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  • 301.
    Alam, Moudud
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Feasible estimation of generalized linear mixed models (GLMM) with weak dependency between groups2010Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a two-step pseudo likelihood estimation technique for generalized linear mixed models with the random effects being correlated between groups. The core idea is to deal with the intractable integrals in the likelihood function by multivariate Taylor's approximation. The accuracy of the estimation technique is assessed in a Monte-Carlo study. An application of it with a binary response variable is presented using a real data set on credit defaults from two Swedish banks. Thanks to the use of two-step estimation technique, the proposed algorithm outperforms conventional pseudo likelihood algorithms in terms of computational time.

  • 302.
    Alam, Moudud
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Industry shocks and empirical evidences on defaults comovement2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    It is commonly agreed that the credit defaults are correlated. However, the mechanism of such dependence is not yet fully understood. This paper contributes to the current understanding about the defaults comovement in the following way. Assuming that the industries provides the basis of defaults comovement it provides empirical evidence as to how such comovements can be modeled using correlated industry shocks. Generalized linear mixed model (GLMM) with correlated random effects is used to model the defaults comovement. Empirical evidences are drawn through analyzing individual borrower level credit history data obtained from two major Swedish banks between the period 1994-2000. The results show that the defaults are correlated both within and between industries but not over time (quarters). A discussion has also been presented as to how a GLMM for defaults correlation can be explained.

  • 303.
    Alam, Moudud
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Likelihood prediction for generalized linear mixed models under covariate uncertainty2014In: Communications in Statistics - Theory and Methods, ISSN 0361-0926, E-ISSN 1532-415X, Vol. 43, no 2, p. 219-234Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the techniques of likelihood prediction for the generalized linear mixed models. Methods of likelihood prediction is explained through a series of examples; from a classical one to more complicated ones. The examples show, in simple cases, that the likelihood prediction (LP) coincides with already known best frequentist practice such as the best linear unbiased predictor. The paper outlines a way to deal with the covariate uncertainty while producing predictive inference. Using a Poisson error-in-variable generalized linear model, it has been shown that in complicated cases LP produces better results than already know methods.

  • 304.
    Alam, Moudud
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Carling, Kenneth
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Computionally feasible estimation of the covariance structure in generalized linear mixed models2008In: Journal of Statistical Computation and Simulation, ISSN 0094-9655, E-ISSN 1563-5163, Vol. 78, no 12, p. 1229-1239Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we discuss how a regression model, with a non-continuous response variable, which allows for dependency between observations, should be estimated when observations are clustered and measurements on the subjects are repeated. The cluster sizes are assumed to be large. We find that the conventional estimation technique suggested by the literature on generalized linear mixed models (GLMM) is slow and sometimes fails due to non-convergence and lack of memory on standard PCs. We suggest to estimate the random effects as fixed effects by generalized linear model and to derive the covariance matrix from these estimates. A simulation study shows that our proposal is feasible in terms of mean-square error and computation time. We recommend that our proposal be implemented in the software of GLMM techniques so that the estimation procedure can switch between the conventional technique and our proposal, depending on the size of the clusters.

  • 305.
    Alam, Moudud
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Carling, Kenneth
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Chen, Rui
    Liang, Yuli
    How to determine the progression of young skiers?2008In: CHANCE: New Directions for Statistics and Computing, ISSN 0933-2480, Vol. 21, no 4, p. 13-19Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 306.
    Alam, Moudud
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Carling, Kenneth
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Linde, Olof
    Sweco Eurofutures.
    Nääs, Ola
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Sandén, Peter
    Sweco Eurofutures.
    Wing, Stefan
    Sweco Eurofutures.
    Utvärdering av det arbetsmarknadspolitiska projektet "Volvo Cars och dess underleverantörer"2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport är en utvärdering av det arbetsmarknadspolitiska projektet "Volvo Cars och dess underleverantörer", som har genomförts av Arbetsförmedlingen i samarbete med Skolverket och Svenska ESF-rådet. Den 5 juni 2009 ansökte Sveriges regering om medel hos den Europeiska globaliseringsfonen (EGF)2 för att kunna erbjuda åtgärder för personer som blivit uppsagda från Volvo Cars AB och dess underleverantörer. Syftet med projektet var att kunna erbjuda de som blivit uppsagda kompetensutveckling, nya yrkeskunskaper och möjlighet att etablera egna företag.

    På operativ nivå drevs projektet i samverkan mellan Arbetsförmedlingen och den kom-munala yrkesvuxenutbildningen ("Yrkesvux"). Yrkesvux i Göteborgs kommun fick i upp-drag av Skolverket att samordna den del av verksamheten som berörde kommunal yr-kesvuxenutbildning. Projektet startade 1 januari 2010 och avslutades 31 maj 2011. Enligt kommissionens beslut fick medel även användas retroaktivt för insatser som hade givits till de uppsagda i form av olika arbetsmarknadsutbildningar, det s.k. snabbspåret, under 2009 innan projektet hade startat.

