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  • 251.
    Rafi, Muhammad Nawaz
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    An analysis of linkage between foreign direct investment and GDP per Capita in Pakistan: A time series analysis2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to investigate the relation between foreign direct investment (FDI) and per capita gross domestic product (GDP) in Pakistan. The study is based on a basic Cobb-Douglas production function. Population over age 15 to 64 is used as a proxy for labor in the investigation. The other variables used are gross capital formation, technological gap and a dummy variable measuring among other things political stability. We find positive correlation between GDP per capita in Pakistan and two variables, FDI and population over age 15 to 64. The GDP gap (gap between GDP of USA and GDP of Pakistan) is negatively correlated with GDP per capita as expected. Political instability, economic crisis, wars and polarization in the society have no significant impact on GDP per capita in the long run.

  • 252.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Daunfeldt, Sven-Olov
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Heldt, Tobias
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Thunström, Linda
    Weiberth, Cajsa
    Märkningar och konsumentbeteende: kommer efterfrågan med Svanen?2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Rapporten består av tre delar, där den första studerar hur hyllmärkningar av ekologiska produkter påverkar efterfrågan på de märkta produkterna. Studien baseras på försäljningsdata från en ICA-Maxi butik belägen i Hemlingby köpcentrum i Gävle. I del två studeras hur konsumenterna värderar hälsorelaterade livsmedelsmärkningar samt hur konsumenterna värderar kemiska livsmedelstillsatser. De märkningar som studeras är de som mest frekvent används i Sverige som indikationer på näringsrik mat respektive ekologiskt odlad mat. I rapportens sista kapitel undersöks i vilken utsträckning konsumenterna är nöjda med sina val inom dagligvaruhandeln. Då beslutssituationen innebär att konsumenterna ofta har bristfällig information om tillgängliga produkter samtidigt som man har många möjliga val är det intressant att konsumenter som ges möjlighet att i efterhand utvärdera sina val då fattar samma beslut som man gjorde vid det faktiska köptillfället.

  • 253.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics. HUI Research.
    Li, Yujiao
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    Carling, Kenneth
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    How Does Big-Box Entry Affect Labor Productivity in Durable Goods Retailing? A Synthetic Control Approach. How Does Big-Box Entry Affect Labor Productivity in Durable Goods Retailing? A Synthetic Control Approach2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Using  data  from  2001–2012,  the  effects  of  IKEA  entry  in  four  Swedish  municipalities,   2004–2007,   on   labor   productivity   in   durable   goods   retailing   is   investigated  using  synthetic  control  methods.  We contribute  to  the  literature  on  synthetic   control   methods   by considering   parametric   specifications   of   the   intervention effect, which in our case arguably improves the likelihood of identifying the intervention effect of IKEA entry on labor productivity. As inference relies on a single  treated  observational  unit  (i.e.,  a  single  IKEA-entry  municipality),  statistical  testing  is  a  challenge,  and  randomization  and  replication  for  inference  is  done  with  regard to the pool of control municipalities. Our results indicate that in three out of four  entry  municipalities,  labor  productivity  increased  more  than  in  their  synthetic  counterparts after IKEA entry, and that the size of the positive effect is related to the size of the new IKEA relative to the size of the existing durable goods retail sector in the entry municipalities, with larger positive effects found in municipalities where the new IKEA was large relative to the existing durable goods retail market.

  • 254.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Nordmark, Arvid
    Marklund, Per-Olov
    Does Competition Increase Economic Efficiency in Swedish County Councils?2011In: Advances in Management and Applied Economics, ISSN 1792-7552, Vol. 1, no 2, p. 77-91Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish health care system is to a large extent publicly managed by 21 local county councils. During recent years there has been a movement were local county councils have opted to allow more of the production to be performed by alternative producers (i.e. private firms, cooperatives etc.). The purpose of this paper is thus to study if local county councils who has a large proportion of health care performed by alternative producers are more economically efficient than other county councils. The results indicate that county councils with more alternative caregivers are supplying their services more efficiently.

