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  • 251.
    von Ahlefeld Nisser, Désirée
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education and Humanities, Education.
    Lindqvist, Gunilla
    Dalarna University, School of Education and Humanities, Education.
    Two Different Theoretical Approaches on how to Understand the Role of SENCOs and Special Teachers in the Swedish Educational System2012In: NFPF/NERA's 40th Congress: Everyday life, education and their transformations in a Nordic and globalized context, Department of Education (DPU), Aarhus University, Copenhagen, Denmark, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two Different Theoretical Approaches on how to Understand the Role of SENCOs and Special Teachers in the Swedish Educational System.

    The aim of this paper is to investigate the roles of SENCOs and Special Teachers by using the perspectives of Habermas’ linguistic philosophical role theory and Abbott’s system of professions and the division of expert labor.

     

    Background

    Swedish special needs education has two different but similar professions – Special educational needs coordinators (SENCOs) and special teachers. Special teachers in Swedish schools have traditionally been the occupational group that worked with children in need of special support. They usually taught children individually or in small groups outside the classroom. The introduction of SENCOs, in the early 1990´s, challenged this traditional way of dealing with school difficulties where school problems often have been seen as individual deficiencies (c.f. Ainscow, 1998; Malmgren-Hansen, 2002). In 2008 the Swedish government initiated a restart of the education for special teachers with the aim to focus their work on the individual-level interaction (SFS 2008:132).

        The role of these two professions – SENCOs and the “new” special teachers - are of special interest since SENCOs often have been seen as having a pivotal role in initiating changes towards more inclusive practices (e.g. Abbot, 2007, Malmgren-Hansen, 2002) and special teachers have traditionally been seen primarily as guardians of segregated practices (Malmgren-Hansen, 2002; Ahlefeld Nisser, 2009).  

        Previous studies on the role of SENCOs (Ahlefeld Nisser, 2009; Lindqvist & Nilholm, 2011b) and on the “new” special teachers (Ahlefeld Nisser, 2011) have shown difficulties for the two professions to acquire full jurisdiction and thus challenge traditional ways of dealing with school difficulties, the deficit-perspective and segregated solutions in schools.

    Theoretical framework

    Abbott (1988) studies relations between different professions and different professions’ development over time. He sheds light on how professions control the fields of e.g. work, knowledge, clientele and actions. Abbott (1988) argues against the traditional way of describing professions as exclusive occupational groups with special, usually abstract skills that develop irrespectively of other professions and external pressure. “Professionalism has been viewed as a matter of individual choices and corporate action taken to protect or extend them” (Abbott, 1988:7). Instead, Abbott sees professionals as interdependent groups with common work. This is a matter of jurisdictional control: “Who has control of what, when and who?”

    Habermas' linguistic philosophical role theory (1995/1981, part II; 2007) deals with the relationship between a person’s social world he or she is part of, the outer world of facts and norms and the subjective world to which he/she has privileged access to. 

    Findings and relevance

    By using Habermas’ perspective the roles of SENCOs and special teachers can be understood as constructed in relation to the context in which they work, in relation to the statutes and their assignments, and in relation to their own expectations and expectations from other groups, e.g. colleagues and parents (Ahlefeld Nisser, 2009). One can assume that interests and discourses among different occupational groups play a major role in the persistence of old special educational structures. As Abbott (1988) suggests, there is a constant struggle and negotiation between different professional groups concerning who should have the control of what and who, e.g. of work, clientele and actions.

    Our research show that there are possibilities and obstacles for SENCOs and special teachers to fulfil their commitment in Swedish schools. We found that the theoretical frameworks mentioned above can be useful in understanding the roles of SENCOs and special teachers.

  • 252.
    von Ahlefeld Nisser, Désirée
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Education.
    Nes, Kari
    Fasting, Rolf
    Lindqvist, Gunilla
    Ström, Kristina
    Different Understanding of Inclusion: Round Table Presentation2011In: NERA´s 39th Congress – Rights and Education, Jyväskylä, Finland, 2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 253.
    von Ahlefeld Nisser, Désirée
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Education.
    Sundqvist, Christel
    Åbo Akademi.
    Consultation in special needs education in Sweden and Finland: a comparative approach2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper compares the conditions and implementation of special education professionals’ consulting task in Sweden and Finland. The article first describes the background of the consulting teacher role and special education in Sweden and in Finland. Two different perspectives in the continuum on consultation are presented, followed by a description of how the consulting task is implemented and described in educational policy papers, and in research in the two countries. The analysis shows that while there are differences between the implementation of the consulting task in Sweden and Finland, there are also several similarities regarding the challenges faced. Differences can be understood according to traditions, education, and educational policy papers. The similarities shows that the consulting task must be clearly defined in policy documents, highlighted in education, and understood as a complex activity where both advice and reflection strategies are used. The consulting task can be more successful if the consultation is characterized by collaborative dialogues where the classroom teachers’ knowledge and the context are also taken in account.