    Av nästan 5 000 individer i målgruppen som registrerade sig vid Arbetsförmedlingen del-tog knappt en fjärdedel i projektets insatser (exkl. vägledning). Av dessa gick 55 procent i aktiviteter enbart genom Arbetsförmedlingen, 37 procent enbart genom Yrkesvux och åtta procent genom både Arbetsförmedlingen och Yrkesvux. De vanligaste förekommande utbildningsinriktningarna var industri och bygg, fordonsindustri, transport och magasine-ring, omvårdnad och handel.

  • 307.
    Alam, Moudud
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Carling, Kenneth
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Nääs, Ola
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Har kommunala sommarjobb under gymnasieåren en positiv effekt på arbetskarriären senare i livet?2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Att erbjuda sommarjobb till ungdomar ses i många länder som ett sätt att förbättra ungdomars möjligheter att komma in och etablera sig på arbetsmarknaden. I Sverige erbjuder de flesta kommuner, delvis finansierat med statliga medel, sommarjobb till ungdomar. Den forskning som finns kring effekten av sommarjobb för ungdomar pekar dock i olika riktningar och lider ofta av metodproblem. Vi undersöker här med bättre metodologiska förutsättningar om kommunala sommarjobb för gymnasieungdomar i Falu kommun har någon positiv effekt på den postgymnasiala inkomstutvecklingen. Vi följer 2 650 ungdomar som, under första året i gymnasiet, ansökte om kommunalt sommarjobb. Vi följer dem tills de når en ålder av som mest 29 år. De kommunala sommarjobben fördelades genom ett lotteriförfarande där alla som ansökte hade lika stor chans att bli tilldelad ett sommarjobb. Vi finner ingen programeffekt för män. För kvinnor upptäcker vi en positiv effekt och då speciellt för kvinnor med låga betyg från grundskolan.

  • 308.
    Alam, Moudud
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Carling, Kenneth
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Nääs, Ola
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    High-School Students´ Summer Jobs and their Ensuing Labor Market Achievement: the Long Term Effect2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In part because of high and persistent youth unemployment, adolescent students’ transition from school to work is an important policy and research topic. Many countries have implemented public programs offering summer jobs or work while in high-school as measures to smooth the transition. While the immediate effect of the programs on school attendance, school grades, and disposable income is well documented, their effect on the transition to the labor market remains an open question. Observational studies have shown strong positive effects of summer jobs, but also that the estimated effect is highly vulnerable to selection bias. In this paper, some 3700 high-school students applying for summer jobs in the period 1995-2003,via a program, are followed to 30 years of age. A quarter of the applicants were randomly offered a summer job each year. Among the remaining students, 50% had a (non-program related) summer job while in high-school. We find the income, post high-school, for the offered and non-offered groups to be similar and conclude that the effect of summer jobs on the transition to the labor market is inconsequential.

  • 309.
    Alam, Moudud
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Carling, Kenneth
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Nääs, Ola
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Sommarjobb, arbetslivserfarenhet och framtida arbetsinkomst2015In: Arbetsmarknad & Arbetsliv, ISSN 1400-9692, Vol. 21, no 4, p. 26-40Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    De flesta kommuner erbjuder sommarjobb till gymnasieungdomar. Vi har undersökt om denna arbetslivserfarenhet påverkar flickors framtida arbetsinkomster. Vi följde 1 447 flickor i fem till tolv år efter avslutat gymnasium. Flickorna hade under sitt första gymnasieår ansökt och slumpmässigt tilldelats sommarjobb av Falu kommun. Effekten av sommarjobbserfarenheten var positiv och betydande för dem.

  • 310.
    Alam, Moudud
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Carling, Kenneth
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Nääs, Ola
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    The effect of summer jobs on post-schooling incomes2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In part because of high youth unemployment, students’ transition from school to work is an important policy and research topic. Public programs offering summer jobs or work while in high school as measures to smooth the transition is commonplace. The immediate effect of the programs on school attendance, school grades, and disposable income is well documented. However, their effect on the transition to the labor market remains unsettled, partly because of a potential selection bias in previous observational studies. In this paper, 2650 first graders of high school in Falun Council, Sweden, randomly allotted summer jobs via a program in the years of 1997-2003, are followed ten years after graduation. The program led to a substantially larger accumulation of work experience while in high school for offered (particularly weak academically performing) females, but not for offered males. Hence, the immediate program effect was heterogeneous. Females were used to estimate the causal effect of work experience while in high school on post-schooling incomes. The (statistically) significant estimate implies an elasticity of 0.4. Work experience while in high school seems to be of future benefit, but the elasticity is potentially inflated due to heterogeneous effects that we were unable to account for.

