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  • 251.
    Larsson, Josefine
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Nygren, Frida
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Tourism Studies.
    The Role of Social Media when Deciding on a Destination: Comparison of tourism students at Dalarna University & Bournemouth University2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Students are an important part of the tourism market; however, they are often neglected in tourism research. Even though social media is commonly used amongst students, its effect on their information search and choice of destination is still unknown. This thesis has researched the role of social media in the decision-making process and its use as a tool to assist the choice of destination. An interview with the Global PR and Social Media manager at VisitSweden will be conducted to provide useful information from a manager’s perspective on social media marketing and the questionnaire questions. The method used was a quantitative method where the questionnaire was sent out to the chosen populations of tourism students at Dalarna University and Bournemouth University. The sample groups consist of the students who answered the questionnaire. The data collected from the two populations was analyzed and compared to identify differences between them and what generalizations could be made. The result from this research displayed that social media is used as a tool to assist in choosing a destination. Social media is not used to the same extent that the literature mentioned, as other sources proved to have a larger role when choosing a destination. The two sample groups share similarities, however differences can be found, limiting the researchers’ ability to generalize for both populations of tourism students.

  • 252.
    Larsson, Robert
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Hälsa och välfärd.
    Stier, Jonas
    Mälardalens högskola, Hälsa och välfärd.
    Åkerlind, Ingemar
    Mälardalens högskola, Hälsa och välfärd.
    Sandmark, Hélène
    Mälardalens högskola, Hälsa och välfärd.
    Implementing health-promoting leadership in municipal organizations: managers' experiences with a leadership program2015In: Nordic Journal of Working Life Studies, ISSN 2245-0157, E-ISSN 2245-0157, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 93-114Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to analyze how line and middle managers experience and describe barriers and enablers in the implementation of a health-promoting leadership program in municipal organizations. A qualitative case study design was applied to examine the leadership program in a case involving implementation of an organizational health intervention. Data were mainly collected using semi-structured interviews with line and middle managers participating in the leadership program. Interviews with senior managers, notes from meetings/workshops, and written action plans were used as complementary data. The interview data were analyzed using a thematic analysis, and the complementary data using a summative content analysis. The findings show that the interviewed line and middle managers experienced this leadership program as a new approach in leadership training because it is based primarily on employee participation. Involvement and commitment of the employees was considered a crucial enabler in the implementation of the leadership program. Other enablers identified include action plans with specific goals, earlier experiences of organizational change, and integration of the program content into regular routines and structures. The line and middle managers described several barriers in the implementation process, and they described various organizational conditions, such as high workload, lack of senior management support, politically initiated projects, and organizational change, as challenges that limited the opportunities to be drivers of change. Taken together, these barriers interfered with the leadership program and its implementation. The study contributes to the understanding of how organizational-level health interventions are implemented in public sector workplaces.

  • 253.
    Laspa, Vasiliki
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Couchsurfing: An understanding of the hosts’ willingness to offer accommodation free of charge to relative strangers2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the research was to get a better understanding of why one might be a couch surfing host. The focus of this study is the general concept of the Couchsurfing platform which has created the possibility for travelers from all over the world, to offer or to request (or both) hospitality free of charge. As a part of a qualitative study, online interviews were held with six hosts located in different countries around the world. The findings of the data gathered while conducting the research, give an insight of how people choose their potential guests, how they negotiate trust along with what is the that they gain out of sharing the privacy of their homes with ‘strangers’.

  • 254.
    Lewer, John
    et al.
    University of Newcastle.
    Wigblad, Rune
    Strömstad Akademi.
    Rydell, Alexis
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Occupational science.
    A comparative analysis of consultation obligations on business over collective redundancies in Sweden and AustraliaManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 255.
    Lilja, Andreas
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Tourism Studies.
    The influences of using visual communication to the people withmobility impairments in tourism: By information and promotion2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies found out that people with disabilities (PWD) do not travel like the peoplewithout disabilities due to lack in information and promotion towards the PWD. Visualcommunication is a concept the tourist destinations use to make the destinations more real tothe visitors by using pictures and videos, which is a concept Swedish websites and disabilityfriendlywebsites in Sweden are missing towards PWD. This research limited to the peoplewith mobility impairments (PWMI) in Swedish disability organizations (HSO).This research examined the influence of the visual communication in two ways: Firstly asimproved information by pictures and videos to the PWMI. Secondly as promotion towardsthe PWMI by using PWMI in the pictures and videos.An online survey with questionnaire was sent to PWMI in different organizations in Sweden,in total were there 212 valid questionnaires collected from the PWMI.The main results found out that PWMI used Internet the most for finding information to thetrips, then it would make sense to improve information on the Internet. Further the researchrevealed visual communication on the Internet would relieve the information search a lot forthe PWMI in all tourism sectors, accommodation the most. Since the information weredifficult to find in all sectors. Therefore, the majority of the PWMI had to look how adaptedthe destinations were and had to call / e-mail to have sufficient information about thedestinations. Improved information with visual communication would also influence thePWMI to travel more.The PWMI perceived the marketing towards the PWMI as very poor in all the tourismsectors. By promoting PWMI in the pictures and videos, the majority of the PWMI would domore tourism activities. The research found out activities as: guided tours, nature activities,sun and sea trips, city sightseeing and adventurous activities interesting for the PWMI. Theseactivities should the PWMI perform in the promotions towards the PWMI.This approach would influence the PWMI feeling more welcome to the destination and also totravel more by feeling more welcome to the destinations.

  • 256.
    Liljemid, Sandra
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Resource Management.
    Roberg, Michelle
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Resource Management.
    Processmetoden attraktivt arbete skapar förutsättningar för kollektivt lärande: Organisationer främjar - individen bär ansvaret2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today's organizations face significant challenges in being competitive with the outside world. Human resources are the organizations most important factor at all survive. For the business to be able to manage and utilize employee skills in the right way, it creates conditions and occasions where relationships can occur. This is something that is discussed in both research and literature as well as how organizations should be structured to encourage work on employees.

    This study is a contribution to be used in organizations to work to develop employees' collective learning about each other to strengthen relationics.

    Process method that has been used to create collective learning among employees is attractive work. Participants have been carrying out the method and observations have been made on how the participants have acted during the process.

    The result shows that to achieve a collective learning requires participants to show the commitment and willingness to learn about each other. Through dialogue creates the conditions to understand each other. That's when the understanding is on another as relations strengthened, and thus created relationic.

  • 257.
    Linderfyhr, Jessica
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Resource Management.
    Malm, Mikaela
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Resource Management.
    She’s the Boss – HR och kvinnligt chefskap: Hur Human Resources kan arbeta för att främja kvinnorschefskarriärer2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    According to surveys conducted by the organization

    Ledarna, there is a recurrent problem of

    recruiting young women to senior positions. The purpose of this essay is to investigate what

    may affect women's desire to seek a managerial position and to design a HR strategy that

    promotes and motivates women to seek executive positions.

    Young women feel doubtful about manager positions because of the feeling of lack of

    experience and difficulty identifying themselves with the stereotype manage standard. Aspects

    of the management that motivate are the ability to influence, make decisions and gain personal

    development. The fact that a manager has a high workload is something that is referred to as

    negative while the challenge in the manager position attracted the interviewees. Focusing on

    difficulty in balancing work and private/family life can be an overriding explanation that fewer

    women choose a managerial career. In many cases, the manager position offers an opportunity

    for flexible working hours, which benefits the balance between work and private life. A key

    factor in combining management positions with family and children is an equal distribution of

    household work and responsibility for the children. Several of the interviewees have gained

    their position through encouragement, something that was crucial for the manager position. In

    order to motivate young women into management positions, engagement is needed in which

    female executive subjects are discovered and encouraged to career.

