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  • 2451.
    Buske Andersson, Isabell
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work.
    Problemlösning i matematikundervisningen.: En litteraturstudie om hur lärare kan arbeta med problemlösning i matematikundervisningen.2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie har varit att se vad svenska forskare anser vara en framgångsrik metod för utveckling av problemlösning inom matematik hos elever samt hur detta ser ut i jämförelse med Japansk problemlösning inom matematik. En jämförelse med Japan sker då de presterade högt inom både PISA och TIMSS undersökningarna. För att besvara studiens frågeställningar genomfördes en systematisk litteraturstudie där tidigare forskning granskas utifrån specifika krav och analyseras mot studiens syfte och frågeställningar.

    Utifrån litteraturstudien framkom ett resultat med vissa gemensamma metoder inom problemlösningsundervisning samt vissa skillnader mellan Sverige och Japan. Forskningen visar att Japansk problemlösning sker i fler steg än den svenska problemlösningen, eleverna ges en mer strukturerad plan för hur problemlösning ska ske. Eleverna framställer en plan för lösning sedan avgörs lösningens relevans för problemet och testas. När det gäller svensk problemlösning kan man tänka sig att vi lär av Japan och att vi låter elevernas arbetsprocess innehålla fler steg för att de bland annat ska kunna testa flera olika metoder och prova olika hypoteser. På så sätt får de arbeta igenom problem mer grundligt och får därmed större möjligheter att lära.

  • 2452.
    Buskqvist, My
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education and Humanities, Mathematics Education.
    Olsson, Sara
    Dalarna University, School of Education and Humanities, Mathematics Education.
    Kärleksfull matematikundervisning - vägen till framgång?: - En kvalitativ intervju- och literaturstudie...2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Utgångspunkten i vår undersökning var att grundskolans matematikundervisning sedan länge är präglad av enskild räkning i läroboken och graden av modernisering är låg. Detta grundar vi dels på egen erfarenhet och dels på forskning vi läst tidigare. När elever får problem med matematiken i skolan läggs skulden på eleverna istället för på skolan och lärarens undervisning. Syftet med vårt arbete var att få en bild av vad skolan och den enskilde läraren kan göra för att förändra/förbättra förutsättningarna i matematik för grundskolans elever. Undersökningens frågeställningar var: Vilka faktorer kan ligga bakom elevers utveckling efter ett icke godkänt nationellt prov i matematik i skolår 5? Vad kan skolan och den enskilde läraren göra för att förändra/förbättra förutsättningarna i matematik för grundskolans elever? Vi valde att söka svar på våra frågor dels genom att göra en litteraturstudie och dels genom att intervjua fyra elever som inte blivit godkända på nationella ämnesprovet i matematik i skolår 5. Vi har också intervjuat deras lärare (fem stycken) i skolår 4-6 och skolår 7-9. Utifrån våra resultat kunde vi dra slutsatsen att matematikundervisning inte enbart handlar om bra didaktiska metoder utan snarare om kärlek till och engagemang för eleverna. Våra elever verkar trivas med den kunskapssyn som Lpo 941 vilar på där skolan ska se till varje unik individ och utforma undervisningen därefter. Grundskolans matematikundervisning präglas fortfarande av enskild räkning i läroboken, visade både våra intervjuer och vår litteraturstudie. Detta trots att en enorm mängd forskning talar emot detta ensidiga arbetssätt och istället förespråkar en varierad undervisning. Våra resultat visade också att det extra stöd elever får är undervisning i liten grupp där undervisningen till stor del sker på samma ensidiga sätt. För att lyckas med matematiken menar elever att lärarens engagemang och tilltro till deras förmåga är den viktigaste faktorn. Andra faktorer som påverkar elevernas resultat är den egna motivationen och lusten att lära. Resultaten visar också att betygen har betydelse för elevernas motivation. Det finnas alltså mycket man kan göra för att förbättra situationen i skolan. De två främsta faktorerna som krävs är engagerade lärare och en varierad undervisning.

  • 2453.
    Butkute Steponavicius, Lina
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Hur sjuksköterskan kan motivera vuxna patienter med Diabetes Mellitus typ II att ändra sin livsstil genom kost- och motionsvanor: En litteraturöversikt2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Typ II diabetes är en sjukdom som kan påverkas av vissa livsstilsfaktorer, till

    exempel rökning, fysisk inaktivitet, fel kost, övervikt, stort alkoholintag och högt blodtryck.

    Behandling för Diabetes Mellitus typ II börjar med förändring av sin livsstil, det vill säga

    icke-farmakologiskt behandling genom att framförallt förändra sina kost- och motionsvanor.

    Att motivera patienter med Diabetes Mellitus typ II till att förändra sin livsstil, är en viktig

    uppgift för sjuksköterskan.

    Syfte: Syftet med denna studie var att beskriva hur sjuksköterskan kan motivera vuxna

    patienter med Diabetes typ II att ändra sin livsstil genom kost- och motionsvanor.

    Metod: Studie genomfördes som litteraturöversikt med sexton vetenskapliga artiklar, där sju

    av artiklarna hade kvalitativ ansats och nio hade en kvantitativ ansats. Datainsamlingen

    skedde via databaserna CINAHL, PubMed och Science Direct med samma sökord.

    Huvudresultat: De olika studierna i resultatet visar att sjuksköterskan spelar en viktig roll

    vad gäller att motivera patienter med Diabetes Mellitus typ II att förändra sin livsstil genom

    kost- och motionsvanor. Avgörande faktorer för att motivera patienter att göra

    livsstilsförändringar var sjuksköterskans bemötande av patienter, att understödja patienter och under denna förändringsprocess skapa en god relation mellan patient och sjuksköterska. Ytterliggare viktiga faktorer var att sjuksköterska hade kunskap inom området och en förmåga att undervisa, ge råd individuellt och i grupp.

  • 2454.
    Butt, Abdul Haleem
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Speech Assessment for the Classification of Hypokinetic Dysthria in Parkinson Disease2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis is to investigate computerized voice assessment methods to classify between the normal and Dysarthric speech signals. In this proposed system, computerized assessment methods equipped with signal processing and artificial intelligence techniques have been introduced. The sentences used for the measurement of inter-stress intervals (ISI) were read by each subject. These sentences were computed for comparisons between normal and impaired voice. Band pass filter has been used for the preprocessing of speech samples. Speech segmentation is performed using signal energy and spectral centroid to separate voiced and unvoiced areas in speech signal. Acoustic features are extracted from the LPC model and speech segments from each audio signal to find the anomalies. The speech features which have been assessed for classification are Energy Entropy, Zero crossing rate (ZCR), Spectral-Centroid, Mean Fundamental-Frequency (Meanf0), Jitter (RAP), Jitter (PPQ), and Shimmer (APQ). Naïve Bayes (NB) has been used for speech classification. For speech test-1 and test-2, 72% and 80% accuracies of classification between healthy and impaired speech samples have been achieved respectively using the NB. For speech test-3, 64% correct classification is achieved using the NB. The results direct the possibility of speech impairment classification in PD patients based on the clinical rating scale.

  • 2455.
    Butt, Nouman
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    BEE COLONIES APPLIED TO MULTIPROCESSOR SCHEDULING2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In order to achieve the high performance, we need to have an efficient scheduling of a parallel program onto the processors in multiprocessor systems that minimizes the entire execution time. This problem of multiprocessor scheduling can be stated as finding a schedule for a general task graph to be executed on a multiprocessor system so that the schedule length can be minimize [10]. This scheduling problem is known to be NP- Hard. In multi processor task scheduling, we have a number of CPU’s on which a number of tasks are to be scheduled that the program’s execution time is minimized. According to [10], the tasks scheduling problem is a key factor for a parallel multiprocessor system to gain better performance. A task can be partitioned into a group of subtasks and represented as a DAG (Directed Acyclic Graph), so the problem can be stated as finding a schedule for a DAG to be executed in a parallel multiprocessor system so that the schedule can be minimized. This helps to reduce processing time and increase processor utilization. The aim of this thesis work is to check and compare the results obtained by Bee Colony algorithm with already generated best known results in multi processor task scheduling domain.