  • 311.
    Alam, Moudud
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Carling, Kenneth
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Nääs, Ola
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    The program and treatment effect of summer jobs on girls’ post-schooling incomes2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Public programs (of disputed effect) offering summer jobs or work while in high school to smooth the transition from school to work is commonplace. In this paper, 1447 girls in their first grade of high school between 1997-2003 and randomly allotted summer jobs via a program in Falun (Sweden) are followed 5-12 years after graduation. The program led to a substantially larger accumulation of income while in high school. The causal effect of the high school income on post-schooling incomes was substantial and statistically significant. The implied elasticity of 0.4 is however potentially inflated dueto heterogeneous effects.

  • 312.
    Alam, Moudud
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Carling, Kenneth
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Nääs, Ola
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    The program and treatment effect of summer jobs on girls’ post-schooling incomes2015In: Evaluation review, ISSN 0193-841X, E-ISSN 1552-3926, Vol. 39, no 3, p. 339-359Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Public programs offering summer jobs to smooth the transition from school to work is commonplace. However, the empirical support for summer jobs is limited. This article exploits the availability of registered individual information and random allocation to summer jobs to provide empirical evidence on this issue. 

    Objectives: To identify the effect of summer job programs on the post-schooling incomes of the intended participants. Also to identify the effect of sophomore girls' high school work experience on their post-schooling incomes. 

    Research design: In this article, 1,447 sophomore girls from 1997 to 2003 are followed 5-12 years after graduation. They all applied to Falun municipality's (Sweden) summer job program, and about 25% of them were randomly allotted a job. The random allocation to a summer job is used to identify the causal effect of sophomore girls' high school income on their post-schooling incomes. 

    Subjects: All the 1,447 sophomore girls who applied to Falun municipality's summer job program during 1997-2003. 

    Measures: Annual post-schooling income is used as an outcome measure. The work experience of girls in high school is also measured in terms of total income while in high school. 

    Results: The program led to a substantially larger accumulation of income during high school as well as 19% higher post-schooling incomes. The high school income led to a post-schooling income elasticity of 0.37 which is, however, potentially heterogeneous with regard to academic ability. 

    Conclusions: Both the program effect and the causal effect of high school income on post-schooling incomes were substantial and statistically significant.

  • 313.
    Alam, Moudud
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Hao, Chengcheng
    Carling, Kenneth
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Review of the literature on credit risk modeling: development of the past 10 years2010In: Banks and Bank Systems, ISSN 1816-7403, Vol. 5, no 3, p. 43-60Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper traces the developments of credit risk modeling in the past 10 years. Our work can be divided into two parts: selecting articles and summarizing results. On the one hand, by constructing an ordered logit model on historical Journal of Economic Literature (JEL) codes of articles about credit risk modeling, we sort out articles which are the most related to our topic. The result indicates that the JEL codes have become the standard to classify researches in credit risk modeling. On the other hand, comparing with the classical review Altman and Saunders(1998), we observe some important changes of research methods of credit risk. The main finding is that current focuses on credit risk modeling have moved from static individual-level models to dynamic portfolio models.

  • 314.
    Alam, Moudud
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Maengseok, Noh
    Department of Statistics, Pukyong National University, South Korea.
    Lee, Youngjo
    Department of Statistics, Seoul National University, South Korea.
    Likelihood estimate of treatment effects under selection bias2013In: Statistics and its Interface, ISSN 1938-7989, E-ISSN 1938-7997, Vol. 6, no 3, p. 349-359Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We consider methods for estimating the causal effects of treatment in the situation where the individuals in the treatment and the control group are self selected, i.e., the selection mechanism is not randomized. In this case, a simple comparison of treated and control outcomes will not generally yield valid estimates of casual effect. The propensity score method is frequently used for the evaluation of treatment effect. However, this method is based on some strong assumptions, which are not directly testable. In this paper, we present an alternative modelling approach to draw causal inferences by using a shared random-effect model and the computational algorithm to draw likelihood based inference with such a model. With small numerical studies and a real data analysis, we show that our approach gives not only more efficient estimates but also is less sensitive to model misspecifications, which we consider, than existing methods.

