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  • 251.
    Lundgren, Kalle
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    Riktlinjer för design av karma-baserade ’WebReputation System’: För ’Collaborative Web Applications’2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The number of internet users is growing by the second and with an

    increase of internet users, there is also an increase of User-generated

    content. Web application that bases their buisness on User-generated

    content is often called by the name Collaborative Web Applications. There

    is a challenge for those types of applications to maintain high quality of

    content, since the amount of content that flows in is massive. Previous

    studies in the area propose that this challenge might be answered by a

    Web Reputation System. Previous studies has also proposed to divide

    Web Reputation System into various simple models. One of these models

    is karma, which is the focus in this report. Karma as a model aims to

    reward users who contribute content that is considered by other users as

    rewarding or entertaining. Through literature studies, guidelines on karmabased

    systems could not be found, which suggets that its has not

    previously been investigated. This made it a relevant problem for this

    report. The work has been carried out as a case study and used

    documents and a questionnaire to answer the research questions. Through

    data acquisition from both users of existing karma-based systems and a

    comparison of these existing system, it has resulted in a number of

    guidlines which are presented in this report.

  • 252.
    Lundin, Jenny
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    Utredning om hur information kan omvandlas till en tjänst: med Emission Monitoring Tool som ett analysexempel2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Transports in society increase. IT-solutions give the ability to create systems to improve transportations, including reduction of their environmental impact. The area is known as ITS, intelligent transportation systems, or road informatics.Logica is an IT services company that has developed EMO; Emission Monitoring Tool. It is a system for measuring carbon emissions while driving and analyzing how eco-friendly the driver's driving habits are.Logica wants to investigate the possibility of what additional services that can be offered in the system, especially when linking the data the system gets from the vehicle with the road network through GPS-positioning, and the additional data available in the national road database, NVDB.Through a mapping of the EMO, my knowledge of the system increased. I have looked at the data that the system retrieves from the vehicle and studied the possibility to develop services with these data together with data from NVDB. My focus areas have been road safety, road conditions and emissions / environmental conditions. I have tried to relate it to theories on service development and the realization of these, with an emphasis on Web services.The results of the analysis have been five additional services. I have called them warning for speeding, warning for walking speed area, warning that animal fence ends, instruction to change gear and route proposal based on emissions. The first four are services that are activated during the journey, and are used either through a warning signal from the device in the vehicle or through a mobile application. The fifth service is a service that analyzes and proposes the route that gives the lowest amount of carbon dioxide emissions. My recommendation is that route proposal based on emissions is the service that should be developed, considering customer benefit and the system’s core service.

  • 253.
    Lööf, Erika
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    Mack, Colin
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    Continuous Delivery: Utmaningar ett förvaltningsuppdrag kan stå inför vid en övergång till Continuous Delivery2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Continuous delivery (CD) is a software engineering approach where the focus lays on creating a short delivery cycle by automating parts of the deployment pipeline which includes build, deploy-, test and release process. CD is based on that during development should be possible to always automatically generate a release based on the source code in its current state. One of CD's many advantages is that through continuous releases it allows you to get a quick feedback loop leading to faster and more efficient implementation of new functions, at the same time fixing errors. Although CD has many advantages, there are also several challenges a maintenance management project must manage in the transition to CD. These challenges may differ depending on the maturity level for a maintenance management project and what strengths and weaknesses the project has.

    Our research question was: "What challenges can a maintenance management project face in transition to Continuous delivery?" The purpose of this study is to describe Continuous delivery and the challenges a

    maintenance management project may face during a transition to Continuous delivery. A descriptive case study has been carried out with the data collection methods of interviews and documents. A situation analysis was created based on the collected data in a shape of a process model that represent the maintenance management projects release process. The processmodel was used as the basis of SWOT analysis and analysis by Rehn et al's Maturity Model. From these analyzes we found challenges of a maintenance management project may face in the transition to CD. The challenges are about customers and the management's attitude towards a transition to CD. But the biggest challenge is about automation of the deployment pipeline steps.

  • 254. Maass, M.
    et al.
    Eriksson, Owen
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    Challenges in the Adoption of Medical Information Systems2006In: Hawaii International Conference On System Sciences, HICSS-39, Hawaii, 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 255.
    Martell, Adam
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    Myrman, Michael
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    Egenskaper att beakta vid val av rapportverktyg inom Business Intelligence: En jämförelse av tre rapportverktyg2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport behandlar vilka egenskaper som är viktiga att ta hänsyn till vid val av rapportverktyg inom området Business Intelligence. Begreppet BI är relativt omfattande och syftar till färdigheter, teknologier, applikationer och metoder av systematisk och vetenskaplig art som en organisation använder för att bättre förstå sin verksamhet, sin omgivning och omvärld. Rapportverktyg utgör således en mindre del i en större kedja av processer för att stödja beslutstagande. Landstinget Dalarna har anlitat Sogeti, som har varit vår uppdragsgivare för detta examensarbete, för att implementera BI i sin verksamhet och vår studie har sitt ursprung i att Landstinget Dalarna idag har ett stort behov av olika typer av rapporter i många olika delar av organisationen. Rapportbehovet har visat sig vara omfattande och för att lätta på arbetsbördan för de systemutvecklare som skapar rapporter har funderingar framkommit att det skulle kunna vara en bra lösning att låta användarna inom Landstinget Dalarna själva skapa en del av sina egna rapporter. Målet med arbetet är att ge de systemutvecklare som arbetar i projektet riktlinjer kring vilka egenskaper olika rapportverktyg innehar för att de enklare skall kunna avgöra vilket som är lämpligast att använda. De verktyg som i denna studie jämförs med varandra är Report Builder 3.0, PowerPivot samt Dashboard Designer 2010, samtliga från Microsoft. För att göra denna jämförelse mellan olika rapportverktyg krävs bra underlag för att kunna förstå vilka egenskaper som är relevanta att fokusera på samt om några egenskaper väger tyngre än andra. Efter att ha utfört intervjuer med systemutvecklare som arbetar med BI har vi kunnat skapa oss en tydligare bild av detta område. Egenskaperna har sammanställts för att användas i vår jämförelse mellan de olika rapportverktygen. Att dessa egenskaper är av vikt bekräftas till viss del av den teori som finns på området. De egenskaper som främst visar sig vara viktiga i valet är vilken befintlig plattform som används, verktygets möjlighet att skapa interaktiva rapporter samt vilken typ av användare verktyget riktar sig till. Även andra egenskaper visar sig vara viktiga att ta hänsyn till, men då främst beroende på vilka krav som ställs. Resultatet av den praktiska jämförelsen mellan de olika rapportverktygen visar att verktygen till viss del överlappar varandra i funktionalitet samtidigt som de är anpassade för olika typer av användare och plattformar. De utgör allihop delar i Microsofts BI-pussel som på olika sätt skall bidra till att alltid kunna täcka upp de krav som kan finnas beroende på behov och förutsättningar. Samtidigt visar det sig att jämförda rapportverktyg besitter vissa generella egenskaper som gör att verktygen i stora drag klarar, om än på olika sätt, att skapa snarlika rapporter.

  • 256.
    Matsdotter, Freja
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    Turesson, Lellah Johanna
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    Typographical trust issues: The impact of font types on trust in the context of online banking websites2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to examine if font choices affect how text and sender are perceived in the context of online banking websites. Large amounts of money are invested to produce effective design units; therefore, graphic designers need to be aware of how their font choices impact the readers’ perception of text. This study aimed to raise awareness around the impact of fonts and to create a helpful report that can guide designers in their font choices.

    Previous research on the subject argues that typography is a critical tool in visual communication, and that selecting an appropriate typeface is very important. Studies have shown how readers are aware of the difference in appropriateness between different font and text matches. Shaikh, Chaparro and Fox (2006) found serif and sans serif fonts to be the most appropriate in most situations while scripts were appropriate only for scrapbooking and e-greetings and modern display fonts were perceived as rude or coarse.

    The methods used in the present study were a Literature Study, two Focus Groups, a Quantitative Web Survey and two Visual Content Analyses. The results show that font choices do affect perception of the sender in this context. The most appropriate fonts were strict and structured, but not boring, non-decorative and had a medium x-height in relation to cap height.