    The work is based on a qualitative approach with semi structured interviews as a collection

    method. The results are analyzed based on the theoretical reference frame compiled within the

    focus area. Throughout the structure of the work, the thematic approaches are based on the

    questions: What is it that makes young women doubt about leadership? What can motivate

    young women to want to become a manager? How can work life as a manager be combined

    with privacy/family life? How can recruitment be improved to motivate young women to seek

    executive positions?

  • 258.
    Lindmark, Rebecka
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Resource Management.
    Vinberg, Joanna
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Resource Management.
    Mellanchefers upplevelser av psykosocial arbetsmiljö inom distributions- och logistikverksamhet – en pendling mellan hög aktivitet och låg stress?2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The researchers' genuine interest in the psychosocial work environment with the relationship

    to middle managers’ has raised a deeper interest within the field and highlight key elements in

    form of demands, control and social support. Progress towards increased awareness of the

    psychosocial work when illness in today’s working life has increased and the Work

    Environment Authority's new regulations on organizational and social work are in the centre.

    In the same line as an increased awareness has taken place on the psychosocial work

    environment, we want to present a special focus to middle managers whom must be able to

    manage the demands both from the top and the down. The study has mainly been based on

    Robert Karasek and Töres Theorell’s demand/ control model.

    The aim is to examine middle managers’ experience with focus on the psychosocial working

    conditions in a private company in the distribution- and logistics operations. The method

    consisted of a qualitative approach in form of a case study in which semi-structured

    interviews have been the basis of eight respondents from the distribution centre The result

    shows that middle managers have a high degree of influence, the experience of work

    requirements vary, but in connection to the position requirements are reasonable. The social

    support is perceived as good in the workplace and is considered as an important and vital part

    in work.

    The conclusions reached are that the function managers have reasonable demands and they

    are experiencing a good level of control at work, but to have an excessive control at work can

    lead to negative stress. A balance of commuting between active jobs and low-stress jobs are

    considered to be an advantage in maintaining a good psychosocial work environment. This is

    to counteract the negative effects that may occur to be within each component during a long

    time. In the study, it was demonstrated that the company is considered to have a good

    psychosocial work environment and this shows a good example in today’s working life.

  • 259.
    Lindqvist, Martina
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Resource Management.
    Magnusson, Jennifer
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Resource Management.
    Bristen på kvinnliga medarbetare inom brandmansyrket-Räddningstjänsten Dala Mitt2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Jämställdhet upplevs bland Räddningstjänsten Dala Mitts medarbetare vara av storbetydelse och det finns en stark önskan om att få in fler kvinnliga medarbetare.Trots detta har Räddningstjänsten Dala Mitt idag inte en enda heltidsbrandmansom är kvinna. Räddningstjänsten i Sverige har både fysiska och psykiska krav förvad som ska uppfyllas för att bli anställd som brandman. Alla dessa olika testersammanställs under rekryteringen och är av stor vikt för att få vidare anställning.Det test som visat sig vara svårast för kvinnor att klara av är rullbands-testet, detinnebär att den sökande ska gå i en hastighet av 5,6 km/h under sex minuter, dettakrävs för godkänt (Räddningstjänsten Dala Mitt, 2014). Syfte: Syftet är att undersökavarför det finns en brist på kvinnliga medarbetare inom RäddningstjänstenDala Mitt. Metod: Vi har valt att använda oss av en kvalitativ metod med semistruktureradeintervjuer. Den huvudsakliga empirin insamlades genom tio intervjuer.Teori: Teorin utgörs av följande områden: rekrytering, jämställdhet, kvinnligaoch manliga yrken, genus, samt diskriminering. Resultat/Analys: Resultatetpekar på att yttre faktorer så som samhällets normer, spelar en stor roll i varför detfinns så pass få kvinnliga brandmän inom Räddningstjänsten Dala Mitt. Intervjupersonernaupplever att anledningen till att det finns så pass få kvinnliga brandmäninom Räddningstjänsten Dala Mitt, beror på hur de marknadsför sig och hur attraktivade är som arbetsgivare. Det framkom även att flertalet av intervjupersonernatror att Räddningstjänsten Dala Mitt har få kvinnliga medarbetare på grund av attde få kvinnor som söker till yrket dras till storstäder, där räddningsstationerna ärstörre och ofta har bättre lön. Slutsats: Det finns en stor önskan om en mer jämställdarbetsplats. Det har även gjorts en del satsningar för att öka antalet kvinnor.Emellertid har dessa satsningar inte ännu lett till några större förändringar.

  • 260.
    Lindsköld, Terese
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Resource Management.
    Sparr, Johanna
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Resource Management.
    Föräldraledighetens påverkan av kvinnligt och manligt karriäravancemang: En kvalitativ studie om kvinnliga och manliga chefers upplevelse av att kombinera föräldraskap och chefskap på små och medelstora företag i Sverige2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The essay aims to examine how male and female managers experience the possibilities to combine parenting with their manager positions; as well as examining how patterns between their relationships to parental leave and career advancement can be explained based on gender studies. The result presents that parents holding a manager level position are experiencing difficulties with combining this with parenting, especially based on the high level of accessibility required at such position. Furthermore, the results states that the majority of managers who were interviewed regret their scope of parental leave taken and, in the case of a new position, would have taken a longer subsequent period of parental leave. The results also presented that the gender related pattern is attendant in terms of how the parental leave has been utilized; and what prerequisites women and men are considered essential in order to be able to combine managerial advancement with parenting. Gender related theories has been used to analyze and explain the gender related differences. The study was conducted with a qualitative research where ten semi structured interviews were conducted. Both genders were equally represented in the interviews, as a comparative perspective was implemented in the analysis of the empirical material. Previous research on large Swedish corporations, has shown that the financial aspect is one of the underlying factors for why employers are not promoting to facilitate parental leave. The results presented in this essay, can operate as a complement to the previous research; since this study has focused on small and medium-sized companies. Furthermore, this thesis can be used as a practical basis, which describes the financial, ethical, and structural considerations that may arise during recruitment, provision of skills, and organizational decisions in relationship to parental leave.

  • 261.
    Lissollas, Jessica
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Resource Management.
    Mans, Eva
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Resource Management.
    Generationsväxling i offentlig sektor: En kvalitativ studie om det kommunala arbetet medpensionsavgångar2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to examine how a medium-sized municipality can work strategically with problems concerning loss of skills and to be an attractive employer for future retirements. Furthermore, the study aims to, based on the results, prepare a draft HR strategy for the problems the impending retirement brings. To get answers to our research questions, we conducted a case study of the Municipality of Falun, and this made use of semi-structured interviews with four people in managerial positions and a variety communicator, and a focus group of four employees from the HR department. This gave us more perspective on the problem, which we believe strengthen the reliability of the results. In retrospect, we can see that a larger number of interviewees would have been preferable, in order to get more employees thoughts and opinions on the subject. However, this was not possible as managers in the municipality were difficult to contact.The results show that the perception of retirement is different when one of the respondents believe that there is nothing to worry about, while other respondents think it is a great challenge municipality has in front of him. The result also shows that the Municipality of Falun in the current situation is working strategically with a variety of measures to strengthen its employer brand externally such as diplomacy and talent management, as previous research indicates is a necessity for an organization's competitiveness and thus attract and retain employees. Regarding the transfer of skills shows the result that today there is an awareness of the risks of skill losses. However, conducted a limited effort to transfer critical skills, at least in order to manage the risk of loss of skills expected in the forthcoming generation change. Previous research in the field of retirements shows that the loss of key skills is the biggest threat.Our conclusion from this study is that Falun municipality are right on track to deal with the problems that are expected to arise, however, requires the municipality to raise awareness through communication and internal marketing as well as working together a common vision of retirements in all administrations. Furthermore, we believe that it is crucial to review the competencies in the organization and start acting so as not to lose important skills in and with the impending retirements. These are areas addressed in the draft HR strategy we have developed.