  • 315.
    Alam, Moudud
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Noh, Maengseok
    Department of Statistics, Pukyong National Univeristy.
    Lee, Youngjo
    Department of Statistics, Seoul National Univeristy.
    Likelihood estimate of treatment effects under selection bias2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We consider methods for estimating causal effects of treatment in the situation where the individuals in the treatment and the control group are self selected, i.e., the selection mechanism is not randomized. In this case, simple comparison of treated and control outcomes will not generally yield valid estimates of casual effects. The propensity score method is frequently used for the evaluation of treatment effect. However, this method is based onsome strong assumptions, which are not directly testable. In this paper, we present an alternative modeling approachto draw causal inference by using share random-effect model and the computational algorithm to draw likelihood based inference with such a model. With small numerical studies and a real data analysis, we show that our approach gives not only more efficient estimates but it is also less sensitive to model misspecifications, which we consider, than the existing methods.

  • 316.
    Alam, Moudud
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Rönnegård, Lars
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Shen, Xia
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Fitting conditional and simultaneous autoregressive spatial models in hglm2015In: The R Journal, ISSN 2073-4859, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 5-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a new version (> 2.0) of the hglm package for fitting hierarchical generalized linear models (HGLMs) with spatially correlated random effects. CAR() and SAR() families for conditional and simultaneous autoregressive random effects were implemented. Eigen decomposition of the matrix describing the spatial structure (e.g., the neighborhood matrix) was used to transform the CAR/SAR random effects into an independent, but eteroscedastic, Gaussian random effect. A linear predictor is fitted for the random effect variance to estimate the parameters in the CAR and SAR models. This gives a computationally efficient algorithm for moderately sized problems.

  • 317.
    Alam, Moudud
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Rönnegård, Lars
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Shen, Xia
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala.
    Fitting spatial models in the R package: hglm2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a new version of the hglm package for fittinghierarchical generalized linear models (HGLM) with spatially correlated random effects. A CAR family for conditional autoregressive random effects was implemented. Eigen decomposition of the matrix describing the spatial structure (e.g. the neighborhood matrix) was used to transform the CAR random effectsinto an independent, but heteroscedastic, gaussian random effect. A linear predictor is fitted for the random effect variance to estimate the parameters in the CAR model.This gives a computationally efficient algorithm for moderately sized problems (e.g. n<5000).

  • 318.
    Alam, Moudud
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Wang, Yu
    When are non-experimental estimates close to experimental estimates?: Evidence from a study of summer job effects in Sweden2007Report (Other academic)
  • 319. Alanen, Tony
    et al.
    Ernst, Sara
    Kriminella attityder hos ungdomar: En kvantitativ studie om vad som påverkar kriminella attityder hos ungdomar i årskurs 92014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie är att utifrån Travis Hirschis teori om sociala band samt Edwin Sutherlands teori om differentiella associationer försöka få en större förståelse för hur kriminella attityder uppstår bland ungdomar, och vilka bakomliggande förklaringar det finns till dem. Dessa två teorier söker på olika sätt förklaringar till kriminellt beteende i ungdomarnas omgivning. Vi har genomfört en enkätundersökning bland niondeklassare och resultatet samt analysen grundar sig på 172 stycken enkätsvar. Vad som framkommer är att de teorier vi använt oss av inte var för sig kan förklara dessa kriminella attityder. De faktorer som har störst betydelse för attityder avseende kriminalitet rör individens band till sina föräldrar samt individens umgänge. Ett svagt band till föräldrarna, dvs. en relation som inte grundar sig i öppenhet, ärlighet och tillit, leder till att individen i större utsträckning har kriminella attityder. Likaså kan vi finna ett samband mellan de individer som uppger sig ha ett stort kriminellt umgänge och egna kriminella attityder. Individer med ett starkt band till föräldrar och ett litet eller inget kriminellt umgänge är de som har minst kriminella attityder.

  • 320.
    Alanko, Eira
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Delivery care in Quang Ninh province, Northern Vietnam: resources and access to safe care.2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Every mother and child has the right to survive childbirth which requires skilled birth attendants together with referral and available emergency obstetric care (EmOC). The objective of the study was to describe delivery care routines at different levels in the health care system in Quang Ninh province, Northern Vietnam. The design was cross sectional using a structured questionnaire. Two districts in Quang Ninh province with 40 Community Health Centres (CHC), three district hospitals and one region hospital was included in the study, in total 138 (CHC n=105 and hospitals n=33) health care providers participated. In our study 20% (CHC) of the health care providers assisting deliveries at CHC were midwives and health care provider’s in our study further report to have assisted at less then 10 deliveries/year (81% of respondents at CHC). Findings show that the health care provider’s routines and care for women during labour and delivery vary and that there is a need for re-training and that women in labour should be cared for by health care providers with adequate training like midwifery. In our study CHC had poor resources to provide basic or comprehensive EmOC. Our findings indicate that there is a need for re-training in delivery care among health care providers and since the number of deliveries at CHC is few they should be handled by someone who is a skilled birth attendant. Our findings also show a variation in care routines during labour and delivery among health care providers at CHC and hospital levels and this also show the need for re-training and support from proper authorities in order to improve maternal and newborn health.