  • 257.
    Mattsson, Erika
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    Engström, Elin
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    Hur god är användares effektivitet och tillfredsställelse på myndigheters webbplatser2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The government's goal with the so called E-government, is to provide a simpler life for citizens, get a more open administration that supports innovation and participation, and greater quality and efficiency within government organizations. Because of these goals the authors of this study wanted to evaluate user satisfaction and efficiency on a government website. The objective of this study was to answer the question "How are the user satisfaction and efficiency, in line with the government's goal for E-government, on a government website that has been developed by following the accessibility standard WCAG 2.0 and the government’s web guidelines for usability?" In order to achieve the objective and be able to answer the question, the authors chose a government website to study. The choice fell on Centrala Studiestödsnämnden, CSN, website. The authors conducted interviews with CSN’s call center and people responsible for the website. From the interviews it became clear that the call center receive 1.4 million calls each year, and that CSN do not have any specific actions for improving usability besides continuously updating the 'Frequently Asked Questions' section. The authors conducted user tests in which people who had never used the website had to perform tasks that you usually perform at the website. During the user test the authors conducted observations and afterwards they conducted interviews. The user tests, observations, and interviews revealed that although the test subjects did not complete all the tasks and that the tasks took a long time to execute, users were not dissatisfied with their experience. The conclusion is that high satisfaction is not a product of a user’s efficiency.

  • 258.
    Melik, Narin
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    Användandet av Facebook inom högre utbildning: En fallstudie om studenters användning av Facebook2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Facebook is today the world's largest social network and is also the platform that has proved to be the most popular among students. The purpose of this study is therefore to provide an insight into how today's generation of students use Facebook in relation to their education.

    The research question addressed how students in Sweden who study the system science program and the law program have used Facebook in their education.

    A case study with a total of nine interviews were conducted. Previous research results in the same subject area and theoretical starting points provided the basis for the analysis and were analysed in relation to the interview material.

    Existing theories have been tested and interpreted in relation to the interview material.

    The result of the study provided a deeper insight into how students use Facebook and the impact the use may have. Students collaborate, exchange information and share their skills from their experiences to each other and can through interaction with their classmates on Facebook, take on informal learning which contributes to the formal education as well as it can facilitate theirs studies from home. Several of the results obtained from this study reflect and support the results of previous studies.

  • 259.
    Meng, Xiangli
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Carling, Kenneth
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Håkansson, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems. Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Rebreyend, Pascal
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    On administrative borders and accessibility to public services:: The case of hospitals in Sweden.2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    An administrative border might hinder the optimal allocation of a given set of resources by restricting the flow of goods, services, and people. In this paper we address the question: Do administrative borders lead to poor accessibility to public service such as hospitals? In answering the question, we have examined the case of Sweden and its regional borders. We have used detailed data on the Swedish road network, its hospitals, and its geo-coded population. We have assessed the population’s spatial accessibility to Swedish hospitals by computing the inhabitants’ distance to the nearest hospital. We have also elaborated several scenarios ranging from strongly confining regional borders to no confinements of borders and recomputed the accessibility. Our findings imply that administrative borders are only marginally worsening the accessibility.

  • 260. Meszyński, Sebastian
    et al.
    Nyberg, Roger G.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    Yella, Siril
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Agent-based modelling and simulation of insulin-glucose subsystem2016In: Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Intelligent Systems and Applications, 2016, p. 63-68Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mathematical analytical modeling and computer simulation of the physiological system is a complex problem with great number of variables and equations. The objective of this research is to describe the insulin-glucose subsystem using multi-agent modeling based on intelligence agents. Such an approach makes the modeling process easier and clearer to understand; moreover, new agents can be added or removed more easily to any investigations. The Stolwijk-Hardy mathematical model is used in two ways firstly by simulating the analytical model and secondly by dividing up the same model into several agents in a multiagent system. In the proposed approach a multi-agent system was used to build a model for glycemic homeostasis. Agents were used to represent the selected elements of the human body that play an active part in this process. The experiments conducted show that the multi-agent model has good temporal stability with the implemented behaviors, and good reproducibility and stability of the results. It has also shown that no matter what the order of communication between agents, the value of the result of the simulation was not affected. The results obtained from using the framework of multi-agent system actions were consistent with the results obtained with insulin-glucose models using analytical modeling.

  • 261.
    Mohlin, Andreas
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    Framtagning av lämplig teknologi för konvertering av VBA-applikation till Internet Explorer2003Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Företaget GUTAB använder idag en frågeanalysmodul som är utvecklat i Visual Basic for Applications i Microsoft Excel. GUTAB fann det intressant att veta om modulen kunde konverteras till webbläsaren Internet Explorer samt vilken teknologi som var lämplig för detta. GUTAB var även intresserade av att veta vilken teknologi som kunde användas för att skapa grafiska manipulerbara objekt. En skrivbordsundersökning genomfördes som omfattade teknologierna ASP, ASP.NET, JSP, PHP, ActiveX samt Java applets. Skrivbordsundersökningen utgjordes av två delar där den första delen redogjorde för de två klientbaserade teknologierna ActiveX och Java applets med vilka grafiska manipulerbara objekt kunde realiseras. GUTAB ansåg att ActiveX program var mest lämpliga för detta ändamål. Baserat på skrivbordsundersökningens andra del bestämde GUTAB att ASP och ASP.NET skulle användas för att testa teknologiernas kapacitet att konvertera programlogik samt grafiska objekt från VBA-applikationen i en webbapplikation då dessa två teknologier ansågs som mest lämpliga för en konvertering. Testet som genomfördes visade att det var fullt möjligt att konvertera utvald funktionalitet med båda teknologierna. Dock kunde inte grafiska objekt skapas i asp varför befintliga objekt användes för det ändamålet. Många fördelar identifierades med ASP.NET varför GUTAB beslutade att ASP.net var den mest lämpliga teknologin att använda vid en eventuell konvertering.

  • 262.
    Mozelius, Peter
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet.
    Hatakka, Mathias
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems. Örebro universitet, Handelshögskolan vid Örebro universitet.
    Conveyor belt production of course material: a case study in Sri Lanka2009In: Proceedings of ECEL 2009: the 8th European conference on e-Learning, 2009, p. 406-412Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 263.
    Mozelius, Peter
    et al.
    Stockholms Universitet / DSV.
    Hettiarachchi, Enosha
    University of Colombo School of Computing.
    Hewagamage, K. P.
    University of Colombo School of Computing.
    Hatakka, Mathias
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems. Örebro universitet, Handelshögskolan vid Örebro universitet.
    Balasooriya, Isuru
    University of Colombo School of Computing.
    Karunarathne, Damith
    University of Colombo School of Computing.
    eNOSHA: design and development of a learning object repository2009In: e-Asia conference 2009, 2009, p. 35-35Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 264.
    Neva-Juoni, Anders
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    Hedberg, Mikaela
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    En utvärdering av Android och Iphone: För utveckling av webbtjänstunderstödda applikationer ämnade för intern distribution2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Tack vare bättre och bättre förutsättningar för utveckling av mobila applikationer, samt utbredning av internetbaserade tjänster, presenteras här ett underlag inför val av mobil utvecklingsplattform. De undersökta plattformarna är Android och Iphone på grund av deras växande utbredning på smartphonemarknaden. Studien presenterar förutsättningar för att utveckla webbtjänst-understödda applikationer för intern distribuering. Ett visuellt tilltalande användargränssnitt är också i fokus för den typen av applikation studien riktar sig mot. Vi har kommit fram till att Android är lättare att lära sig om man kommer ifrån en Java- eller .Netmiljö samt lättare att distribuera. Iphone har däremot bättre stöd för att utveckla grafiskt tilltalande applikationer. Båda plattformarna har dock bristfälligt stöd för kommunikation via webbtjänster. Detta resultat uppnåddes genom litteraturstudier, samt en fallstudie där vi utvecklade applikationer med fokus på just webbtjänstkommunikation, intern distribuering samt ett tilltalande användargränssnitt.