  • 262.
    Liu, Chang
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Ning, Haoyuan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Destination image in Bejing, China: Exploring the differences in destination branding towards international and domestic tourists2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 263.
    Liu, Heran
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Tourism Studies.
    A study of perceived image of Stockholm amongChinese students2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study is exploring tourism destination perceived image of Stockholm amongChinese students. This paper could offer some academic value for future studies on thedestination image of Stockholm. Besides, this paper may be useful for marketers topromote Stockholm toward Chinese youth/students travel market. Cognitive imageand affective image characteristics were examined.This thesis used quantitative method to analyze the destination image among Chinesestudents. The questionnaire survey was used to investigate cognitive image andaffective image among Chinese students who studying in Stockholm University. Ingeneral, respondents had a positive image of Stockholm. They focused on what to seeand to do as well as the social environment of Stockholm. Happy/ laid back are theitems that reflects the respondents‘ feelings about staying in Stockholm, which is arelax place that makes tourists have a chance to feel the stress free lifestyle. They alsoenjoy the beautiful scenery, friendly local people atmosphere, the cultural attractions,local architectures, good outdoor air condition and water condition of Stockholm aswell. In their opinions, those mentioned attributes were important to constructing thedestination image of Stockholm.

  • 264.
    Loveere, Cecilia
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Human Resource Management.
    Hultman, Erika
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Human Resource Management.
    Det är kompetensen som avgör: En studie av rekryterares föreställningar i en mansdominerad bransch2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studien syftar till att undersöka vilka föreställningar som kommer till uttryck då rekryterare inom stål- och verkstadsindustrin talar om jämställdhet, kompetens samt rekrytering. Syftet är också att kritiskt granska vilka konsekvenser dessa föreställningar kan få för rekryteringsprocessen. En hermeneutiskt ansats har valts, och sex semistrukturerade intervjuer med rekryterare inom stål- och verkstadsindustrin har genomförts. Av studien framgår att rekryterarna anser att jämställdhetsfrågor är viktiga att ta hänsyn till. Det framgår också att företagen, enligt rekryterarna, inte har någon uttalad definition på kompetens. Rekryterarna menar också att magkänsla spelar roll vid valet av kandidat. Studiens resultat visar också att rekryterarna har omedvetna könsstereotypa föreställningar. En konsekvens av detta skulle,enligt författarna, kunna bli att föreställningarna ligger till grund för rekryterarnas magkänsla som också skulle kunna påverka deras definition på kompetens. Detta skulle kunna leda till att bedömningen av en kandidat blir subjektiv, vilket innebär att kompetensen inte enbart är avgörande i en rekryteringsprocess.

  • 265.
    Lu, Wang
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Li, Jianzhou
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Investigation on the Influences of TV & Movies on Tourism Image of Destination: Case study of Hengdian World Studios2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this thesis is to investigate the influences of movie and TV on tourism image of destination. This research has taken Hengdian World Studio as an example. The researchers have used the methods of case study and in-depth interview analysis. The participants in interview include tourists, citizens and tour guides in Hengdian World Studios.Integrating analysisof case study and interview, the researchercame to the conclusion that TV and movie indeed exert great influences on tourism image of the destination and the influences includeboth positive and negative aspects. In positive aspect, TV and movies,as important media platforms,can greatly and quickly spread the influences and enable more audiences to start paying attention to the destination. Furthermore, TV and movies can also help to directly increase number of visitors to the destination. Gradually, through shaping symbolic values in TV and movies, theycan also turn more audience to visitors andalsoenable Hengdian to develop into a famous brand in movie and TVtourismindustry.More audiencescan transformtheir virtual feelings they had in TV or movies into actual experiencesthrough visiting the destinationand participating in activitiesor games in the destination.

    First, it can continuously contribute to local tourism industrial development. Moreover, italso extendsthe influences and reshapesthetourismimage of Hengdian as famous film studios. Hengdian World Studios also finds its way to becomean ideal destination for more audiences. However, withincreasing numbers of visitorscoming to Hengdianand moviesto be filmed within the studios, it may also cause the problemsmisread of local culture, separationbetween virtuality in TV and movie and realityof thedestination, and other problems inenvironment pollutionor overload, etc.These negative impacts will not leave good impressions on tourists. Thus, in the long run, it will not sustain a good imageof the destination.Itis of vital importanceto make joint efforts to have more supervision and regulationon tourism management withinthe 3

    studiosin the purposes of continuouslydelivering goodservices to visitors and reshapingthe tourismimage of Hengdian World Studios.

  • 266.
    Luca, Claudia Atena
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Memorable experiences in rural tourism: Study of Rural areas from Cluj Napoca County, Romania2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    With the shift nowadays towards an experience economy, the increased attention placed on memorable experiences and how to stage them can be viewed as a major trend which can act as a source of information regarding the stories that people share about themselves and their self-perceptions, as well as helping businesses make a step towards their guests. In this vein, rural tourism is highly consumed by people searching for these unique and memorable experiences, but the knowledge on tourists’ experiences in a rural setting are very limited. Therefore, this paper seeks to examine what memorable experiences tourists encounter in the rural setting, and more importantly, why were they memorable. In order to answer these questions, the researcher undertook a qualitative approach and in depth semi structured interviews were conducted with people who travelled in the Cluj Napoca County from Romania. The findings revealed an amalgam of experiences that people encounter in the rural setting, combined with various reasons why the experiences were considered memorable in the eyes of respondents. The main findings show how the optimal memorable tourism experience is usually comprised of several factors involving multiple experiential dimensions, and an important influence is represented by social interactions alongside positive emotions.

  • 267.
    Lukenskaitė, Rasa
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Emotional identity – destination’s visual representation and image creation. Neuromarketing as an instrument: Case of Vienna, Austria2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Construction of destination image is multifaceted and complex task of tourist destination marketers. Visual image creation manifests through visualizations of promotional material employing particular marketing strategies. Wisely promoted visual representations are effectual and forceful marketing instrument that through depiction of people in combination with certain environments establishes strong emotive associations about touristic destination in potential visitors’ brains. This way destination’s visual image becomes alive and emotional which leads to formation of strong visual identity projected through visualizations in consumers’ heads. Therefore, destination’s image and identity are interdependent. There are several researches made on general contribution of visual images in brand identity creation and impact on potential visitors’ behaviour, hence little to none investigated how promotional pictures generated by particular destination’s marketers assist in destination’s emotional image and identity creation in combination with leading marketing strategies of destination.

    The aim of this study was to comprehend how visual image of destination is being created through representing people and touristic settings of destination in promotional photographs. Research also intended to examine how destination’s identity could be constructed through associative emotional image. Case study of unique Vienna case applied as it is the only destination employing neuromarketing that uses neuro science for marketing purposes as the lead marketing strategy. The photographs extracted from Vienna DMO’s main promotional website were the research object of content and discourse analysis. As neuro science and (neuro)marketing studies are tightly related with aims of affecting human’s brain, the critical evaluation of investigation products was made through psychological prism.

    Main findings of the study revealed existing discrepancies between marketing strategies and visual representations, depicted inequities, intolerance and lack of distinctiveness intertwined into Vienna’s visual promotion. Destination’s identity can be defined by contradictive and unstable concepts caused by Vienna DMO marketers’ inner conflicts between theory and practice. It is noted that although a progress in constructing new influential destination image has been made, however, the results indicated the dominance in representation of stereotypical image formed long ago in a past. This means incoherent data usage from destination marketers. This study offered that Vienna destination marketers would firstly thoroughly synthesize data acquired from neuro science and then practically integrate it into all marketing tools such as visual representation wisely. That is with the correct messages and captivating narrations to construct coherent, emotionally effective and breaking clichéd perceptions destination image. Paradoxical image creates unstable identity. Strong image will eventually construct strong identity.