  • 321.
    Alasuutari, Pertti
    University of Tampere, Finland.
    The relevance of qualitative research2007In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 44, no 4, p. 58-64Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 322.
    Alatalo, Tarja
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work.
    Forskning om skriftspråksundervisning i förskola, förskoleklass och skolans tidigare år2015In: SCIRA Läsning, ISSN 0349-9855, Vol. 40, no 2, p. 4-8Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 323.
    Alatalo, Tarja
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work.
    Forskning som stöd i professionaliseringen av lärarna2008In: Pedagogiskt arbete: Ett forskningsämne i utveckling vid IPD / [ed] Rönnerman, Karin; Runesson, Ulla, Göteborg: Institutionen för pedagogik och didaktik, Göteborgs universitet , 2008, p. 9-24Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 324.
    Alatalo, Tarja
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work.
    Förskollärares och grundskollärares uppfattningar om undervisning och lärande i förskoleklass2017In: Pedagogisk forskning i Sverige, ISSN 1401-6788, E-ISSN 2001-3345, Vol. 22, no 1-2, p. 79-100Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna studie undersöks två lärarkategoriers, förskollärares och lärares, uppfattningar om undervisning och lärande i förskoleklassen, mötet mellan de båda lärargrupperna samt deras uppfattningar om en obligatorisk förskoleklass med en tydligare skolförberedande roll. Studien är genomförd utifrån sociokulturell teori och diskuterar möjligheter som studiens resultat öppnar för vad gäller utvecklandet av förskoleklassens pedagogik i enlighet med önskade intentioner. Resultatet visar att samverkan mellan förskollärare och lärare med bakgrund i de olika praktikgemenskaperna kan vara av betydelse för utvecklandet av förskoleklassens skolförberedande pedagogik.

  • 325.
    Alatalo, Tarja
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work.
    Grundläggande förmågor och färdigheter i skrivutvecklingen - didaktiska implikationer2020In: Skrivundervisningens grunder / [ed] Karin Forsling & Catharina Tjernberg, Malmö: Gleerups Utbildning AB, 2020, 1, p. 35-55Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 326.
    Alatalo, Tarja
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work.
    Har lärare i förskoleklass nytta av att känna till vilka processer barn går igenom i sin skriftspråkliga utveckling?2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Teoretiskt ramverk

    Studier visar att uppemot 30 procent av eleverna i förskoleklassen redan vid starten av höstterminen kan ha knäckt den alfabetiska koden (Lundberg et al., 2012). Samtidigt vet man att andra barn inte är lika förtrogna med skriftspråket, vilket främst gäller barn från utbildningsmässigt mindre gynnade hemförhållanden (t.ex. Hansen, Rosén, & Gustafsson, 2004) och barn som möter läs- och skrivinlärningen på ett språk som inte är deras (Aukrust & Rydland, 2009). Forskning visar att dessa barn har extra stor fördel av tidiga insatser i förskola, förskoleklass och tidiga skolår (Europeiska Unionen, 2006). För lärare i förskoleklass utgör denna spridning av elevers skriftspråkliga förmåga en utmaning då de behöver ha kunskaper att möta och stimulera varje elevs lärande oavsett var de befinner sig i sin språkliga utveckling.

    För att läraren ska ha möjlighet att hjälpa och stötta eleven vidare i sitt lärande, behöver han eller hon känna till både elevens faktiska och proximala utvecklingszon (Vygotskij, 1987), vilket utgör teoretiskt ramverk för föreliggande studie. Detta innebär att förskoleklassens lärare behöver grundläggande kunskap om processer och förmågor i barns skriftspråksutveckling. Läraren behöver också vara medveten om hur läs- och skrivaktiviteter i den pedagogiska verksamheten bi­drar till elevernas skriftspråkliga lärande. Studier har visat att förskollärare lägger grunden för barns språkliga medvetenhet men att de inte har lika stor kännedom om elevernas läs- och skrivlärande (Fast, 2007; Ivarsson, 2008). I förskollärarutbildningen ingår traditionellt sett relativt lite kurser om läsinlärning (Frank, 2009).