  • 2456. Bwijo, B
    et al.
    Kaneko, A
    Takechi, M
    Zungu, I.L.
    Moriyama, Y
    Lum, J.K.
    Tsukahara, T.
    Mita, T
    Takahashi, N
    Bergqvist, Yngve
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Chemical Engineering.
    Björkman, A
    Kobayakawa, T
    High prevalence of quintuple mutant dphps/dhfr genes in Plasmodium falciparum infections seven years after introduction of sulfadoxine and Pyrimethamine as first line treatment in Malawi2003In: Acta Tropica, ISSN 0001-706X, E-ISSN 1873-6254, no 85, p. 363-373Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2457.
    Bygg, Erika
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Morelius, Ellinor
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    KOL-patienters nutrition och sjuksköterskans omvårdnadsåtgärder: en litteraturöversikt2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Malnutrition is common in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Malnutrition in patients with COPD can cause impaired immune system, increased dyspnoea, decreased quality of life, and the COPD risk being increased in severity as well as having a faster disease course. In 2030, COPD is estimated to be the third most common disease in the world. Therefore, it is important as a nurse to have knowledge of which nurse care can be used in malnutrition in COPD patients.

    Aim: The aim of this literature review was to compile COPD patients' perceived problems with nutrition and what nurse care the nurse can take in malnutrition.

    Method: A literature review based on 15 scientific articles.

    Results: There were problems that occur for COPD patients that were caused according to their nutrition. These conditions could be both physical and psychological. The nurse could seek advice from a dietician to be informed of the best solution regarding nutritional needs of the patient. As a nurse it was important to pass on knowledge and give support to the patient whilst also advising on selfcare according to the patient's current condition and preferences.

    Conclusion: The variety of nutritional problems COPD patients face were highly individual and are therefore a complex subject as the effects are both physical and psychological. In general, the nurse should work closely with the patient as there can be nutrition related problems and in doing so, ensures appropriate and safe care.

  • 2458.
    Byhlin, Ida
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work.
    "Vi gör ju bedömningar hela tiden…": En studie av förskollärares uppdrag i bedömningsprocesser2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här studien handlar om bedömning och dokumentation i förskolan. Syftet är att problematisera frågor om bedömning i relation till förskollärarnas uppdrag i bedömningsprocesser. I studien deltar 15 förskollärare och de har, i mindre grupper, samtalat om dokumentation och bedömning utifrån att den är planerad och att den genomförs med någon form av underlag. Det empiriska material som förskollärarna i studien bidragit med har analyserats utifrån grundtanken att fenomen i samhället är socialt konstruerade och att de är påverkade av den kultur som råder. Hur och varför bedömning är relevant eller vad som värderas i bedömning är influerat av den kontext vi lever i. I analysen har Foucaults teori om makt och styrningsmentaliteter fungerat som verktyg för att få syn på förskollärarnas uppdrag i bedömningsprocesser. Fokus i studien är på hur förskollärarna styr och blir styrda. Förskollärarna i studien är å ena sidan kritiska till vissa sätt att dokumentera och bedöma och i den här studien är ett exempel på det ålder. Å andra sidan kan jag i deras samtal också utläsa att de är med och skapar den formen av bedömning som efterfrågar ålder som något att mäta mot. De styr då genom att efterfråga något att mäta mot och blir samtidigt styrda i valet av underlag att dokumentera och bedöma utifrån. Deras uppdrag är, utifrån analysen, inte styrd i traditionell mening utan de är själva med och påverkar hur styrningen ter sig.

  • 2459.
    Bylander, Linda
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work.
    Inkludering till varje pris?: Integrering av utåtagerande barn i behov av särskilt stöd och elevens assistent i klassrummet.2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Inkludering är ett omdiskuterat ämne i dagens skola och det diskuteras på flera nivåer. Dock har det visat sig vara oklart vad man egentligen menar med begreppet och det blir då lätt att man talar förbi varandra. Syftet med denna studie var därför att ta reda på hur lärare talar om begreppet inkludering och vad begreppet innebär för dem. Studien gäller inkluderingen av utåtagerande barn i behov av särskilt stöd, och hens assistent i det gemensamma klassrummet. För att kunna uppnå studiens syfte har kvalitativa intervjuer genomförts med fyra erfarna lärare i årskurs 1–3. Det insamlade materialet har analyserats utifrån en diskursanalytisk ansats. Detta för att studera vad det är som tas förgivet i skoldebatten och vad som osynliggörs, genom hur det beskrivs och debatteras i samhälle och skolan. Resultatet av studien visar att samtlig idag talar om begreppet inkludering likställt med integrering. Skolans personal och lärare delar inte heller uppfattning om vad man menar med de olika begreppen. De slutsatser som dragits utefter att ha studerat den skoldiskurs som råder i samhället, är att man måste förändra skolans struktur och kultur från grunden. Om man istället skulle utgå ifrån att alla elever är olika och därför behöver olika lärandeprocesser och lärmiljöer, skulle detta inte vara främmande för eleverna. I skolans läroplan står det att skolan ska ta hänsyn till elevers olika förutsättningar och behov (Lgr11, 2011, 2017a, s 6). Därför ska det också finnas olika vägar till att nå målen. Skolan måste också enas om innebörden av begreppet inkludering.

  • 2460.
    Bylander, Marie
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Säterberg, Johanna
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Livssituationen för föräldrar vars barn drabbats av cancer: En systematisk litteraturstudie2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I Sverige insjuknar årligen ungefär 300 barn och ungdomar i någon cancersjukdom. Cancer hos barn ansågs tidigare som någonting obotligt. De senaste årtiondenas medicinska framsteg har dock radikalt förändrat perspektivet på barncancer. I dag vet vi att två av tre barn blir botade. Förutom medicinskt - tekniskt kunnande är det också nödvändigt med ett riktigt omhändertagande och en god omvårdnad av patienten och familjen. Syftet med denna studie var att beskriva livssituationen för föräldrar vars barn drabbats av cancer. Studien utfördes med hjälp av 18 vetenskapliga artiklar från åren 1998 till 2006. Sökorden som använts var: children, cancer, childhood cancer, parents, parenting, families, wellbeing, stressors, coping, nursing. Resultatet visade att föräldrarna upplevde barnets cancersjukdom som att hamna i ett chocktillstånd. Föräldrarna upplevde en vånda att behöva se sitt sjuka barn lida. Sjukdomen drabbade föräldrarna både gemensamt och individuellt. Rollerna inom familjen genomgick ofta förändringar. Modern övertog ofta det största ansvaret för det sjuka barnet och fadern skötte försörjningen. Olika barriärer som barnets sjukdom och behandling medförde gjorde det svårt att upprätthålla ett normalt familjeliv. Det bästa stödet fick familjen genom varandra och sjukdomen förde dem samman på ett annat sätt än tidigare. För att hantera situationen använde sig familjen av olika copingstrategier som kunde växla över tid. Ett bra samarbete med vårdpersonalen var mycket viktigt för familjen.

  • 2461.
    Bylund, Frida
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Fjällborg, Anna
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Patienters erfarenheter av att leva med långvarig ryggsmärta. En litteraturöversikt.2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    : Chronic back pain is one of the most common health problems and one of the most common causes of contact with primary care.

    Chronic back pain causes great socio-economic costs, but also costs in terms of

    human suffering. Chronic back pain cannot always be explained by pathophysiology and clinical findings, which often leads to missing diagnoses,

    impaired conditions for treatment and management strategies. The nurse in her

    health promotion has the task of relieving suffering, to enable this, suffering needs to be met, affirmed and understood as a whole. This literature review aimd to creating a deeper understanding of the whole by capturing individual experiences of living with chronic back pain.

    Aim:

    To compile knowledge about patient’s experiences of living with chronic back pain.

    Method:

    A literature review.

    Results:

    Five main categories emerged from the result; physical influence, psychological influence, social aspects, religious and cultural aspects, as well as experiences regarding the treatment of health care. Physical influences constituted barriers to everyday activities and life was forced to be shaped and adapted to the pain. The adaptation could lead to changed self-image and the opportunities for social interaction were limited. Mental illness was the experience that was found to the greatest extent in the result, and mainly in the form of depression and anxiety. Family, workplace and religious conviction turned out to have a great influence on how the chances of managing the pain were affected. The feeling of not being trusted strengthened the mental illness and contributed to worsening opportunities to deal with the pain.

    Conclusion:

    Suffering should be met, confirmed and understood on the basis of its entirety. The result of this study could contribute to an increased understanding and provide a deeper insight into how affected patients experience their pain, situation and environment. The knowledge could benefit the nurse in the health-promoting work.

  • 2462.
    Byléhn, Elsie-Marie
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Occupational science.
    Medarbetarundersökningens roll i chefernas arbetsmiljöarbete: En kvalitativ studie hos Trafikverket2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The employee is entitled to a safe work environment according to Swedish legislation.  Good working conditions are a key factor to create healthy and attractive work places. Employee survey is a method used to investigate the work environment in the process “Systematiskt arbetsmiljöarbete”. The employee survey can also be used to measure employees’ views on a wide range of work-related topics in order to achieve organizational success.

