complementary non-pharmacological pain management care measures.

    More research and knowledge about these nursing interventions and how these can be implemented in palliative care are needed. Greater knowledge about both the dimensions of pain and about pain scales is needed so that optimal pain assessment can be achieved.

  • 2449.
    Busk, Victoria
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Sigfrids, Linda
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Sjuksköterskans erfarenheter av vård i livet slut på somatisk vårdavdelning – En litteraturöversikt2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Palliative care and end-of-life care aims to prevent and relief suffering. Today people live longer which shows an increased care of dying patients. It can be expressed as challenging to care for a dying patient since this form of care still can be foreign to many nurses. Aim: The purpose of this literature review was to compile research-based knowledge of things that can affect the nurse's experiences of care in the end of life for the patient in a somatic hospital setting. Method: The study was conducted as a literature review which was based on twelve qualitative and three quantitative studies. The results were based on scientific articles that were found in databases such as PubMed and Cinahl.  Results: The main result that was identified in the study was competence, challenges and resources of care. Nurses had a lack of knowledge when caring for dying patients in a somatic hospital setting. The competence was inadequate and it appeared that there was a need of more education and the basic nursing education needs to be further developed in end of life care. Nurses who received education in end of life care were more safe caring for dying patients. Communication, for example building trust and the nurse’s ability to express themselves, were important factors. Nurses thought it was challenging to earn trust from the patient's relatives. Conclusion: The results have shown that the nurse's knowledge is important and the need for education and training has been clearly prominent. Today there is a lack of nurses and there is a need for more nurses with the right knowledge. Education and practical experience can help the nurses feeling safer in the role of caring for dying patients and communicating with them and their relatives.  

  • 2450.
    Buske Andersson, Isabell
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work.
    Problemlösning i matematikundervisningen: En kvalitativ studie om hur lärare arbetar med problemlösning i matematikundervisningen2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Med denna studie anses undersöka hur lärare ser på sin egen problemlösningsundervisning samt koppla dessa reflektioner till aktuell forskning.

    Informationen som samlats in i denna studie har skett genom intervjuer. Dessa intervjuer har sedan analyserats med stöd i Granheim & Lundman (2003). Genom denna studie framkom det att lärarnas undervisningsstruktur innehåller att lärarna möjliggör för eleverna att förstå problemet, välja strategi och lösa problemet och slutligen reflektera över det matematiska innehållet. Utöver detta nämnde lärarna även diskussioner eleverna emellan samt elevernas utforskande inom matematik som en central del av deras problemlösningsundervisning. Detta resultat har sedan analyserats gentemot Polyas (1945) fyra steg till problemlösning samt Lesters (1996) problemlösningsundervisningsstruktur.

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