  • 265.
    Niittula, Anneli
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    Johar, Johar
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    Förändringsförslag för ABB:s godshantering: – Utvärdering av existerande automatiska datafångstmetoder2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Examensarbetet utfördes på uppdrag av ABB i Ludvika. ABB vill öka effektiviseringen för hanteringen av inkommande gods. Detta för att det mesta sker manuellt i dagens läge och det tar mycket tid och kan resultera i felkällor. Arbetet har två syften. Det första syftet är att förändra del av verksamheten, genom att komma med ett förändringsförslag när det gäller godshanteringen. Det andra syftet är att jämföra streckkoder och RFID för att se vilket alternativ som passar bäst. För att få fram ett förändringsförslag har vi jobbat med FA/SIM-metoden. Vi har tagit fram ett antal förändringsförslag nedan följer ett urval av dessa: • Ställa krav på leverantörerna att de skall använda streckkoder med rätt standard Code 128. • Utforma tydliga och enkla kravspecifikationer för att enklare kunna ta till sig. • Förbättra nuvarande kundrelationer. Genomför en uppföljning med jämna mellanrum för att se hur kundrelationerna sköts.

  • 266.
    Nilsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    Ramazani, Kawa
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    SMS-avisering - utveckling av prototyp för elektronisk avisering hos speditionsföretag2004Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta examensarbete på magisternivå genomfördes med MaserFrakt som uppdragsgivare. Målet var att skapa en möjlighet till att ersätta dagens pappersavi med ett SMS. Detta har vi uppnått genom att utveckla en webbaserad prototyp som kan ersätta utskriften och utskicket av avin genom att skicka ut ett fördefinierat SMS. Att pappersavin ersätts av ett SMS tjänar både MaserFrakt och deras kunder på eftersom det leder till snabbare leverans för kunderna och dessutom minskar MaserFrakt sitt godslager och sänker sina utskickskostnader då ett SMS är billigare att skicka än ett brev. Vi har även undersökt möjligheterna till en ännu tidigare avisering där SMS:et skulle gå ut redan innan godset fysiskt inkommer till MaserFrakt. Detta kom vi fram till skulle kunna vara fullt genomförbart även om man skulle vara tvungen att genomföra ett antal förändringar, till exempel skulle relationen med samarbetetspartnern DFDS behöva förstärkas så att MaserFrakt får en bättre tillgång till deras system. Vårt tillvägagångssätt har för den teoretiska delen av arbetet byggt på kvalitativa intervjuer och inläsning av olika befintliga teorier inom mobilitet, IT-tjänster, systemarkitektur samt analys av teorierna. För det praktiska framtagandet av prototypen har vi använt oss av utvalda delar ifrån David Siegels modell som beskriver hur man utvecklar webbsidor.

  • 267.
    Nilsson, Hilde
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    Salmi, Annica
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    Systemförvaltning hos Banverket – design av gemensam process för ändringshantering2004Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Vår uppdragsgivare för detta arbete var IT-avdelningen på Banverkets huvudkontor. Deras upp-drag till oss var att kartlägga nuläget i ändringshanteringen i systemförvaltningen. Utifrån den kartläggningen skulle vi även utveckla en gemensam process med tillhörande processbeskrivning för ändringshanteringen. Ändringshantering är alla de aktiviteter som uppstår från det att ett förändringsbehov inkommer till dess att förändringen är införd. Banverket har under 2003 arbetat fram en metodik för systemförvaltning, som fortfarande är under utveckling. Metodikens stöd för det operativa arbetet, i synnerhet ändringshanteringen, är inte tillräcklig. Förvaltningsledare har hittills skapat sina egna processer kring hur ändringshan-teringen ska gå till och de finns inte dokumenterade, utan existerar som enskild kunskap. Detta leder till att systemförvaltningen blir personbunden och konsekvensen blir bland annat att det är resurskrävande att byta ut personen i förvaltningen samt att det tar längre tid vid överlämning av förvaltningen till ny person. Vi genomförde semistrukturerade intervjuer med nio systemförvaltare och förvaltningsledare för att kunna beskriva deras arbetssätt i nuläget. Till hjälp i beskrivningen av arbetssättet använde vi handlingsgrafer enligt metoden FA/SIM. Med handlingsgraferna kunde vi jämföra de olika arbetssätten. Vid jämförelsen kunde vi se att det fanns ett antal handlingar som är återkommande i de flesta nulägesbeskrivningarna. Vi analyserade dessa handlingar med hjälp av affärsaktsteorin för att få svar på om ändringshanteringen är affärstydlig. Vi kunde se att förvaltningsledarna saknar ett bra stöd för vilken information som bör komma in med varje förändringsbehov. Detta leder till att förvaltningsledaren känner en osäkerhet i om den prioriterat rätt och kan leda till att han/hon hamnar i ett underläge i en eventuell förhandling med leverantören. I acceptanstestningen märkte vi att den inte utförs på ett strukturerat sätt samt att det finns en tendens till att förvaltningsledaren i vissa fall förlitar sig på den testning leverantören utför. Den ändringshanteringsprocess vi utvecklat är en grund till ett gemensamt arbetssätt, men en viss fördjupning av detaljnivån i processen måste ske mot varje förvaltningsobjekt. Vi menar att för att säkerställa att rätt och jämförbar information om de olika förändringsbehoven kommer in behöver förvaltningsledaren arbeta fram någon form av frågemall. Genom att genomföra en nyt-tovärdering enligt PENG-modellen tror vi att förvaltningsledaren hittar de frågor som han/hon behöver ha svar på i prioriteringsfasen och som bör ingå i frågemallen. Acceptanstestningen bör ske på ett strukturerat sätt och vi föreslår att förvaltningsledaren arbetar fram ett testprotokoll för sitt förvaltningsobjekt samt identifierar några för verksamheten kritiska funktionaliteter som också bör ingå i testprotokollet.

  • 268.
    Nilsson, Jonas
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    Larsson, Daniel
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    Dialekter och röstigenkänning: Ett röstigenkännings-API:s förmåga att uppfatta svenska dialekters kännetecken och röstkombinationer2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    As the development of applications and systems progress so does the ways in which we interact with the application or system. So far, the navigation and usage of applications and systems have been made by hand, through keyboard and a mouse. Recently navigation through touch-screens and voice has been more common. When you are going to navigate the application with your voice, it´s crucial that anyone can navigate the application despite their dialect. To be able to see how a voice recognition API (Application Programming Interface) understands Swedish dialects a study on the characteristics on Swedish dialects were made. These characteristics and combinations of sound were the foundation to the words used for testing the API. Each dialect got a specific word that were supposed to be difficult for the API to understand when the word was pronounced by the actual dialect. A prototype of an android application was developed as a tool for data generation. This thesis contains a prototype and a research and therefore the strategy used for this thesis is Design & Creation Research, with document studies and observation as data generation methods to achieve the desired result. The data were collected through observations with the prototype as a tool and also through studies of documents. Our empirical data that has been registered through the observations and with the help of the application proved that some dialects were easier to understand correctly by the API. In some cases the results were expected because some words were made of combinations of sounds according to the theory that were going to be pronounced in a special way from a certain dialect. Some of the results were low on these certain words but in some other cases the results were surprisingly high. The conclusion we drew from this was that the words we chose with the intention of making it hard for the API to understand only proved to be working on two separate occasions. It was the word containing the combination of the sounds "sje" and "tje" that had common characteristics to all dialects, according to the theory, that got the lowest result.

  • 269.
    Nilsson, Martin
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    Norberg, Patrik
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    Automatisering av test av legacysystem: Utmaningar och faktorer att beakta2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Information systems are used by most organisations today and are critical to the business. Many organisations got one or more legacy systems which have been used for a long period of time. Failures and disruption in these systems can lead to great consequences and it is important to test the systems to avoid them. Manual testing requires much resources. To automate the tests are a possibility and our partner in this study, Stora Enso Skog, wanted to look into the possibilities.The purpose of this study is to describe what challenges you meet when automating tests for legacy systems. The purpose is also to describe what factors you need to consider when implementing test automation. To do this we have used a case study and gathered data through interviews and study of documents. The interviews have been conducted with experienced experts within the testing area.Our conclusions shows that there are a number of challenges to consider when automating tests for legacy systems. The challenges include problems trying to automate some sort of tests for legacy systems due to the code being unstructured and not prepared for tests. There’s also a risk of spending too much resources in automating the tests instead of improving the systems.A number of factors to consider when implementing automated tests for legacy systems have also been found. Examples given are that automating tests can never fully compensate for a bad architecture and design. Focus should also be on the most important tests and start automating small parts. Also to improve the possibility to test in legacy systems instead of just adopting the testing tool to the system is to be considered.Finally we have noted that there are different types and levels of legacy systems and because of that challenges and factors to consider when automating tests may vary. Many challenges and factors presented in this study also applies to systems not considered legacy.