    Studiens design   Samtliga lärare i förskoleklass (n=23) i en kommun i Sverige medverkar i ett tvåårigt projekt med interventionsforskning. Interventionen består av föreläsningar om språkets strukturer, språklig medvetenhet, avkodning, läsflyt, läsförståelse samt bedömning av läsförmåga. Efter varje föreläsning genomför lärarna med sina elever två praktiska uppdrag som anknyter till föreläsningen. Uppdragen följs av kollegiala samtal i smågrupper under ledning av en specialpedagog för att knyta ihop teori och praktik. Lärarnas kunskapsutveckling bedöms genom återkommande intervjuer med åtta lärare under forskningsprocessen. Dessutom genomförs observationer av kollegiala samtal för att undersöka och beskriva lärarnas lärande och erfarenheter i samband med de genomförda uppdragen. Syftet med denna studie är att belysa förskollärares erfarenheter av att kartlägga och bedöma den skriftspråkliga förmågan hos elever i förskoleklass. Forskningsfrågorna är följande:

    • Vilka upptäckter i elevers läsutveckling gör förskollärare?

    • Hur uppger lärarna att deras upptäckter och erfarenheter inverkar på deras undervisning?

    Preliminära resultat Det framkommer att förskoleklassens lärare upptäcker elever som känner till samtliga bokstäver, som befinner sig i den logografiska, alfabetiska och ortografiska fasen i sin skriftspråkliga utveckling. Pedagoger uttrycker att de inte gjort en liknande kartläggning tidigare. Kartläggningen ger dem möjlighet att anpassa och variera undervisningen efter elevernas behov.

    Relevans för forskningsområdet

    Studien ämnar bidra till diskussionen om förskoleklasslärares behov av fördjupad kunskap om förmågor och processer i skriftspråksutvecklingen för att ha möjlighet att möta och stimulera elevernas lärande oavsett var de befinner sig i sin språkliga utveckling. Dagens barn blir välbekanta med symboler och bilder i tidig ålder, vilket kan innebära att deras inträde i skriftspråket kan komma att tidigareläggas.

     

  • 327.
    Alatalo, Tarja
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work.
    Har lärare i åk 1-3 möjligheter att genomföra skicklig läs- och skrivundervisning?2012In: Dyslexi, ISSN 1401-2480, Vol. 1, no 1, p. 11-13Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 328.
    Alatalo, Tarja
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work.
    Introduktion2019In: Läsundervisningens grunder / [ed] Tarja Alatalo, Malmö: Gleerups Utbildning AB, 2019, 2, p. 13-16Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 329.
    Alatalo, Tarja
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work.
    ”Kalle, du kan ju läsa!”: Förskoleklasslärare synliggör förskoleklasselevers skriftspråksutveckling2017In: Nordic Journal of Literacy Research, ISSN 2464-1596, Vol. 3, no 2, p. 1-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här studien tar sin utgångspunkt i ett kompetensutvecklingsprojekt där lärare i förskoleklass gavs möjlighet att genom erfarenhet i handling samt reflektion stärka sina ämneskunskaper inom skriftspråksområdet. Sju lärare i förskoleklass intervjuades om sina erfarenheter i samband med bedömning av elevers skriftspråksutveckling. Studiens syfte var att undersöka vilket meningsskapande som enligt lärarna sker i samband med bedömningsaktiviteten. Fokus riktades mot lärarnas beskrivningar av det egna men också elevernas meningsskapande. Studiens grund i sociokulturell teori och pragmatismens begrepp erfarenhet och meningsskapande som centrala analysverktyg, synliggjorde lärarnas fördjupade förståelse för elevers skriftspråksutveckling. I materialet framträder en bild av att tidigare erfarenheter omvärderades och användes tillsammans med nya erfarenheter för att skapa ny kunskap hos både lärare och elever. Exempelvis beskriver lärare hur elever i samband med bedömningsaktiviteten upptäckte att de kunde läsa. I mötet mellan projektets ämnesfokus och praktisk handling kunde lärarna omvärdera tidigare erfarenheter och upptäcka att elever i förskoleklassen läser, hur de läser och hur de själva kan stimulera eleverna vidare. Studiens avsikt är att öppna för en diskussion om hur kompetensutveckling om skriftspråksutveckling kan öka förskoleklasslärares möjligheter att stimulera elever vidare och öka elevernas förutsättningar att utvecklas i riktning mot skolans kunskapskrav.