    There is a broad space for the future research suggested, as to include more visual representation elements such as videos, sound tracks and texts into study and to examine the topic from the perspective of destination inhabitants and consumers. The comparative analysis advocated.

  • 268.
    Lundgren, Mats
    Dalarna University, School of Education and Humanities, Education.
    FOKIS-projektet: fack och kooperation i samverkan för att skapa nya arbeten1998Report (Other academic)
  • 269.
    Lundgren, Mats
    Dalarna University, School of Education and Humanities, Education.
    Förmår facket att spela en roll i lokal arbetsorganisationsutveckling?: Erfarenheter från ett LO-program om kunskapsutveckling, arbetsorganisation och lönesystem2002Report (Other academic)
  • 270.
    Lundgren, Mats
    Dalarna University, School of Education and Humanities, Education.
    Sociala Ekonomins Idécentrum i Dalarna: En utvärderande studie2007Report (Other academic)
  • 271.
    Lundgren, Mats
    Dalarna University, School of Education and Humanities, Education.
    ”Uppfinnarverkstaden”: ett EU-projekt inom europeiska socialfonden avseende långtidsarbetslösa ungdomar i åldern 17 - 24 år med extra behov av stöd och hjälp1997Report (Other academic)
  • 272.
    Lundgren, Mats
    Dalarna University, School of Education and Humanities, Education.
    WWW.arbetslinjen.com: En studie av ett projekt om samverkan för att underlätta tillträdet till arbetsmarknaden för personer i aktivitetsgarantin2005Report (Other academic)
  • 273.
    Lundgren, Mats
    Dalarna University, School of Education and Humanities, Education.
    Youth Lift ett EU-projekt inom europeiska socialfonden: ett introduktionsprogram för unga som inte deltar i gymnasieskolans ordinarie program. – Utvärdering1997Report (Other academic)
  • 274.
    Lundgren, Mats
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education and Humanities, Education.
    von Schantz Lundgren, Ina
    Dalarna University, School of Education and Humanities, Education.
    Att vara ung, långtidssjukskrivenoch arbetslös: En utvärderande studie av projektet Livskompetens2009Report (Other academic)
  • 275.
    Lundgren, Mats
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education and Humanities, Education.
    von Schantz Lundgren, Ina
    Dalarna University, School of Education and Humanities, Education.
    Coachning i arbetsmarknadspolitiska aktiveringsprojekt2011In: Arbetsmarknad & Arbetsliv, ISSN 1400-9692, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 25-36Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Under senare år har det skett en individualisering av välfärdspolitiken på arbetsrehabiliteringens område. Aktiveringsprojekt och coachning som riktar sig till långtidsarbetslösa och långtidssjukskrivna utgör konkreta exempel. Kunskaperna om vilken roll dessa aktiviteter fyller verkar dock vara begränsade. I den här artikeln fokuseras, med utgångspunkt i erfarenheter från två aktiveringsprojekt, coachningens roll som metod för arbetsrehabilitering.

  • 276.
    Lundgren, Mats
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education and Humanities, Educational Work.
    von Schantz Lundgren, Ina
    Dalarna University, School of Education and Humanities, Education.
    Gender school: Om ett partnerskapsarbete med jämställdhets- och diskrimineringsproblematik inom arbetslivet inom arbetslivet2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Utvecklingspartnerskapet Gender School har varit uppdelat i två huvuddelar. Den ena har utgjorts av en kartläggning och analys av s.k. Brytprojekt. Syftet var att ta tillvara erfarenheter, till exempel i fråga om använda metoder och vilka resultat som hade uppnåtts inom dessa projekt, för att sedan på bred front sprida resultaten. Den andra delen av Gender School har utgjorts av sex olika delprojekt som i olika avseenden har rört att utveckla metoder för ökad jämställdhet och minskad diskriminering i arbetslivet. Studien syftar till att beskriva och tolka de processer, resultat och erfarenheter som verksamheten inom partnerskapet Gender School har gett upphov till. Ambitionen är i första hand att resultatet skall vara kunskapsgenererande i betydelsen att erfarenheterna kan bidra till att öka kunskaperna och medvetenheten om de processer som bidrar till att skapa ojämställda och diskriminerande förhållanden i arbetslivet, d.v.s. att resultatet av de olika delprojekten kan blottlägga några av de mekanismer som bidrar till en segregerad arbetsmarknad. En annan ambition är att undersöka hur ett partnerskap arbetar och fungerar, d.v.s. vilka för- respektive nackdelar som är möjliga att utkristallisera från detta partnerskap.

  • 277.
    Lundgren, Mats
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education and Humanities, Education.
    von Schantz Lundgren, Ina
    Dalarna University, School of Education and Humanities, Education.
    Hackers for Equality (HfE) : Evaluation of a Transnational Co-operation Partnership (TCP)2007Report (Other academic)
  • 278.
    Lundgren, Mats
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Education.
    von Schantz Lundgren, Ina
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Education.
    Möjligheternas Hus: Om ett projekt med en vision att skapa ett socialt företag för människor med psykiska funktionsnedsättningar2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrunden till projektet Möjligheternas Hus var att det fanns ett behov av att utveckla rehabiliteringsinsatser för individer med psykiska funktionsnedsättningar som står långt från arbetsmarknaden, men även att de skulle erbjudas tillgång till en meningsfull daglig verksamhet. Rapporten syftar till att beskriva, problematisera och analysera hur projektet Möjligheternas Hus genomförts och vad det resulterade i. Den handlar om hur projektet har förmått fungera som ett verktyg för att skapa ett socialt företag för personer med psykiska funktionsnedsättningar. Rapporten behandlar även hur deltagarna har påverkats av sin medverkan i projektet, både vad avser deras livssituation i stort och deras möjligheter att bryta ett utanförskap samt hur projektet lyckades med att uppnå de mål som sattes upp. Deltagarna har startat ett socialt företag och de upplever att de kommit att må bättre. Flertalet uppger att de trivs bättre med livet, att de har ett rikare socialt liv, självförtroendet och självkänslan har stärkts och att det sociala företaget ger hopp för framtiden. En fråga som dock fortfarande är obesvarad är om sociala företag är ett framgångsrikt sätt att hjälpa och stödja individer som befinner i ett utanförskap att kunna lämna detta? Den här rapporten har inga svar på detta, med visar samtidigt att det är en fråga som behöver studeras ytterligare.