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the importance of the employee survey for the continuous work environment process done by managers.  The study also investigated how the managers’ worked with the result of the employee survey and how they worked with the continuous work environment process. The study was carried out on a function with three organizational levels and contains 12 interviews with managers on all three levels.

    The findings of the study show that the result of the employee survey is used as a basis for discussion both in the management teams and in dialogue with employees in the work environment process. The result of the employee survey is also used to ensure that measures taken within the work environment process are well accepted. The result also shows that managers on the lowest organizational level use other tools when investigating the work environment.

  • 2463. Byqvist Nilsson, Christina
    et al.
    Gammel, Camilla
    Specialistsjuksköterskors upplevelser av vårdandet av patienter med samsjuklighet2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to describe how specialist nurses in psychiatric nursing experience caring for patients suffering from both mental illness and substance abuse problems.

    Method: Empirical qualitative study using semi-structured interviews were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Five specialist nurses participated in the study.

    Results: From the analysis of the interviews revealed two categories wanting well and feel powerless. Moreover, it resulted in five categories follow the patient, the will to act, feel powerlessness, to feel resistance and fail in its competence.

    Conclusion: The current findings point at a connecting thought. This means that the specialist nurses express good intentions, want to do well and act for the best possible care for the patient. Also, there is a hope for the patients recovering. Due to insufficient skills, the nurses sometimes feel resistance to treat patients suffering from comorbidity. This creates a sense of powerlessness. The study has shown that supplementary training and further education will increase the

    possibilities for the specialist nurses to provide every patient with appropriate care. Also, it is important to note that the specialist nurses wish to give the patients this care.

  • 2464.
    Byrskog, Ulrica
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Eriksson, Eva
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Sundell, Annica
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Kvinnlig Könsstympning: Litteraturstudie om praktisk handläggning och komplikationsrisker vid förlossning2005Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Today around 28 000 women originally from countries where FGM is practised, are living in Sweden. Many of them are at childbearing age which means that knowledge about FGM and its consequences is of outmost importance during delivery. The aim of this study is to describe current research on how to manage the delivery, regarding deinfibulation and the following stitching as well as the risk of complications when the labouring woman is mutilated. This review of literature is based on 12 scientific articles published between years 1989 – 2005. Five different databases have been searched with use of a large number of keywords. The review found that no scientific research has been carried out that describes how deinfibulation and following stitching should be managed when the woman is mutilated. All available articles within this area are referring to best practice only. The review also found that the conclusions of the studies are contradictory. The majority, however, show an increased frequency for prolonged labour that could be related to FGM. The three largest studies also show an increased rate of caesarean section among mutilated women. In the few studies that examine haemorrhage, the majorities show an increased tendency to bleed, that could be related to FGM. Several articles emphasize the importance of good routines for deinfibulation to reduce the risk for complications. In summary it can be established that due to methodological problems in many studies, no reliable conclusion can be made that the researched complications exists to a greater extent when the woman is mutilated

  • 2465.
    Byrskog, Ulrika
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing. Institutionen för kvinnors och barns hälsa, Uppsala Universitet. Centrum för klinisk forskning, Dalarna.
    'Moving On' and Transitional Bridges: Studies on migration, violence and wellbeing in encounters with Somali-born women and the maternity health care in Sweden2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    During the latest decade Somali-born women with experiences of long-lasting war followed by migration have increasingly encountered Swedish maternity care, where antenatal care midwives are assigned to ask questions about exposure to violence. The overall aim in this thesis was to gain deeper understanding of Somali-born women’s wellbeing and needs during the parallel transitions of migration to Sweden and childbearing, focusing on maternity healthcare encounters and violence. Data were obtained from medical records (paper I), qualitative interviews with Somali-born women (II, III) and Swedish antenatal care midwives (IV). Descriptive statistics and thematic analysis were used. Compared to pregnancies of Swedish-born women, Somali-born women’s pregnancies demonstrated later booking and less visits to antenatal care, more maternal morbidity but less psychiatric treatment, less medical pain relief during delivery and more emergency caesarean sections and small-for-gestational-age infants (I). Political violence with broken societal structures before migration contributed to up-rootedness, limited healthcare and absent state-based support to women subjected to violence, which reinforced reliance on social networks, own endurance and faith in Somalia (II). After migration, sources of wellbeing were a pragmatic “moving-on” approach including faith and motherhood, combined with social coherence. Lawful rights for women were appreciated but could concurrently risk creating power tensions in partner relationships. Generally, the Somali-born women associated the midwife more with providing medical care than with overall wellbeing or concerns about violence, but new societal resources were parallel incorporated with known resources (III). Midwives strived for woman-centered approaches beyond ethnicity and culture in care encounters, with language, social gaps and divergent views on violence as potential barriers in violence inquiry. Somali-born women’s strength and contentment were highlighted, and ongoing violence seldom encountered according to the midwives experiences (IV). Pragmatism including “moving on” combined with support from family and social networks, indicate capability to cope with violence and migration-related stress. However, this must be balanced against potential unspoken needs at individual level in care encounters.With trustful relationships, optimized interaction and networking with local Somali communities and across professions, the antenatal midwife can have a “bridging-function” in balancing between dual societies and contribute to healthy transitions in the new society.

  • 2466.
    Byrskog, Ulrika
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing. Centrum för klinisk forskning, Dalarna, Institutionen för kvinnors och barns hälsa, Uppsala Universitet.
    Våld och reproduktiv hälsa i krigets skugga – somalisvenska perspektiv2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 2467.
    Byrskog, Ulrika
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Ahrne, Malin
    Small, Rhonda
    Andersson, Ewa
    Essen, Birgitta
    Adan, Aisha
    Ahmed, Fardosa Hassen
    Tesser, Karin
    Åhman-Berndtsson, Anna
    Schytt, Erica
    Rationale, development and feasibility of group antenatal care for immigrant women in Sweden: a study protocol for the Hooyo Project2019In: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 9, no 7, article id e030314Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION: Somali-born women comprise a large group of immigrant women of childbearing age in Sweden, with increased risks for perinatal morbidity and mortality and poor experiences of care, despite the goal of providing equitable healthcare for the entire population. Rethinking how care is provided may help to improve outcomes.

    OVERALL AIM: To develop and test the acceptability, feasibility and immediate impacts of group antenatal care for Somali-born immigrant women, in an effort to improve experiences of antenatal care, knowledge about childbearing and the Swedish healthcare system, emotional well-being and ultimately, pregnancy outcomes. This protocol describes the rationale, planning and development of the study.

    METHODS AND ANALYSIS: An intervention development and feasibility study. Phase I includes needs assessment and development of contextual understanding using focus group discussions. In phase II, the intervention and evaluation tools, based on core values for quality care and person-centred care, are developed. Phase III includes the historically controlled evaluation in which relevant outcome measures are compared for women receiving individual care (2016-2018) and women receiving group antenatal care (2018-2019): care satisfaction (Migrant Friendly Maternity Care Questionnaire), emotional well-being (Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale), social support, childbirth fear, knowledge of Swedish maternity care, delivery outcomes. Phase IV includes the process evaluation, investigate process, feasibility and mechanisms of impact using field notes, observations, interviews and questionnaires. All phases are conducted in collaboration with a stakeholder reference group.

    ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study is approved by the Regional Ethical Review Board, Stockholm, Sweden. Participants receive information about the study and their right to decline/withdraw without consequences. Consent is given prior to enrolment. Findings will be disseminated at antenatal care units, national/international conferences, through publications in peer-reviewed journals, seminars involving stakeholders, practitioners, community and via the project website. Participating women will receive a summary of results in their language.

  • 2468.
    Byrskog, Ulrika
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Ahrne, Malin
    Small, Rhonda
    Andersson, Ewa
    Essén, Birgitta
    Institutionen för kvinnors och barns hälsa, Uppsala Universitet .
    Adan, Aisha
    Hassen Ahmed, Fardosa
    Tesser, Karin
    Lidén, Yvonne
    Schytt, Erica
    Rationale, development and feasibility of group antenatal care for immigrant women in Sweden2019Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 2469.
    Byrskog, Ulrika
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Akther, Hasne Ara
    Khatoon, Zohra
    Bogren, Malin
    Erlandsson, Kerstin
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Social, economic and professional barriers influencing midwives’ realities in Bangladesh: a qualitative study of midwifery educators preparing midwifery students for clinical reality2019In: Evidence Based Midwifery., ISSN 1479-4489, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 19-26Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    Identifying existing barriers inhibiting the provision of quality care in Bangladesh can guide both the government, in fulfilling its commitment to establishing the midwifery profession, and midwifery educators, in preparing midwifery students for the reality of midwifery clinical work.

    Aim

    The aim of this study was to describe midwifery educators’ perceptions of midwives’ realities in Bangladesh, focusing on social, economic, and professional barriers preventing them from carrying out quality care.