  • 270.
    Nilsson, Oskar
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    Att bygga sociala relationer i en eTjänstekontext2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Amergo är ett företag som inriktar sig på att köra ut bland annat frukt och fika till dess kundföretag. I dagsläget utför kundföretagen beställningar via telefon eller e-post. Jag har fått i uppgift att utveckla ett webbaserat IT-system som ska ge kundföretagen möjlighet att utföra och ändra sina beställningar utan Amergos direkta inverkan. Under systemutvecklingens gång har jag tagit Hultgrens (2007) teorier om eTjänster till hjälp för att på ett systematiskt sätt analysera systemet, eller eTjänsten. Denna analys resulterade i en rad frågeställningar vilka är tänkta att vara till hjälp vid vidareutvecklingen av eTjänsten. Därefter har jag, med hjälp av ovan nämnda frågeställningar, analyserat hur eTjänstens relationer kan byggas ut genom att tilläggstjänster skapas.

  • 271.
    Niskanen,, Tom
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    Nyström, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    Ensidesapplikationers kodkvalitet och förvaltningsbarhet: En jämförelse av förvaltningsbarhet hos single-page applications utvecklade med AngularJS och React2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Single-page applications have historically been subject to strong market forces driving fast development and deployment in lieu of quality control and changeable code, which are important factors for maintainability. In this report we develop two functionally equivalent applications using AngularJS and React and compare their maintainability as defined by ISO/IEC 9126. AngularJS and React represent two distinct approaches to web development, with AngularJS being a general framework providing rich base functionality and React a small specialized library for efficient view rendering. The quality comparison was accomplished by calculating Maintainability Index for each application. Version control analysis was used to determine quality indicators during development and subsequent maintenance where new functionality was added in two steps.

    The results show no major differences in maintainability in the initial applications. As more functionality is added the Maintainability Index decreases faster in the AngularJS application, indicating a steeper increase in complexity compared to the React application. Source code analysis reveals that changes in data flow requires significantly larger modifications of the AngularJS application due to its inherent architecture for data flow. We conclude that frameworks are useful when they facilitate development of known requirements but less so when applications and systems grow in size.

    Sammanfattning: Ensidesapplikationer har historiskt sett påverkats av starka marknadskrafter som pådriver snabba utvecklingscykler och leveranser. Detta medför att kvalitetskontroll och förändringsbar kod, som är viktiga faktorer för förvaltningsbarhet, blir lidande. I denna rapport utvecklar vi två funktionellt ekvi-valenta ensidesapplikationer med AngularJS och React samt jämför dessa applikationers förvaltningsbarhet enligt ISO/IEC 9126. AngularJS och React representerar två distinkta angreppsätt på webbutveckling, där AngularJS är ett ramverk med mycket färdig funktionalitet och React ett mindre bibliotek specialiserat på vyrendering. Kvalitetsjämförelsen utfördes genom att beräkna förvaltningsbarhetsindex för respektive applikation. Versionshanteringsanalys användes för att bestämma andra kvalitetsindikatorer efter den initiala utvecklingen samt två efterföljande underhållsarbeten.

    Resultaten visar inga markanta skillnader i förvaltningsbarhet för de initiala applikationerna. I takt med att mer funktionalitet lades till sjönk förvaltnings-barhetsindex snabbare för AngularJS-applikationen, vilket motsvarar en kraftigare ökning i komplexitet jämfört med React-applikationen. Versionshanteringsanalys visar att ändringar i dataflödet kräver större modifikationer för AngularJS-applikationen på grund av dess förbestämda arkitektur. Utifrån detta drar vi slutsatsen att ramverk är användbara när de understödjer utvecklingen mot kända krav men att deras nytta blir begränsad ju mer en applikation växer i storlek.

  • 272.
    Niskanen, Tom
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    Nyström, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    Ensidesapplikationers kodkvalitet och förvaltningsbarhet: En jämförelse av förvaltningsbarhet hos single-page applications utvecklade med AngularJS och React2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Single-page applications have historically been subject to strong market forces driving fast development and deployment in lieu of quality control and changeable code, which are important factors for maintainability. In this report we develop two functionally equivalent applications using AngularJS and React and compare their maintainability as defined by ISO/IEC 9126. AngularJS and React represent two distinct approaches to web development, with AngularJS being a general framework providing rich base functionality and React a small specialized library for efficient view rendering. The quality comparison was accomplished by calculating Maintainability Index for each application. Version control analysis was used to determine quality indicators during development and subsequent maintenance where new functionality was added in two steps.

     

    The results show no major differences in maintainability in the initial applications. As more functionality is added the Maintainability Index decreases faster in the AngularJS application, indicating a steeper increase in complexity compared to the React application. Source code analysis reveals that changes in data flow requires significantly larger modifications of the AngularJS application due to its inherent architecture for data flow. We conclude that frameworks are useful when they facilitate development of known requirements but less so when applications and systems grow in size.

  • 273.
    Nordin, Johan
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    Olsson, Anders
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    Granskning av möjliggörande teknik och utveckling av prototyp för geografiskt riktade utskick av SMS2004Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta examensarbete på magisternivå genomfördes vårterminen 2004 med Siljan Turism som uppdragsgivare. Målet var att förbättra en befintlig SMS-tjänsten för utskick av erbjudanden genom att möjliggöra geografiskt riktade utskick. Anledningen till att man vill göra denna form av riktade utskick är att man vill kunna minska annonskostnaderna, men fortfarande snabbt nå intresserade konsumenter. Om man idag skulle vilja annonsera ut till exempel biljetter till ett evenemang som äger rum inom den närmaste tiden, där det finns lediga platser kan man endast skicka erbjudanden till samtliga intresserade. Utskicken sker oberoende av var mottagarna befinner sig, trots att de egentligen inte skulle kunna komma fram i tid. Med hjälp av geografiskt riktade utskick skulle man kunna effektivisera utskicken så att de enbart skickas till de som faktiskt har möjlighet att utnyttja erbjudandet. Det befintliga systemet var baserat på en standardiserad tjänst som vi inte hade möjligheter att förbättra. På grund av detta beslutade vi oss för att utveckla en prototyp för att kunna bygga in all ny funktionalitet. Med denna prototyp försökte vi även att eliminera delar av den manuella hantering som krävs med det befintliga systemet. För att kunna realisera dessa riktade utskick behövde vi en typ av positionering som inte existerar idag. De lösningar som finns idag passar inte vår tänkta tjänst. Därför har vi gjort egna undersökningar i GSM och UMTS för att finna lösningsalternativ. Därför kan rapporten vara intressant även för andra än vår uppdragsgivare när det gäller denna typ av geografiskt riktade utskick.

  • 274.
    Nordin, Niklas
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    Gustafsson, Marcus
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    Analys, design och konstruktion av en ITS-prototyp: Att övervaka och informera transporter av farligt gods på väg2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 275.
    Nordlund, Rick
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    Utvärdering av PC-baserade kassasystem för mindre företag2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A common problem that many businesses inevitably face is the issue of choosing which Point of Sale system to use. The choice could lead to increased expenses, especially for a smaller company. This study attacks the problem together with the help of the SIV method (“Standardized systems in businesses”, translated from Swedish) in order to select a few of the most suitable Point of Sale systems on the market and then compare these systems to the demands and needs of the affiliate for the study, in order to reach a conclusion on which of these systems suits the affiliate the most. The aim of this study has been to evaluate Point of Sale systems suitable for smaller companies and then assess the credibility of the method used with the help of the meta method SIMM. In this case, the result was one single system out of four final candidates (out of a total of 976 candidates). The final system that was chosen as a winner was EasyCashier.