  • 254.
    von Schantz Lundgren, Ina
    Dalarna University, School of Education and Humanities, Education.
    Det handlar om kärlek: En fallstudie av ett projekt för att synliggöra barns rättigheter för ungdomar i årskurs 7-92011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Föreliggande studie har projektet Det handlar om kärlek i fokus. Det är ett projekt i Rädda Barnens regi som tar sin utgångspunkt i Barnkonventionen och mänskliga rättigheter. Projek-tet har genomförts med medel från Länsstyrelsen Dalarna på tre skolor i Dalarna. Denna stu-die rör dock endast Maserskolan i Borlänge kommun. Målgruppen är årskurs 7-9. Syftet är att förebygga hedersrelaterat våld och förtryck, något som emellertid inte uttrycks officiellt, då en del i projektidén är att inte någon ska känna sig utpekad. Man kan diskutera att ha ett un-derliggande syfte som finns med i det material som skolans ledning får ta del av, men som inte delges eleverna. De vuxna som varit involverade i projektet har dock inte sett detta som så problematiskt. De framhåller att den komplexitet som omger elever som lever i hederskulturer i sitt privatliv och som samtidigt i sitt offentliga liv ständigt konfronteras med en helt annorlunda samhällskultur, skapar en situation som måste hanteras på specifika sätt och att detta förfarande föll väl ut för elevernas del. Detta sågs som det väsentliga i den här projekt-idén. Studiens underlag har insamlats via triangulering, vilket innebär att flera olika metoder använts. I detta fall observation vid olika aktiviteter inom projektets ram, informella samtal, elevenkäter och intervjuer. Resultatet visar att projektidén fungerade väl med avseende på dess intentioner och syfte. Eleverna fick ökade kunskaper om barns och ungas rättigheter och majoriteten av eleverna visade intresse och engagemang i de aktiviteter som genomfördes. Skolan som en viktigt arena för att sprida kunskap om mänskliga rättigheter synliggjordes.

  • 255.
    von Schantz Lundgren, Ina
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Education.
    Det är enklare i teorin… Om skolutveckling i praktiken: En fallstudie av ett skolutvecklingsprojekt i en gymnasieskola2008Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation is a case study dealing with a school development project that took place in an upper secondary school as a result of a merger of two schools with different cultures. The project used a method called “Frirumsmodellen” and was planned to be conducted in three steps. The first was to carry out a cultural analysis in order to map the preconditions to start a school development project. The second was to carry out concrete actions and finally study eventual effects from such activities by doing a second cultural analysis. My role was to be a supervisor in the school development work, but at the same time study how this work was conducted and its impact in the ordinary school day.

    The dissertation takes its departure in the fact that schools are political governed. The mission of schools is never neutral; it is always an expression of behind laying social forces, ideologies and ideals of the contemporary society. Of this reason, there is a close connection between the macro political level and the micro political level. Another point of departure is the transition from a modern to a post modern society that gives the character to the changes that take place in schools. Steering of schools has partly been treated as a technical implementation problem. Schools contain on going conflicts between different interest groups that, more or less regularly, end up in educational reforms. These reforms generate school development activities in the single school. Undoubtedly, this makes school development to a complex process.

    At a rather late stage of the study I decided not to fulfil my task to follow the original plan. I instead let the school development project as a model to be in focus. The over all purpose was formulated: How is it possible to understand what happened in the school development project in the Falkgymnasiet and why was it not possible to carry it out as it was said in the project plan? To interpret what took place during the project I did create an interpretation frame of implementation and complexity theory that also made it possible to critically scrutinise the “Frirumsmodellen”.