  • 279.
    Lundgren, Mats
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education and Humanities, Educational Work.
    von Schantz Lundgren, Ina
    Dalarna University, School of Education and Humanities, Education.
    Näringslivsutveckling i ett regionalt perspektiv: En följeforskningsstudie av projektet InnoWent, Teknikdalen. Slutrapport2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Projektet Innowent - en regional arena för samverkan och hållbar tillväxt är ett exempel på ett försök att utveckla samverkan mellan företag och offentliga organisationer i syfte att stärka den regionala ekonomiska utvecklingen. Projektet genomfördes av Stiftelsen Teknikdalen och Högskolan Dalarna. Den här rapporten avgränsas till ”Teknikdalsdelen”. I rapporten fokuseras följande frågeställningar: - Hur beskriver de involverade aktörerna att projektet genomförts och vad det resulterade i? - Vilka erfarenheter kan dras från att i projektform arbeta med att utveckla förutsättningar för att tillväxtföretag kan etableras och om detta skapar regional ekonomisk utveckling i sin förlängning, t.ex. i for av om det underlättar att branschkluster kan etableras? Kluster, d.v.s. ansamlingar av företag som samverkar inom en bransch i en region, anses kunna spela en viktig roll och därför beskrivs några grundläggande tankar om detta fenomen. Eftersom utvecklingen av en inkubator spelat en central roll i projektet, och att dess verksamhet kan i förlängningen antas understödja att kluster bildas, beskrivs vilken funktion en inkubator kan ha för att utveckla nya företag. Då coacher spelar en viktig roll i en inkubator beskrivs några olika infallsvinklar på hur denna roll kan spelas. Avslutningsvis behandla några bakomliggande tankar för att skapa vad som benämns som hållbar affärsutveckling (Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR)) och som kan ses som det fundament som delprojektet Hållbar affärsutveckling vilat på. Resultatet av projektet InnoWent (Teknikdalsdelen) kan sammanfattas som att det har bidragit till att utveckla en befintlig inkubator genom att bygga upp en fungerande organisation med ett nätverk av aktörer i form av en utvidgad och bättre organiserad idéjakt. Det inledande steget i inkubatorn har gjorts om till Business Start och antalet antagningstillfällen tredubblats. Projektet har utvecklat en verksamhet runt konceptet hållbar affärsutveckling, bl.a. genom att detta inkluderats i inkubatorn och genom att nya projekt inom detta område håller på att initieras. Det har skett en framgångsrik satsning på att nå ut med information om verksamheten genom att använda sociala medier som Facebook och Twitter, liksom att bygga internationella nätverk. Däremot kvarstår problem att hantera hur företagen, framför allt i det avslutande skedet av inkubatorn, lättare kan få tillgång till riskvilligt kapital. Projektet InnoWent framstår i flera avseenden som framgångsrikt, även om svårigheter inte saknats.

  • 280.
    Lundgren, Mats
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education and Humanities, Education.
    von Schantz Lundgren, Ina
    Dalarna University, School of Education and Humanities, Education.
    Om ett försök att etablera ett regionalt populärmusikkluster: Följeforskningsrapport av projektet BoomTown - en innovativ miljö för näringslivsutveckling inom musikbranschen2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Upplevelseindustrin växer och får allt större ekonomisk betydelse. I den här rapporten riktas intresset mot projektet BoomTown som är en regional näringslivspolitisk satsning med syfte att skapa ett kluster inom populärmusikbranschen. Det existerar emellertid olika uppfattningar mellan de som hävdar att det är möjligt att med näringslivspolitiska insatser bygga upp ett branschkluster och de som hävdar att ett sådant växer fram organiskt omöjligt att implementera genom planerade insatser. De som menar att det är möjligt att implementera ett branschkluster företräds främst av aktörer som på olika nivåer i politiska och administrativa organ arbetar med näringslivspolitiska insatser. De som hyser tvivel är framför allt forskare inom detta område. De anför att ett kluster i stället är resultatet av historiska händelser och oförutsedda faktorer, där slumpässiga händelser spelar en viktig roll. Syftet är från dessa utgångspunkter att beskriva och diskutera möjligheten att på en näringslivspolitisk grund skapa ett regionalt populärmusikkluster. Rapporten bygger på ett följeforskningsuppdrag, genomfört som en kvalitativ fallstudie.

    Resultatet visar att BoomTown har lagt en grund till något som skulle kunna utvecklas till ett regionalt musikkluster inom populärmusik. Strategin har varit att dels skapa en organisation som här benämns som ”BoomTown-familjen”. Regionala näringslivspolitiska insatser spelar i det här sammanhanget en viktig roll eftersom det i många fall inte finns någon annan än offentliga organ som är villiga att gå in och finansiera långsiktiga utvecklingsprojekt med ett osäkert utfall. Näringslivspolitik är emellertid inte heller en oproblematisk aktivitet och den innehåller per se en rad möjliga komplikationer, till exempel i form av komplexa och delvis motsägelsefulla regelsystem som skapar svårforcerade hinder. Försöken att bygga ett regionalt populärmusikkluster har nu pågått under de tre projekt som tillsammans utgör varumärket BoomTown under snart 10 års tid, men trots detta återstår fortfarande flera nödvändiga insatser. Arbetet går dock vidare och det är fortfarande ett oskrivet blad vad slutresultatet kommer att bli.

  • 281.
    Lundgren, Mats
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education and Humanities, Education.
    von Schantz Lundgren, Ina
    Dalarna University, School of Education and Humanities, Education.
    Projektet W7 DALARNA: En utvärderande studie av ett regionalt resurscentrum för kvinnors entreprenörskap, jämställdhet och integration. Slutrapport2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Föreliggande rapport är resultatet av ett följeforskningsuppdrag som genomfördes under perioden våren 2006 och fram till och med utgången av år 2008. Uppdraget gick ut på att följa hur projektet W7 Dalarna lyckades i sin strävan att stödja utvecklingen av företag som startas av kvinnor och invandrare och samtidigt stödja samhällets jämställdhets- och integrationsarbete. Rapporten handlar om hur detta arbete förlöpte och vad det resulterade i, liksom ett försök att tolka och ge tänkbara svar till detta.

  • 282.
    Lundgren, Mats
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education and Humanities, Education.
    von Schantz Lundgren, Ina
    Dalarna University, School of Education and Humanities, Education.
    UngdomsFinsam - ”Det finns alltid en möjlighet att göra någonting!”: En utvärderande studie av ett samverkansprojekt mellan socialförvaltningarna i Gagnef, Leksand och Rättvik och Nedansiljans samordningsförbund.2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med rapporten har varit att sammanfatta erfarenheter och att dra slutsatser från den verksamhet som bedrivits i projektet UngdomsFinsam och hur detta har utveck-lats från starten 2008 och fram till och med sommaren 2011. Rapporten har även ett framåtriktat perspektiv genom att så långt möjligt försöka att identifiera problematis-ka situationer och andra typer av systematiska svårigheter på organisatorisk nivå som på olika sätt försvårar ett samarbete och som på så sätt försämrar möjligheterna att understödja projektdeltagarnas möjligheter att uppnå egen försörjning.

  • 283.
    Lundgren, Mats
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education and Humanities, Education.
    von Schantz Lundgren, Ina
    Dalarna University, School of Education and Humanities, Education.
    W7 Dalarna: Ett projekt om entreprenörskap, likabehandling, jämställdhet och integration2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Rapporten är resultatet av ett följeforskningsuppdrag av projektet W7 Dalarna – entreprenörskap, likabehandling, jämställdhet och integration och syftar till att beskriva och tolka erfarenheter och resultat i relation till uppsatta mål och hur detta arbete förlöpte samt vad det resulterade i. Projektet har bundit samman affärsrådgivare i sju kommuner med uppgift att stödja kvinnor och invandrare och på så sätt har ett redan etablerat nätverk utvecklats och stärkts. Kommuner har generellt begränsade resurser och arbetet med näringslivsutveckling. Små kommuner i glesbygd är ändå kanske extra utsatta i det avseendet och på så sätt framstår nätverkssamverkan som ett värdefullt sätt att arbeta på.  Resultatet visar att det krävs tämligen stora insatser i form av rådgivning för att en företagsetablering verkligen ska komma till stånd. En annan erfarenhet är att en företagarskola kan attrahera nya grupper av potentiella företagare som ges en möjlighet att prova om deras idéer kan ha kommersiell bärighet. Däremot visade det sig att det är svårt att få gehör för jämställdhetsfrågor i små företag, liksom att det för utlandsfödda individer finns många hinder att passera om man inte behärskar det svenska språket tillräckligt väl och känner till hur det svenska samhället fungerar.