  • 276.
    Norman Uhlin, Erik
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    Olsson, Mirjami
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    Testverktyg för test av mobila applikationer: En jämförande fallstudie2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The use of mobile applications has grown dramatically in recent years and they interact with many systems. Therefore the requirement on the quality is higher and the application must often be adapted to many devices, operating systems and platforms. This means the testing of mobile applications becomes more and more important. This study has been conducted as a comparative case study in the field testing of mobile applications and testing tools. The aim has been to describe how the testing of mobile applications takes place today which have been made through literature studies and interviews with IT-companies. Another aim was to evaluate four testing tools, their advantages and disadvantages and how they can be used in the testing of mobile applications and compared to manual testing without testing tools. This was done by using and experience the testing tools. During the study, we have used mobile applications that we got access from Triona, who has been our partner.Today there are many different testing tools that can be used to support testing, but few companies have implemented these because it requires both time and expertise as well as the selection of testing tools can be difficult. Testing tools have different advantages and disadvantages which make them fit differently depending on the type of project and application. Advantages of using testing tools is the ability to automate, test on multiple devices simultaneously and get access to physical devices via the cloud. The challenges are that it can be difficult to install and learn the testing tool and that the licenses can be expensive. It is therefore important that even before implementation to know which tests and applications the testing tools will be used in and who will use it. Based on our study we can conclude that no testing tools are complete but they may contribute with different features which streamlines parts of the mobile applications testing.

  • 277.
    Nutti, Anders
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    Ekman, Mats
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    Analys av en meddelandetjänst vid krissituationer baserat på CBS-tekniken(Cell Broadcast Service)2004Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Uppdragsgivare för detta examensarbete är Länsstyrelsen Dalarna. Målet är att undersöka hur lämplig tekniken med CBS (Cell Broadcast Service) baserade textmeddelande är vid viktigt meddelande till allmänheten (VMA-larm). En tjänst som utnyttjar CBS-tekniken kan rädda liv om allmänheten i ett tidigt skede får reda på vad som hänt och vart de ska bege sig. Rapporten visar på hur man kan använda SMS då en krissituation uppstår. Med hjälp av CBS-tekniken skickas meddelandet till specifikt valda basstationer och alla mobiltelefoner som är uppkopplade mot den. Det positiva är att bara de som behöver få veta vad som hänt får meddelandet. Enligt specifikationerna (ETSI) på GSM och 3G-näten i Sverige finns det stöd för utskick av CBS-meddelanden inbyggt i de befintliga näten. Det finns dock vissa problem vid införandet av CBS-tekniken i operatörsnäten. Operatörerna måste implementera en Cell Broadcast Center (CBC) i näten, denna del av infrastrukturen kommunicerar med basstationerna och sköter utskicken av CBS-meddelanden. Ett ytterligare problem med CBS-tekniken är att användarna måste aktivera mobiltelefonen för att ta emot CBS-meddelanden. Enligt Telia och Vodafone används CBS inte i Sverige idag men vi bedömer att tjänsten för att varna allmänheten kan använda sig av CBS-tekniken om den implementeras i operatörsnäten. Vi har i detta arbete använt oss av en generell kvalitativ metod kompletterat med Siegels metod. Med den kvalitativa metoden har vi intervjuat Telia och Vodafone på ingående fakta om CBS-tekniken. Vid design av teknisk lösning har vi använt oss av Siegels två första faser.

  • 278.
    Nyberg, Roger G.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    A machine learning approach for recognising woody plants on railway trackbeds2016In: International Conference on Railway Engineering (ICRE 2016), 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this work in progress study was to test the concept of recognising plants using images acquired by image sensors in a controlled noise-free environment. The presence of vegetation on railway trackbeds and embankments presents potential problems. Woody plants (e.g. Scots pine, Norway spruce and birch) often establish themselves on railway trackbeds. This may cause problems because legal herbicides are not effective in controlling them; this is particularly the case for conifers. Thus, if maintenance administrators knew the spatial position of plants along the railway system, it may be feasible to mechanically harvest them. Primary data were collected outdoors comprising around 700 leaves and conifer seedlings from 11 species. These were then photographed in a laboratory environment. In order to classify the species in the acquired image set, a machine learning approach known as Bag-of-Features (BoF) was chosen. Irrespective of the chosen type of feature extraction and classifier, the ability to classify a previously unseen plant correctly was greater than 85%. The maintenance planning of vegetation control could be improved if plants were recognised and localised. It may be feasible to mechanically harvest them (in particular, woody plants). In addition, listed endangered species growing on the trackbeds can be avoided. Both cases are likely to reduce the amount of herbicides, which often is in the interest of public opinion. Bearing in mind that natural objects like plants are often more heterogeneous within their own class rather than outside it, the results do indeed present a stable classification performance, which is a sound prerequisite in order to later take the next step to include a natural background. Where relevant, species can also be listed under the Endangered Species Act.

  • 279.
    Nyberg, Roger G.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems. Edinburgh Napier University.
    Automating condition monitoring of vegetation on railway trackbeds and embankments2016Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Vegetation growing on railway trackbeds and embankments present potential problems. The presence of vegetation threatens the safety of personnel inspecting the railway infrastructure. In addition vegetation growth clogs the ballast and results in inadequate track drainage which in turn could lead to the collapse of the railway embankment.

    Assessing vegetation within the realm of railway maintenance is mainly carried out manually by making visual inspections along the track. This is done either on-site or by watching videos recorded by maintenance vehicles mainly operated by the national railway administrative body.

    A need for the automated detection and characterisation of vegetation on railways (a subset of vegetation control/management) has been identified in collaboration with local railway maintenance subcontractors and Trafikverket, the Swedish Transport Administration (STA). The latter is responsible for long-term planning of the transport system for all types of traffic, as well as for the building, operation and maintenance of public roads and railways.

    The purpose of this research project was to investigate how vegetation can be measured and quantified by human raters and how machine vision can automate the same process.

    Data were acquired at railway trackbeds and embankments during field measurement experiments. All field data (such as images) in this thesis work was acquired on operational, lightly trafficked railway tracks, mostly trafficked by goods trains. Data were also generated by letting (human) raters conduct visual estimates of plant cover and/or count the number of plants, either on-site or in-house by making visual estimates of the images acquired from the field experiments. Later, the degree of reliability of(human) raters’ visual estimates were investigated and compared against machine vision algorithms.

    The overall results of the investigations involving human raters showed inconsistency in their estimates, and are therefore unreliable. As a result of the exploration of machine vision, computational methods and algorithms enabling automatic detection and characterisation of vegetation along railways were developed. The results achieved in the current work have shown that the use of image data for detecting vegetation is indeed possible and that such results could form the base for decisions regarding vegetation control. The performance of the machine vision algorithm which quantifies the vegetation cover was able to process 98% of the im-age data. Investigations of classifying plants from images were conducted in in order to recognise the specie. The classification rate accuracy was 95%.Objective measurements such as the ones proposed in thesis offers easy access to the measurements to all the involved parties and makes the subcontracting process easier i.e., both the subcontractors and the national railway administration are given the same reference framework concerning vegetation before signing a contract, which can then be crosschecked post maintenance.A very important issue which comes with an increasing ability to recognise species is the maintenance of biological diversity. Biological diversity along the trackbeds and embankments can be mapped, and maintained, through better and robust monitoring procedures. Continuously monitoring the state of vegetation along railways is highly recommended in order to identify a need for maintenance actions, and in addition to keep track of biodiversity. The computational methods or algorithms developed form the foundation of an automatic inspection system capable of objectively supporting manual inspections, or replacing manual inspections.