  • 330.
    Alatalo, Tarja
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work.
    Koppling mellan ljud och bokstav är a och o2015In: Läs & skriv. En tidning för Dyslexiförbundet FML samt Skrivknuten., ISSN 1104-8808, Vol. 19, no 3Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 331.
    Alatalo, Tarja
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work.
    Livet i Bokstavslandet: Lärarhandledning åk 12015 (ed. 1)Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 332.
    Alatalo, Tarja
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work.
    Livet i Bokstavslandet: Lärarhandledning åk 12016 (ed. 2)Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 333.
    Alatalo, Tarja
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work.
    Livet i Bokstavslandet: Lärarhandledning åk 12018 (ed. 3)Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 334.
    Alatalo, Tarja
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work.
    Lärarens ämneskompetens är av betydelse för elevers läs- och skrivutveckling2015In: Dyslexi, ISSN 1401-2480, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 11-13Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 335.
    Alatalo, Tarja
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work.
    Läsflyt – en komponent som möjliggör läsförståelseförmågan2016In: Läsundervisningens grunder / [ed] Tarja Alatalo, Malmö: Gleerups Utbildning AB, 2016, 1, p. 71-82Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 336.
    Alatalo, Tarja
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work.
    Läsflyt – en komponent som möjliggör läsförståelseförmågan2019In: Läsundervisningens grunder / [ed] Tarja Alatalo, Malmö: Gleerups Utbildning AB, 2019, 2, p. 93-106Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 337.
    Alatalo, Tarja
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work.
    Läsundervisning i förskoleklass2019In: Läsundervisningens grunder, Malmö: Gleerups Utbildning AB, 2019, 2, p. 73-88Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 338.
    Alatalo, Tarja
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work.
    Läsundervisningens grunder2016Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 339.
    Alatalo, Tarja
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work.
    Läsundervisningens grunder2019Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 340.
    Alatalo, Tarja
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work.
    Nationella uppdrag i läs- och skrivundervisning vid Högskolan Dalarna2017In: SCIRA Läsning, ISSN 0349-9855, Vol. 42, no 2, p. 10-11Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 341.
    Alatalo, Tarja
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work.
    Professional content knowledge of grades one – three teachers in Sweden for reading and writing instruction: language structures, code concepts, and spelling rules2016In: Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, ISSN 0031-3831, E-ISSN 1470-1170, Vol. 60, no 5, p. 477-499Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, Swedish teachers of grades 1-3, with various teacher-training backgrounds, were tested to determine if they have the requisite awareness of language elements and the way these elements are represented in writing. The results were poor, yet the indication was that teachers with a good educational background in literacy and a good deal of teaching experience know significantly more than teachers whose teacher training included fewer or no courses in literacy instruction and who had less experience. The results indicate that it may be difficult for many teachers in the sample to provide adequate instruction in basic reading and writing. However, the study did not investigate how knowledge is used in practice, on which further research is needed. The importance of professional content knowledge is discussed.

  • 342.
    Alatalo, Tarja
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work.
    Riskerar insikter om läs- och skrivinlärning att gå förlorade när nya perspektiv på lärande ges allt större utrymme i lärarutbildning och skola?2014In: Pedagogisk forskning i Sverige, ISSN 1401-6788, E-ISSN 2001-3345, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 56-65Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 343.
    Alatalo, Tarja
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work.
    Ruotsalainen interventiotutkimus pyrkii vahvistamaan lukuopetusta esikoulussa ja ensimmäisellä luokalla2014In: Kielikukko, ISSN 0780-0940, no 3, p. 41-42Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 344.
    Alatalo, Tarja
    Dalarna University, School of Education and Humanities, Educational Work.
    Skicklig läs- och skrivundervisning i åk 1-3: Om lärares möjligheter och hinder2011Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    This study focuses on teachers’ opportunities and obstacles to perform skillful reading and writing instruction. It’s about the ability to accurately identify where students are in their reading and writing process and to help them develop good reading skills. It is also about the ability to recognize signs of difficulties that students may have in their written language development and to know what efforts are needed to help them advance their reading and writing skills. The research is based on teachers’ own statements and survey responses on the external conditions for teaching and on their approach, attitudes and knowledge in reading and writing. The empirical material consists of interviews, surveys and test data. The interview study was conducted with eight teachers. The questionnaire was answered by 249 teachers, while the knowledge test was conducted of 269 teachers and 31 special education teachers. Many of the teachers in this study have lack knowledge in the structure of language and common Swedish spelling rules. Furthermore, it appears that a large part of them are unaccustomed to explaining, in detail, students’ reading development and find it difficult to systematically describe the aspects of daily literacy instruction. The overall picture is that many teachers teach without having tools to reflect on how their education really affects students’ reading and writing. These shortcomings make it difficult to conduct effective literacy instruction. Once students have learned to decode or if they have reading difficulties, many teachers seem to one-sidedly focus on getting students to read more. The consequence could be that those who would need to practice more on the technical basic of reading or comprehension strategies are left without support. Lack of variety and individuality in fluency and comprehension training can challenge the students’ reading and writing development. The teachers in the study, who have the old junior school teacher and elementary teacher education, have the highest amount of knowledge of reading and writing (the test). Good education can provide student teachers with professional skills that they may develop further in their careers. Knowledge of the meaning of phonological and phonemic awareness as well as knowledge of how to count phonemes seem to be important for knowledge of reading and writing (the test). Knowledge of basic reading processes can be obtained by systematic and structured work with students’ linguistic development, and through continuous dialogues with experienced colleagues on how and why questions. This is one important way to work also in teacher training. When essential professional skills are established in the teacher education, in practice students will obtain the school’s learning goals.