    Methods

    Data were collected through focus group discussions with 17 midwifery educators and analysed using qualitative content analysis, guided by the analytical framework “What prevents quality midwifery care?”. Ethical clearance was obtained from Bangladesh’s Directorate General of Nursing and Midwifery.

    Results

    The results generated by the application of the framework included social barriers of gender structures in Bangladeshi society. This influenced entry into midwifery education, carrying out midwifery work safely, and the development of the profession. Economic barriers included challenges for Bangladesh as a low-income country with a large population, inadequate salaries, and staff shortages, adding extra strain to midwives’ working conditions. These social and economic barriers were further enhanced by professional barriers due to the midwifery profession not yet being fully established or acknowledged in the health system.

    Conclusions and implications

    The study presents novel country-specific perspectives but confirms the general underlying issues of gender inequality as a base for barriers preventing midwives from carrying out quality care, in line with the framework “What prevents quality midwifery care?”. Addressing these structures can facilitate more students to enter midwifery education, enable quality midwifery work free from discrimination, and provide sufficient working space and professional integrity. Leadership training is pivotal to increasing responsiveness to the needs of the new cadre of midwives. Midwifery educators should take the lead in sensitising clinical supervisors, mentors, and preceptors about midwives’ realities in Bangladesh.

  • 2470.
    Byrskog, Ulrika
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Essén, Birgitta
    Olsson, Pia
    Klingberg-Allvin, Marie
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    ‘Moving on’: Violence, wellbeing and questions about violence in antenatal care encounters. A qualitative study with Somali-born refugees in Sweden2016In: Midwifery, ISSN 0266-6138, E-ISSN 1532-3099, Vol. 40, p. 10-17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Somali-born women constitute one of the largest groups of childbearing refugee women in Sweden after more than two decades of political violence in Somalia. In Sweden, these women encounter antenatal care that includes routine questions about violence being asked. The aim of the study was to explore how Somali-born women understand and relate to violence and wellbeing during their migration transition and their views on being approached with questions about violence in Swedish antenatal care.

    Method

    Qualitative interviews (22) with Somali-born women (17) living in Sweden were conducted and analysed using thematic analysis.

    Findings

    A balancing actbetween keeping private life private and the new welfare system was identified, where the midwife's questions about violence were met with hesitance. The midwife was, however, considered a resource for access to support services in the new society. A focus on pragmatic strategies to move on in life, rather than dwelling on potential experiences of violence and related traumas, was prominent. Social networks, spiritual faith and motherhood were crucial for regaining coherence in the aftermath of war. Dialogue and mutual adjustments were identified as strategies used to overcome power tensions in intimate relationships undergoing transition.

    Conclusions

    If confidentiality and links between violence and health are explained and clarified during the care encounter, screening for violence can be more beneficial in relation to Somali-born women. The focus on “moving on” and rationality indicates strength and access to alternative resources, but needs to be balanced against risks for hidden needs in care encounters. A care environment with continuity of care and trustful relationships enhances possibilities for the midwife to balance these dual perspectives and identify potential needs. Collaborations between Somali communities, maternity care and social service providers can contribute with support to families in transition and bridge gaps to formal social and care services.

  • 2471.
    Byrskog, Ulrika
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Essén, Birgitta
    Institutionen för kvinnors och barns hälsa, Uppsala Universitet .
    Olsson, Pia
    Institutionen för kvinnors och barns hälsa, Uppsala Universitet .
    Klingberg-Allvin, Marie
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Violence and reproductive health preceding flight from war: accounts from Somali born women in Sweden2014In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 14, article id 892Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Political violence and war are push factors for migration and social determinants of health among migrants. Somali migration to Sweden has increased threefold since 2004, and now comprises refugees with more than 20 years of war experiences. Health is influenced by earlier life experiences with adverse sexual and reproductive health, violence, and mental distress being linked. Adverse pregnancy outcomes are reported among Somali born refugees in high-income countries. The aim of this study was to explore experiences and perceptions on war, violence, and reproductive health before migration among Somali born women in Sweden.

    Method: Qualitative semi-structured individual interviews were conducted with 17 Somali born refugee women of fertile age living in Sweden. Thematic analysis was applied.

    Results: Before migration, widespread war-related violence in the community had created fear, separation, and interruption in daily life in Somalia, and power based restrictions limited access to reproductive health services. The lack of justice and support for women exposed to non-partner sexual violence or intimate partner violence reinforced the risk of shame, stigmatization, and silence. Social networks, stoicism, and faith constituted survival strategies in the context of war.

    Conclusions: Several factors reinforced non-disclosure of violence exposure among the Somali born women before migration. Therefore, violence-related illness might be overlooked in the health care system. Survival strategies shaped by war contain resources for resilience and

  • 2472.
    Byrskog, Ulrika
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Hussein, I. H.
    Yusuf, F. M.
    Egal, J. A.
    Erlandsson, Kerstin
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    The situation for female survivors of non-partner sexual violence: A focused enquiry of Somali young women's views, knowledge and opinions2018In: Sexual & Reproductive HealthCare, ISSN 1877-5756, E-ISSN 1877-5764, Vol. 16, p. 39-44Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective

    The aim of the study is to elucidate young women’s perceptions of the situation for female survivors of non-partner sexual violence in Somaliland.

    Methods

    Young Somali women with diverse backgrounds (n = 25) shared views, knowledge and opinions about non partner sexual violence in focus group discussions held in urban settings. Data was analysed using content analysis.

    Results

    A main category “Bound by culture and community perceptions” with four subcategories comprises the informants’ perceptions of non-partner sexual violence among young women in Somaliland. Illuminated is the importance of protecting oneself and the family dignity, a fear of being rejected and mistrusted, how the juridical system exists in the shadow of tradition and potential keys to healthcare support.

    Conclusion

    The study raises awareness of the dilemmas which may be faced by young women subjected to non-partner sexual violence and healthcare providers in the intersection between state and traditional norms. Education is a key when it comes to a young woman considering the use of the services available in a society where traditional problem-solving is relied on parallel to state-based support. State-based functions, communities and families need to work together to provide comprehensive support to young female survivors of non-partner sexual violence in Somaliland.

  • 2473.
    Byrskog, Ulrika
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Members of the Midwifery Faculty Master’s degree holders in Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights, Bangladesh
    Bogren, Malin
    Erlandsson, Kerstin
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Midwives realities in Bangladesh: A focus group enquiry with midwifery students and educators2019Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 2474.
    Byrskog, Ulrika
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing. Uppsala universitet; Centre for Clinical Research, Falun.
    Olsson, Pia
    Uppsala universitet.
    Essén, Birgitta
    Uppsala universitet.
    Klingberg-Allvin, Marie
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Being a bridge: Swedish antenatal care midwives’ encounters with Somali-born women and questions of violence; a qualitative study2015In: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth, ISSN 1471-2393, E-ISSN 1471-2393, Vol. 15, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Violence against women is associated with serious health problems, including adverse maternal and child health. Antenatal care (ANC) midwives are increasingly expected to implement the routine of identifying exposure to violence. An increase of Somali born refugee women in Sweden, their reported adverse childbearing health and possible links to violence pose a challenge to the Swedish maternity health care system. Thus, the aim was to explore ways ANC midwives in Sweden work with Somali born women and the questions of exposure to violence.

    Methods: Qualitative individual interviews with 17 midwives working with Somali-born women in nine ANC clinics in Sweden were analyzed using thematic analysis.

    Results: The midwives strived to focus on the individual woman beyond ethnicity and cultural differences. In relation to the Somali born women, they navigated between different definitions of violence, ways of handling adversities in life and social contexts, guided by experience based knowledge and collegial support. Seldom was ongoing violence encountered. The Somali-born women’s’ strengths and contentment were highlighted, however, language skills were considered central for a Somali-born woman’s access to rights and support in the Swedish society. Shared language, trustful relationships, patience, and networking were important aspects in the work with violence among Somali-born women.

    Conclusion: Focus on the individual woman and skills in inter-cultural communication increases possibilities of overcoming social distances. This enhances midwives’ ability to identify Somali born woman’s resources and needs regarding violence disclosure and support. Although routine use of professional interpretation is implemented, it might not fully provide nuances and social safety needed for violence disclosure. Thus, patience and trusting relationships are fundamental in work with violence among Somali born women. In collaboration with social networks and other health care and social work professions, the midwife can be a bridge and contribute to increased awareness of rights and support for Somali-born women in a new society.