  • 280.
    Nyberg, Roger G.
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    Yella, Siril
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Gupta, Narendra K.
    Edinburgh Napier University.
    Dougherty, Mark
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Inter-rater reliability in determining the types of vegetation on railway trackbeds2015In: Web Information Systems Engineering – WISE 2015: 16th International Conference, Miami, FL, USA, November 1-3, 2015, Proceedings, Part II / [ed] Wang, J., Cellary, W., Wang, D., Wang, H., Chen, S.-C., Li, T., Zhang, Y., Springer, 2015, Vol. 9419, p. 379-390Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vegetation growing on railway trackbeds and embankments can present several potential problems. Consequently, such vegetation iscontrolled through various maintenance procedures. In order to investigate the extent of maintenance needed, one of the first steps in anymaintenance procedure is to monitor or inspect the railway section in question. Monitoring is often carried out manually by sending out inspectorsor by watching recorded video clips of the section in question.To facilitate maintenance planning, the ability to assess the extent of vegetation becomes important. This paper investigates the reliability ofhuman assessments of vegetation on railway trackbeds.In this study, five maintenance engineers made independent visual estimates of vegetation cover and counted the number of plant clusters fromimages.The test results showed an inconsistency between the raters when it came to visually estimating plant cover and counting plant clusters. The resultsshowed that caution should be exercised when interpreting individual raters’ assessments of vegetation.

  • 281.
    Nyberg Åslund, Tim
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    Abdilahi Khalif, Hassan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    Hur Borlänge kommun kan öppna sina data2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines how Borlänge municipality can initiate their work with open data. To open data means that the organisation has in the past kept their datasets closed from public, the point with the project is to publicize datasets to encourage opportunities and innovation in society.Since 2016 Riksarkivet has had a mission to make sure that Swedish governmental bodies have opened a dataset of some type, this mission will finish at the end of 2018. The mission itself has originated from an EU directive and been fitted to Swedish law.This study has collected data and experiences from other municipalities but also from stakeholders and an expert in open data. The study has also collected information online, such as guides, frameworks and processes. All of the collected data served as a foundation for the startplan we composed for Borlänge municipality.

  • 282.
    Ograhn, Fredrik
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    Wande, August
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    Automatiserade regressionstester avseende arbetsflöden och behörigheter i ProjectWise.: En fallstudie om ProjectWise på Trafikverket2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Software testing is done in order to see whether the system meets specified requirements and to find bugs. It is an important part of system development and involves, among other things, regression testing. Regression tests are performed to ensure that a change in the system does not affect other parts of the system adversely.

    Document management systems often deals with sensitive data for organizations, which place high demands on safety. Permissions in the system has to be tested thoroughly to ensure that data does not fall into the wrong hands. Document management systems make it possible for organizations to pool their resources and knowledge together to achieve common goals. Common work processes are supported through workflows that contains a variety of states. These different permissions apply to different states. When a permission changes regression tests are required to ensure that the changes has not made an impact on other permissions.

    This study was conducted as a qualitative case study whose purpose was to describe the challenges of regression testing of roles and permissions in document workflows in a document management system. Through interviews and an observation it emerged that the major challenges of these tests is that workflow states follow a predetermined sequence. To complete this sequence, a huge amount of permissions must be tested. This provides a very extensive test work that is time consuming and costly.

    The study was directed toward the document management system ProjectWise, managed by Trafikverket. Supporting documentation for decision making was produced for a technical

    solution for automated regression testing of roles and permissions in workflows for ProjectWise. Based on a requirement gathering decision-making was provided that involved the Team Foundation Server (TFS), Coded UI and a keyword-driven test method for a technical solution. Finally, a comparison was made of differences in the technical solution versus today's manual testing. Based on literature, document studies and first hand experiences, test automation provides differences in a number of problem areas, including time and cost.

  • 283.
    Paidi, Vijay
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    Fleyeh, Hasan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Håkansson, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    Nyberg, Roger G.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    Smart parking sensors, technologies and applications for open parking lots: a review2018In: IET Intelligent Transport Systems, ISSN 1751-956X, E-ISSN 1751-9578, Vol. 12, no 8, p. 735-741Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Parking a vehicle in traffic dense environments often leads to excess time of driving in search for free space which leads to congestions and environmental pollution. Lack of guidance information to vacant parking spaces is one reason for inefficient parking behaviour. Smart parking sensors and technologies facilitate guidance of drivers to free parking spaces thereby improving parking efficiency. Currently, no such sensors or technologies is in use for open parking lot. This paper reviews the literature on the usage of smart parking sensors, technologies, applications and evaluate their applicability to open parking lots. Magnetometers, ultrasonic sensors and machine vision were few of the widely used sensors and technologies on closed parking lots. However, this paper suggests a combination of machine vision, convolutional neural network or multi-agent systems suitable for open parking lots due to less expenditure and resistance to varied environmental conditions. Few smart parking applications show drivers the location of common open parking lots. No application provided real time parking occupancy information, which is a necessity to guide them along the shortest route to free space. To develop smart parking applications for open parking lots, further research is needed in the fields of deep learning and multi-agent systems.

  • 284.
    Paidi, Vijay
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    Fleyeh, Hasan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Håkansson, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    Nyberg, Roger G.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    Smart Parking Tools Suitability for Open Parking Lots: A Review2018In: Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Vehicle Technology and Intelligent Transport Systems, Madeira, 2018, p. 600-609Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Parking a vehicle in traffic dense environments is a common issue in many parts of the world which oftenleads to congestion and environmental pollution. Lack of guidance information to vacant parking spaces isone of the reasons for inefficient parking behaviour. Smart parking sensors and technologies facilitateguidance of drivers to free parking spaces thereby improving parking efficiency. Currently, no such sensorsor technologies are in use for the common open parking lot. This paper reviews the literature on the usage ofsmart parking sensors, technologies, applications and evaluate their suitability to open parking lots. Suitabilitywas made in terms of expenditure and reliability. Magnetometers, ultrasonic sensors and machine vision werefew of the widely used sensors and technologies used in closed parking lots. However, this paper suggests acombination of machine vision, fuzzy logic or multi-agent systems suitable for open parking lots due to lessexpenditure and resistance to varied environmental conditions. No application provided real time parkingoccupancy information of open parking lots, which is a necessity to guide them along the shortest route tofree space. To develop smart parking applications for open parking lots, further research is needed in the fieldsof deep learning.

  • 285.
    Paidi, Vijay
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    Fleyeh, Hasan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Nyberg, Roger G.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    Deep learning-based vehicle occupancy detection in an open parking lot using thermal camera2019In: Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Parking vehicle is a daunting task and a common problem in many cities around the globe. The search for parking space leads to congestion, frustration and increased air pollution. Information of a vacant parking space would facilitate to reduce congestion and subsequent air pollution. Therefore, aim of the paper is to acquire vehicle occupancy in an open parking lot using deep learning. Thermal camera was used to collect the data during varying environmental conditions such as; sunny, dusk, dawn, dark and snowy conditions. Vehicle detection with deep learning was implemented where image classification and object localization were performed for multi object detection. The dataset consists of 527 images which were manually labelled as there were no pre-labelled thermal images available. Multiple deep learning networks such as Yolo, ReNet18, ResNet50 and GoogleNet with varying layers and architectures were evaluated on vehicle detection. Yolo, GoogleNet and ResNet18 are computationally efficient detectors which took less processing time while Resnet50 produced better detection results compared to other detectors. However, ResNet18 also produced minimal miss rates and is suitable for real time vehicle detection. The detected results were compared with a template of parking spaces and IoU value is used to identify vehicle occupancy information.

    The full text will be freely available from 2019-10-31 21:26
  • 286.
    Paidi, Vijay
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    Håkansson, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    Nyberg, Roger G.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    A holistic decision support system for last mile handovers2019In: Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The last mile handover is assumed to be the most problematic part in the delivery process and the costs can go upto 50% of the total logistic cost. Real time consumer communication and dynamic scheduling are the major problem areas associated with effective attended last mile handovers. Therefore, aim of this paper is to report the design and development of a holistic decision support system’s functionalities which simultaneously addresses real time consumer communication and dynamic scheduling. A decision support system was designed and developed based on workshops, expert group interviews and its functionalities were proposed with the use cases. A survey was conducted with consumers of a retailer where majority of the consumers accepted the use of mobile communication devices to enable real time communication and alternate handover location which improves customer satisfaction and facilitates to avoid missed handovers. A pilot test was performed where routing distance was reduced with the use of optimized handover routes. However the improvement is subjected to the experience of driver and real time traffic conditions. We conclude that a holistic decision support system with multi-party communication among the stakeholders facilitates in reducing operational costs for logistic companies and improving customer satisfaction and business opportunities.