  • 345.
    Alatalo, Tarja
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work.
    Skriftspråksutvecklingen i övergången från förskoleklass till årskurs ett2017In: Barns övergångar: Förskola, fritidshem, grundsärskola och grundskola / [ed] Anne Lillvist & Jenny Wilder, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2017, 1, p. 59-78Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 346.
    Alatalo, Tarja
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work.
    Språkstimulans och skrivundervisning i förskoleklass2018Other (Other academic)
  • 347.
    Alatalo, Tarja
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work.
    Statliga åtgärder för att stärka lärandet i skolans tidiga år2016In: Scira Läsning, ISSN 0349-9855, Vol. 41, no 2, p. 4-6Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 348.
    Alatalo, Tarja
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work.
    Sustainable Knowledge of Reading and Writing Instruction: A Question for Teacher Education2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    My study of 300 Swedish teachers in primary school grades 1-3 (Alatalo, 2011), showed that too many teachers lack understanding of children's reading and writing development. A large part of the teachers in the study, had difficulties describing and reasoning about the basic elements of reading and writing instruction. These knowledge gaps cause difficulties for teachers to implement good reading and writing instruction. One consequence of this is that students, who are at risk for getting any kind of difficulty in reading and writing, are not identified as early as possible and thus do not get the support they need. Another consequence is that many teachers teach without knowing how their instruction actually affects student learning. What can the teacher education do to increase teachers’ knowledge of students’ reading and writing? It is not enough to know that learning occurs in interaction with others, because there are abilities that each individual himself must develop and master. Automated decoding, reading fluency and comprehension are neither abilities that necessarily arise by itselves, but usually require a proficient teacher’s systematic instruction (Moats, 2009; Snow, Burns & Griffin, 1998). Teachers' knowledge of the processes in students' reading and writing development are needed even more in the interactive learning process and in a time of rapidly emerging new technological tools for teaching. These skills can be said to be sustainable. My above-mentioned study (Alatalo, 2011) indicates that teachers, who have knowledge of the language structures, and know the meaning of phonological awareness, also have more knowledge of reading and writing in general. Specifically, it may mean that those who know the meaning of phonologic awareness also find it easier to understand processes that lead for example to reading fluency and comprehension. This is something that the teacher education should notice.

  • 349.
    Alatalo, Tarja
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work.
    Sustainable reading and writing instruction: a question for teacher education2013In: The International Journal of Literacies, ISSN 2327-266X, Vol. 19, no 3, p. 1-11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Learning occurs in meaningful situations and is tied to cooperation and interaction, which teacher education needs to emphasize in all teacher preparation programs. Furthermore, communication in the information era is built largely on multimodal languages such as symbols and images, which teacher education also must pay attention to. But still the written word is fundamental in communication and therefore needs to be in focus in teacher education. For that reason, parallel to knowledge about sociocultural approaches on learning and development and multimodality in the literacy area, teacher students need basic knowledge about children’s reading and writing development. Such knowledge is essential for the teacher to be able to accurately identify where each student is in her or his reading and writing processes in order to be able to respond to and support her or his literacy development. In the literacy area there are skills that children need to learn by practicing on their own. In reading for example, such items are decoding, reading fluency, and reading comprehension. This means that teacher education students also need to possess the theoretical knowledge of literacy instruction. Thus teachers’ knowledge of reading and writing development is an important foundation for sustainable reading and writing instruction. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether teacher education should increase teacher education students’ opportunities to provide sustainable reading and writing instruction. The present study, with a teacher knowledge survey (TKS) completed by 269 Swedish teachers in primary school grades 1-3, indicated that a large part of them lack understanding of children’s written language development as well as of reading and writing instruction. For the reading and writing instruction to be sustainable, the conclusion is that teacher education should focus more on basic elements in reading and writing development, of course without forgetting the benefits of cooperative and multimodal learning. Limitations of the study are that the data only shows teachers’ knowledge but not how they use it in practice. Nor is there any data about teachers’ attitudes and knowledge of socio-cultural perspectives on learning or of multimodal learning. 

  • 350.
    Alatalo, Tarja
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work.
    Svensk interventionsstudie med syftet att stärka läs- och skrivundervisningen i förskoleklass och årskurs 12014In: Kielikukko, ISSN 0780-0940, no 3, p. 39-40Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
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