  • 2475.
    Byrskog, Ulrika
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing. Centrum för klinisk forskning, Dalarna, Institutionen för kvinnors och barns hälsa, Uppsala Universitet. .
    Olsson, Pia
    Institutionen för kvinnors och barns hälsa, Uppsala Universitet .
    Essén, Birgitta
    Institutionen för kvinnors och barns hälsa, Uppsala Universitet .
    Klingberg-Allvin, Marie
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Perceptions and experiences of war, violence, migration and reproductive health among Somali refugee women in Sweden2013In: 19th Nordic Midwifery Congress - Nordic and Global Challenges: Book of abstracts, 2013, p. 75-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Perceptions and experiences of war, violence and migration and related sexual and reproductive health among Somali refugee women in Sweden.

    Background and objectives: Sweden has during the latest six years experienced a twofold increase of Somali born refugees. Elevated levels of pregnancy related morbidity and perinatal complications are seen among Somali born refugee women.  Research has shown links between a mother´s prenatal stress and anxiety and the health of the child the first year. Furthermore, violence towards a mother-to-be has negative health effects and increases the neonatal mortality The specific aim in the current study was to explore perceptions and experiences of war, violence and migration among Somali refugee women in Sweden. This in order to find strategies in caring for birth giving Somali refugee women, with possible experiences of violence, which would benefit the woman and society at large.

    Material and methods: Qualitative individual audio-recorded interviews were conducted with Somali born refugee women in fertile ages. Interviews were held in three steps: 1) personal narratives by newly arrived Somali born women, 2) perceptions and views out of a depersonalized case and 3) reflections upon emerging themes by female key persons of Somali origin. Thematic analysis according to Clarke and Braun was applied.

    Preliminary results: The analysis resulted in two main themes: Lives controlled by the presence of violence and Sacrificing for the sake of a future. Access to education, livelihood opportunities and health facilities has been strictly limited by the long-lasting civil war. Escalated violations of sexual and reproductive health and rights were a common triggering factor for finalizing escape. Lives have been extensively marked by family separations. Patience created by war and a pragmatic orientation in life have made survival possible.

    Conclusions: To be presented at the congress

    Implications for practice: The results will provide increased evidence based knowledge useful to midwives when caring and supporting birth giving refugee women.

     

     

     

  • 2476.
    Byrskog, Ulrika
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing. Centrum för klinisk forskning, Dalarna, Institutionen för kvinnors och barns hälsa, Uppsala Universitet. .
    Olsson, Pia
    Institutionen för kvinnors och barns hälsa, Uppsala Universitet .
    Essén, Birgitta
    Institutionen för kvinnors och barns hälsa, Uppsala Universitet .
    Klingberg-Allvin, Marie
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Violence, sexual and reproductive health and rights in Somalia: Qualitative interviews with Somali born women in Sweden2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Political violence is a push factors for migration and social determinants of health among migrants. The Somali migration to Sweden has increased threefold during the latest six years, now comprising refugees with more than 20 years of war experiences. Adverse childbearing health and outcomes are reported among Somali born refugees in high income countries. Health is influenced by earlier life experiences and a link between adverse sexual and reproductive health, violence and mental distress is described in research. Therefore, the aim was to explore experiences and perceptions on war, violence and sexual and reproductive health before migration among Somali born women in Sweden.

     

    Method: Qualitative semi-structured individual interviews with Somali born refugee women living in Sweden were conducted, based on personal narratives and a hypothetical case. Thematic analysis was applied.

    Results: Escalating violence and power based restrictions permeated gradually all aspect of life and limited both access to and quality of reproductive health services in pre-migration Somalia. Formal societal support for women exposed to violence was absent. This reinforced shame and stigma connected to war related and community based sexual violence and the silence surrounding sexual and intimate partner violence. Women expressed survival strategies in the context of war based on social networks, pragmatism, strength and faith.

    Conclusions: Lack of formal structures on community levels has together with collective violence negatively impacted the whole spectra of women’s lives which have undermined the sexual and reproductive and health and rights. Several factors reinforce non-disclosure of violence exposure and can thus hamper health care seeking for violence related illness in the receiving country. Survival strategies shaped by war contain resources for resilience and enhancement of mental, sexual and reproductive health in receiving country.

    Keywords: Somalia, war, violence, refugee, sexual and reproductive health and rights, qualitative method, thematic analysis

     

  • 2477.
    Byström, Amanda
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Uppföljning av nya flexibla arbetssättet: En kvalitativ studie om användningen av aktivitetsbaserat arbetssätt i praktiken2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines actors who work according to the work concept "activity-based working" or abbreviated "ABW". This is due to a trend of “knowledge work” that has contributed to work tasks being diverse and requiring different types of work environments. ABW is a concept based on that employees choose a workplace in an environment suitable for ongoing type of work, instead of a personal allocated workplace to perform all types of work tasks. This study has been developed from previous research that shows that ABW has a clear vision of increasing efficiency in organizations, but lacks a clear strategy on how to follow up the use of the working method. The study aims to deepen the knowledge of the follow-up process of the ABW usage and to investigate why organizations implement these concepts. The analysis in this study shows the important function of ABW as a symbolic significance for achieving a cultural change amongst knowledge workers. A model is provided to suggest an explanation on how concepts such as the working method ABW are followed up within organizations.

  • 2478.
    Byström, Eric
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Moving Image Production.
    Karaktärer, fördjupning och förändring: En studie i filmexempel om karaktärsfördjupning och karaktärsförändring i klassisk dramaturgi.2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna

    uppsats

    syfte

    är

    att

    studera

    funktionen

    och

    uppfattningen

    av

    karaktärsfördjupning

    och

    karaktärsförändring

    i

    klassisk

    dramaturgi.

    Den

    mest

    påtagliga

    uppfattning

    om

    dessa

    två

    begrepp

    är

    att

    de

    fungerar

    i

    samband

    med

    varandra.

    En

    karaktär

    i

    en

    film

    som

    inte

    fördjupas

    kan

    inte

    heller

    förändras

    och

    en

    film

    med

    en

    oföränderlig

    karaktär

    är

    en

    tråkig

    sådan.

    I

    granskningar

    av

    protagonisterna

    i

    filmerna

    My

    Dinner

    with

    Andre

    (1982),

    Die

    Hard

    (1988)

    och

    Doubt

    (2008)

    går

    det

    att

    se

    användningar

    av

    dessa

    begrepp

    som

    utmanar

    denna

    uppfattning.

    Filmerna

    påvisar

    olika

    grader

    av

    samband

    mellan

    karaktärsfördjupning

    och

    karaktärsförändring

    men

    gör

    detta

    sätt

    som

    inte

    helt

    stämmer

    överens

    med

    hur

    de

    i

    dagens

    mer

    tillgängliga

    litteratur

    behandlas.

    Det

    är

    relevant

    att

    öppna

    upp

    dagens

    dialog

    om

    hur

    dessa

    begrepp

    ska

    bearbetas

    i

    klassisk

    dramaturgi.

    Dessa

    filmer

    och

    deras

    respektive

    protagonister

    utgör

    karaktärer

    som

    både

    bekräftar

    och

    går

    emot

    det

    som

    idag

    talas

    som

    normalitet.

  • 2479.
    Byström, Kurt
    Dalarna University, Not School affiliated.
    From a traditional academic library to a modern learning environment: Dalarna University Library - expectations and results2016Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    This report describes the ideas and vision behind Dalarna University's award-winning library in Falun. A description of the planning and construction processes and an evaluation of the final outcome are presented together with experiences and observations drawn from the project.

  • 2480.
    Byström, Kurt
    Dalarna University, Not School affiliated.
    Från traditionellt akademiskt bibliotek till modern lärmiljö: Högskolan Dalarnas bibliotek – förväntningar och resultat2016Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna rapport beskrivs idéerna bakom Högskolan Dalarnas prisbelönta bibliotek i Falun. Planerings- och byggprocessen beskrivs och det färdiga resultatet utvärderas, samt de erfarenheter som har gjorts delas.