  • 255. Rämme, Ulf
    et al.
    Daunfeldt, Sven-Olov
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Market reform and food prices: Did the 1912 Slaughterhouse Reform affect meat prices in Stockholm?2015In: International Review of Retail Distribution & Consumer Research, ISSN 0959-3969, E-ISSN 1466-4402, Vol. 25, no 2, p. 204-213Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In February 1912, the Slaughterhouse Reform was introduced by the city of Stockholm to address the unsanitary conditions prevalent in the production and sale of meat, and thereby improve food safety. However, opponents argued that the reform would lead to price increases, and that poorer households would therefore replace meat with cheaper products. We find that meat prices increased by 21% due to the introduction of the reform, which meant that consumers had to pay a substantial cost for improved food safety within the boundaries of Stockholm.

  • 256.
    Si, Wei
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Education and Earnings for Poverty Reduction: Short-Term Evidence of Pro-Poor Growth from the Mexican Oportunidades Program2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Education, as an indispensable component of human capital, has been acknowledged to play a critical role in economic growth, which is theoretically elaborated by human capital theory and empirically confirmed by evidence from different parts of the world. The educational impact on growth is especially valuable and meaningful when it is for the sake of poverty reduction and pro-poorness of growth. The paper re-explores the precious link between human capital development and poverty reduction by investigating the causal effect of education accumulation on earnings enhancement for anti-poverty and pro-poor growth. The analysis takes the evidence from a well-known conditional cash transfer (CCT) program — Oportunidades in Mexico. Aiming at alleviating poverty and promoting a better future by investing in human capital for children and youth in poverty, this CCT program has been recognized producing significant outcomes. The study investigates a short-term impact of education on earnings of the economically disadvantaged youth, taking the data of both the program’s treated and untreated youth from urban areas in Mexico from 2002 to 2004. Two econometric techniques, i.e. difference-in-differences and difference-in-differences propensity score matching approach are applied for estimation. The empirical analysis first identifies that youth who under the program’s schooling intervention possess an advantage in educational attainment over their non-intervention peers; with this identification of education discrepancy as a prerequisite, further results then present that earnings of the education advantaged youth increase at a higher rate about 20 percent than earnings of their education disadvantaged peers over the two years. This result indicates a confirmation that education accumulation for the economically disadvantaged young has a positive impact on their earnings enhancement and thus inferring a contribution to poverty reduction and pro-poorness of growth.

  • 257.
    Suther, Lars
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Sysselsättningseffekter i svenska aktiebolag genererade av återinförandet av ROT-avdraget 2008: En utvärdering med hjälp av syntetisk kontrollmetod2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to evaluate the effects of the ROT-deduction that was re-introduced in Sweden in December 2008. The purpose with the deduction was to stimulate the construction industry and increase the construction work made in Sweden. In this paper, I want to examine what effects the re-introduced ROT-deduction had on employment within the construction industry in Sweden. The data that will be used are from limited liability companies in Sweden and is collected from the companies annual reports. A synthetic control method will be used for the analysis. This method involves creating a synthetic control unit and compare it to the treated unit, i.e. the construction industry. The results suggests that approximately 21 000 jobs were created through the re-introduction of the ROT-deduction.

  • 258.
    Szabó, Josef
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    How to avoid Copenhagen: An experimental economic approach to climate negotiations2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study got its origin in the failed climate negotiations in the Copenhagen 2009 summit. By conducting a public good game, with participants from China and Sweden, my study indicates that previous studies on public good games can predict the outcome of the game to a quit large extent even though most of my statistical tests came out statistically insignificant. My study also indicates that by framing the game as climate negotiations there were no statistical significant difference on the level of contributions in comparison to the unframed versions of the game. The awareness of the issues with emissions, global warming and other environmental problems are pretty high but even so when push comes to shove gains in the short run are prioritized to gains in the long run. There are however hypothetical willingness to come to term with the environmental issues. The results of the study indicate that the outcome of the Copenhagen summit can be avoidable but would need additional experiments made on cultural differences and behavior.