    Already in an early stage of the process it was obvious that the “Frirumsmodellen” did not supply any tools to use and it became disconnected from the project. The project in it selves was marginalised and made invisible. The headmaster used the situation to change things she thought were important to develop. As a result, things happened, but most of the involved people did not at first hand connect this to the project. It is, of course, difficult in detail to say what caused what. The complexity theory successively made the hidden patterns revealed, hidden unofficial potentates visible, as well as unpredictable conditions that generated reactions from the personnel in front of a development work. Together this was rather efficient obstacles for not changing this school.

    I also discuss school development and implementation problems on a general level, for example, the possibility to transform a top-down initiated project to be bottom-up driven and using project as a tool for school development work. It was obvious that headmasters and teachers must be prepared to handle the ideological dimensions of problems schools have to face. Consequently, development work is about making problems visible and to handle these in the intersection point between the intentions of educational policies, pedagogical researchers, school administrators, headmasters, teachers and pupils. The ideological dimension also contains an existential issue. Do I as a teacher share the intentions for the development work? If not, how must I act?

  • 256.
    von Schantz Lundgren, Ina
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Education.
    Holmstrand, Lars
    Skolutveckling i teorin och i praktiken: Erfarenheter från ett skolutvecklingsprojekt en gymnasieskola2010In: Arbetsliv i omvandling, ISSN 1404-8426, no 3, p. 98-136Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Skolutveckling i teorin och i praktiken, exemplifierar ett mindre framgångsrikt projekt som illustrerar svårigheterna med samverkan/samarbete mellan rektor och lärare, mellan olika lärarkategorier och mellan forskare och lärare och är skrivet av pedagoger.

  • 257.
    von Schantz Lundgren, Ina
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Education.
    Lundgren, Mats
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Education.
    Projekt som ett social- och arbetsmarknadspolitiskt verktyg för att omorientera unga långtidsarbetslösas liv2015In: Utbildning och Lärande / Education and Learning, ISSN 2001-4554, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 42-61Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article aims, on the basis of a project for long-term unemployed young people, to discuss whether or not projects, as a labour and social policy measure, can support and help unemployed people involved in a project to find new ways forward in their lives. The results are based on a case study that was carried out as part of an on-going evaluation. The results reveal obstacles that individuals meet when seeking work; they further reveal how projects can help them to break their isolation and to reorient their lives. In most cases, however, this must be seen as a mere first step in a longer process. It is not given that everyone wants to, or can, change their situation because they do not see an alternative or do not know how to pursue it. This article also discusses possible reasons why experiences generated in a project do not seem to be utilized in the organizations that run projects.

  • 258.
    von Schantz Lundgren, Ina
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education and Humanities, Education.
    Lundgren, Mats
    Dalarna University, School of Education and Humanities, Education.
    Synliggörande av tyst kunskap i gymnasial yrkesutbildning2012In: NORDYRK - Nordic Journal of Vocational Education and Training, ISSN 2242-458X, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 1-12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Yrkesutbildning skiljer sig från andra former av gymnasieutbildning genom att den innehåller praktisk kunskap som kan vara svårfångad, ofta benämnd som tyst kunskap. Tyst kunskap utgör en förutsättning för att yrkeselever ska kunna tillägna sig ett yrkes kultur, praxis och kunskapstradition. Med utgångspunkt i yrkeslärares berättelser beskrivs i artikeln med stöd av tre definierade kompetensområden, 1) yrkesfältet, 2) handlag i yrket samt 3) interaktion och social kompetens, hur yrkeslärare arbetar för att möjliggöra att ett yrkes tysta kunskaper kan läras i en skolmiljö. Resultatet visar betydelsen av att yrkeslärares tysta kunskaper blottläggs för eleverna genom att de i sin undervisning, berättar, visar och ställer frågor. Det är i dessa möten som den tysta kunskapens betydelse i yrkesutövning kan bli synlig för eleverna.

  • 259.
    von Schantz Lundgren, Ina
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Education.
    Lundgren, Mats
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Education.
    Unga elever med egen dator - några lärares tankar om hur deras undervisning påverkas2011In: Utbildning och lärande, ISSN 1653-0594, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 74-91Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article, based on a case study in a One-to-One school, draws attention to how teachers perceive that their teaching is influenced when their pupils get a laptop. The result shows that when digital learning resources are used it creates new opportunities, as well as new and problematic situations. The teaching can be organized in new ways and the subject content could be presented in other ways, but this also takes time for teachers to prepare and learn to teach in this way. The study confirms what other studies of One-to-One-schools have found, for example, that the pupils become more motivated and it is calmer in the classroom. When pupils get a laptop, it will change teachers’ roles, to more of planning and flexible teaching and less of traditional teaching.