    The full text will be freely available from 2019-11-30 21:30
  • 287.
    Patrik, Lundberg
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    Bergqvist, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    Införande av e-handel i småföretag2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Att starta en e-handel kommer inte enbart med fördelar, utan det finns en hel del problem man kommer att stöta på. Det är betydligt omständligare än man tror och är man inte redo för konsekvenserna kan det skada företaget. Uppsatsen handlar om hur småföretag påverkas vid införandet av en e-handel. Målet är att ta fram riktlinjer och ett beslutsunderlag åt företag. Vi har genom användningen av SWOT-analys, omvärldsanalys, litteraturstudier, intervjuer, och jämförelser kommit fram till de problem och möjligheter som uppstår vid införandet av e-handel. Vilka riktlinjer som ska användas och hur en webbsida ska designas vid införandet av e-handel. Analysen är riktad mot bageribranschen och resultatet är generellt.

  • 288.
    Pers Lindberg, Catherine
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    ITS och Logistik: Skogsåkeriernas behov av väg- och trafikinformation jämfört med Vägverkets tillhandahållna information2004Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Jag har i detta examensarbete analyserat behovet av väg- och trafikinformation i samband med skogstransporter och jämfört behovet med den information som Vägverket tillhandahåller. Arbetet har utförts på uppdrag av Vägverkets ITS-sektion, den avdelning som ansvarar för Vägverkets uppdrag att öka användningen av IT i trafiken. Målet med arbetet har varit att undersöka hur väg- och trafikinformation kan bidra till bättre skogstransporter och bättre trafik. Syftet har varit att ta reda på hur en perspektivväxling mellan trafik och transport påverkar tjänsteutvecklingen när det gäller väg- och trafikinformation. De metoder jag har använt har varit kvalitativa intervjuer, litteratur- och dokumentstudier samt komponenterna problem- och målanalys i metoden Förändringsanalys enligt FA/SIMM. Det i särklass största informationsbehovet vid utförandet av en skogstransport är statusen på den aktuella vägen vid transporttillfället. Bristfällig information i detta sammanhang är information om bärighetsnedsättningar på grund av tjällossning samt information om vägunderhåll (snöplogning, saltning och sandning) under vintern. Som ett resultat av detta arbete har jag därför föreslagit två nya system/tjänster för att hantera denna information. Eftersom en transport sker från en punkt till en annan är det min uppfattning att väg- och trafikinformationen bör paketeras i en tjänst med denna utgångspunkt, till skillnad från dagens tjänster som utgår från en viss geografisk plats.

  • 289.
    Persson-Halvarsson, Ida
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    Enhancement of Communication in EU Collaboration Project with Enterprise Modeling: A case study on the Interreg project ecoINSIDE 22019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    ecoINSIDE2 is an EU financed collaborative project between Sweden and Norway that focus on environment friendly driven business development. In the summer 2018 ecoINSIDE started their second project period. They have a well-established plan for external communication and when they hold face-to-face meetings the communication and collaboration work well. However, the internal, digital communication does not work on a satisfying level. So, to change the current situation this research uses Enterprise Modeling to map out, analyze and find ways to improve the internal communication. The research focuses on three questions:  Question 1. What difficulties/challenges arise in communication and interaction within a cross-border collaboration project?  Question 2. How can Enterprise modeling be used to develop/improve communication and interaction in complex collaborations?  Question 3. What aspects need to be considered in the start-up of similar projects to create the best possible conditions for communication and interaction? By using document studies, questionnaires and seven interviews, the goals, problems and the structure of the project have been identified. With the help of these models eight solutions was created to address 18 communication problems identified. Out from these eight solutions a set of recommendations has been created that would benefit ecoINSIDE2 and if they are implemented, they could solve many of the problems by chain reactions in the problem-structure. In this report, the three research questions have been answered with the help of the problem model, the solutions and how well the models could contribute to the work of empowerment of the communication. This research also aims at providing valuable insight to new projects as how they can avoid the problems that have occurred in the project ecoINSIDE2.

  • 290.
    Pettersson, Christoffer
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    Sökmotoroptimering för alternativa sökmetoder2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Search engine optimization is today something that can boost a site's placement in search results on a search engine. What we are seeking information on today has evolved tremendously in recent years with the rise in popularity in the use of apps on mobile devices. There are now a number of applications that have different types of search methods. These may differ to some extent compared with the traditional search method of searching via computer in Internet search engines. I have done research on search engine optimization and its various methods and alternative search engines from apps. This is to find out which parts of the search engine that are relevant to the search engine optimization of alternative search methods.

  • 291.
    Pettersson, Johan
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    Stenback, Daniel
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    Att överföra geospatiala data från en relationsdatabas till densemantiska webben2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Semantiska webben är ett begrepp som handlar om att göra data tillgängligt på ett sätt som gör att datorer kan söka, tolka och sätta data i ett sammanhang. Då mycket av datalagring idag sker i relationsdatabaser behövs nya sätt att omvandla och lagra data för att det ska vara tillgängligt för den semantiska webben.Forskning som genomförts har visat att transformering av data från relationsdatabaser till RDF som är det format som gör data sökbart på semantiska webben är möjlig men det finns idag ingen standardisering för hur detta ska ske.För att data som transformeras ska få rätt betydelse i RDF så krävs ontologier som beskriver olika begrepps relationer. Nationella vägdatabasen (NVDB) är en relationsdatabas som hantera geospatiala data som används i olika geografiska informationssystem (GIS). För samarbetspartnern Triona var det intressant att beskriva hur denna typ av data kan omvandlas för att passa den semantiska webben.Syftet var att analysera hur man överför geospatiala data från en relationsdatabas till den semantiska webben. Målet med studien var att skapa en modell för hur man överför geospatiala data till i en relationsdatabas till en RDF-lagring och hur man skapar en ontologi som passar för NVDB’s data och datastruktur.En fallstudie genomfördes med dokumentstudier utifrån en inledande litteraturstudie.En ontologi skapades för det specifika fallet och utifrån detta skapades en modell för hur man överför geospatiala data från NVDB till RDF via programvaran TripleGeo. Analysen har skett genom att transformerad data har analyserats med hjälp av befintlig teori om RDF och dess struktur och sedan jämföra och se så att data får rätt betydelse. Resultatet har också validerats genom att använda W3C’s tjänst för att validera RDF.Resultatet visar hur man transformerar data från en relationsdatabas med geospatiala data till RDF samt hur en ontologi för detta skapats. Resultatet visar också en modell som beskriver hur detta utförs och kan ses som ett försök till att generalisera och standardisera en metod för att överföra geospatiala data till RDF.

  • 292.
    Pettersson, Jonnie
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    Teknik för en flerskiktad webbapplikation2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    The report analyses if some common problems can be avoided by using modern technology. As a reference system “Fartygsrapporteringssystemet” is used. It is an n-tier web application built with modern technology at time, 2003-2004. The aim is to examine whether ASP.Net MVC, Windows Communication Foundation, Workflow Foundation and SQL Server 2005 Service Broker can be used to create an n-tier web application which also communicate with other systems and facilitate automated testing. The report describes the construction of a prototype in which the presentation layer uses ASP.Net MVC to separate presentation and business logic. Communication with the business layer is done through the Windows Communication Foundation. Hard coded processes are broken out and dealt with by Workflow Foundation. Asynchronous communication with other systems is done by using Microsoft SQL Server 2005 Service Broker. The results of the analysis is that these techniques can be used to create a n-tier web application, but that ASP.Net MVC, which at present only available in a preview release, is not sufficiently developed yet.

  • 293. Pettersson, K.
    et al.
    Eriksson, Owen
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    VBS på Skogsbolag: En fallstudie om strukturering av informationssystem1994Report (Other academic)
  • 294.
    Pettersson, Tom
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    Bulai, Tobias
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    Passive MVC och MVVM designmönster i Android: En jämförelse av kodkomplexitet mellan Passive MVC och MVVM2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today the mobile operating system Android has a firm grip on the mobile market due to its open source code and the availability due to the variety of phones available, from very cheap models to the high-end exclusive ones. However, Android currently has no defined design pattern which causes a bit of a problem during the initial stages of development because the developer has to make that decision before the initial development starts. This sometimes causes excessive complexity in the finished application, which then becomes difficult to test and manage.