  • 259.
    Tang, Aili
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Does Gibrat’s Law hold for Swedish energy firms?2015In: Empirical Economics, ISSN 0377-7332, E-ISSN 1435-8921, Vol. 49, no 2, p. 659-674Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gibrat's law predicts that firm growth is purely random and should be independent of firm size. We use a random effects-random coefficient model to test whether Gibrat's law holds on average in the studied sample as well as at the individual firm level in the Swedish energy market. No study has yet investigated whether Gibrat's law holds for individual firms, previous studies having instead estimated whether the law holds on average in the samples studied. The present results support the claim that Gibrat's law is more likely to be rejected ex ante when an entire firm population is considered, but more likely to be confirmed ex post after market selection has "cleaned" the original population of firms or when the analysis treats more disaggregated data. From a theoretical perspective, the results are consistent with models based on passive and active learning, indicating a steady state in the firm expansion process and that Gibrat's law is violated in the short term but holds in the long term once firms have reached a steady state. These results indicate that approximately 70 % of firms in the Swedish energy sector are in steady state, with only random fluctuations in size around that level over the 15 studied years.

  • 260.
    Thai, Tri Do
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    A gravity model for trade between Vietnam and twenty-three European countries2006Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis examines the bilateral trade between Vietnam and twenty three European countries based on a gravity model and panel data for years 1993 to 2004. Estimates indicate that economic size, market size and real exchange rate of Vietnam and twenty three European countries play major role in bilateral trade between Vietnam and these countries. Distance and history, however, do not seem to drive the bilateral trade. The results of gravity model are also applied to calculate the trade potential between Vietnam and twenty three European countries. It shows that Vietnam’s trade with twenty three European countries has considerable room for growth.

  • 261.
    Thai, Tri Do
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    The impact of foreign direct investment and openness on Vietnamese economy2005Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis examines the impact of foreign direct investment (FDI) on Vietnamese economy based on Partial Adjustment Model and time series data from 1976 to 2004. FDI is shown to have not only short run but also long run effect on gross domestic product (GDP) of Vietnam. However, elasticity of GDP with respect to FDI is small and it will take many years to fully manifest itself. The impact of trade openness on GDP has also been examined and it is shown to be stronger than that of FDI. The paper offers a number of explanations and discusses briefly suggestions in order to increase the contribution of FDI to Vietnam’s economic development.

  • 262.
    Tobias, Heldt
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Regionalekonomisk betydelse av travsporten: exemplet Dalatravet Rättvik2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Tidigare studier har visat att hästnäringen inklusive spridningseffekter årligen omsätter ca 46 miljarder kronor och bidrar till sysselsättning för ca 30 000 helårsverken. Motsvarande beräkningar för travsportens del av hästnäringen eller för en mindre region finns däremot inte. Denna rapport syftar till att uppskatta regionalekonomisk betydelse av travsport i Sverige med utgångspunkt i en mindre travbanas verksamhet. Dalatravet Rättvik (DT Rättvik) används som en fallstudie. Resultaten baseras dels på registerdata över faktiskt registrerade hästar med koppling till DT Rättvik dels på enkätmaterial insamlat från ett urval av besökare vid tävlingar under sommaren 2014. Totalt används svar från 444 besökare i analysen. Resultaten från beräkningarna visar att den direkta ekonomiska effekten av DT Rättviks 333 travhästar i amatör- eller proffsträning genererar 20 miljoner i travhästtrelaterad konsumtion. DT Rättviks travsportevenemang uppskattas generera ca 29 miljoner varav 11,1 miljoner ärett tillskott till den regionala ekonomin i form av turistekonomisk omsättning. Travsportens sammanlagda regionalekonomiska effekt beräknas således uppgå till minst 31,1 miljonerkronor. Inkluderas även utbildning, avel och uppfödning samt sysselsättning vid ATG-ombudså uppskattas travsporten generera ca 40 helårsverken inom DT Rättviksregionen.  

  • 263. Vail, D
    et al.
    Heldt, Tobias
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Governing snowmobilers in multiple-use landscapes: Swedish and Maine (USA) cases2004In: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 48, no 4, p. 469-483 Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 264.
    Vardaki, Georgia
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    The economic impact of sports mega-events: The case study of the FIS Nordic World Ski Championship Falun 20152016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Since the second half of 1990s, the economic impact of sports mega-events concerned the researchers, the public and the professionals. The investment of public funds and the effects on several sectors of the economy motivate the economic impact studies. The economic impact of the FIS Nordic World Ski Championship Falun 2015 to the region of Dalarna is the topic of this thesis. This requires the calculation of direct, indirect and induced economic impact. Within the analysis, data from a questionnaire survey conducted on seven different days during the event are used. The final sample of the analysis contains 893 observations. The segmentation approach was applied for the calculations and the visitors were classified regarding their choice of accommodation. The regional economic impact is calculated at 321 M SEK and the employment effect on the tourism sector is estimated. However, the lack of information limits the study. The analysis could be extended with an accurate investigation of certain issues. Further, the impact of the event should be estimated from all the perspectives. The organization of sports mega-events creates tangible and intangible effects to the host-city. The thesis reviews literature on the economic impact studies of sports mega-events. The results of the study can be used for a comprehensive analysis of the case study. Further, the professionals of the tourism and the event could be benefited.