  • 260.
    von Schantz Lundgren, Ina
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Education.
    Lundgren, Mats
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Education.
    Svensson, Victoria
    Learning study i gymnasial yrkesutbildning: en fallstudie från ett hantverksprogram2013In: Nordic Journal of Vocational Education and Training, ISSN 2242-458X, E-ISSN 2242-458X, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 1-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Internationella tester av elevers kunskapsresultat har bidragit till att kraftigt öka intresset för hur elevers studieprestationer kan förbättras. En samstämmig forskning placerar lärares undervisning högt upp på listan av faktorer som är betydelsefulla för att förbättra elevers lärande. En metod som visat sig användbar för att utveckla lärares undervisningsförmåga är learning study som framför allt använts av lärare som undervisar elever i lägre åldrar. Vi visar i den här artikeln, med stöd av en fallstudie, att det även är möjligt att framgångsrikt använda learning study-metoden för att utveckla lärare i gymnasieskolans yrkesutbildning och deras förmåga att undervisa där ämnesinnehållet ofta avser tyst yrkeskunskap och icke-kognitiva förmågor.

  • 261.
    Wallfelt, Ninni
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Utredning om integrering av hållbar utveckling i sjuksköterskeprogrammet, Högskolan Dalarna2015Student paper otherStudent thesis
  • 262.
    Wedin, Åsa
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Swedish as Second Language.
    Skrift och mobilitet bland flerspråkiga ungdomar2013In: Flerspråkighet, litteracitet och multimodalitet / [ed] Åsa Wedin; Christina Hedman, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2013, p. 123-142Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 263.
    Wetterskog, Tobias
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work.
    Hur skolan påverkar elevers intresse för studier: En kvalitativ fallstudie ur elevperspektiv2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med den här undersökningen har varit att undersöka vad inom en skolas verksamhet som upplevs som bra, respektive dåligt för gymnasieelevers intresse att studera. Med utgångspunkt i huvudfrågorna läraren, ämnet, kursupplägget och miljön har elever i en skola i Mellansverige intervjuats semistrukturerat i fokusgrupper. Undersökningen har förutom att generera kunskap även blivit en grund som är menad att användas i samband med förbättringsarbete på den skola där undersökningen genomfördes. Resultatet pekar på förbättringsområden inom samtliga fyra huvudfrågor, med varierande komplexitet vilket skapar både stora och små utmaningar för skolans huvudman.

  • 264.
    Wik, Tina
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Sustainability and research integrated in engineering courses at Dalarna University, Sweden2015Student paper otherStudent thesis
  • 265.
    Åsentorp, Kristina
    Dalarna University, School of Education and Humanities, Educational Work.
    Förskolepedagogers arbete med kemiska processer och fysikaliska fenomen: En intervjustudie med tolv pedagoger i förskolan2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie är att få kunskap om hur pedagoger i förskolan arbetar med att utvecklabarns förståelse för naturvetenskap, särskilt kemiska processer och fysikaliska fenomen. För attnå syftet används följande frågeställningar: På vilket sätt ingår kemiska processer och fysikaliskafenomen i förskolans naturvetenskap?, samt Hur upplever pedagogerna arbetet med kemiskaprocesser och fysikaliska fenomen?. Utgångspunkt för studien är den reviderade läroplanen förförskolan med större krav på pedagogers ansvar för barns lärande i naturvetenskap, inklusivebarns lärande om fysikaliska fenomen och kemiska processer. Studien har genomförts genomintervjuer med 12 pedagoger på en förskola i Mellansverige. Av studiens resultat framgår attpedagogerna arbetar med fysikaliska fenomen och kemiska processer på ett varierat sätt.Konkreta exempel på fysikaliska fenomen är väderfenomen och årstider, elektricitet ochbalans/kraft/rörelse. Exempel på kemiska processer är växter/frön och kompost/sortering. Avintervjuerna framkommer att pedagogerna önskar mer kunskaper om vad fysikaliska fenomenoch kemiska processer kan innebära.

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