  • 2481. Byström, Lars-Erik
    et al.
    Andersson, Ing-Marie
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Occupational science.
    Rosén, Gunnar
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Occupational science.
    Digital video for improved training and risk communication in occupational hygiene [Poster]2005In: IOHA 6th International Conference, Pilansberg, South Africa, 2005Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Video technology has been utilized for the production of training films focusing on occupational hygiene topics for at least two decades. These films have mainly been produced in a traditional way with some basic story told, illustrated with video pictures and accompanied by a speaker voice. The introduction video exposure monitoring technologies as PIMEX have made it possible to develop the use of video by adding additional information to the video picture about, at the same time occurring exposure to e.g. air contaminants. This technology has meant an important advance what concerns improved understanding of the link between occupational exposure and the situation in the work place and worker behaviour. The improved possibility to involve the worker and supervisors in the search for effective control measures is perhaps the most important characteristic. This technology is now used in several countries and the experiences from its use prompts for continued development and widened use. The development of video technology, especially digital video and the possibilities to do professional editing in standard computers implies a fantastic possibility and challenge for the occupational hygienist. Digital video cameras, computers with video editing as standard and possibilities to produce ready products on built in CD or DVD burners are now common products on the consumer market which implies that the price level has gone down drastically. With those tools is it therefore possible now to produce advanced reports and especially effective, visualized training materials. This way of using the technology is already in use in different countries for production of exposure study reports as CD-ROMs including text as well as video illustrations. At the Swedish Institute for Working Life has training videos using visualization methods as PIMEX been produced for many years. In recent year has this production been developed in many ways to make a wider and more effective distribution of knowledge possible? One example is the production of an extensive training material focusing on control of occupational exposure to dust. This product is also produced in html-code, which means that it can be used in most standard computers and that it is prepared for distribution on Internet. The duplication of such a product is not expensive and the possibility to distribute via Internet makes a wide knowledge spread possible. Other examples have focused on hazard control in wood industry and the organisation of a systematic work environment management system. The today available technology based on digital video and computer technology has made it possible for non-professional video producers to produce and distribute training material which are much more effective to get the message across. This possibility may be compared to the introduction of word processing technology which today makes it possible for any hygienist to write professionally looking reports. It is now time for occupational hygienists to utilize the new possibilities for production of effective training tools.

  • 2482.
    Byström, Sara
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work.
    "Någon borde ju rimligtvis ha läst dem för mig" En kvalitativ studie om högläsning bland pedagoger och föräldrar till barn i förskoleklass och årskurs ett.2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 2483.
    Bytyqi, Liridona
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Johansson, Madeleine
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Flickors berättelser om vaccination mot humantpapillomvirus under användning med och utan Guided Imagery: En kvalitativ studie2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Vaccination is today the most common form of treatment that can be perceivedas painful in health care. Research has shown that a negative experience can occur in childrenif their pain, anxiety, and fear are not alleviated during vaccination.Objective: The aim of the study was to describe, based on stories, schoolgirls’ experiences ofthe vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV) both with and without the distractionmethod Guided Imagery (GI).Method: This empirical study was conducted with a qualitative narrative design. The datawas collected through written stories. The data was taken from an intervention study andconsisted of 84 stories about HPV vaccination, written by 35 schoolgirls from grade 5 to 6.The data was analyzed based on a qualitative content analysis. The analysis resulted in 4domains and 14 categories.Results: Schoolgirls who received GI during HPV vaccination felt that pain and distractionfrom the injection varied in different degrees. The participants felt that the vaccination feltgood and that it was pleasant to daydream. While others thought the opposite and thatstandardcare was preferred instead.Conclusion: The study shows that pain during vaccination is central to many children. Thedistraction method GI could during vaccination be perceived as calming and it could relievethe pain-experience. However, also standard care could help children during vaccination.How children experienced vaccinations seemed to be very individual.

  • 2484.
    Bäck, Cecilia
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Social Work.
    Ericson Lindmark, Leni
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Social Work.
    "Att peka med hela handen": En studie om omsorgspersonals upplevelser av makt och kommunikation.2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In a report of the National Board of health and welfare they statethat the chief's role in the health care profession, plays a major role in, among other things, their psychosocial work environment and that communication is carrying for the prerequisite to achieve this. In this paper a qualitative study has been made of how protective services workers feel that their work environment is affected by the power situation in relation to the head. This data has been analyzed based on theories of power, communication and sense of context (SOC). The results show that informants feel that the manager's way of communicating is important partly for sense of context (SOC) of their work, but also that it is dependent on communication for power visible or not.

  • 2485.
    Bäck, Malin
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Graphic Arts Technology.
    Influencerns användande av företags visuella identitet vid betalt samarbete2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Influencers ar det nya verktyget i foretags marknadsforing. Men vad hander

    med foretags visuell identitet nar en influencer far skapa ett inlagg i samarbete

    efter en forfragan fran foretag.

    Studien bygger pa en visuell innehallsanalys av fyra olika foretag som anvander

    sig av influencers i det sociala medier Instagram. Den visuella

    innehallsanalysen skapades efter riktlinjer som stalldes upp innan studien

    paborjades for att lata alla bedomningar ga efter samma mall. Efter att analysen

    var klara sattes intervjufragor upp for att anvandas vid strukturerade intervjuer

    med influencers for att verkligen fa reda pa hur de arbetade och vilken

    information de fick fran foretag.

    Resultatet fran bade intervjuerna och den visuella identiteten visar pa att

    influencers far valdigt olika direktiv fran foretag. Det papekas aven att de vill

    skapa sitt material sjalva utan att nagon annan styr for att behalla en akthet mot

    sina foljare, som annars latt ser igenom inlagg ifall de ar fake.

  • 2486.
    Bäck, Malin
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Graphic Arts Technology.
    Wennemyr, Elin
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Graphic Arts Technology.
    Digital anpassning av nyhetsbrev för portabla digitala enheter2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Today we have become increasingly dependent of our digital portable

    devices and constantly bring these with us. So, it goes without saying,

    we should adapt newsletters to this reality and not let the design be based

    on more traditional, stationary devices. The adaptation of how a interface

    should work is controlled by which audience you are targeting. In this

    project, we have worked with Sveriges MotorCyklisters members as target

    group.

    This target group consists of men to the larger part and at a age of 41-65

    years. Through a combination of a qualitative and a quantitative survey

    we have been able to create examples of guidelines for functionality and

    overview, directed towards the target group. The results show that they

    prefer a simple design that is easy to navigate and do not consist of too

    much irrelevant information and that easily leads on from headlines to

    articles. It is important to the group that there are clear, distinct and large

    buttons and texts which are customizable with a high degree of readability,

    regardless of which device the material presented on. All of these

    data were collected from surveys and interviews with members of SMC.

  • 2487.
    Bäcke, Linda
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Material Science.
    Modeling the effect of solute drag on recovery and recrystallization during hot deformation of Nb microalloyed steels2010In: ISIJ International, ISSN 0915-1559, E-ISSN 1347-5460, Vol. 50, no 2, p. 239-247Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of solute drag on recovery and recrystallization during hot deformation of Nb microalloyed steels has been modeled using a newly developed microstructure model. The model is based on dislocation theory and the calculated dislocation density determines the driving force for recrystallization. Subgrains act as nuclei for recrystallization and have to reach a critical size and configuration in order for recrystallization to start. In the model, the solute drag effect of Nb in solution is described. Nb retards both dislocation and grain boundary movement giving retardation in both recovery and recrystallization. Calculations were compared to experimental results from axisymmetric compression tests combined with stress relaxation. In order to model the effect of solute drag, the experiments were carried out at temperatures where precipitation of Nb(C, N) should not occur. The calculated flow stresses for the compression tests show good fit with experimental data. Also, the calculated results of the relaxation tests show good agreement with experimental data.

  • 2488.
    Bäcke, Sanna
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education and Humanities, Educational Work.
    Graf, Elisabeth
    Dalarna University, School of Education and Humanities, Educational Work.
    - Ni får gärna hoppa på golvet om ni vill hoppa: En studie om pedagogers bemötande av barns egna initativ i förskola och förskoleklass2013Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this survey was to discern possible similarities and difference between how teachers in preschool and pre-class respond to children’s own initiative out of a power perspective. The results of this study is collect by observations that we have done in free and planned activity in both preschool and pre-class as well as a few interviews with some of the teachers. The results have shown that teacher’s responses to children’s own initiatives in preschool and pre-class to most part is similar, despite the difference in their commission. The biggest differences are that teachers in preschool prioritize children’s care before allowing the children to pursue their own initiatives, which haven’t emerged from the observations in the pre-class. Another difference is that the teachers in pre-class are more flexible during the planned activities and utilize the children’s own initiatives.

  • 2489.
    Bäckfors, Rhonja
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Niebl, Viktoria
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Hur kan en personlig tränare påverka motivationen till regelbunden träning? Utifrån kunders och personliga tränares uppfattningar2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: During the last decade, demand for personal trainers increased when individuals need help with motivation in physical activity. If the personal trainer can adapt the training cabinet after the individual needs it can strengthen the clients motivation to exercise regularly.

    Purpose: The purpose of the study was to compare how the client and the trainer understand what motivates regular exercise. What are the similarities and differences between how personal trainers motivate and how the customer experiences the motivation of the coach?

    Method: The study was based on a qualitative method approach, using the interview as a data collection method. Five individuals were interviewed in total: three personal trainers employed by Gym X and two clients who trained in Gym X with a personal trainer. The material was analyzed with the inspiration of the IPA (interpretative phenomenological analysis).