  • 265. Vredin-Johansson, Maria
    et al.
    Heldt, Tobias
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Johansson, Per
    The effects of attitudes and personality traits on mode choice2006In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 40, no 6, p. 507-525Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We hypothesise that differences in people's attitudes and personality traits lead them to attribute varying importance to environmental considerations, safety, comfort, convenience and flexibility. Differences in personality traits call be revealed not only in the individuals' choice of transport, but also in other actions of their everyday lives-such as how much they recycle, whether they take precautions or avoid dangerous pursuits. Conditioning on a set of exogenous individual characteristics, we use indicators of attitudes and personality traits to form latent variables for inclusion in an, otherwise standard, discrete mode choice model. With a sample of Swedish commuters, we find that both attitudes towards flexibility and comfort, as well as being pro-environmentally inclined, influence the individual's choice of mode. Although modal time and cost still are important, it follows that there are other ways, apart from economic incentives, to attract individuals to the, from society's perspective, desirable public modes of transport. Our results should provide useful information to policy-makers and transportation planners developing sustainable transportation systems.

  • 266. Vågsholm, Ivar
    et al.
    Viske, Diana
    Hansen, Fredrik
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Road map of the Swedish salmonella Control program 20072010In: Proceedings of the International symposium Salmonella and salmonellosis, St. Malo, 2010, p. 421-424Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 267.
    Wikström, Daniel
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Brandt, Daniel
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Heldt, Tobias
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    A business intelligence solution of handling traveling data with R and Shiny2016In: Proceedings of the IFITTtalk@Östersund Workshop on Big Data & Business Intelligence in the Travel & Tourism Domain / [ed] Fuchs, M., Lexhagen, M. & Höpken, W., 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 268.
    Xi, Xiaochuan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    A Study on China's Income Inequality and the Relationship with Economic Growth2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to study China’s income inequality under rapid economic growth. Does the relationship between economic growth and income inequality in China follow the Kuznets hypothesis? What is the main cause and trend of China’s income inequality? We use data which covers the period 1980-2005 to analyze the overall inequality, and data covering the period 1980-2002 to analyze the inequality inside rural and urban areas. The derived results doubt the validity of Kuznets hypothesis on explaining the relationship between economic growth and income inequality in China. Also we derive the trend of China’s increased income inequality and find that the urban-rural income disparity is the main cause of China’s income inequality.

  • 269.
    Xiao, Jing
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    The Impact of Foreign Direct Investment on International Trade: An Empirical Study of China2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the impact of inward FDI (Foreign Direct Investment) on international trade of China empirically on the country level by using panel data from 1984 to 2007. Two separate transformed models which are based on the gravity equation and refer to the econometric models of some previous studies, are used in this paper to estimate the effect of FDI inflows on exports and imports respectively. The estimation results confirmed the complementary relationship between FDI inflows and trade of China both on exports and imports, which has also been supported by previous empirical studies.

  • 270.
    Xuyen Pettersson, Sofie
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Determinants of visitor expenditures: The case of the Nordic World Ski Championships in Falun,Sweden in 20152017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the effect of the primary determinants of visitors’ total

    expenditure per trip and total daily expenditure at the event by using classic OLS

    regression model and Tobit regression model to individual micro data collected by a

    survey to participants at the The Nordic World Ski Championships in Falun, Sweden in

    2015. It is shown that country of origin and length of stay have effects on both total

    expenditure per trip and total daily expenditure at the event. While accommodation mode,

    transport mode to Falun, local kilometers travelled within Falun affect only total

    expenditure per trip. Visitors’ total daily expenditure at the event are also affected by age.

    Determinants such as income, sex, living in Falun, living at home while visiting the

    event, party size, companion age group, paid by others for accommodation, kilometers

    travelled by car to Falun, number of persons if travel by car, distance to Falun, previous

    visit to Falun and visiting family and friend have no effect on both total expenditure per

    trip and total daily expenditure at the event.