    In this report we compare the two design patterns Passive Model View Controller (PMVC) and Model View View-Model (MVVM) to decide which one is the least complex. For this we used so called metrics to show the complexity of the finished applications. The metrics were calculated using the existing library of functions called Cyclomatic Complexity Numbers (CCN). The study is based on the workflow Design & creation and aim to contribute with: knowledge that will make it easier to choose design pattern when developing an Android application, and if you can with CCN point out which areas in an application will take more or less time to conduct tests on.

    During the study we also analyzed how big of an impact the Single Responsibility Principle (SRP) had on the complexity. This was part of the study so that we could see the difference of separated views versus non-separated views.

    The study shows us that the complexity in small applications is very similar, no matter which design pattern you're using. However, it also shows that there are certain parts of the applications that are diverse in their complexity and that code complexity on method-level can give directions to test cases.

  • 295.
    Pihkakoski, Lars
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    Winkler, Tobias
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    Framtagande av kravspecifikation beträffande en integration av två informations-system vid Banverket Telenät2004Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta PM är resultatet av ett arbete som är utfört vid Banverket Telenät i Borlänge. Målet var att leverera en kravspecifikation över en integration mellan systemen Ärling och DNA. Syftet med examensarbetet var att belysa de bakomliggande orsakerna som skapar behovet av en integration. Banverket Telenät har idag kund och beställareinformation i flera databaser. Uppdatering och underhåll av dessa databaser är ett problem för verksamheten. För att upprätthålla konsistent information så önskas en integration av kund- beställareinformationen. Vi fick som uppdrag att framställa en kravspecifikation över hur en integration av kund och beställareinformation kunde möjliggöras. Arbetet resulterade i en kravspecifikation som levererades till Banverket Telenät.

  • 296.
    Predoianu, Christian
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    Utvärdering av tillgängligheten i samarbetsprojektet RIGES: Utvärdering av Örnsköldsviks kommuns eTjänst för bygglov2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A digitized community development automatically leads to the development of adaptation to as many categories of users as possible. Accessibility and guidelines for these therefore play an important role in the development of different eServices.

    The purpose of the study is to investigate how accessibility is available to the end user group in the eService for the construction permit at municipality of Örnsköldsvik which the cooperation project RIGES has developed, if the eService for the construction permit complies with the accessibility criteria WCAG 2.0, level AA and possibly level AAA and what needs to be done to achieve accessibility.

    The data collection has been done to then be analyzed by a user test where five users could navigate around the eService of the construction permit. The user test has been complemented with an online accessibility test (PTS web tool) as well as description and navigation of the eService of the construction permit using screenshots. An Interview with Örnsköldsviks representative for RIGES has also been made. The combination of these methods has been linked to the theoretical part, which has resulted in a broad understanding of how accessibility for the eService looks like.

    The survey of the eService for the construction permit showed that the test subjects’ experience of the eService was positive. This was due to the fact that most test subjects did not experience any major problems during use. The investigation also showed that the result of the accessibility test was represented as a high percentage score. However, there are examples indicating that the eService does not comply with all criteria for accessibility at the recommended minimum level AA. Following the proposed improvements, the eService for the construction permit has great potential for achieving a very high level of accessibility, as the eService adheres to accessibility criteria to a large extent even at the higher AAA level.

  • 297.
    Preniqi, Adelina
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    Morina, Besa
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    Nyttan med virtuella provrum: En utvärderingsstudie av virtuella provrum för online-shopping, med fokus på användbarhet.2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den relativt nya företeelsen BrandME – I am the brand är en eTjänst som fungerar som ett virtuellt provrum och därmed gör det möjligt att kunna prova på kläder virtuellt. Till sin hjälp har man bland annat använt sig av 3D-grafik samt databaser. BrandME är en produkt av det kanadensiska företaget My Virtual Model, ett företag som har arbetat med att sätta standarder för virtuell identitet sedan år 2000. Då denna företeelse är relativ ny, skapar detta utrymme för undersökning och bedömning om huruvida välutvecklad och välanpassad BrandME är. Undersökningens syfte är att utvärdera BrandME för att sedan kunna fastställa nyttan med denna eTjänst. Under utvärderingen koncentrerar vi oss dels på användbarheten hos BrandME och dels på utformningen av BrandME.

  • 298.
    Qwarnström, Sofie
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    Sjans, Monica
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    Verksamhetsanalys vid en vårdcentral – effekter av ökade personalresurser2004Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Landstingets besparingsåtgärder har försämrat möjligheten till vård för ett människor. Indragningen av läkartjänster och nedläggning av vårdcentraler genomgående problem för hela landet. En verksamhetsanalys är utförd på en vårdcentral där problemet är att både läkarsamt distriktsskötersketjänst är vakanta. Personalbristen tillsammans med det upptagningsområdet medför problem i form av stor arbetsbörda för befintlig samt en brist på patienttider. Från mars respektive april månad har tjänsterna tillsatta. Syftet med detta examensarbete är att analysera hur verksamheten fungerar efter tillsättandet av personalresurser. Aspekter som legat i förgrunden är dispositionen av bokningsbara patienttider, fördelningen av administrationen, risk för utbrändhet proaktivt eller reaktivt arbetssätt. Verksamhetsanalysen har genomförts enligt metoden FA/SIM, understödd kvalitativa observationer och intervjuer med personalen före och efter förändringen. Resultatet är att situationen förbättrades märkbart på flera punkter efter resurstillförseln, men den är ännu inte acceptabel. * Trycket i telefonbokningen och väntetiderna för en planerad tid är fortfarande oacceptabla i förhållande till verksamhetens mål, personalens arbetsmiljö patienternas rätt till vård. * Administrationsarbetet upptar oproportionerligt stor tid och torde kunna omfördelas inom befintlig personalstyrka, där läkarsekreterarna kan stor potential. * Riskerna för utbrändhet anses ha minskat, både för läkarna och distriktssköterskorna, vilka nu har fler tider att erbjuda patienterna. * Arbetet kan utföras på ett mer proaktivt sätt efter förändringen.

  • 299.
    Rasch, Kevin
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    Lipponen, Dennis
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    Inomhuspositionering med tre olika tekniker – Bluetooth Low Energy, Wi-Fi och GPS: En jämförelsestudie av positioneringsverktyg vid inomhuspositionering2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Different navigation techniques are something that people uses on a daily basis. It has

    been and still is an important part in the history of mankind, initially navigation was about

    being able to navigate at sea using the stars, and today many people around the world have

    some kind of smartphone that can be used as a navigation tool.

    Indoor positioning is something that has become a hot topic in the last decade and since

    GPS has bad precision indoors new technologies has been developed to navigate and

    position objects indoors. Some leading technologies now includes Bluetooth Low Energy

    beacons and Wi-Fi, where you can position a user indoors using triangulation-techniques.

    The question still remains, which technique is viable for indoor positioning.

    This study has been conducted as a combination of two strategies, starting with a

    comparison study of three different positioning techniques, BLE, Wi-Fi and GPS, to come

    to a conclusion which positioning technique is suitable for indoor positioning. After the

    conclusion we evaluated the technique in the form of an experiment in which several

    factors, mainly the precision, are tested. In this study, BLE beacon were used as the

    positioning tool because it was easy to implement but also to able to achieve high precision

    in the right environment.

    To test the beacons, a light application prototype was developed that had the main

    purpose of positioning a user in a coordinate system using XY values. By using

    triangulation to position the user. The study achieved a mean margin of approximately 76

    centimeters when five beacons were used in a 4 x 3 meter area. The conclusion was BLE

    beacons is a suitable tool when it comes to indoor positioning and that there is a lot of

    difference in precision when using too few or poorly placed beacons.

  • 300.
    Rehn, Erik
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    Mobilitet som tjänst: Trafikverkets roll i tjänsteutbudet2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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