    Results: The results showed that individuals' motivation to train regularly (and how they were motivated during exercise) was individually to them. Both clients and personal trainers felt that the trainer’s personality, knowledge and flexibility in the role were influencing factors in maintaining the motivation to exercise regularly.

    Conclusion: The result could be linked to previous research in motivation, in which the authors interpret many of the informants' answers as motivators. It is important for trainers to think about their work, able to detect people, be involved and adapt training based on clients needs and desires, otherwise it could lead to the clients choosing to end their cooperation with the trainer when they does not get enough motivation.

  • 2490.
    Bäcklin, Helén
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work.
    Arbetar lärare genusmedvetet inom NO?: En undersökning om hur lärare arbetar för att fånga eleversintresse för ämnet i årskurs 4-62018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie var att ta reda på hur praktiserande lärare arbetar och

    beskriver arbetet inom NO för att fånga alla elevers intresse. Syftet var också att

    undersöka hur lärarna tänker utifrån ett genusperspektiv när de planerar sina

    lektioner. Ovanstående syfte kommer besvaras med hjälp av följande frågeställningar:

    Hur beskriver lärare att de fångar både pojkar och flickors intresse för NO i

    årskurs 4-6?

    Hur beskriver lärare eventuella skillnader mellan pojkar och flickors intresse

    för NO i årskurs 4-6?

    Hur förhåller sig pojkar och flickor till lärarens arbetssätt och lektionsinnehåll

    under NO-lektionerna?

    Studiens syfte undersöktes med hjälp av en kvalitativ metod bestående av både

    intervjuer och klassrumsobservationer. Studien har en teoretisk anknytning till

    konstruktivismen och socialkonstruktivism. Tre lärare intervjuades och fem klasser

    observerades på en grundskola i Mellansverige. Resultatet visade att det enligt lärarnas

    uppfattningar inte fanns någon större skillnad mellan pojkars och flickors intresse för

    NO. Svårigheten visade sig vara att anpassa undervisningen efter elevernas olika

    kunskapsnivåer. Lärarna arbetade på ett genusmedvetet sätt när de planerade

    lektionerna och de ansåg att lektionerna i NO behöver ha ett varierat innehåll där

    teori, praktik och visuella verktyg överlappar varandra. Detta för att nå alla elevers

    intresse och kunskapsnivå och på det sättet skapa ett intresse för NO hos eleverna.

  • 2491.
    Bäcklin, Helén
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work.
    Vad krävs för en likvärdig undervisning i NO för årskurs 1-6: En systematisk litteraturstudie om olika faktorers betydelse2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna litteraturstudies syfte var att få kunskap om vad tidigare forskning uttrycker har för en mer

    genusmedveten och jämställd undervisning i naturvetenskapliga ämnen för grundskolans tidigare

    årskurser. Syftet preciserades i följande frågeställningar:

     Hur resonerar lärare om genus och jämställdhet enligt tidigare forskning?

     Vilken betydelse har elevers kön och ålder för deras intresse för naturvetenskap generellt

    eller för de naturvetenskapliga ämnena i skolan enligt tidigare forskning?

     Vad betonar tidigare forskning som betydelsefullt för mer genusmedvetenhet och jämställd

    NO-undervisning?

     Vilken betydelse har lärarna och föräldrarna för elevers motivation i NO-ämnena enligt

    tidigare forskning?

    Studien är utformad som en systematisk litteraturstudie. Ur syfte och frågeställningar skapades

    svenska och engelska sökord, naturvetenskap, NO och undervisning, samt gender, science och

    primary school. Dessa har sedan använts i databaserna avhandlingar.se, ERIC (Proquest) och

    NorDiNa för att finna aktuell forskning som kan besvara studiens frågeställningar. Resultatet visar

    att genusmedvetenhet hos läraren är av betydelse för elevernas resultat, intresse och attityd till

    naturvetenskap och teknik. Eleverna behöver få respons och feedback på deras arbeten för att känna

    sig motiverade och behålla intresset. Det är även viktigt att läraren vet skillnaden mellan kön och

    genus samt jämställdhet och jämlikhet.

  • 2492. Bäcklin, Jessica
    et al.
    Rapp, Ida
    Sjuksköterskans upplevelse av att vårda patienter med psykisk ohälsa: En litteraturöversikt2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Beskriva vad som påverkar sjuksköterskans upplevelse i omvårdnaden av vuxna patienter med psykisk ohälsa inom somatisk vård.

    Metod: En litteraturstudie. Resultat: Tillgängligheten av stöd och samarbete påverkar sjuksköterskans upplevelse av omvårdnad. När stöd erhölls upplevde sjuksköterskan ökad komfort samt en känsla av kompetens. Sjuksköterskan hade otillräckligt med kunskap för att kunna identifiera, bedöma, informera och behandla patienter med psykisk sjukdom. Grundutbildningen ansågs inte vara tillräcklig för att förbereda sjuksköterskan, och många uppgav att de hade fått lite eller ingen utbildning i vård, behandling och bedömning av patienter med psykisk sjukdom. Otillräcklig erfarenhet påverkade sjuksköterskans upplevelse vid vård av patienter med psykisk ohälsa.

    Slutsats: Litteraturstudien belyser vikten av kunskap, utbildning och färdighet för att ge en god vård till en utsatt patientgrupp. Mer utbildning krävs inom psykiatri, redan i grundutbildningen, så att sjuksköterskan känner sig tryggare i sin roll. Sjuksköterskan inom somatisk vård bör även regelbundet erbjudas utbildning inom ämnet. Något som efterfrågades var mer stöd från ledning och kompetent personal inom området psykiatri, och detta ansåg sjuksköterskorna skulle leda till en bättre och säkrare vård.

  • 2493.
    Bäcklund, Erica
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Social Work.
    Olsson, Elin
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Social Work.
    "Det krävs 12 wienerbröd": Biståndshandläggares upplevelse av möjligheten till självbestämmande för personer med demenssjukdom2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to investigate how care managers find it possible to assure the self-determination of older people with dementia. The study employed a cross-sectional survey design with semi-structured interviews of six purposively sampled care managers. Through a thematic analysis, two main themes emerged,

    the work role’s everyday routine and a long process. The main themes containeds sub-themes which further elaborated the care managers’ experience. The results of the study were interpreted from the perspective of Lipsky’s theory of street-level bureaucrats. Assuring self-determination was experienced by the care managers as time-consuming, challenging and problematic. While the path to self-determination was tortuous and varied, the care managers found similar ways to act in order to achieve self-determination. Despite the impression of the work as complex and difficult it was experienced as an exciting and satisfying job.

  • 2494.
    Bäckman, Emili
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Linné, AnnaCarin
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    RBAB: En studie om hur verkligt värde påverkar ett kommunalt förvaltningsbolags redovisning2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Undersöka hur redovisningen i kommunala fastighetsförvaltningsbolag i Rättvik kommer att påverkas om fastigheterna värderas till verkligt värde enligt IAS 40. Slutsatser: Vi anser att det kommunala fastighetsförvaltningsbolaget RBAB inte kommer påverkas positivt om bolagets fastigheter värderas till verkligt värde. Detta eftersom RBAB ser sin verksamhet som en ”going concern” där verksamheten vilar på grunden för en långsiktig bostadsförsörjning för allmännyttan. I RBAB är det viktigare att se till själva verksamheten av bolaget, att underhålla och förvalta fastigheterna står i fokus. Redovisningstekniskt är verkligt värde omständigt att hålla reda på. Det är onödigt att RBAB lägger ned tid och resurser på att redovisa efter världskonjunkturerna, genom årlig värdering. Uppskrivningarna hanteras via en uppskrivningsfond som hör till eget kapital på balansräkningen. Nedskrivningar ska belasta årets resultaträkning, nästa års avskrivningar bygger på det nya nedskrivna värdet. Metod: Den metod vi valde för att uppnå vårt syfte, är att göra en fallstudie, studera ett specifikt objekt, RBAB. Vi använder oss av Eisenhardts metod ”Process of Building Theory from Case Study Research” För insamling av data använder vi oss av intervjuer, som är öppen karaktär. Respondenterna är personer som ur olika vinklar är huvudpersoner inom RBAB. VD, ekonomichef samt revisor. Vi intervjuar även en mäklare i Rättvik för att få svar på frågan om det finns ett befintligt underlag för att kunna värdera förvaltningsfastigheter till verkligt värde. Teori: I vår förstudie studerar vi årsredovisningar. Vår referensram består av kommunala fastighetsförvaltningsbolag, värdering av fastigheter, diskussion om verkligt värde, IAS 40, redovisningstermer och redovisningskriterier.