  • 284.
    Lundgren, Mats
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education and Humanities, Educational Work.
    von Schantz Lundgren, Ina
    Dalarna University, School of Education and Humanities, Education.
    Ahnberg, Elisabeth
    Dalarnas forskningsråd.
    Messing, Jan
    Dalarnas forskningsråd.
    Driv eget / livskraftigt företagande: En följeforskningsstudie av ett projekt för att stödja nyföretagande, utveckling av etablerade företag och ägarväxlingar : Delrapport september 20102010Report (Other academic)
  • 285.
    Lundström,, Marie
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Resource Management.
    Mattsson, Julia
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Resource Management.
    På väg mot ett Attraktivt arbete: En kvalitativ studie huruvida arbetsgivaren respektive medarbetarna uppfattar Attraktivt arbete på ett transportföretag.2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The problem formulation that underlies the study is whether the employer takes in consideration the variety views of individuals regarding the attractive work, in order to attract, but above all, to retain staff. The purpose is how the Attractive work is perceived from an employee and employer perspective, as well as the relationship between the two perspectives.

    The theory formation in which the study is based is the model Attractive work, where job satisfaction, work content and working conditions are the core. Furthermore, theories that highlight how the organization should work to be perceived as an attractive employer is concerned, thus creating the conditions for attracting and retaining skills. The study has an inductive approach and a qualitative method has been applied. The data has been obtained through interviews with the help of six employees and with an employer representative within the same organization. The interviews have touched on issues that capture, what, how and why the work is perceived as attractive and how attractiveness can increase.

    The result of the study is presented in an empirical analysis in which the respondents' words and actions have been interpreted. Empirical analysis answers what factors are crucial for all respondents to experience their work as attractive as well as how the attractiveness of the work can increase. Empirical analysis also captures the factors that employers and employees want to improve, and how the employer brand can be strengthened from inside and out.

    The conclusion of this study is that the concept of Attractive work is a complex concept that is individual-based and is therefore interpreted differently from employees to employees. It is therefore important for organizations that want a strong employer brand and are perceived as an attractive employer to identify what employees consider attractive and what challenges they seek in their daily work. Even as in this study, when the employees perceive their work as attractive, there are usually improvement measures to continue to increase the attractiveness of the employees. Therefore, it is important that the company works continuously with its attractiveness as well as its Employer value proposition, employee engagement, to live up to the promises promised to employees. The organization should also make the benefits visible that concern employees and these should be included in the organization Employer value proposition. The study has resulted in a concrete action plan, and further the possibilities for further research based on the results and conclusions of this study.

  • 286.
    Magnusson, Annika
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Resource Management.
    Ett första steg mot ett Employer Value Proposition för Förskollärare i Borlänge kommun: En studie av en kommuns möjligheter och dilemman vid applicering av Employer branding på förskolläraryrket2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Borlänge kommun upplever liksom många andra kommuner svårigheter att rekrytera förskollärare eftersom glappet mellan tillgång och efterfrågan blir allt större. Borlänge kommun vill börja arbeta med konceptet employer branding för att bli en attraktivare arbetsgivare. Syftet med denna studie är att undersöka konceptet EVPs och metoden IPI-analys tillämplighet på förskolläraryrket i den kommunala sektorn samt att identifiera betydelsefulla EVP-relaterade attribut för att kunna attrahera och behålla förskollärare i Borlänge kommun. I den teoretiska referensramen presenteras tidigare forskning och teoretiska utgångspunkter för att skapa förståelse för employer branding och hur EVP-relaterade attribut kan identifieras. Studien har genomförts genom kvalitativa metoder där de tre perspektiven medarbetare, ledning och studenter undersökts. För att skapa en djupare förståelse för vilka attribut som är viktiga och deras betydelse har tre fokusgrupper och tre intervjuer genomförts. För att inte styra respondenterna utan istället komma åt deras "egna" tankar har öppna frågor använts. Resultatanalysen visar att närheten till det egna boendet är av stor vikt vid val av arbetsgivare. För att medarbetare ska välja att pendla krävs stora skillnader mellan arbetsgivarna vilket varken medarbetare eller studenter tror existerar i dagsläget. Vid identifieringen av EVP-relaterade attribut upptäcktes flera dilemman vilket gjorde det problematiskt att få fram ett tillräckligt attraktivt EVP. Trots problemen med vissa av de EVP-relaterade attributen ses konceptet EVP och metoden IPI-analys kunna bidra med viktiga kunskaper för hur organisationen/HR kan arbeta framöver för att bli en attraktivare arbetsgivare för nuvarande och potentiella medarbetare samt vad som skulle kunna bidra till utvecklandet av ett attraktivare EVP. Studien visar att det inte räcker med att kommunicera vad som är attraktivt idag utan att det behövs verkliga förändringar för att kunna utveckla ett tillräckligt attraktivt EVP som kan locka potentiella medarbetare att pendla. Slutsatserna är att konceptet EVP och metoden IPI-analys i detta fall anses ha viss tillämplighet för förskolläraryrket i den kommunala sektorn samt att då den kommunala kontexten ses ha stor påverkan vid appliceringen av konceptet employer brand/EVP så behövs mer forskning gällande vilka problem som kan uppstå och hur detta kan hanteras.

  • 287.
    Magnusson, Peter
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Resource Management.
    Lundmark, Malin
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Resource Management.
    Uppföljning och utvärdering av det balanserade styrkortet: Är balanserat styrkort ett värdeskapande och strategiskt instrument inom den kommunala verksamheten?2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The need to steer economic development has always been great and as

    management model has the balanced scorecard has been popular since the mid-

    1990s, mainly in the private sector but also in the municipal sector. The

    introduction of the balanced scorecard has been primarily to organizations to see

    more than economic dimensions. The Balanced Scorecard was originally a

    measurement system, and today it works more as a strategic instrument. In our

    study is a case study to evaluate a municipality and how they make use of the

    balanced scorecard as a tool for strategic and value-adding work in municipal

    activities.

    In the local business is it important that the organization adapts the balanced

    scorecard, so it fits on the basis that it is a politically driven organization, with

    mandates, committees and administrations. In our study, we used a qualitative

    method with a deductive approach. In the study, we have gathered information

    through a case study where we interviewed 7 people in leading positions. In our

    analysis and results section, we came to the conclusion that the municipality does

    not use the balanced scorecard correctly. We also found that the balanced

    scorecard as a tool for value creation and strategic planning does not work in a

    favorable way. In our study, we see difficulties with the implementation of the

    balanced scorecard. If the municipality has invested in implementing the balanced

    scorecard at all levels of the business so the municipality would be able to use it on

    one of the activities more adequately. When the municipality is a politically driven

    organization, it is important that vision alive and changing based on the conditions

    that reflect the outside world and the municipality in general. Looking at a vivid

    vision, goals and business ideas, it's balanced scorecard in line with how a

    balanced scorecard should look like. The municipality has a strategic plan in terms

    of staff and employees at large. In the study, we have seen that the strategic plan is

    not followed up in a good way and for the business favorably, the municipality

    chooses the easy way out for evaluation.

    Employee participation to changes and ongoing human resources management

    feels nonexistent. However, as has been the vision of creating empowered and

    motivated employees. In our conclusion, we describe how we in our study look at

    the use of the balanced scorecard in municipal operations. We can also discern that

    a balanced scorecard as a tool for value creation and strategic work is good if it is

    used properly. In the study, we have concluded that the municipality we have

    chosen to study should not use the balanced scorecard when you have not created

    the tools and platforms required for employees, civil servants and politicians to

    evaluate, monitor and create a living scorecard change over time. The study

    reveals major shortcomings in the implementation, evaluation and follow-up

    possibilities, and the consequence of this is that the balanced scorecard is not

    - 4 -

    preferable in municipal operations as a strategic instrument for value creation and

    long-term planning.