  • 271.
    Yarmukhamedov, Sherzod
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Trade effects of exchange rate fluctuations: Evidence from Sweden2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    An overview of the theoretical literature for the last two decades suggests that there is no clear-cut relationship one can pin down between exchange rate volatility and trade flows. Analytical results are based on specific assumptions and only hold in certain cases. Especially, the impact of exchange rate volatility on export and import activity investigated separately leads also to dissimilar conclusions among countries studied. The general presumption is that an increase in exchange rate volatility will have an adverse effect on trade flows and consequently, the overall heath of the world economy. However, neither theoretical models nor empirical studies provide us with a definitive answer, leaving obtained results highly ambiguous and inconsistent (Baum and Caglayan, 2006). We purposed to empirically investigate trade effects of exchange rate fluctuations in Sweden from the perspective of export and import in this research. The data comprises period from January 1993 to December 2006, where export and import volumes are considered from the point of their determinants, including exchange rate volatility, which has been measured through EGARCH model. The results for the case of Sweden show that short run dynamics of volatility negatively associated with both export and import, whereas considered from the case of previous period volatility it exhibits positive relationship. These results are consistent with the most findings of prior studies, where the relationship remained ambiguous.

  • 272.
    Yu, Jiaxuan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Factors affecting tourists’ length of stay in Rome2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis documents the design and result of a study on tourists’ length of stay in

    Rome, as a function of age, season and several other factors. Two models are tested. An OLS

    model is developed to examine relation between number of nights stayed in Rome and 15

    factors. A binary logit model is developed and estimated to examine the assumed relationship

    between the probability of staying longer than one week and the same 15 factors. Survey data

    of Rome visitors collected by the Pragma and Doxa consulting firms are used in the analysis.

    The results indicate that travelling by car and remote travel are important for staying longer

    in Rome. Moreover, season, employment status, whether repeated visit, shopping

    opportunities, good tourist information, package holiday and type of accommodation also

    play a role for length of stay.

  • 273.
    ZHANG, LEI
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    YOU, XI
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    The Choice of STIGA Table Tennis Blades: Evidence from China2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate how individuals with different characteristics make their choice-decisions when consuming STIGA table tennis blades, which are combinations of various attributes, such as price, control, attack, etc. It is expected that the general trend of choice behavior on this special commodity can be, at least to some extent, revealed. Data were collected using questionnaires sent to registered members of a table tennis club in China. The questionnaires included information and questions about individuals’ monthly income levels, ages, technique styles, etc. A multinomial logit model was then applied to analyze factors determining Chinese consumers’ choice behavior on STIGA table tennis blades. The results indicated that the main element influencing Chinese consumers’ choice of STIGA ping-pong blades was the technique style and other variables did not seem to influence the choice of table tennis blades. These results might be explained by the limited sample size as well as unmeasured and immeasurable factors. Thus, a more extensive research is needed to be conducted in the future.

  • 274.
    Zhang, Pengcheng
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Is there wage premium to computer use in Sweden2005Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the wage premium to computer use in Sweden in the early 1990’s. I use simple regression model and interaction terms in my paper to examine the effect of computer use at work. Although the data is only one-year cross-section data, my results clearly show a wage premium to computer use in Sweden. There are also interesting findings in my paper by using Swedish data. From the results, I find wage premium to be related to intensity of computer use at work.

  • 275.
    Zhu, Fangqun
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Sun, Pei
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    The Relationship between Transport Infrastructure and Economic Growth: An Empirical Analysis Comparing Developing and Developed Countries2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Gross domestic product (GDP) is generally considered as the most important index and comprehensive measure of the size of economy. This paper investigates empirically the relationship between transport infrastructure (focus on highways) and GDP growth based on a production function approach. The physical stocks of transport infrastructure were used instead of monetary data to measure public capital together with several other variables (labor and private capital) that were hypothesized to affect economic growth. Then we explore a number of subsequent studies that use panel data covering the period between 1992 and 2004. An investigation was done to compare developed countries and developing countries. Results indicate that physical units are positively and significantly related to economic growth. Furthermore there was an interesting finding that the output elasticity with respect to physical units for developed countries is higher than developing countries.

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