  • 2495.
    Bäckman, Johanna
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Sundström Dahl, Susanna
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Närståendes upplevelser av information och stöd från vårdgivare vid en anhörigs cancersjukdom – en litteraturstudie2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
  • 2496.
    Bäckman, Lina
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies.
    Inköpsstrategi för den lilla avdelningen i det stora företaget: En studie på ÅF Test Center i Borlänge2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund:

    Många företag idag betraktar inköp som en konkurrensfaktor som har stor

    strategisk betydelse. ÅF Test Center är en liten avdelning med åtta anställda inom koncernen

    ÅF AB. Hur ska då ÅF Test Center hantera sina inköp som ofta sker sporadiskt och utan

    kontroll? Hur borde ett litet tjänsteföretag hantera och utföra sina inköp?

    Syfte:

    Att ge förslag på hur ett litet tjänsteföretag kan hantera sina inköp och utgå från ÅF

    Test Center som exempel. En kartläggning ska göras över hur ÅF Test Center gör och

    hanterar sina inköp idag samt ge förbättringsförslag.

    Genomförande:

    Med hjälp av litteraturstudier som pågått under hela studiens genomförande

    har en modell tagits fram för att ta reda på hur inköpet borde gå till på ÅF Test Center. Samtal

    med de anställda har under hela studiens gång förts och en kartläggning på hur inköpet hittills

    har gått tillväga har gjorts. Modellen bestod i att göra en ABC-analys för att se vilka

    produkter och leverantörer som klassas som viktigast. Utefter den användes Kraljics matris

    för att ta fram en lämplig inköpsstrategi åt företaget, som även kan användas av andra företag.

    Med hjälp av handlingsgrafer har dessa strategier presenterats.

    Resultat:

    Inköpsstrategier har presenterats med hjälp av handlingsgrafer som

    förbättringsförslag. Några punkter som även kommit upp är:

    Kontroll och noggrannhet bör genomsyra hela inköpsprocessen.

    Kontroll av faktura bör ske av den som gjort beställningen och kontrollerat leveransen.

    Några frågor bör ställas vid funderingar kring om vissa produkter ska tillverkas av ÅF

    Test Center själv eller om de ska skicka iväg det för tillverkning hos en leverantör.

    Order bör samlas ihop för att försöka utnyttja mängdrabatter.

    De anställda bör ansvara över olika inköpsområden för bättre specialisering.

  • 2497. Bäckman, Sofie
    Svenska som andraspråkslärares attityder till användning av skönlitteratur i undervisningen2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med den här undersökningen är att visa hur lärare i svenska som andraspråk, på gymnasial

    nivå, resonerar kring möjligheterna att använda skönlitteratur i undervisningen samt på vilka

    grunder de väljer skönlitterära texter för undervisningen. De frågeställningar som undersökningen

    grundar sig på är, bland annat, hur de ser på möjligheterna att använda skönlitteratur i

    undervisningen, hur de arbetar med skönlitteratur samt vilka positiva respektive negativa aspekter

    de ser med att använda skönlitteratur i stället för anpassade läromedel i undervisningen.

    Undersökningens metod bygger på kvalitativa intervjuer med fyra gymnasielärare i svenska som

    andraspråk.

    Resultatet visar att lärarna, i undersökningen, både använder skönlitteratur i undervisningen i stor

    utsträckning och är positiva till det. De menar att skönlitteratur väcker engagemang och kan läsas

    för att vidga perspektivet och ge en större förståelse för andra människor och kulturer. Vidare

    visar resultatet att lärarna använder skönlitteratur som ett språkutvecklande arbetssätt, bland

    annat för att utveckla muntlig interaktion och för att vidga ordförrådet. Flera av informanterna

    arbetar tematiskt kring skönlitteratur eftersom de anser att de kan få med många, olika moment,

    från kursplanerna, vid ett sådant arbetssätt. Lärarna tycker att de kan använda skönlitteratur i

    undervisningen i stor utsträckning eftersom de kan koppla skönlitterära texter till stora delar av

    kursplanen i svenska som andraspråk och dess mål.

  • 2498.
    Bäckström, Jerker
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Söderlund, Daniel
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Kommunal marknadsföring- Competitive identity och institutionell problematik: En komparativ fallstudie om två svenska kommuner och deras marknadsföring2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In a historical point of view there are established norms in the society that declares a municipality to only secure the public welfare that includes health care, education and social care. However the globalization and urbanization has created a competition over inhabitants. This development has led municipalities to increasingly engage in marketing to attract more residents. The study is conducted in a multiple case study design with two cases (municipalities). We examined the chosen cases in there marketing behavior by focusing on two concepts, competitive identity (CI) and institutional complexity (IP). The concept of CI contains a theoretical review of components in municipal marketing and IP describe the municipalities’ complex situation with different institutional demands. By analyzing this concepts against practical cases we intend to contribute to a wider understanding of municipal marketing and its actions in Sweden. We also present our own model in connection with the concept of CI that´s gives the field a nuanced perspective.

    The study’s result identify that the cases has specific target groups much like regular companies. The target groups vary depending on the municipality’s position on the market. By creating a CI the municipalities declares a desired image, much phenomenon’s that considered not to contribute will be excluded in the municipalities marketing. This portrays in different ways which is analyzed thoroughly. At the same time the contradiction is illustrated when the respondents of the municipalities states that all inhabitants will provide to the image. The study shows that a unitary view in how the manage the institutional complexity do not exist. The cases present different methods that they find appropriate.

  • 2499.
    Bäckström, Jonna
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Industrial Engineering and Management.
    Lundberg, Fredrik
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Industrial Engineering and Management.
    Viktiga faktorer vid utveckling av affärsområdetservice: En kvalitativ fallstudie på ett svenskt tillverkande företag2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    An increasing number of industrial manufacturing companies have made the transition to

    offer solutions, that include both its products and services for their customers rather than

    the products itself. Service is considered a lasting source of competitive advantage due to

    the difficulty to imitate by competitors. Today the field Service is a part of the

    aftermarket as companies traditionally offer them as a complement to their product. It is

    regarded to be difficult to manage, a necessary evil and despite investing a large amount

    of resources into it there are few that fully grasps its potential. Failing to manage the

    aftermarket and service is not only an economic risk, but it also risks worsening the

    relationship between the company and its customers. One reason the aftermarket is so

    difficult to manage is due to customers value services differently, thus complicate the

    definition of value. The different characteristics of products and services are contributing

    factors to why companies have difficulties to interpret and supply value to its customers.

    The concept of Servitization is the transformation that traditional manufacturing

    companies undergo to offer solutions of products and services. It is crucial that the

    companies understand the challenge they face. Moving away from the todays productoriented

    approach to instead take on a holistic perspective where service has an equal

    central role as the product is necessary, but often complicated. To begin this

    transformation, a first step is to develop a business plan for service alone, where the core

    is the company’s value offer. Previous research on what factors are crucial when

    developing a new business model within Servitization, as well what is valued by both

    companies and customers is lacking, therefore was this study conducted.

    The case study is conducted at a Swedish industrial manufacturing company, which

    manufactures complex products. The purpose is to examine what factors that are

    important, both internally and externally, when developing a business model for service.

    From this study three primary factors have been identified. The first is the necessity to

    separate services from other fields, to avoid the prejudice of a product-focused

    organization. Second, develop distinct packages of services to aid the company to

    demonstrate the value that services generate for its customers. The third is to regard the

    field of service as a part of its core market and not as an aftermarket.

  • 2500.
    Bäckström, Maria
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    DROGMISSBRUKAREN I VÅRDEN: -bemötande och omvårdnad2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna litteratur studie var att undersöka vetenskaplig litteratur om hur sjuksköterskan och övrig sjukvårdspersonal bemöter och vårdar patienter med missbruksproblem. Begreppet missbruk innefattar alla former av missbruk av både narkotika och alkohol. Artiklarna skulle handla om patienter med ett missbruk och deras möte med vården. Litteratursökningen har skett i följande databaser: Science Direct (Elsevier) PubMed , Blackwell Synergy. Urvalet skedde utifrån relevans till syfte och frågeställningar. Sammanlagt har 20 stycken artiklar mellan åren 2002-2007 har använts. Resultatet visade ett negativt fördomsfullt bemötande mot missbrukare och att dessa fick en sämre omvårdnad. Det fanns även en stor brist på kunskap om missbruksproblem inom sjukvården och att frågor om alkoholkonsumtion inte alltid ställs till patienter. Hur sjukvårdspersonalens bemötande är spelar en mycket stor roll för att få missbrukarens förtroende och ökar sannolikheten för att patienten tar emot råd och stöd . Enskilda samtal med patienten om missbruksproblemet är en åtgärd som främjar en livsstilförändring.

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