  • 288.
    Magnusson, Ulf
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, History.
    Economic Equality, Civic Traditions and Human Rights2003In: Building a Human Rights Culture: South African and Swedish Perspectives / [ed] Karin Sporre & H Russel Botman, Falun: Högskolan Dalarna, 2003, p. 35-52Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 289.
    Mahbub, Cynthia
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    The match of demand and supply of public transportation (bus) services in Borlänge, Dalarna.2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Accessibility to public transport service allows mobility of people who do not have access to private cars and at the same time reduces adverse effects of motorized vehicles such as energy consumption, air pollution, etc. Government body promotes to use public transport to facilitate better living condition. However, a critical issue remains whether the public transportation services are sufficient to meet the demanded public transportation services.

    In this research, particular attention has been paid to the spatial transport service gap assessment by analyzing the demand and the supply of the public transportation services in Borlänge. The spatial aspects have been chosen based on Swedish socio-economic condition. The aim of the research is to find a generic methodology to ascertain the disparity between public transport demand and available supply of public transport especially on bus line 211, 213 & 216 in Borlänge Municipality and to visualize the disparity of transportation service using Geographical Information System (GIS) application at different areas along the bus line.

    The result indicates that existing public transport provided by Dalatrafik has a significant gap in Tronsjö, Milsbosjön, Milsbo and Viksnäs between delivered transport supply and possible transportation service needed. This transportation gap may occur due to the deficiency of service capacity and low frequency of the services. Moreover, some topics can be explored for further research such as temporal service gap analysis at each area, find alternative means of transport, flexible transportation service and etc. to improve the public transportation system in Borlänge.

  • 290.
    Mahn, Kathleen
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Student’s Attitudes and Perceptions towards Career Intentions & Mobility in the Tourism Industry: A Study of Swedish Universities2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    The aim of this study is to capture the students understanding of their entry into the tourism work market by examining the students across Sweden that study in tourism programs.

    Methods

    An online survey was circulated to students enrolled in tourism programs in Sweden. A non-probability sampling was applied to ensure that the primary data could be collected through the use of convenience sampling. A total amount of 205 valid responses were gathered which were analysed by using an independent sample T-test, correlation analysis and linear regression analysis.

    Results

    The variable work experience (yes and no) was not found to be significantly different from attitudes and perception of careers (Nature of work and Commitment to the Industry). Whereas, the relationship between students’ mobility and the intention to pursue a career in the tourism industry was found to exist.

    Conclusion

    Student’ attitudes and perceptions towards a career in the tourism industry tends to be positive. Thus, there is no significant difference between students with work experience and the students that do not have any. However, a positive relationship between the attitudes and perceptions towards mobility and the intention to pursue a career in tourism could be found.

  • 291.
    Marmstål Hammar, Lena
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola.
    Emami, Azita
    College of Nursing, University of Seattle, USA.
    Engström, Gabriella
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hälsa, vård och välfärd.
    Götell, Eva
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hälsa, vård och välfärd.
    Communicating through caregiver singing during morning care situations in dementia care2011In: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712, Vol. 25, no 1, p. 160-168Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is well known that persons with dementia (PWD) have problems expressing and interpreting communication, making interaction with others difficult. Interaction between PWD and their caregivers is crucial, and several strategies have been investigated to facilitate communication during caregiving. Music therapeutic caregiving (MTC) - when caregivers sing for or together with PWD during caregiving activities - has been shown to enhance communication for PWD, evoking more vitality and positive emotions. The aim of this study was to describe how PWD and their caregivers express verbal and nonverbal communication and make eye contact during the care activity 'getting dressed', during morning care situations without and with MTC. Findings revealed that during the situations without MTC, the caregivers led the dressing procedure with verbal instructions and body movements and seldom invited the PWD to communicate or participate in getting dressed. Patterns in responses to caregivers' instructions included both active and compliant responses and reactions that were resistant and aggressive, confused, and disruptive. In contrast to the 'ordinary' morning care situation, during MTC, the caregivers seemed interested in communicating with the PWD and solicited their mutual engagement. Although verbal communication consisted of singing about things other than getting dressed, e.g. dancing, love, sailing, God, the PWD mostly responded to caregivers in a composed manner, by being active, compliant, and relaxed, though some were also resistant or incongruent. The authors conclude that MTC could be a way for PWD and their caregivers to successfully interact and co-operate during caring situations, as it seems to evoke enhanced communication for both partners in this context

  • 292.
    Marmstål Hammar, Lena
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola.
    Emami, Azita
    College of Nursing, University of Seattle, USA.
    Engström, Gabriella
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hälsa, vård och välfärd.
    Götell, Eva
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hälsa, vård och välfärd.
    Reactions of Persons with Dementia to Caregivers Singing in Morning Care Situations2010In: Open Nursing Journal, ISSN 1874-4346, E-ISSN 1874-4346, no 4, p. 35-41Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Music therapeutic caregiving', when caregivers sing for or together with persons with severe dementia during care situations, has been suggested as a way to reduce problematic behaviors in dementia care. The present study implemented this technique as an intervention in dementia care. Six caregivers participated in group interviews about their experiences of morning care situations without and with'Music therapeutic caregiving'. Through a qualitative content analysis two themes emerged.'Being in a different reality' was based on'usual' morning care situations. The caregivers' experienced the persons with dementia as absent-minded; communication and cooperation were difficult. The second theme,'Being present', was based on morning care situations with the intervention. The caregivers described communication as enhanced; the persons with dementia expressed themselves more appropriately, making cooperation possible. The results indicate that'Music therapeutic caregiving' might lead to a more positive experience of the person with dementia and seems to increase receptivity to caregiving.

     

  • 293.
    Marmstål Hammar, Lena
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola.
    Götell, Eva
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hälsa, vård och välfärd.
    Engström, Gabriella
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hälsa, vård och välfärd.
    Singing while caring for persons with dementia2011In: Arts and Health, ISSN 1753-3015, E-ISSN 1753-3023, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 39-50Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Persons with dementia (PWDs) can suffer from major cognitive impairment, but are known to retain an ability to express both negative and positive emotions. Negative expressed emotions and resistance make caregiving problematic. Music Therapeutic Caregiving (MTC) – when caregivers sing for or together with PWDs during care – has been shown to decrease PWDs' negative expressed emotions and resistance, and increase positive expressed emotions. This single case study included two cases, two women with severe dementia, and measures expressed emotions and expressions of resistiveness to care during “usual” morning care situations and morning care situations with MTC. Video observations were conducted resulting in four recordings of usual morning care and four recordings of morning care with MTC. For analysis, the Observed Emotion Rating Scale and Resistiveness to Care Scale were used. Results revealed that in both cases, expressions of resistant behavior and negative emotions decreased, while expressions of positive emotions increased during morning care situations with MTC. The authors conclude that MTC may be an effective method for caregivers to use to facilitate care situations with PWDs, and also a way for PWDs to experience care situations as less unpleasant, and more joyful.

  • 294.
    Martinsson Hansen, Antonia
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Resource Management.
    Rosén, Elin
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Resource Management.
    Humankapital i statens tjänst: En fallstudie av Länsstyrelsen Dalarna2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The study was based on an assignment from the County of Dalarna to examine the

    psychosocial work environment within the organization, with limitation to work load, work

    rate and goal clarity. The aim of the study was to create an understanding for the relationship

    between public sector as a context, psychosocial work environment and human capital.

    Furthermore, the aim was to design an action plan to the County of Dalarna to improve the

    psychosocial work environment within the organization. The theoretical base consisted of

    theories regarding public sector with focus supervisory and administrative authorities, and

    psychosocial work environment. A fundamental theory for the study was Job Demands-

    Resources Theory. Theories concerning human capital and knowledge intense co-workers

    were also used in the study.

    The study was qualitative, and individual interviews were conducted with six (6) co-workers.

    Two group interviews were also conducted with two (2) trade-union representatives

    respectively three (3) managers. The result and analysis showed that the co-workers

    experienced high work load and a low degree of goal clarity. Furthermore, individual and

    subjective views and experiences had an impact on the outcome. The conclusions were that

    there is a complex relationship between public sector, psychosocial work environment and

    human capital, and that there are different relationships on different levels within the

    psychosocial work environment.

    Taking account of the organization's resources and

    requirements has proven to be of importance for the psychosocial work environment and the

    work to improve it. Proposed measures were changed views on skills supply among others.

  • 295.
    Martín-Roldán Villanueva, Gonzalo
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    Household’s energy consumption and productionforecasting: A Multi-step ahead forecast strategiescomparison.2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In a changing global energy market where the decarbonization of the economy and

    the demand growth are pushing to look for new models away from the existing

    centralized non-renewable based grid. To do so, households have to take a

    ‘prosumer’ role; to help them take optimal actions is needed a multi-step ahead

    forecast of their expected energy production and consumption. In multi-step ahead

    forecasting there are different strategies to perform the forecast. The single-output:

    Recursive, Direct, DirRec, and the multi-output: MIMO and DIRMO. This thesis

    performs a comparison between the performance of the differents strategies in a

    ‘prosumer’ household; using Artificial Neural Networks, Random Forest and

    K-Nearest Neighbours Regression to forecast both solar energy production and

    grid input. The results of this thesis indicates that the methodology proposed

    performs better than state of the art models in a more detailed household energy

    consumption dataset. They also indicate that the strategy and model of choice is

    problem dependent and a strategy selection step should be added to the forecasting

    methodology. Additionally, the performance of the Recursive strategy is always

    far from the best while the DIRMO strategy performs similarly. This makes the

    latter a suitable option for exploratory analysis.

  • 296.
    May, Ross
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    An Empirical Investigation of the Merits of a Class of Analytically Tractable Matern Covariance Structures in Spatial Data Analysis2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    I investigate, using the R package spaMM, the effect of misspecification of the smoothing parameter, Q, of the Matern covariance structure on the mean part of hierarchical generalised linear models (HGLMs) with spatially correlated Gaussian Matern random effects. In particular, by restricting Q to the set {0.5, 1.5, 2.5} I examine via a simulation study the amount of bias introduced on the fixed effects estimates in which the data used to fit the model was generated with different values to the aforementioned set. The effect of misspecification was found to be minimal.

    By restricting the smoothing parameter, Q, to the set {0.5, 1.5, 2.5} I utilise the R package hglm, to develop a procedure (MaternHGLM) for fitting spatial Matern HGLMs. In particular, I constructed a hierarchical likelihood (h-likelihood) function with given correlation parameters which thus enabled me to Choleski decompose the Matern covariance matrix and utilise hglm to estimate fixed and random effects along with dispersion parameters. Using the above estimated parameters I then formed an adjusted profile h-likelihood for the estimation of the Matern scaling parameter, U, using the Newton-Raphson procedure. Simulation studies were carried out to assess the computational efficiency of MaternHGLM compared to spaMM. I found that, on average, MaternHGLM was 136% faster than spaMM.

    I also analysed two real world datasets using both spaMM and MaternHGLM. By fixing Q at the most appropriate value from the set {0.5, 1.5, 2.5} I examined to what extent, if any, did the conclusions drawn differ from those in the original study. I found that in general the conclusions were the same, however, on one of the datasets spaMM’s conclusion didn’t align at all with the original analysis even with Q estimated from the data.

  • 297.
    Mehrtens, Ingmar
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Analysis of tourist photographs of Sälen, Idre, Trysil and Engerdal: Importance of UGC photographs for tourists’ destination image formation2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 298.
    Memedi, Gzime
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Stakeholder collaboration and community involvement in planning and managing the world heritage sites: case study Ohrid region, Macedonia2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this work was to investigate stakeholder collaboration and community involvement on conservation of Ohrid region, Macedonia. To find out how the stakeholder collaboration is framed in media a content analysis approach has been employed. Online newspapers were reviewed and key information retrieved from them were considered as categories and used in subsequent analysis. This analysis was complemented with a questionnaire designed to measure the perspectives of citizens on the management of the world heritage site. From both analyses, it was found that in most of the cases there were contradictions in statements by people from different institutions including governmental and non-governmental organizations (NGOs). For instance, the governmental organizations were in favor to increase the constructions in the city and also around the lake with the aim of increasing the number of tourists and thus revenue for the country. In contrast, the NGOs were against the increase of constructions and were critical to the government for not taking into account the negative impacts to the world heritage site. There were also disagreements between local community and governmental organizations/municipality regarding the management of the world heritage site. The local citizens showed disappointment since their views were not considered and included in the decision-making process concerning the developments in the Ohrid region. In summary, it was found that collaboration between stakeholders was poor and they had different priorities; the governmental organizations focused on increasing the number of tourists and developing the region from an economic perspective without taking into account the negative impacts on the world heritage site whereas the local community and NGOs were concerned more about the world heritage status as given by UNESCO.

  • 299.
    Mengya, He
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Residents’ Attitudes Towards Film-induced Tourism Development: A study of Hengdian World Studios in Dongyang city, China2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study is using Hengdian World Studios as an example to provide first-hand

    material through questionnaire surveys, aiming to fill research gap and deepen the

    knowledge about how the impacts of film-induced tourism perceived by local

    residents in Dongyang City of Eastern China. The specific objectives of this study are

    twofold: Firstly, to investigate the overall perceptions and attitudes of residents

    towards the development of Dongyang City as a film-induced tourism destination.

    Secondly, to determine the socio-demographics factors and the degree of involvement

    in the tourism sectors influencing residents’ perceptions and attitudes towards the

    development of Dongyang City as a tourism destination. The first conclusion to stand

    out is that, generally, residents in Dongyang City show more optimistic view about

    tourism, perceiving its positive impacts more strongly than its negative impacts. The

    second conclusion of this study reveal that residents’ attitudes are significantly

    diverse depending on their socio-demographic characteristics and the degree of

    involvement in the tourism sectors. This study contributes to scholars and tourism

    developers in developing destinations, especially valuable for film-induced tourism

    destinations where tourism is in an initial phase. Since a harmonious community

    cannot be formed in isolation without regard for the local residents’ cooperation and

    participation, tourism managers will be better propose and implement planning

    polices for the sustainability of tourism to minimize adverse effects if residents’

    attitudes and perceptions are taken into account

  • 300.
    Miltenburg, Sabrine
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Resource Management.
    Arbetsintroduktion - Upplevelser och möjligheter: En undersökning ur tre olika perspektiv2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Studies from America and Britain shows that the introduction processes focus too much on processes,policies and values and less on the new employees experiences when it comes to stress, supportfor establishing contacts with employees and unclear job descriptions (Klubnik 1987 & Andersson,N. R Cunningham-Snell, NA & Haigh, J., 1996).A qualitative case study has been conducted on AniCura Falu Animal Hospital. The study has beenperformed with the help of interviews and e-mail conversations. The purpose of the study is to explorewhether the earlier studies are consistent with the experiences of new employees on AniCuraFalu Animal hospital has about labor induction and its impact regarding stress, opportunities forsupport and work descriptions. Nine respondents with different responsibilities participated. Theresults of the case study confirmed that the empirical data were consistent with the studies. For example,did the new employees themselves responsible for getting to know its people and that theorganization had no strategy to cope with stress. Furthermore there was no feedback regarding theintroduction.The results will in this work be discussed and analyzed, and set against a relevant theoreticalframework around current topics of this study. The final product lands in an improvement proposalthat can form the basis for future introduction processes and future research.

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